Publications by authors named "Ziyang Liu"

87 Publications

Approaching Nearly 40% External Quantum Efficiency in Organic Light Emitting Diodes Utilizing a Green Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter with an Extended Linear Donor-Acceptor-Donor Structure.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 13:e2103293. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, P. R. China.

Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters featuring preferential horizontal emitting dipole orientation (EDO) are in urgent demand for enhanced optical outcoupling efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, simultaneously manipulating EDO and optoelectronic properties remains a formidable challenge. Here, an extended linear D-A-D structure with both enlarged donor (D) and acceptor (A) π-systems is established, not only elaborately manipulating parallel horizontal molecular orientation and EDO along its long axis by multi-driving-forces for a high horizontal dipole ratio (Θ ), but also delocalizing distribution of frontier energy levels for optimized electronic properties. The proof-of-the-concept emitter simultaneously affords a high Θ of 92%, a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 95%, and a fast reverse intersystem crossing rate of 1.16 × 10 s . The corresponding OLED achieves a champion maximum external quantum efficiency of 39.1% among all green TADF devices without any external light-extraction techniques, together with a maximum power efficiency of 112.0 lm W and alleviated efficiency roll-off. These findings may inspire even better full-color TADF emitters that push the device efficiency toward the theoretical limits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202103293DOI Listing
September 2021

Exploring relationships between microscopic kinetic parameters of tires under normal driving conditions, road characteristics and accident types.

J Safety Res 2021 09 9;78:80-95. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Transportation, Southeast University, Nanjing 210018, China; School of Automobile and Traffic Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Freeway accidents are a leading cause of death in China, which also triggers substantial economic loss and an emotional burden to society. However, the internal mechanism of how microscopic kinetic parameters of vehicles influenced by road characteristics determine the occurrence of different types of accidents has not been explicitly studied. This research aimed to explore the "link role" of tire microscopic kinetic parameters in road characteristic variables and traffic accidents to aid in facilitating the traffic design and management, and thus to prevent traffic accident.

Method: A mountain freeway in Zhejiang Province, China was used as the research object and the data used in this paper were obtained through a real-time vehicle experiment. Multiple estimation models, including the standard ordered logit (SOL) model, fixed parameters logit (FPL) model, and random parameters logit (RPL) model were established.

Results: The findings show that road characteristics will affect the longitudinal kinetic characteristics of the vehicle and, consequently, map the level of risk of rear-end accidents. Driving compensation effects were also identified in this paper (i.e., the drivers tend to be more cautious in complicated driving circumstances). Another finding relating to the mountain freeway is that different tunnel characteristics (e.g., tunnel entrance and tunnel exit) have different effects on different types of traffic accidents. Practical Applications: The framework proposed in this article can provide new insight for researchers to enlarge the research subjects of both explanatory and outcome variables in accident analysis. Future research could be implemented to consider more driving conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2021.05.010DOI Listing
September 2021

Genomic and transcriptomic profiling of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

Oncogene 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China.

Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS), a rare subtype of gastric cancer (GC), has a low incidence but a high mortality rate. Little is known about the molecular features of HAS. Here we applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 58 tumours and the matched normal controls from 54 HAS patients, transcriptome sequencing on 30 HAS tumours, and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) on one HAS tumour. Our results reveal that the adenocarcinomatous component and hepatocellular-like component of the same HAS tumour originate monoclonally, and HAS is likely to initiate from pluripotent precursor cells. HAS has high stemness and high methionine cycle activity compared to classical GC. Two genes in the methionine cycle, MAT2A, and AHCY are potential targets for HAS treatments. We provide the first integrative genomic profiles of HAS, which may facilitate its diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01976-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Color-Tunable All-Fluorescent White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a High External Quantum Efficiency Over 30% and Extended Device Lifetime.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 22:e2103102. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, P. R. China.

White organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with high efficiencies and tunable colors attracts considerable interest from the industry and academia. Thermally activated delayed-fluorescence (TADF) emitters can revolutionize such WOLED devices; however, they still suffer from poor performances. In this study, an advanced double-emissive-layer device architecture capable of hole-trapping TADF-sensitized emissions is proposed to not only achieve a recombination zone shift for the tunable colors but also accelerate exciton emission dynamics for high efficiency and alleviated roll-off. The proof-of-concept WOLEDs exhibit significant shifts in their Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates and correlated color temperatures from (0.40, 0.47) and 4088 K at 100 cd m to (0.27, 0.33) and 9269 K at 5000 cd m . Additionally, the maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) reaches 30.7% and remains >25% over a wide luminance range of 500-5000 cd m , along with an extended LT80 of over 20 000 h at an initial luminance of 100 cd m . This is the first time that all-fluorescent WOLEDs have been used to realize an EQE exceeding 30%, thereby establishing a new benchmark in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202103102DOI Listing
July 2021

IDH Mutation Subgroup Status Associates with Intratumor Heterogeneity and the Tumor Microenvironment in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Sep 11;8(17):e2101230. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing Key Surgical Basic Research Laboratory of Liver Cirrhosis and Liver Cancer, Beijing, 100044, China.

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is highly heterogeneous. Here, the authors perform exome sequencing and bulk RNA sequencing on 73 tumor regions from 14 ICC patients to portray the multi-faceted intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) landscape of ICC. The authors show that ITH is highly concordant across genomic, transcriptomic, and immune levels. Comparison of these data to 8 published datasets reveals significantly higher degrees of ITH in ICC than hepatocellular carcinoma. Remarkably, the authors find that high-ITH tumors highly overlap with the IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase)-mutant subgroup (IDH-SG), comprising of IDH-mutated tumors and IDH-like tumors, that is, those IDH-wildtype tumors that exhibit similar molecular profiles to the IDH-mutated ones. Furthermore, IDH-SG exhibits less T cell infiltration and lower T cell cytotoxicity, indicating a colder tumor microenvironment (TME). The higher ITH and colder TME of IDH-SG are successfully validated by single-cell RNA sequencing on 17 503 cells from 4 patients. Collectively, the study shows that IDH mutant subgroup status, rather than IDH mutation alone, is associated with ITH and the TME of ICC tumors. The results highlight that IDH-like patients may also benefit from IDH targeted therapies and provide important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of ICC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202101230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425914PMC
September 2021

[Induction of mouse T lymphocyte differentiation in vitro by thymic organoids].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Aug;37(8):679-686

Center for Clinical Molecular Medicine, Children's Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders (Chongqing), China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Stem Cell Therapy, Chongqing 400014, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To induce the differentiation of hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) into T cell by creating thymic organoids and simulating the three-dimensional structure of thymus tissue in vitro. Methods The retroviral vector expressing the DLL1 and Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was constructed, and the OP9-DLL1 cell line was established in OP9 cells with the aid of retroviral infection. The mRNA and protein level of DLL1 in OP9-DLL1 cells was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot respectively. Immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the DLL1 protein expression and distribution in OP9-DLL1 cells. HSPCs were extracted from E13.5 fetal liver and bone marrow of C57BL/6 mouse, and mixed with OP9-DLL1 cells in an appropriate ratio respectively, then compacted by centrifuging and cultured at the air-liquid interface in medium. Fluorescence microscope was used to observe the growth of thymic organoids. Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of T cell surface markers, including CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, CD44, CD45, CD117 and TCRβ. Immunofluorescence cytochemical staining was used to observe the distribution of hematopoietic cells in thymic organoids. Results The retroviral vector expressing DLL1 and GFP was successfully constructed. The OP9 cells were infected with the retrovirus constructed, and OP9-DLL1 cells were obtained by GFP screening. The mRNA and protein level of DLL1 in OP9-DLL1 cells significantly increased, and DLL1 was expressed in the membrane OP9-DLL1 cells. During the 40 days of culture, the thymic organoids remained in good condition and increased gradually in volume. The thymic organoids induced programmed differentiation of T cells, and differentiation of HSPCs into CD3 T cells. Conclusion OP9-DLL1 cells can be used to construct thymic organoids and to induce differentiation of HSPCs into T cells in vitro.
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August 2021

ErbB4 promotes inhibitory synapse formation by cell adhesion, independent of its kinase activity.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 06 29;11(1):361. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

The precise control of the nervous system function under the vitality of synapses is extremely critical. Efforts have been taken to explore the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms for synapse formation. Cell adhesion molecules have been found important for synapse assembly in the brain. Many trans-adhesion complexes have been identified to modulate excitatory synapse formation. However, little is known about the synaptogenic mechanisms for inhibitory synapses. ErbB4 is a receptor tyrosine kinase enriched in interneurons. Here, we showed that overexpressing ErbB4 in HEK293T cells induced gephyrin or GABAR α1 puncta in co-cultured primary hippocampal neurons. This induction of ErbB4 was independent of its kinase activity. K751M, a kinase-dead mutant of ErbB4, can also induce gephyrin or GABAR α1 puncta in the co-culture system. We further constructed K751M knock-in mice and found that the homozygous were viable at birth and fertile without changes in gross brain structure. The number of interneurons and inhibitory synapses onto pyramidal neurons (PyNs) were comparable between K751M and wild-type mice but decreased in ErbB4-Null mice. Moreover, ErbB4 can interact in trans with Slitrk3, a transmembrane postsynaptic protein at inhibitory synapses, through the extracellular RLD domain of ErbB4. The deletion of RLD diminished the induction of gephyrin or GABAR α1 puncta by ErbB4. Finally, disruption of ErbB4-Slitrk3 interaction through neutralization of Slitrk3 by secretable RLD decreased inhibitory synapses onto PyNs and impaired GABAergic transmission. These results identify that ErbB4, as a cell adhesion molecule, promotes inhibitory synapse formation onto PyNs by interacting with Slitrk3 and in a kinase-independent manner, providing an unexpected mechanism of ErbB4 in inhibitory synapse formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01485-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257755PMC
June 2021

The predictive value of the ratio of the product of neutrophils and hemoglobin to lymphocytes in non-muscular invasive bladder cancer patients with postoperative recurrence.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Aug 29;35(8):e23883. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Urology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive value of the ratio of the product of neutrophils and hemoglobin to lymphocytes (NHL) in patients with non-muscular invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively collected clinical and pathological data of patients with NMIBC who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) at our hospital between 2013 and 2018. The ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes (NLR), the Systemic Immune Inflammation Index (SII), and NHL were obtained based on routine blood settlement within a week before surgery. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the optimal cutoff value of each index, and different groups were grouped accordingly. Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox regression model were used to study the factors affecting the prognosis of NMIBC patients.

Results: There was significant difference in recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate between the high NLR group and the low NLR group, the high SII group and the low SII group, and the high NHL group and the low NHL group. Cox univariate regression analysis showed that tumor number, tumor size, tumor pathological grade, tumor pathological stage, NLR, SII, and NHL were related to postoperative RFS in patients with NMIBC. The tumor number, tumor pathological grade, SII, and NHL were independent predictors of RFS in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: The preoperative clinical inflammatory indexes NLR, SII, and NHL have certain predictive value for postoperative RFS in NMIBC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373351PMC
August 2021

Brain Age Estimation From MRI Using Cascade Networks with Ranking Loss.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 Jun 4;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Chronological age of healthy people is able to be predicted accurately using deep neural networks from neuroimaging data, and the predicted brain age could serve as a biomarker for detecting aging-related diseases. In this paper, a novel 3D convolutional network, called two-stage-age-network (TSAN), is proposed to estimate brain age from T1-weighted MRI data. Compared with existing methods, TSAN has the following improvements. First, TSAN uses a two-stage cascade network architecture, where the first-stage network estimates a rough brain age, then the second-stage network estimates the brain age more accurately from the discretized brain age by the first-stage network. Second, to our knowledge, TSAN is the first work to apply novel ranking losses in brain age estimation, together with the traditional mean square error (MSE) loss. Third, densely connected paths are used to combine feature maps with different scales. The experiments with 6586 MRIs showed that TSAN could provide accurate brain age estimation, yielding mean absolute error (MAE) of 2.428 and Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.985, between the estimated and chronological ages. Furthermore, using the brain age gap between brain age and chronological age as a biomarker, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) can be distinguished from healthy control (HC) subjects by support vector machine (SVM). Classification AUC in AD/HC and MCI/HC was 0.904 and 0.823, respectively. It showed that brain age gap is an effective biomarker associated with risk of dementia, and has potential for early-stage dementia risk screening. The codes and trained models have been released on GitHub.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2021.3085948DOI Listing
June 2021

Assessing emission reduction effects from shifts of urban passenger transport modes by implementing targeted emission tax considering the whole fuel cycle.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Transportation, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210018, China.

Controlling the emission of urban passenger transport modes has become one of the most important tasks of governing urban air pollution. Most strategies only focused on carbon emission, whereas neglecting the influences of other pollutants (CO, HC, NOx, PM), especially for upstream emissions from electricity generation caused by the electricity consumed during the operation of electrified transport modes. Based on the multinomial logit model (MNL), this study firstly calculated and evaluated the emission reduction effects brought about by the implementation of targeted emission taxes on different transport modes from the perspective of whole fuel cycle. Taking Jiangning District as an example, our research found that the policy implementing targeted emission tax for different transport modes can not only bring reduce 13.104 tons of CO, 0.327 tons of HC, 0.568 tons of NOx, and 0.140 tons of PM, but also 26,726.82 (euro) of eco-environmental benefits for the treatment of air pollution. Our study can provide useful insights for shifting the structure of urban passenger transport modes, especially promoting the transfer of private cars to the urban green transport systems, to alleviate urban air pollution by formulating effective emission reduction strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14226-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Ablation of Lrp4 in Schwann Cells Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Mice.

Biology (Basel) 2021 May 21;10(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China.

Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4) is a critical protein involved in the Agrin-Lrp4-MuSK signaling pathway that drives the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Many studies have shown that Lrp4 also functions in kidney development, bone formation, nervous system development, etc. However, whether Lrp4 participates in nerve regeneration in mammals remains unknown. Herein, we show that Lrp4 is expressed in SCs and that conditional knockout (cKO) of Lrp4 in SCs promotes peripheral nerve regeneration. In Lrp4 cKO mice, the demyelination of SCs was accelerated, and the proliferation of SCs was increased in the injured nerve. Furthermore, we identified that two myelination-related genes, Krox-20 and Mpz, were downregulated more dramatically in the cKO group than in the control group. Our results elucidate a novel role of Lrp4 in peripheral nerve regeneration and thereby provide a potential therapeutic target for peripheral nerve recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10060452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223976PMC
May 2021

Long noncoding RNA AVAN promotes antiviral innate immunity by interacting with TRIM25 and enhancing the transcription of FOXO3a.

Cell Death Differ 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing, China.

Accumulating evidence has shown that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in several biological processes, including immune responses. However, the role of lncRNAs in antiviral innate immune responses remains largely elusive. Here, we identify an uncharacterized human lncRNA AVAN from influenza A virus (IAV) infected patients, that is significantly upregulated following RNA virus infection. During IAV infection, AVAN play an indispensable role in antiviral immune responses. In vivo, we enforced the expression of AVAN in transgenic mice or adeno-associated virus encoding AVAN delivery system and found that AVAN significantly alleviated IAV virulence and virus replication. Mechanistically, nuclear AVAN positively regulates the transcription of forkhead box O3A (FOXO3a) by associating with its promoter and inducing chromatin remodeling to promote neutrophil chemotaxis. Meanwhile, cytoplasmic AVAN binds directly to the E3 ligase TRIM25 and enhances TRIM25-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I, thereby promoting TRIM25- and RIG-I-mediated antiviral innate immune responses, including the induction of type I interferon and ISGs. Moreover, AVAN binds to the B Box/CCD domain of TRIM25 and 1-200nt of AVAN were the functional moieties. Collectively, our findings highlight the potential clinical implications of human lncRNA AVAN as a key positive regulator of the antiviral innate immune response and a promising target for developing broad antiviral therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00791-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Increasing LRP4 diminishes neuromuscular deficits in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Aug;30(17):1579-1590

School of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive wasting of skeletal muscles. The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers, critical for the control of muscle contraction. The NMJ decline is observed in DMD patients, but the mechanism is unclear. LRP4 serves as a receptor for agrin, a proteoglycan secreted by motor neurons to induce NMJ, and plays a critical role in NMJ formation and maintenance. Interestingly, we found that protein levels of LRP4 were reduced both in muscles of the DMD patients and DMD model mdx mice. We explored whether increasing LRP4 is beneficial for DMD and crossed muscle-specific LRP4 transgenic mice with mdx mice (mdx; HSA-LRP4). The LRP4 transgene increased muscle strength, together with improved neuromuscular transmission in mdx mice. Furthermore, we found the LRP4 expression mitigated NMJ fragments and denervation in mdx mice. Mechanically, we showed that overexpression of LRP4 increased the activity of MuSK and expression of dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex proteins in the mdx mice. Overall, our findings suggest that increasing LRP4 improves both function and structure of NMJ in the mdx mice and Agrin signaling might serve as a new therapeutic strategy in DMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369839PMC
August 2021

Evaluation of changes in shoulder balance and prediction of final shoulder imbalance during growing-rod treatment for early-onset scoliosis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Apr 14;22(1):354. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Gongti North Rd, No. 8, Beijing, 100020, China.

Background: Obtaining and maintaining final shoulder balance after the entire treatment course is essential for early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients. The relatively small number of growing-rod (GR) graduates who complete final fusion has resulted in an overall paucity of research on the GR treatment of EOS and a lack of research on the shoulder balance of EOS patients during GR treatment.

Methods: Twenty-four consecutive patients who underwent GR treatment until final fusion were included. Radiographic shoulder balance parameters, including the radiographic shoulder height (RSH), clavicle angle (CA), and T1 tilt angle (T1T), before and after each step of the entire treatment were measured. Shoulder balance changes from GR implantation to the last follow-up after final fusion were depicted and analysed. Demographic data, surgical-related factors, and radiographic parameters were analysed to identify risk factors for final shoulder imbalance. The shoulder balance of patients at different time points was further analysed to explore the potential effect of the series of GR treatment steps on shoulder balance.

Results: The RSH showed substantial improvement after GR implantation (P = 0.036), during the follow-up period after final fusion (P = 0.021) and throughout the entire treatment (P = 0.011). The trend of change in the CA was similar to that of the RSH, and the T1T improved immediately after GR implantation (P = 0.037). Further analysis indicated that patients with shoulder imbalance before final fusion showed significantly improved shoulder balance after fusion (P = 0.045), and their RSH values at early postfusion and the final follow-up did not show statistically significant differences from those in the prefusion shoulder balance group (P > 0.05). Early postfusion shoulder imbalance (odds ratio (OR): 19.500; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.777-213.949; P = 0.015) was identified as an independent risk factor for final shoulder imbalance.

Conclusions: Shoulder balance could be improved by GR implantation but often changes during the multistep lengthening process, and the final result is relatively unpredictable. Final fusion could further adjust the prefusion shoulder imbalance. Focusing on the prefusion shoulder balance of GR graduates and providing patients with early shoulder balance after fusion might be necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04221-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045187PMC
April 2021

Indolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazole Embedded Multiple-Resonance Fluorophors for Narrowband Deep-blue Electroluminescence with EQE≈34.7 % and CIE ≈0.085.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 26;60(22):12269-12273. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, P. R. China.

Multiple-resonance (MR) organic emitters bearing small full-width at half-maximum (FWHMs) are of general interest in organic light-emitting diodes. Indolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazole (ICz) embedded MR-fluorophors have demonstrated extremely small FWHMs, yet in the violet region with low electroluminescence efficiency. Herein, a strategic implementation of ICz subunits into MR fluorophors is proposed by taking advantage of the synergetic effect of para-positioned nitrogen atoms to enhance electronic coupling to decrease emitting energy gap. Deep blue emitters peaking at 441 and 447 nm with FWHMs of only 18 and 21 nm are thereof obtained, respectively, accompanied by ≈90 % photo-luminance quantum yields. With the assistance of a thermally activated delayed fluorescence sensitizer to recycle excitons, the corresponding narrowband electroluminescent devices show unprecedent high maximum external quantum efficiencies of 32.0 % and 34.7 % with CIE of 0.10 and 0.085, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202017328DOI Listing
May 2021

Single-vehicle crash severity outcome prediction and determinant extraction using tree-based and other non-parametric models.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Apr 26;153:106034. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

School of Transportation, Southeast University, 2 Si pai lou, Nanjing, 210096, PR China. Electronic address:

Single-vehicle crashes are more fatality-concentrated and have posed increasing challenges in traffic safety, which is of great research necessity. Tremendous previous studies have conducted relevant analysis with econometric modeling approaches, whereas the ability of non-parametric methods to predict crash severity is still smattering of knowledge. Consequently, the main objective of this paper is to conduct single-vehicle crash severity prediction with different tree-based and non-parameter models. An alternate aim is to identify the intrinsic mechanism of how contributing factors determine single-vehicle crash severity. By virtue of Grid-Search method, this paper conducted fine-tuning of different models to obtain the best performances based on five crash severity sub-datasets. For model evaluation, the accuracy indicators were calculated in training, validation and test sets, respectively. Besides, feature importance extraction was undertaken based on the results of model comparison. The finding indicated that these models didn't exhibit a huge performance difference for crash severity prediction in the same severity level; however, the performances of the models did vary among different datasets, with an average training accuracy of 99.27 %, 96.4 %, 86.98 %, 86.84 %, 71.76 % in fatal injury, severe injury, visible injury, complaint of pain, PDO crash datasets, respectively. Additionally, it was found that in each severity dataset, the indicator urban freeways is a determinant factor that leads to the occurrence of crashes while rural freeways is more related to more severe crashes (i.e., fatal and severe crashes). This paper can provide valuable information for model selection and tuning in accident severity prediction. Future research could consider the influences that temporal instability of contributing features has on the model performances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2021.106034DOI Listing
April 2021

LncRNA NEAT1 Promotes High Glucose-Induced Mesangial Cell Hypertrophy by Targeting miR-222-3p/CDKN1B Axis.

Front Mol Biosci 2020 27;7:627827. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Nephrology, Seventh People's Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Glomerular hypertrophy is an early morphological alteration in diabetic nephropathy. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases have been shown to be required for high glucose (HG)-induced hypertrophy; however, the upstream regulators of CDKN1B in glomerular hypertrophy remain unclear. Herein we describe a novel pathway in which Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) NEAT1 regulates the progression of mesangial cell hypertrophy via a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) mechanism. Real-time PCR was performed to detect the relative NEAT1 and miR-222-3p expressions and further confirmed the relationship between NEAT1 and miR-222-3p. Cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry. The related mechanisms were explored by Western blot, RNA immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We show that NEAT1 forms double stranded RNA (dsRNA) with miR-222-3p, thus limiting miR-222-3p's binding with CDKN1B. This release of CDKN1B mRNA leads to elevated CDKN1B protein expression, resulting in hypertrophy. In addition, we demonstrated that STAT3 which is activated by HG induces the transcription of NEAT1 by binding to its promoter. Our findings underscore an unexpected role of lncRNAs on gene regulation and introduce a new mode of proliferation regulation in mesangial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2020.627827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872960PMC
January 2021

Electric-Field-Induced Gradient Ionogels for Highly Sensitive, Broad-Range-Response, and Freeze/Heat-Resistant Ionic Fingers.

Adv Mater 2021 Mar 12;33(12):e2008486. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China.

Human fingers exhibit both high sensitivity and wide tactile range. The finger skin structures are designed to display gradient microstructures and compressibility. Inspired by the gradient mechanical Young's modulus distribution, an electric-field-induced cationic crosslinker migration strategy is demonstrated to prepare gradient ionogels. Due to the gradient of the crosslinkers, the ionogels exhibit more than four orders of magnitude difference between the anode and the cathode side, enabling gradient ionogel-based flexible iontronic sensors having high-sensitivity and broader-range detection (from 3 × 10 to 2.5 × 10  Pa) simultaneously. Moreover, owing to the remarkable properties of the gradient ionogels, the flexible iontronic sensors also show good long-time stability (even after 10 000 cycles loadings) and excellent performance over a wide temperature range (from -108 to 300 °C). The flexible iontronic sensors are further integrated on soft grips, exhibiting remarkable performance under various conditions. These attractive features demonstrate that gradient ionogels will be promising candidates for smart sensor applications in complex and extreme conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202008486DOI Listing
March 2021

A Superstrong and Reversible Ionic Crystal-Based Adhesive Inspired by Ice Adhesion.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 10;60(16):8948-8959. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China.

In this study, we developed a superstrong and reversible adhesive, which can possess a high bonding strength in the "adhesive" state and detach with the application of heating. An ionic crystal (IC) gel, in which an IC was immobilized within a soft-polymer matrix, were synthesized via in situ photo-crosslinking of a precursor solution composed of N, N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) and a melted IC. The obtained IC gel is homogenous and transparent at melt point. When cooled to the phase transition temperature of the IC, the gel turns into the adhesive with the adhesion strength of 5.82 MPa (on glasses), due to the excellent wetting of melted gel and a thin layer of crystalline IC with high cohesive strength formed on the substrates. The synergistic effects between IC, polymer networks and substrates were investigated by solid state H NMR and molecular dynamics simulation. Such an adhesive layer is reversable and can be detached by heating and subsequent re-adhesion via cooling. This study proposed the new design of removable adhesives, which can be used in dynamic and complex environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202100984DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of Facet Tropism on Postoperative Cervical Range of Motion After Single-Level Cervical Disc Arthroplasty.

Global Spine J 2021 Jan 29:2192568220986144. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, 34753Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis.

Objectives: Cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) was designed to replace the degenerated disc with the prosthesis to preserve cervical motion. The commonly used artificial discs are designed symmetric, whereas the facet joints were reported to be asymmetric in many people. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of facet tropism on the cervical range of motion (ROM) after single-level CDA using Prestige LP.

Methods: A total of 90 patients who underwent single-level CDA using Prestige LP from 2012 to 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographs were taken at each time point to measure the C2-C7 ROM and the ROM at the surgical segment. The pre-operation CT scans were utilized to reconstruct and calculate the angular direction of facet joints with respect to transverse, coronal, and sagittal reference planes. Facet tropism above 7° was defined as facet joint asymmetry.

Results: No significant difference was found in flexion-extension C2-C7 ROM or ROM at the surgical segment between patients with symmetric and asymmetric fact joints regarding the sagittal plane. Patients with coronal asymmetric facet joints had lower flexion-extension ROM at the surgical level. Patients with transverse asymmetric facet joints had both lower flexion-extension C2-C7 ROM and ROM at the surgical level. After CDA surgery, patients obtained good clinical outcomes including increased Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) and decreased Neck Disability Index (NDI) as well as Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).

Conclusion: The coronal and transverse tropism seemed to be correlated with decreased flexion-extension ROM after CDA using Prestige LP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568220986144DOI Listing
January 2021

Mobile application-based behaviour change techniques to encourage quarantine compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Public Health 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2020.11.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709783PMC
December 2020

Will the COVID-19 pandemic increase the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis?

Med Hypotheses 2021 02 31;147:110477. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110477DOI Listing
February 2021

A crash risk identification method for freeway segments with horizontal curvature based on real-time vehicle kinetic response.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Feb 6;150:105911. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

School of Transportation, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210018, China.

With the development and maturation of vehicle-based data acquisition technology, in-vehicle data is increasingly being used to explore road safety. This paper reports on research that analyzed the real-time tire force data (kinetic response) obtained from vehicle kinetic experiments, and constructed a new approach for identifying the high-risk of crashes on freeway segments with horizontal curvature. First, the road was divided into 1km units. Then, taking into account the characteristics of freeway alignment, each segment with horizontal curve was selected as the object of subsequent analysis. Automotive instrumentation was used to obtain a measure of tire force in the course of normal driving. The entire data set was preprocessed according to rate of change and the density of the data was reduced. By defining the outliers of the kinetic data and conducting factor analysis, two representative crash risk indicators of longitudinal and lateral stability were obtained. Negative binomial regression model (NBR model) and random effects negative binomial regression model (RENBR model) were constructed and jointly applied based on the new indicators to predict the risk value of horizontal curve segments. The method showed good prediction performance (71.8 %) for high-risk road segments with design flaws, but the predicted effect for low-risk road segments was not ideal. This study not only illustrated the effectiveness of in-vehicle data in assessing road crash risk by coupling multiple kinetic parameters, but also provided support for freeway safety research using surrogate measures of risk when there is a lack of crash statistics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105911DOI Listing
February 2021

Semantic Segmentation of Smartphone Wound Images: Comparative Analysis of AHRF and CNN-Based Approaches.

IEEE Access 2020 6;8:181590-181604. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Computer Science Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, USA, 01609.

Smartphone wound image analysis has recently emerged as a viable way to assess healing progress and provide actionable feedback to patients and caregivers between hospital appointments. Segmentation is a key image analysis step, after which attributes of the wound segment (e.g. wound area and tissue composition) can be analyzed. The Associated Hierarchical Random Field (AHRF) formulates the image segmentation problem as a graph optimization problem. Handcrafted features are extracted, which are then classified using machine learning classifiers. More recently deep learning approaches have emerged and demonstrated superior performance for a wide range of image analysis tasks. FCN, U-Net and DeepLabV3 are Convolutional Neural Networks used for semantic segmentation. While in separate experiments each of these methods have shown promising results, no prior work has comprehensively and systematically compared the approaches on the same large wound image dataset, or more generally compared deep learning vs non-deep learning wound image segmentation approaches. In this paper, we compare the segmentation performance of AHRF and CNN approaches (FCN, U-Net, DeepLabV3) using various metrics including segmentation accuracy (dice score), inference time, amount of training data required and performance on diverse wound sizes and tissue types. Improvements possible using various image pre- and post-processing techniques are also explored. As access to adequate medical images/data is a common constraint, we explore the sensitivity of the approaches to the size of the wound dataset. We found that for small datasets (< 300 images), AHRF is more accurate than U-Net but not as accurate as FCN and DeepLabV3. AHRF is also over 1000x slower. For larger datasets (> 300 images), AHRF saturates quickly, and all CNN approaches (FCN, U-Net and DeepLabV3) are significantly more accurate than AHRF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/access.2020.3014175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695230PMC
August 2020

Imidazolium-type ionic liquid-based carbon quantum dot doped gels for information encryption.

Nanoscale 2020 Oct;12(40):20965-20972

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Design and Application, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China.

Here, a strategy for the preparation of adjustable imidazolium-type ionic liquid (IL)-based carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was reported. The effect of chemical structure, including carbon chain length of the N-substitution and the type of anion, on the amphiphilicity of CQDs was systematically investigated. It was found that the hydrophobicity of CQDs can be increased with the increase of carbon chain length for substitution at the N3 position. Moreover, the amphiphilicity of CQDs was also switched by changing the hydrophilic anions to hydrophobic anions. Due to adjustable amphiphilicity, the hydrophilic and hydrophobic CQDs were used for the preparation of fluorescent hydrogels and organogels, respectively. The fluorescent CQD-doped gels showed light- and force-dual stimuli responsiveness, which provides more secure information encryption than traditional single encryption inks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr06358dDOI Listing
October 2020

Macroscopic somatic clonal expansion in morphologically normal human urothelium.

Science 2020 10;370(6512):82-89

Biomedical Pioneering Innovation Center (BIOPIC), School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Knowledge of somatic mutation accumulation in normal cells, which is essential for understanding cancer development and evolution, remains largely lacking. In this study, we investigated somatic clonal events in morphologically normal human urothelium (MNU; epithelium lining the bladder and ureter) and identified macroscopic clonal expansions. Aristolochic acid (AA), a natural herb-derived compound, was a major mutagenic driving factor in MNU. AA drastically accelerates mutation accumulation and enhances clonal expansion. Mutations in MNU were widely observed in chromatin remodeling genes such as and but rarely in , , and mutations were found to be common in urothelial cells, regardless of whether the cells experience exogenous mutagen exposure. Copy number alterations were rare and largely confined to small-scale regions, along with copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. Single AA-associated clones in MNU expanded to a scale of several square centimeters in size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aba7300DOI Listing
October 2020

A π-D and π-A Exciplex-Forming Host for High-Efficiency and Long-Lifetime Single-Emissive-Layer Fluorescent White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

Adv Mater 2020 Oct 6;32(42):e2004040. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, P. R. China.

Exciplex-forming hosts with thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) provide a viable opportunity to unlock the full potential of the yet-to-be improved power efficiencies (PEs) and stabilities of all-fluorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs), but this, however, is hindered by the lack of stable blue exciplexes. Here, an advanced exciplex system is proposed by incorporating bipolar charge-transport π-spacers into both the electron-donor (D) and the electron-accepter (A) to increase their distance for hypsochromic-shifted emission while maintaining the superior transporting ability. By using spirofluorene as the π-spacer, 3,3'-bicarbazole as the D-unit, and 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine as the A-unit, a π-D and π-A exciplex with sky-blue emission and fast reverse intersystem crossing process is thereof constructed. Combining this exciplex-forming host, a blue TADF-sensitizer, and a yellow conventional fluorescent dopant in a single-emissive-layer, the fabricated warm-white-emissive device simultaneously exhibits a low driving voltage of 3.08 V, an external quantum efficiency of 21.4%, and a remarkable T80 (time to 80% of the initial luminance) of >8200 h at 1000 cd m , accompanied by a new benchmark PE of 69.6 lm W among all-fluorescent WOLEDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202004040DOI Listing
October 2020

Achieving Pure Green Electroluminescence with CIEy of 0.69 and EQE of 28.2% from an Aza-Fused Multi-Resonance Emitter.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 Sep 11;59(40):17499-17503. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Pure green emitters are essential for realizing an ultrawide color gamut in next-generation displays. Herein, by fusing the difficult-to-access aza-aromatics onto B (boron)-N (nitrogen) skeleton, a hybridized multi-resonance and charge transfer (HMCT) molecule AZA-BN was successfully synthesized through an effective one-shot multiple cyclization method. AZA-BN shows pure green fluorescence with photoluminance quantum yield of 99.7 %. The corresponding green device exhibits a maximum external quantum efficiency and power efficiency of 28.2 % and 121.7 lm W , respectively, with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of merely 30 nm and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinate y of 0.69, representing the purest green bottom-emitting organic light-emitting diode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202008264DOI Listing
September 2020

Disentangling Large- and Small-Scale Abiotic and Biotic Factors Shaping Soil Microbial Communities in an Alpine Cushion Plant System.

Front Microbiol 2020 25;11:925. Epub 2020 May 25.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Microorganisms play a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem processes, but the key factors driving microbial community structure are poorly understood, particularly in alpine environments. In this study, we aim to disentangle the relative contribution of abiotic and biotic factors shaping bacterial and fungal community structure at large and small spatial and integration scales in an alpine system dominated by a stress-tolerant cushion species . These effects were assessed in two mountain ranges of northwest China and for two contrasting phenotypes of the cushion species inhabiting two different microtopographic positions. The large- and small-scale abiotic effects include the site and microhabitat effects, respectively, while the large- and small-scale biotic effects include the effects of cushion presence and cushion phenotype, respectively. Soil microbial communities were characterized by Illumina Miseq sequencing. Uni- and multivariate statistics were used to test the effects of abiotic and biotic factors at both scales. Results indicated that the site effect representing the soil pH and abiotic hydrothermal conditions mainly affected bacterial community structure, whereas fungal community structure was mainly affected by biotic factors with an equal contribution of cushion presence and cushion phenotype effects. Future studies should analyze the direct factors contributing to shaping microbial community structure in particular of the cushion phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262953PMC
May 2020
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