Publications by authors named "Zixin Shu"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Add-On Chinese Medicine for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (ACCORD): A Retrospective Cohort Study of Hospital Registries.

Am J Chin Med 2021 5;49(3):543-575. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Hepatic Disease Institute, Hubei Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Applied, Research of Liver and Kidney in Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan 430061, P. R. China.

Chinese medicine (CM) was extensively used to treat COVID-19 in China. We aimed to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of add-on semi-individualized CM during the outbreak. A retrospective cohort of 1788 adult confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited from 2235 consecutive linked records retrieved from five hospitals in Wuhan during 15 January to 13 March 2020. The mortality of add-on semi-individualized CM users and non-users was compared by inverse probability weighted hazard ratio (HR) and by propensity score matching. Change of biomarkers was compared between groups, and the frequency of CMs used was analyzed. Subgroup analysis was performed to stratify disease severity and dose of CM exposure. The crude mortality was 3.8% in the semi-individualized CM user group and 17.0% among the non-users. Add-on CM was associated with a mortality reduction of 58% (HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.77, [Formula: see text] = 0.005) among all COVID-19 cases and 66% (HR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.76, [Formula: see text] = 0.009) among severe/critical COVID-19 cases demonstrating dose-dependent response, after inversely weighted with propensity score. The result was robust in various stratified, weighted, matched, adjusted and sensitivity analyses. Severe/critical patients that received add-on CM had a trend of stabilized D-dimer level after 3-7 days of admission when compared to baseline. Immunomodulating and anti-asthmatic CMs were most used. Add-on semi-individualized CM was associated with significantly reduced mortality, especially among severe/critical cases. Chinese medicine could be considered as an add-on regimen for trial use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X21500257DOI Listing
April 2021

Network Patterns of Herbal Combinations in Traditional Chinese Clinical Prescriptions.

Front Pharmacol 2020 20;11:590824. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Medical Intelligence Institute, School of Computer and Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China.

As a well-established multidrug combinations schema, traditional Chinese medicine (herbal prescription) has been used for thousands of years in real-world clinical settings. This paper uses a complex network approach to investigate the regularities underlying multidrug combinations in herbal prescriptions. Using five collected large-scale real-world clinical herbal prescription datasets, we construct five weighted herbal combination networks with herb as nodes and herbal combinational use in herbal prescription as links. We found that the weight distribution of herbal combinations displays a clear power law, which means that most herb pairs were used in low frequency and some herb pairs were used in very high frequency. Furthermore, we found that it displays a clear linear negative correlation between the clustering coefficients and the degree of nodes in the herbal combination network (HCNet). This indicates that hierarchical properties exist in the HCNet. Finally, we investigate the molecular network interaction patterns between herb related target modules (i.e., subnetworks) in herbal prescriptions using a network-based approach and further explore the correlation between the distribution of herb combinations and prescriptions. We found that the more the hierarchical prescription, the better the corresponding effect. The results also reflected a well-recognized principle called "" in TCM formula theories. This also gives references for multidrug combination development in the field of network pharmacology and provides the guideline for the clinical use of combination therapy for chronic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.590824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854460PMC
January 2021

Topological Analysis of the Language Networks of Ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine Books.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 10;2020:8810016. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Beijing Key Lab of Traffic Data Analysis and Mining, School of Computer and Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China.

This study aims to explore the topological regularities of the character network of ancient traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) book. We applied the 2-gram model to construct language networks from ancient TCM books. Each text of the book was separated into sentences and a TCM book was generated as a directed network, in which nodes represent Chinese characters and links represent the sequential associations between Chinese characters in the sentences (the occurrence of identical sequential associations is considered as the weight of this link). We first calculated node degrees, average path lengths, and clustering coefficients of the book networks and explored the basic topological correlations between them. Then, we compared the similarity of network nodes to assess the specificity of TCM concepts in the network. In order to explore the relationship between TCM concepts, we screened TCM concepts and clustered them. Finally, we selected the binary groups whose weights are greater than 10 in (ICH, ) and (TCPD, ), hoping to find the core differences of these two ancient TCM books through them. We found that the degree distributions of ancient TCM book networks are consistent with power law distribution. Moreover, the average path lengths of book networks are much smaller than random networks of the same scale; clustering coefficients are higher, which means that ancient book networks have small-world patterns. In addition, the similar TCM concepts are displayed and linked closely, according to the results of cosine similarity comparison and clustering. Furthermore, the core words of and have essential differences, which might indicate the significant differences of language and conceptual patterns between theoretical and clinical books. This study adopts language network approach to investigate the basic conceptual characteristics of ancient TCM book networks, which proposes a useful method to identify the underlying conceptual meanings of particular concepts conceived in TCM theories and clinical operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8810016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748907PMC
December 2020

Clinical features and the traditional Chinese medicine therapeutic characteristics of 293 COVID-19 inpatient cases.

Front Med 2020 Dec 14;14(6):760-775. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, 430061, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now pandemic worldwide and has heavily overloaded hospitals in Wuhan City, China during the time between late January and February. We reported the clinical features and therapeutic characteristics of moderate COVID-19 cases in Wuhan that were treated via the integration of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine. We collected electronic medical record (EMR) data, which included the full clinical profiles of patients, from a designated TCM hospital in Wuhan. The structured data of symptoms and drugs from admission notes were obtained through an information extraction process. Other key clinical entities were also confirmed and normalized to obtain information on the diagnosis, clinical treatments, laboratory tests, and outcomes of the patients. A total of 293 COVID-19 inpatient cases, including 207 moderate and 86 (29.3%) severe cases, were included in our research. Among these cases, 238 were discharged, 31 were transferred, and 24 (all severe cases) died in the hospital. Our COVID-19 cases involved elderly patients with advanced ages (57 years on average) and high comorbidity rates (61%). Our results reconfirmed several well-recognized risk factors, such as age, gender (male), and comorbidities, as well as provided novel laboratory indications (e.g., cholesterol) and TCM-specific phenotype markers (e.g., dull tongue) that were relevant to COVID-19 infections and prognosis. In addition to antiviral/antibiotics and standard supportive therapies, TCM herbal prescriptions incorporating 290 distinct herbs were used in 273 (93%) cases. The cases that received TCM treatment had lower death rates than those that did not receive TCM treatment (17/273 = 6.2% vs. 7/20= 35%, P = 0.0004 for all cases; 17/77= 22% vs. 7/9= 77.7%, P = 0.002 for severe cases). The TCM herbal prescriptions used for the treatment of COVID-19 infections mainly consisted of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae, Radix Scutellariae, Rhizoma Pinellia, and their combinations, which reflected the practical TCM principles (e.g., clearing heat and dampening phlegm). Lastly, 59% of the patients received treatment, including antiviral, antibiotics, and Chinese patent medicine, before admission. This situation might have some effects on symptoms, such as fever and dry cough. By using EMR data, we described the clinical features and therapeutic characteristics of 293 COVID-19 cases treated via the integration of TCM herbal prescriptions and Western medicine. Clinical manifestations and treatments before admission and in the hospital were investigated. Our results preliminarily showed the potential effectiveness of TCM herbal prescriptions and their regularities in COVID-19 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0803-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488634PMC
December 2020

PDGNet: Predicting Disease Genes Using a Deep Neural Network with Multi-view Features.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2020 Jun 16;PP. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

The knowledge of phenotype-genotype associations is crucial for the understanding of disease mechanisms. Numerous studies have focused on developing efficient and accurate computing approaches to predict disease genes. However, owing to the sparseness and complexity of medical data, developing an efficient deep neural network model to identify disease genes remains a huge challenge. Therefore, we develop a novel deep neural network model that fuses the multi-view features of phenotypes and genotypes to identify disease genes (termed PDGNet). Our model integrated the multi-view features of diseases and genes and leveraged the feedback information of training samples to optimize the parameters of deep neural network and obtain the deep vector features of diseases and genes. The evaluation experiments on a large data set indicated that PDGNet obtained higher performance than the state-of-the-art method (precision and recall improved by 9.55% and 9.63%). The analysis results for the candidate genes indicated that the predicted genes have strong functional homogeneity and dense interactions with known genes. We validated the top predicted genes of Parkinson's disease based on external curated data and published medical literatures, which indicated that the candidate genes have a huge potential to guide the selection of causal genes in the 'wet experiment'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2020.3002771DOI Listing
June 2020

Integrated network analysis of symptom clusters across disease conditions.

J Biomed Inform 2020 07 11;107:103482. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Institute of Medical Intelligence, School of Computer and Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China; Data Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China. Electronic address:

Identifying the symptom clusters (two or more related symptoms) with shared underlying molecular mechanisms has been a vital analysis task to promote the symptom science and precision health. Related studies have applied the clustering algorithms (e.g. k-means, latent class model) to detect the symptom clusters mostly from various kinds of clinical data. In addition, they focused on identifying the symptom clusters (SCs) for a specific disease, which also mainly concerned with the clinical regularities for symptom management. Here, we utilized a network-based clustering algorithm (i.e., BigCLAM) to obtain 208 typical SCs across disease conditions on a large-scale symptom network derived from integrated high-quality disease-symptom associations. Furthermore, we evaluated the underlying shared molecular mechanisms for SCs, i.e., shared genes, protein-protein interaction (PPI) and gene functional annotations using integrated networks and similarity measures. We found that the symptoms in the same SCs tend to share a higher degree of genes, PPIs and have higher functional homogeneities. In addition, we found that most SCs have related symptoms with shared underlying molecular mechanisms (e.g. enriched pathways) across different disease conditions. Our work demonstrated that the integrated network analysis method could be used for identifying robust SCs and investigate the molecular mechanisms of these SCs, which would be valuable for symptom science and precision health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2020.103482DOI Listing
July 2020

HerGePred: Heterogeneous Network Embedding Representation for Disease Gene Prediction.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2019 07;23(4):1805-1815

The discovery of disease-causing genes is a critical step towards understanding the nature of a disease and determining a possible cure for it. In recent years, many computational methods to identify disease genes have been proposed. However, making full use of disease-related (e.g., symptoms) and gene-related (e.g., gene ontology and protein-protein interactions) information to improve the performance of disease gene prediction is still an issue. Here, we develop a heterogeneous disease-gene-related network (HDGN) embedding representation framework for disease gene prediction (called HerGePred). Based on this framework, a low-dimensional vector representation (LVR) of the nodes in the HDGN can be obtained. Then, we propose two specific algorithms, namely, an LVR-based similarity prediction and a random walk with restart on a reconstructed heterogeneous disease-gene network (RW-RDGN), to predict disease genes with high performance. First, to validate the rationality of the framework, we analyze the similarity-based overlap distribution of disease pairs and design an experiment for disease-gene association recovery, the results of which revealed that the LVR of nodes performs well at preserving the local and global network structure of the HDGN. Then, we apply tenfold cross validation and external validation to compare our methods with other well-known disease gene prediction algorithms. The experimental results show that the RW-RDGN performs better than the state-of-the-art algorithm. The prediction results of disease candidate genes are essential for molecular mechanism investigation and experimental validation. The source codes of HerGePred and experimental data are available at https://github.com/yangkuoone/HerGePred.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2018.2870728DOI Listing
July 2019

Symptom-based network classification identifies distinct clinical subgroups of liver diseases with common molecular pathways.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2019 Jun 22;174:41-50. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

School of Computer and Information Technology and Beijing Key Lab of Traffic Data Analysis and Mining, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Liver disease is a multifactorial complex disease with high global prevalence and poor long-term clinical efficacy and liver disease patients with different comorbidities often incorporate multiple phenotypes in the clinic. Thus, there is a pressing need to improve understanding of the complexity of clinical liver population to help gain more accurate disease subtypes for personalized treatment.

Methods: Individualized treatment of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides a theoretical basis to the study of personalized classification of complex diseases. Utilizing the TCM clinical electronic medical records (EMRs) of 6475 liver inpatient cases, we built a liver disease comorbidity network (LDCN) to show the complicated associations between liver diseases and their comorbidities, and then constructed a patient similarity network with shared symptoms (PSN). Finally, we identified liver patient subgroups using community detection methods and performed enrichment analyses to find both distinct clinical and molecular characteristics (with the phenotype-genotype associations and interactome networks) of these patient subgroups.

Results: From the comorbidity network, we found that clinical liver patients have a wide range of disease comorbidities, in which the basic liver diseases (e.g. hepatitis b, decompensated liver cirrhosis), and the common chronic diseases (e.g. hypertension, type 2 diabetes), have high degree of disease comorbidities. In addition, we identified 303 patient modules (representing the liver patient subgroups) from the PSN, in which the top 6 modules with large number of cases include 51.68% of the whole cases and 251 modules contain only 10 or fewer cases, which indicates the manifestation diversity of liver diseases. Finally, we found that the patient subgroups actually have distinct symptom phenotypes, disease comorbidity characteristics and their underlying molecular pathways, which could be used for understanding the novel disease subtypes of liver conditions. For example, three patient subgroups, namely Module 6 (M6, n = 638), M2 (n = 623) and M1 (n = 488) were associated to common chronic liver disease conditions (hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma). Meanwhile, patient subgroups of M30 (n = 36) and M36 (n = 37) were mostly related to acute gastroenteritis and upper respiratory infection, respectively, which reflected the individual comorbidity characteristics of liver subgroups. Furthermore, we identified the distinct genes and pathways of patient subgroups and the basic liver diseases (hepatitis b and cirrhosis), respectively. The high degree of overlapping pathways between them (e.g. M36 with 93.33% shared enriched pathways) indicates the underlying molecular network mechanisms of each patient subgroup.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the utility and comprehensiveness of disease classification study based on community detection of patient network using shared TCM symptom phenotypes and it can be used to other more complex diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2018.02.014DOI Listing
June 2019