Publications by authors named "Zivai Murira"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Affordability of nutritious foods for complementary feeding in South Asia.

Nutr Rev 2021 03;79(Suppl 1):52-68

United Nations Children's Fund, Regional Office for South Asia, Kathmandu, Nepal.

The high prevalence of stunting and micronutrient deficiencies among children in South Asia has lifelong health, educational, and economic consequences. For children aged 6-23 months, undernutrition is influenced by inadequate intake of complementary foods containing nutrients critical for growth and development. The affordability of nutrients lacking in young children's diets in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan was assessed in this study. Using data from nutrient gap assessments and household surveys, household food expenditures were compared with the cost of purchasing foods that could fill nutrient gaps. In all 3 countries, there are multiple affordable sources of vitamin A (orange-fleshed vegetables, dark leafy greens, liver), vitamin B12 (liver, fish, milk), and folate (dark leafy greens, liver, legumes, okra); few affordable sources of iron and calcium (dark leafy greens); and no affordable sources of zinc. Affordability of animal-source protein varies, with several options in Pakistan (fish, chicken, eggs, beef) and India (fish, eggs, milk) but few in Bangladesh (eggs). Approaches to reduce prices, enhance household production, or increase incomes are needed to improve affordability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuaa139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948078PMC
March 2021

Micronutrient gaps during the complementary feeding period in South Asia: A Comprehensive Nutrient Gap Assessment.

Nutr Rev 2021 03;79(Suppl 1):26-34

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), New York, New York, USA.

Micronutrient malnutrition is a key driver of morbidity and mortality for millions of children in South Asia. Understanding the specific micronutrients lacking in the diet during the complementary feeding period is essential for addressing undernutrition caused by inadequate diets. A Comprehensive Nutrient Gap Assessment was used to synthesize diverse evidence and estimate the public health significance of complementary-feeding micronutrient gaps and identify evidence gaps in 8 countries in South Asia. There were important gaps across the region in iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, vitamin B12, and, to a lesser extent, calcium and vitamin C. The most nutrient-dense, whole-food sources of these micronutrients include liver, small fish, eggs, ruminant meat, and dark leafy greens. Investment is needed in some countries to collect data on micronutrient biomarkers and dietary intakes. A food systems approach is essential for improving child diets and reducing malnutrition, which affects millions of children, their futures, and society at large across South Asia and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuaa144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947968PMC
March 2021

Levels and determinants of malnutrition among India's urban poor women: An analysis of Demographic Health Surveys 2006 and 2016.

Matern Child Nutr 2020 07 5;16(3):e12978. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

A quarter of 400 million urban Indian residents are poor. Urban poor women are as undernourished as or worse than rural women but urban averages mask this disparity. We present the spectrum of malnutrition and their determinants for more than 26,000 urban women who gave birth within 5 years from the last two rounds of Demographic Health Survey 2006 and 2016. Among urban mothers in the lowest quartile by wealth index (urban poor), 12.8% (95% CI [11.3%, 14.5%]) were short or with height < 145 cm; 20.6% (95% CI [19%, 22.3%]) were thin or with body mass index < 18.5 kg/m ; 57.4% (95% CI [55.5%, 59.3%]) had any anaemia (haemoglobin < 12 g/dL), whereas 32.4% (95% CI [30.5%, 34.3%]) had moderate to severe anaemia; and 21.1% (95% CI [19.3%, 23%]) were obese (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m ). Decadal gains were significant for thinness reduction (17p.p.) but obesity increased by 12 p.p. Belonging to a tribal household increased odds of thinness by 1.5 (95% CI [1.06, 2.18]) times among urban poor mothers compared with other socially vulnerable groups. Secondary education reduced odds of thinness (0.61; 95% CI [0.48, 0.77]) and higher education of short stature (0.41; 95% CI [0.18, 0.940]). Consuming milk/milk products, pulses/beans/eggs/meats, and dark green leafy vegetables daily reduced the odds of short stature (0.52; 95% CI [0.35, 0.78]) and thinness (0.72; 95% CI [0.54, 0.98]). Urban poor mothers should be screened for nutritional risks due to the high prevalence of all forms of malnutrition and counselled or treated as per risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12978DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296805PMC
July 2020

Antenatal Care Service Utilization Among Adolescent Pregnant Women-Evidence From Swabhimaan Programme in India.

Front Public Health 2019 12;7:369. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Country Office, UNICEF, New Delhi, India.

Pregnant adolescent girls (15-19 years) are more vulnerable to poor health and nutrition than adult pregnant women because of marginalization and lack of knowledge about the antenatal care (ANC) services. The present study aims to test this hypothesis and assess determinants of ANC service utilization among currently adolescent pregnant women. Data were drawn from the baseline survey of SWABHIMAAN project, which had been conducted in three states of India: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, and Odisha. Out of a total 2,573 pregnant women (15-49 years) included in the sample, about 10% ( = 278) were adolescent girls (15-19 years) at the time of the survey, and the rest were adults. Sample was selected from the population using simple random sampling, and information was collected using pretested questionnaires. For all indicators of ANC service utilization, performance of adolescent pregnant women was better than adult pregnant women. However, significant variations were reported in the level of services received by adult pregnant women for different indicators. Religion, wealth, food insecurity, Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Day meeting, Public Distribution System and Integrated Child Development Services entitlements, and knowledge of family planning methods had a significant effect on the ANC service utilization. Adolescent pregnant women have shown better utilization of selected indicators than their adult counterparts. Utilization of full ANC services starting from first trimester itself for adolescent pregnant women is an urgent need in present context. Intervention program must pay attention to such adolescent married girls who are entering into the motherhood phase of their lives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6927275PMC
December 2019

Nutrition status of nulliparous married Indian women 15-24 years: Decadal trends, predictors and program implications.

PLoS One 2019 27;14(8):e0221125. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States of America.

In India, 66% of 8 million married adolescents (~5.3 million) are nulliparous and likely to conceive soon. Among married young women aged 20-24 years about 9.1 million are nulliparous. This group remains relatively less reached in maternal nutrition programs. Current estimates of their nutritional status and predictors of body mass index (BMI) are unavailable. Thinness (BMI <18.5 kg/m2), severe thinness (BMI <16 kg/m2), overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 23kg/m2) prevalence estimates are presented based on a sample of 11,265 married nulliparous adolescents (15-19 years, married, no parity) and 15,358 young women (20-24 years, married, no parity) drawn from the National Family Health Surveys 2005-06 and 2015-16. Trends by age, time and state were analysed. Predictors of BMI were investigated using linear regression. Using BMI for age z score (BAZ) as standard reference, BMI cut-off was calculated for thinness (-2SD) and overweight or obesity (+1SD) among married nulliparous adolescents as recommended for population under 19 years. 35% sampled adolescents and 26% young women were thin; 4%-5% severely thin. Overweight or obesity was higher among married nulliparous young women than married nulliparous adolescents (21% versus 11%). Eight in 1000 were short, thin and young and six in 1000 were short, thin, anemic and young. At 15 years of age, prevalence of thinness based on BMI was 46.5% while based on BAZ, 7.6%. At 24 years of age thinness was 22.5%. Decadal reduction in thinness was half among married nulliparous adolescents (4% points) compared with married nulliparous young women (8% points). Decadal increase in overweight/ obesity ranged from 4% to 5% in both age groups. Western states had high prevalence of thinness; Tamil Nadu had highest prevalence of overweight or obesity. Incremental increase in age and wealth increased BMI among young women more than adolescents. BMI was lower among adolescents and young women wanting a child later than soon [β -0.28 (CI -0.49- -0.07), β -0.33(CI -0.56- -0.093), respectively]. BMI cut-off 16.49 kg/m2 and 24.12 kg/m2 had a high sensitivity (100%, 99.7%) and specificity (98.9%, 98.5%) to screen thin and overweight or obese adolescents, respectively. Owing to the high prevalence of both thinness and overweight/obesity among nulliparous married adolescents and women, nutritional anthropometry based screening should be initiated for this target group, along with a treatment package in states with high and persistent malnutrition. Family planning services should be integrated in nutrition programs for this target group to achieve normal nutritional status before conception.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221125PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6711595PMC
March 2020

Effectiveness of programme approaches to improve the coverage of maternal nutrition interventions in South Asia.

Matern Child Nutr 2018 11;14 Suppl 4:e12699

Global Technical Services, Nutrition International, Ottawa, Canada.

The nutritional status of women before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and after delivery has far reaching consequences for maternal health and child survival, growth, and development. In South Asia, the high prevalence of short stature, thinness, and anaemia among women of reproductive age underlie the high prevalence of child undernutrition in the region, whereas overweight and obesity are rising concerns. A systematic review of evidence (2000-2017) was conducted to identify barriers and programme approaches to improving the coverage of maternal nutrition interventions in the region. The search strategy used 13 electronic bibliographic databases and 14 websites of development and technical agencies and identified 2,247 citations. Nine studies conducted in Bangladesh (n = 2), India (n = 5), Nepal (n = 1), and Pakistan (n = 1) were selected for the review, and outcomes included the receipt and consumption of iron and folic acid and calcium supplements and the receipt of information on dietary intake during pregnancy. The studies indicate that a range of barriers acting at the individual (maternal), household, and health service delivery levels affects intervention coverage during pregnancy. Programme approaches that were effective in improving intervention coverage addressed barriers at multiple levels and had several common features: use of formative research and client assessments to inform the design of programme approaches and actions; community-based delivery platforms to increase access to services; engagement of family members, as well as pregnant women, in influencing behavioural change; actions to improve the capacity, supervision, monitoring, and motivation of front-line service providers to provide information and counselling; and access to free supplements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6519063PMC
November 2018
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