Publications by authors named "Zijia Zhang"

35 Publications

Montmorillonite facilitated Pb(II) biomineralization by Chlorella sorokiniana FK in soil.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 27;423(Pt A):127007. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Laboratorio de Investigaciones Microbiológicas de Lagunas Andinas (LIMLA), PROIMI Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiológicos, Av. Belgrano y Pasaje Caseros, 4000 CONICET Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 4000 Tucumán, Argentina.

In this study, Chlorella sorokiniana FK, isolated from lead-zinc tailings, was employed for Pb(II) biomineralization with or without montmorillonite (MMT) addition in soil. Batch experiment results showed that montmorillonite facilitated Pb(CO)(OH) formation on the surface of Chlorella-MMT composite, thus increasing algal cells' tolerance to Pb(II) poisoning. Surprisingly, Pb(II) adsorbed and biomineralized by Chlorella-MMT composite was 2.69 times and 3.76 times as much as that by Chlorella alone, respectively. The montmorillonite facilitated Chlorella-induced Pb biomineralization by promoting both photosynthesis and urea hydrolysis, mainly due to more hydroxyl functional groups generated during its binding with Chlorella and its high pH buffering capacity. Moreover, the SEM-EDS analysis indicated that the biomineral particles shifted from algal cell surface to montmorillonite surface in the composite during long-term Pb-detoxification. In-situ soil Pb(II) remediation experiments with Chlorella-MMT composites further showed that Pb was immobilized as carbonate form in the short term and as residue fraction in the long term. This study made the first attempt to explore the facilitating effects of montmorillonite on metal-carbonate precipitation mediated by microalgae and to develop a green, sustainable, and effective strategy for immobilization of heavy metal in soil by combining clay minerals and microalgae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127007DOI Listing
August 2021

Untargeted metabolomics coupled with chemometric analysis deducing robust markers for discrimination of processing procedures: wine-processed Angelica sinensis as a case study.

J Sep Sci 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210029, China.

Wine-processed Angelica Sinensis is a widely used Chinese medicinal decoction piece in China. However, there are hardly any robust markers indicating the processing procedure of wine-processed Angelica Sinensis, including the amount of rice wine and processing degree. A strategy integrating untargeted metabolomics and chemometric analysis for deducing robust markers was provided and applied to the discrimination of processing procedure. First, 86 compounds were tentatively identified in wine-processed Angelica Sinensis by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. Second, 93 potential chemical markers were selected using multivariate analysis, among which nine robust chemical markers were selected by verification with commercial samples. Finally, the effects of processing temperature, time, and amount of rice wine on the three selected chemical markers were investigated through a rapid analytical method. It was demonstrated that both m/z 258.1097 and m/z 238.1189 were positively correlated with the amount of rice wine and processing degree. In summary, this study introduced two candidate processing markers as robust markers for discriminating the processing procedures of wine-processed Angelica sinensis. It also proposed a strategy to provide the reference for the research of other decoction pieces. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202100566DOI Listing
September 2021

Structural Characterization of a Polysaccharide from and Its Bioactivity on Gut Microbiota.

Molecules 2021 Jul 23;26(15). Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Shanghai Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.

A novel homogeneous polysaccharide named was isolated and purified from () by hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and membrane separator. , which has a molecular weight of 20.1 kDa, contains a polysaccharide framework comprised of only glucose. Methylation and NMR analysis showed that contained 1,3,6-linked-α-Glc, 1,4-linked-α-Glc, 1,4-linked-β-Glc and 1,4,6-linked-α-Glc. Interestingly, contained citric acid and repeating -hydroxybenzyl alcohol as one branch. Furthermore, a bioactivity test showed that could significantly promote the growth of () and () strains. These results implied that might be useful for human by modulating gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8348156PMC
July 2021

A five-dimensional data collection strategy for multicomponent discovery and characterization in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Gastrodia Rhizoma as a case study.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Sep 14;1653:462405. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Shanghai Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

Establishing the identity of bioactive compounds to control the quality of Traditional Chinese Medicines is made more challenging by the complexity of the metabolite matrix, the existence of isomers, and the range of compound concentration and polarity observed between individual samples of the same plant in a multicomponent preparation. In addition, LC-MS analysis has limited capability for the separation and analysis of potentially important trace compounds and isomers, which hinders the comprehensive metabolite characterization of functional foods and Traditional Natural Medicine. To facilitate and improve the chemical composition characterization and enhance metabolite discernment, a comprehensive strategy was developed which integrates ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMS) with offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and conventional reversed phase (RP) C18 chromatography. Through application of the HILIC × RP offline 2D-LC approach, trace compounds were enriched and separated promoting a more efficient and detailed analysis of the matrix complexity. Comprehensive non-targeted multidimensional data (Rt1D, Rt2D, MS, CCS and MS/MS) and data-independent-acquisition (DIA) mass data of the metabolites in complex food and drug samples were obtained in the IMS-DIA-MS/MS mode on a Waters-SYNAPT G2-Si mass spectrometer with an ESI source. Through the application of high-efficiency neutral loss (NLs) and diagnostic product ions (DPIs) filter strategies, information from DIA mass data permitted the rapid detection and identification of compounds. The identification coverage of metabolites with low-quality MS/MS data was also improved. In the absence of analytical standards, Collision Cross Section (CCS) prediction and matching strategies based on theoretical chemical structures provided a method to distingish isomers. To demonstrate the efficacy of the technique this comprehensive strategy was applied to the compound characterization of Gastrodia Rhizoma (GR). Characterization of 272 compounds was achieved, including 146 unreported compounds. The results affirm that this comprehensive five-dimensional data collection strategy has the capacity to support the in-depth study of the high level of chemical diversity in Traditional Chinese Medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462405DOI Listing
September 2021

Fast determination of 16 circulating neurotransmitters and their metabolites in plasma samples of spontaneously hypertensive rats intervened with five different Uncaria.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Aug 14;1179:122856. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Shanghai Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Haike Road 501, Shanghai 201203, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuanquan Road, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to establish a sensitive, reproducible, and rapid liquid chromatography method with tandem mass spectrometry detection to perform simultaneous quantitative analysis of 16 neurotransmitters and their metabolites in rat plasma, including levodopa, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, L-tryptophan, kynurenic acid, serotonin, melatonin, choline, acetylcholine, histamine, phenylethylamine, as well as excitatory (L-glutamic acid and L-aspartic acid) and inhibitory (γ-aminobutyric acid and L-glycine) neurotransmitters. These analytes were measured by ultra-high performance chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry using a hydrophilic interaction chromatographic column (ethylene-bridged hybrid amide column). The internal standards of stable isotope labeling were used to improve the reliability of the results. Our method provided high linearity for all neurotransmitters (for all coefficients measured > 0.99), with inter- and intra-day accuracy from -14.82% to 17.49% and precision was between 0.89% and 17.70%. The method was subsequently verified in an animal study, where the intervention of five different Uncarias, the traditional Chinese medicine with hypotensive effects, was applied to the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). SHRs showed dysregulated plasma kynurenic acid, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine levels, and these neuroactive analytes were significantly restored by Uncaria treatment compared with the model group (SHR group). Compared with captopril, included as a positive control for its hypotensive effect, Uncaria had more effects on perturbing the levels of plasma neurotransmitters, which might indicate Uncaria's potential in treating symptoms related to the nervous system. These results suggested that the changes in the neurotransmitters and their metabolites in plasma may be related to the pathogenesis of hypertension. It also provided valuable information about the action mechanisms of Uncaria on its hypotensive effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2021.122856DOI Listing
August 2021

Structural characterization of two novel polysaccharides from Gastrodia elata and their effects on Akkermansia muciniphila.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 14;186:501-509. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Shanghai Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

Two homogeneous polysaccharides, GEP-3 and GEP-4, were purified from Gastrodia elata, a precious traditional Chinese medicine. Their structural characteristics were obtained using HPGPC, PMP-HPLC, LC/MS, FT-IR, NMR, and SEM methods. GEP-3 was 1,4-glucan with molecular weight of 20 kDa. Interestingly, GEP-4 comprised of a backbone of →[4)-α-Glcp-(1]→[4)-α-Glcp-(1→][6)-β-Glcp-(1]→6)-α-Glcp-(3→ and two branches of β-Glcp and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol citrate, with repeating p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol attached to the backbone chain at O-6 position of →4,6)-α-Glcp-(1→ and O-1 position of →3,6)-α-Glcp-(1→. GEP-4 is a novel polysaccharide obtained and characterized for the first time. Bioactivity test indicated that both of them significantly promote the growth of Akkermansia muciniphila (Akk. muciniphila). Furthermore, GEP-3 and GEP-4 promoted the growth of Akk. muciniphila from high-fat diet (HFD) fecal microbiota. These results indicated that GEP-3 and GEP-4 were potential Akk. muciniphila growth promoters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.157DOI Listing
September 2021

Restoring perturbed oxylipins with Danqi Tongmai Tablet attenuates acute myocardial infarction.

Phytomedicine 2021 Sep 4;90:153616. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Shanghai Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 501 Haike Road, Shanghai 201203, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuanquan Road, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Salvianolic acids have a special synergic effect on panax notoginsenosides in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and have been developed into a new drug as Danqi Tongmai Tablet (DQTT). To explore candidate targets and mechanisms of DQTT on AMI, a network pharmacology-based analysis was performed on absorbed prototype compounds of DQTT in rat plasma. Target prediction from network analysis indicated that the arachidonic acid pathway might contribute to the therapeutic effects of DQTT on AMI, and the regulatory effects on cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were validated using an oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation model established on H9c2 cardiomyocytes. To further explore the action mechanisms of DQTT, 38 oxylipins were quantitatively analyzed among high, medium, and low doses of DQTT using a rat AMI model with an ultra high performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ/MS) detection system. As attenuation was observed in AMI with DQTT treatment, the perturbed arachidonic acid metabolome was partly restored in a dose-dependent fashion with a significant elevation of anti-inflammatory metabolites, while pro-inflammatory lipids were decreased. Cytokine array analysis also supported the anti-inflammatory effects of DQTT, as significant down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed. The analysis of ischemic heart tissues demonstrated that COX and LOX, the inflammation-induced catalytic enzymes of arachidonic acid metabolism, were inhibited on both gene expression and protein level. These results confirmed that DQTT could restore the arachidonic acid metabolome to maintain an anti-inflammatory profile against the ischemic tissue injury and support that DQTT can be a promising medicinal therapy against AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153616DOI Listing
September 2021

Anti-neuroinflammatory activity of Shenqi Fuzheng Injection and its main active constituents.

Biosci Trends 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Shanghai Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Enhancement of alternative activation (M2) in microglia is a promising therapeutic target for microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Shenqi Fuzheng Injection (SFI) is a clinical adjuvant treatment for cancer to reduce the side effects during cancer treatment, including boosting mood and improving appetite. However, the mechanism of SFI's effects on central symptoms is not clear. Therefore, using arginase 1 (Arg1) and transforming growth beta-1 (Tgfb1) as markers for M2 microglia activation, we found that compounds 1, 5, 12, 14, and 15 are the major M2-promoting constituents in SFI, which significantly upregulated Arg1 or Tgfb1 gene expression. Our results suggested that these compounds in SFI may promote M2 microglial activation and have potential uses in modulating microglial activation and alleviating neuroinflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2021.01140DOI Listing
June 2021

Disturbance-level-dependent post-disturbance succession in a Eurasian steppe.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.

Anthropogenic disturbances may decrease as we take measures to control them. However, the patterns and mechanisms of post-disturbance ecosystem succession have rarely been studied. Here we reported that disturbance level determined the importance of stochastic relative to deterministic changes in ecosystem components (plant community composition, soil microbial community composition, and soil physicochemical indices), and thus predefined the pattern of post-disturbance ecosystem succession. We proposed a theoretical framework with five disturbance levels corresponding to distinct succession patterns. We conducted a nitrogen addition experiment in a temperate steppe, monitored these ecosystem components during "disturbance" treatment (2010-2014) and post-treatment "succession" (2014-2018). The disturbance level experienced by each component in each treatment was inferred by fitting the observed succession patterns into the theoretical framework. The mean disturbance level of these components was found to increase quadratically with nitrogen addition rate. This was because increasing nitrogen addition reduced the importance of stochastic relative to deterministic changes in these components, and these changes had a quadratic relationship with disturbance level. Overall, our results suggested that by monitoring the importance of stochastic relative to deterministic changes in an ecosystem, we can estimate disturbance levels and predict succession patterns, as well as propose disturbance-level-dependent strategies for post-disturbance restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1894-8DOI Listing
March 2021

Design, synthesis and anti-tumor activities of carbamate derivatives of cinobufagin.

Steroids 2020 12 13;164:108749. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Shanghai Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

A series of cinobufagin-3-yl nitrogen-containing-carbamate derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their proliferation inhibition activities. The structure-activity relationships suggested that the substituents at C-16 was a crucial factor for the potency and that follows this trends: acetic ester ≫ benzoic ester ≈ hydroxy > carbamate. Compounds 3f, 3g, 3h, and 3i exhibited significant in vitro antiproliferative activities against the eight tested tumor cell lines, with IC values ranging from 8.1 to 237.4 nM. Furthermore, 3g tartrate (3g-TA) significantly inhibited tumor growth by 64.5%, 83.9%, and 93.0% at a doses of 4, 6, 8 mg/kg/qod by ip, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2020.108749DOI Listing
December 2020

Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of N-Unprotected Indoles with Ammonia Borane.

Org Lett 2020 Aug 14;22(15):5850-5854. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Recognition and Function, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

A metal-free asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of unprotected indoles was successfully realized using a catalyst derived from HB(CF) and ()--butylsulfinamide with ammonia borane as a hydrogen source. A variety of indolines were achieved in 40-78% yields with up to 90% ee.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c01930DOI Listing
August 2020

Synthesis of oleandrin derivatives and their cytotoxic activity.

Steroids 2020 07 28;159:108650. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Shanghai Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

A series of oleandrin-4'-yl ester derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their proliferation inhibition activities against tumor cell lines. Cytotoxicity data revealed that the C4' moiety had an important influence on cytotoxic activity. Several compounds that we designed and synthesized exhibit significant in vitro antiproliferative activity against the tested tumor cell lines. Among the derivatives of OL, 4b-HCl not only had good anti-tumor activity but also had good water solubility. Furthermore, 4b-HCl can significantly inhibit tumor growth by 96.4% at a dose of 6 mg/kg/d by ip.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2020.108650DOI Listing
July 2020

A Network-Based Approach to Explore the Mechanisms of Alkaloids in Treating Hypertension and Alleviating Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Mar 4;21(5). Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 501 Haike Road, Pudong New District, Shanghai 201203 China.

alkaloids are the major bioactive chemicals found in the genus, which have a long history of clinical application in treating cardiovascular and mental diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, there are gaps in understanding the multiple targets, pathways, and biological activities of alkaloids. By constructing the interactions among drug-targets-diseases, network pharmacology provides a systemic methodology and a novel perspective to present the intricate connections among drugs, potential targets, and related pathways. It is a valuable tool for studying TCM drugs with multiple indications, and how these multi-indication drugs are affected by complex interactions in the biological system. To better understand the mechanisms and targets of alkaloids, we built an integrated analytical platform based on network pharmacology, including target prediction, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, topology analysis, gene enrichment analysis, and molecular docking. Using this platform, we revealed the underlying mechanisms of alkaloids' anti-hypertensive effects and explored the possible application of alkaloids in preventing Alzheimer's disease. These results were further evaluated and refined using biological experiments. Our study provides a novel strategy for understanding the holistic pharmacology of TCM, as well as for exploring the multi-indication properties of TCM beyond its traditional applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084279PMC
March 2020

Investigation of the mechanism of action of Porana sinensis Hemsl. against gout arthritis using network pharmacology and experimental validation.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Apr 25;252:112606. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Shaanxi Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710003, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Porana sinensis Hemsl. has been widely used to treat joint pain and rheumatoid arthritis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Although evidence exists to support a pharmacological action of P. sinensis for the treatment of gout arthritis (GA), the underlying mechanism of action remains unknown due to it being a multi-component and multi-target agent.

Aim Of The Study: To clarify the active compounds and mechanism of P. sinensis against GA.

Materials And Methods: The present study combined network pharmacology with experiments to clarify the mechanism of P. sinensis against GA. A protein-protein interaction network for gout was constructed to identify the potential drug targets, and molecular docking was subsequently performed to determine whether the protein was a target for the compounds of P. sinensis. KEGG pathway analysis was then conducted to elucidate the pathway involved in the P. sinensis-mediated treatment of gout. A rat model of GA was used to further investigate the mechanism of P. sinensis against GA.

Results: The network pharmacology study indicates that coumarins and chlorogenic acids of P. sinensis may serve as additives to GA treatment. P. sinensis played a role in the treatment of GA by regulating the PI3K-Akt, MAPK, NF-kappa B and toll-like receptor pathways and so on. Moreover, experimental validation suggests that P. sinensis extract significantly suppressed the expression of TLR2 and MyD88 mRNA, regulating the release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-4 and TGF-β), lowering lipid peroxidation (MDA) and increasing antioxidant status (SOD).

Conclusion: The present study clarifies the mechanism of P. sinensis against GA, and provides evidence to support its clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112606DOI Listing
April 2020

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Porana sinensis Hemsl by UHPLC-Q-Exactive MS, TLC autographic method and DART-MS.

Phytochem Anal 2019 May 19;30(3):311-319. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Shaanxi Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xi'an, China.

Introduction: Erycibe obtusifolia and E. schmidtii are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat joint pain and rheumatoid arthritis. With the reduction of wild E. obtusifolia and E. schmidtii resources, Porana sinensis has been widely used as a substitute. However, few studies have been conducted on the chemical composition and quality control of P. sinensis.

Objective: To clarify the chemical composition and improve the quality control of P. sinensis.

Methodology: We developed an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation Q-Exactive Focus tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Q-Exactive Focus-MS/MS) method to characterise the chemical constituents of P. sinensis. A strategy based on a combination of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and direct analysis in real-time (DART) ion source was proposed for the identification of alkaloid components in P. sinensis. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) autography for 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH˙) and TLC bioautography for xanthine oxidase were used to rapidly screen marker compounds for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of P. sinensis. Based on the selected marker compounds, a HPLC method for the quantitative determination of eight marker compounds in P. sinensis was developed.

Results: Eighteen compounds in P. sinensis were identified by UHPLC-Q-Exactive MS. Taken together with the results of TLC autography and TLC bioautography, eight compounds were chosen as marker compounds for HPLC determination of P. sinensis. The alkaloid components in P. sinensis were identified as Baogongteng A and Baogongteng C by DART-MS.

Conclusion: We systematically clarified the chemical composition of P. sinensis for the first time, and potentially improved its quality control. These results should promote the application of P. sinensis as a new resource for Caulis Erycibes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.2814DOI Listing
May 2019

Unveiling the effects of A-site substitutions on the oxygen ion migration in AA'NiO by first principles calculations.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Aug;20(33):21685-21692

University of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing 100083, China.

The effects of A-site substitutions on the interstitial oxygen formation energy and the migration energy in layered A2-xA'xNiO4+δ (A = selected lanthanides, A' = Ba, Sr, Ca) are investigated by first principles calculations. The interstitial oxygen formation energy is negative, in the range of -4.81 eV to -3.45 eV, strongly supporting easiness of formation of the interstitial oxygen defects in the (A,A')O rock salt plane. The Pr2NiO4+δ compound shows the lowest formation energy, indicating the highest amount of interstitial oxygen. Doping with alkaline earth cations (A') increases the formation energy of the interstitial oxygen, which prefers to be located far away from the dopants. Nevertheless, Ca seems to be the best choice, due to relatively low formation energy. Calculations for the four kinds of diffusion paths allow it to be predicted that the oxygen transport in A2-xA'xNiO4+δ is governed by the interstitialcy mechanism in the ab plane, because of the significantly lower energy barriers for this mechanism. An interesting finding is achieved for A2NiO4+δ (A = Pr, Nd, Sm), for which the energy barriers for the interstitialcy transport are negative (-0.47 eV, -0.33 eV and -0.02 eV, respectively), implying that the transition state is more stable than the assumed initial state. A new structural configuration is proposed in this work, with the adjacent apical oxygen located at the adjacent interstitial site, which shows ca. 0.5 eV lower free energy than that of the initial model. This result provides a new understanding for the location of the interstitial and the adjacent apical oxygens from an energetic point of view and supports previously published experimental data. It is found that alkaline earth doping at the A-site deteriorates the interstitial oxygen diffusion in La2-xA'xNiO4.25 materials, but concerning overall transport properties, Ca seems to be a good dopant from an energetic point of view, when compared with Ba and Sr.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cp04392bDOI Listing
August 2018

Tin Disulfide Nanosheets with Active-Site-Enriched Surface Interfacially Bonded on Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets as Ultra-Robust Anode for Lithium and Sodium Storage.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Aug 16;10(34):28533-28540. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of New Energy Materials and Technologies , Beijing 100083 , China.

Two-dimensional (2D) tin disulfide (SnS) has attracted intensive research owing to its high specific capacity for Li and Na storage, natural abundance, as well as environmental friendliness. However, the poor reaction kinetics, low intrinsic electrical conductivity, and severe volumetric variation upon cycling processes of SnS impede its widespread application. In this work, SnS nanosheets with active-site-enriched surface intimately grown on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via C-O-Sn chemical bonds are prepared. The aligning affords more active sites for electrode reaction and short transport pathways for Li/Na and electrons. The strong chemical bonding enhances the interfacial affinity of SnS with rGO and inhibits the detachment of active SnS from rGO during repeated charge and discharge processes, which can ensure an integrated electrode structure. The 3D conductive and flexible rGO network improves the conductivity of the entire composite and buffers the volume change of SnS upon charge/discharge. These advantages enable the designed SnS/rGO nanocomposite to have high specific capacity, superior rate capability, and outstanding long-cycling stability for both Li and Na storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b07741DOI Listing
August 2018

Comparative study of chemical composition and active components against α-glucosidase of various medicinal parts of Morus alba L.

Biomed Chromatogr 2018 Nov 21;32(11):e4328. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Shaanxi Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Morus alba L has long been used as fodder and as a traditional medicine. The different parts of M. alba (Cortex Mori, Ramulus Mori, Folium Mori and Fructus Mori) have different bioactivities; however, most current evidence is focused on anti-diabetic properties. In spite of their widespread use, few studies have compared the chemical composition and activity against α-glucosidase of the various medicinal parts of M. alba. In this study, we developed an HPLC method for simultaneous quality control and discrimination of Cortex Mori, Ramulus Mori, Folium Mori and Fructus Mori using 13 marker compounds. We found that quercetin, morin, kuwanon G, sanggenon C, morusin, mulberroside A and rutin were chemically distinct among the various medicinal parts of M. alba. A spectrum-effect relationship method was established to compare α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of various batches of samples to determine the activity of the primary active components against α-glucosidase. Taken together with molecular docking data, we found that prenylated flavonoids (morin, sanggenon C, kuwanon G and morusin), flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, rutin and isoquercitrin) and alkaloids (1-deoxynojirimycin) were small molecule α-glucosidase inhibitory ingredients. In conclusion, we laid a solid foundation for effective substance identification in various parts of M. alba, and simultaneously provided a basis for their quality control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.4328DOI Listing
November 2018

(101) Plane-Oriented SnS Nanoplates with Carbon Coating: A High-Rate and Cycle-Stable Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017 Oct 4;9(41):35880-35887. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

Faculty of Energy and Fuels, Department of Hydrogen Energy, AGH University of Science and Technology , al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland.

Tin disulfide is considered to be a promising anode material for Li ion batteries because of its high theoretical capacity as well as its natural abundance of sulfur and tin. Practical implementation of tin disulfide is, however, strongly hindered by inferior rate performance and poor cycling stability of unoptimized material. In this work, carbon-encapsulated tin disulfide nanoplates with a (101) plane orientation are prepared via a facile hydrothermal method, using polyethylene glycol as a surfactant to guide the crystal growth orientation, followed by a low-temperature carbon-coating process. Fast lithium ion diffusion channels are abundant and well-exposed on the surface of such obtained tin disulfide nanoplates, while the designed microstructure allows the effective decrease of the Li ion diffusion length in the electrode material. In addition, the outer carbon layer enhances the microscopic electrical conductivity and buffers the volumetric changes of the active particles during cycling. The optimized, carbon coated tin disulfide (101) nanoplates deliver a very high reversible capacity (960 mAh g at a current density of 0.1 A g), superior rate capability (796 mAh g at a current density as high as 2 A g), and an excellent cycling stability of 0.5 A g for 300 cycles, with only 0.05% capacity decay per cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b11113DOI Listing
October 2017

Rapid separation and simultaneous quantitative determination of 13 constituents in Psoraleae Fructus by a single marker using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

J Sep Sci 2017 Nov 26;40(21):4191-4202. Epub 2017 Sep 26.

The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines and The Shanghai Key Laboratory for Compound Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Psoraleae Fructus is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines. Coumarins, flavonoids, and meroterpenes are the main contributors to the biological activity of Psoraleae Fructus. In this study, a new method for the quality control of Psoraleae Fructus was developed, through the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker with diode array detector. Thirteen components, including psoralenoside, isopsoralenoside, psoralen, isopsoralen, psoralidin, neobavaisoflavone, bavachin, corylin, isobavachalcone, corylifol A, bavachinin, bavachalcone, and bakuchiol were rapidly separated and identified within 12 min by the newly developed method. The feasibility and reliability of this method were corroborated. The method was also compared to the external standard method and detection by corona charged aerosol detector. The results of percent difference (%) and cos (θ) have shown that there were no significant differences observed between the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker and external standard method analyses; psoralen and isopsoralen were undetectable with the corona charged aerosol detector due to their but the sensitivity for all the compounds except bakuchiol detected by corona charged aerosol detector are higher than those obtained by diode array detector. In addition, the newly method developed was applied to the quality evaluation of Chinese patent medicines containing Psoraleae Fructus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201700482DOI Listing
November 2017

Direct Analysis in Real-time Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Identification of Traditional Chinese Medicines with Coumarins as Primary Characteristics.

Phytochem Anal 2017 May 23;28(3):137-143. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardisation of Chinese Medicines and the Shanghai Key Laboratory for Compound Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201210, PR China.

Introduction: The increasing popularity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) necessitates rapid and reliable methods for controlling their quality. Direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) represents a novel approach to analysing TCMs.

Objective: To develop a quick and reliable method of identifying TCMs with coumarins as primary characteristics.

Methodology: DART-MS coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry was employed to rapidly identify TCMs with coumarins as primary characteristics and to explore the ionisation mechanisms of simple coumarins, furocoumarins and pyranocoumarins in detail. With minimal sample pretreatment, mass spectra of Fraxini Cortex, Angelicae Pubescentis Radix, Peucedani Radix and Psoraleae Fructus samples were obtained within seconds. The operating parameters of the DART ion source (e.g. grid electrode voltage and ionisation gas temperature) were carefully investigated to obtain high-quality mass spectra. The mass spectra of samples and DART-MS/MS spectra of marker compounds were used to identify sample materials.

Results: Successful authentication was achieved by analysing the same materials of different origins. Some simple coumarins, furocoumarins and pyranocoumarins can be directly detected by DART-MS as marker compounds.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that DART-MS can provide a rapid and reliable method for the identification of TCMs containing different configurations of coumarins; the method may also be applicable to other plants. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.2650DOI Listing
May 2017

MoS2 Nanosheets Vertically Grown on Graphene Sheets for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

ACS Nano 2016 09 26;10(9):8526-35. Epub 2016 Aug 26.

Faculty of Energy and Fuels, Department of Hydrogen Energy, AGH University of Science and Technology , al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland.

A designed nanostructure with MoS2 nanosheets (NSs) perpendicularly grown on graphene sheets (MoS2/G) is achieved by a facile and scalable hydrothermal method, which involves adsorption of Mo7O24(6-) on a graphene oxide (GO) surface, due to the electrostatic attraction, followed by in situ growth of MoS2. These results give an explicit proof that the presence of oxygen-containing groups and pH of the solution are crucial factors enabling formation of a lamellar structure with MoS2 NSs uniformly decorated on graphene sheets. The direct coupling of edge Mo of MoS2 with the oxygen from functional groups on GO (C-O-Mo bond) is proposed. The interfacial interaction of the C-O-Mo bonds can enhance electron transport rate and structural stability of the MoS2/G electrode, which is beneficial for the improvement of rate performance and long cycle life. The graphene sheets improve the electrical conductivity of the composite and, at the same time, act not only as a substrate to disperse active MoS2 NSs homogeneously but also as a buffer to accommodate the volume changes during cycling. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the manufactured MoS2/G electrode manifests a stable cycling performance (1077 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) after 150 cycles), excellent rate capability, and a long cycle life (907 mAh g(-1) at 1000 mA g(-1) after 400 cycles).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.6b03683DOI Listing
September 2016

Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of five active ingredients of Eucommiae cortex in normal and ovariectomized mice by UHPLC-MS/MS.

Xenobiotica 2016 Sep 10;46(9):793-804. Epub 2016 Jan 10.

b The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines and the Key Laboratory for Pharmacology of Compound Chinese Medicine of Shanghai, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Shanghai , PR China .

1. Pinoresinol di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (PDG), geniposide (GE), geniposidic acid (GA), aucubin (AN) and chlorogenic acid (CA) are the representative active ingredients in Eucommiae cortex (EC), which may be estrogenic. 2. The ultra high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of the five ingredients showed good linearity, low limits of quantification and high extraction recoveries, as well as acceptable precision, accuracy and stability in mice plasma and tissue samples (liver, spleen, kidney and uterus). It was successfully applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of PDG, GE, GA, AN and CA between normal and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. 3. The results indicated that except CA, the plasma and tissue concentrations of PDG, GE, GA in OVX mice were all greater than those in normal mice. AN could only be detected in the plasma and liver homogenate of normal mice, which was poorly absorbed in OVX mice and low in other measured tissues. PDG, GE and GA seem to be better absorbed in OVX mice than in normal mice proved by the remarkable increased value of AUC0-∞ and Cmax. It is beneficial that PDG, GE, GA have better plasma absorption and tissue distribution in pathological state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00498254.2015.1129470DOI Listing
September 2016

Glutaminase Increases in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons after Unilateral Adjuvant-Induced Hind Paw Inflammation.

Biomolecules 2016 Jan 13;6(1):10. Epub 2016 Jan 13.

Anatomy and Cell Biology, Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 1111 West 17th Street, Tulsa, OK 74107, USA.

Glutamate is a neurotransmitter used at both the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, yet little is known concerning regulation of glutamate metabolism during peripheral inflammation. Glutaminase (GLS) is an enzyme of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that converts glutamine into glutamate for neurotransmission and is implicated in producing elevated levels of glutamate in central and peripheral terminals. A potential mechanism for increased levels of glutamate is an elevation in GLS expression. We assessed GLS expression after unilateral hind paw inflammation by measuring GLS immunoreactivity (ir) with quantitative image analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after one, two, four, and eight days of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) compared to saline injected controls. No significant elevation in GLS-ir occurred in the DRG ipsilateral to the inflamed hind paw after one or two days of AIA. After four days AIA, GLS-ir was elevated significantly in all sizes of DRG neurons. After eight days AIA, GLS-ir remained elevated in small (<400 µm²), presumably nociceptive neurons. Western blot analysis of the L4 DRG at day four AIA confirmed the elevated GLS-ir. The present study indicates that GLS expression is increased in the chronic stage of inflammation and may be a target for chronic pain therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom6010010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4808804PMC
January 2016

UPLC-MS/MS determination and gender-related pharmacokinetic study of five active ingredients in rat plasma after oral administration of Eucommia cortex extract.

J Ethnopharmacol 2015 Jul 22;169:145-55. Epub 2015 Apr 22.

The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines and The Key Laboratory for Pharmacology of Compound Chinese Medicine of Shanghai, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China; Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Complexity System, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Eucommiae cortex (EC), the bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., has been traditionally used to treat many diseases in China for more than 2000 years. The pharmacological effects are primarily attributed to the presence of lignans, iridoids and phenolics, which are main active ingredients in EC.

Aim Of The Study: First, to investigate the active ingredients that can be absorbed into the rat plasma according to which ingredients exhibit significant correlation of drug concentration-time curve. Second, to establish an efficient ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of ingredients absorbed in rat plasma. Finally, to investigate gender effect on the pharmacokinetics of the ingredients absorbed in male and female rats plasma after oral administration with EC extract.

Materials And Methods: 18 ingredients from EC were detected by UPLC-MS/MS, 9 out of 18 ingredients were absorbed into rat plasma. And 5 ingredients exhibit significant correlation of drug concentration-time curve. They were pinoresinol di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (PDG), geniposide (GE), geniposidic acid (GA), aucubin (AN) and chlorogenic acid (CA). The analytes were extracted from rat plasma via a simple protein precipitation procedure and osalmid was used as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY HSS T3 column (2.1mm×100mm, 1.8μm) using a gradient elution program with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid water as the mobile phase, with a flow rate of 0.3mLmin(-1). The detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode in a positive ion mode via electrospray ionization (ESI). The transition monitored were /z 683.00[M+H](+)→235.10 for PDG, / z 389.00[M+H](+)→208.80 for GE, m/z 375.00[M+H](+)→194.79 for GA, m/z 364.00[M+NH4](+)→148.81 for AN, m/z 355.10[M+H](+)→162.84 for CA and m/z 230.03[M+H](+)→120.77 for internal standard.

Results: The developed method showed good linearity over a wide concentration range, the lower limits of quantification and higher accuracy and precision for determination of the 5 analytes. Then the method was applied to study the pharmacokinetics in rats, and the results indicated that there were significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of the analytes between the male and female rats, and absorptions of these analytes in male group were all significantly higher than those in female group.

Conclusion: This study established an efficient, sensitive and selective UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of the five ingredients in rat plasma, and it could be successfully applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic studies in male and female rats after oral administration with EC extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.04.007DOI Listing
July 2015

Different fingerprinting strategies to differentiate Porana sinensis and plants of Erycibe by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry, and chemometrics.

J Sep Sci 2015 Jan 9;38(2):231-8. Epub 2014 Dec 9.

The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines and The Shanghai Key Laboratory for Compound Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, P. R. China; Department of Pharmacognosy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, P. R. China.

Plants of Erycibe are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of joint pain and rheumatoid arthritis. With the reduction of Erycibe resources in the wild, Porana sinensis has been widely used as a substitute. However, it is important to understand the chemical distinctions between the two kinds of plants and identify their individual chemical markers. In this study, multiwavelength chromatographic fingerprint and precursor ion fingerprint techniques were used in conjunction with chemometric tools to fingerprint and thus differentiate between plant samples. The similar results obtained from different fingerprints prove the reliability of the two fingerprints. Results obtained from principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis identified similarities between the chemical components of P. sinensis and plants of Erycibe. However, concentrations of 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were higher in P. sinensis than in plants of Erycibe, suggesting that P. sinensis may be more effective in medical treatments of some diseases than Erycibe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201400861DOI Listing
January 2015

Grasshoppers regulate N:p stoichiometric homeostasis by changing phosphorus contents in their frass.

PLoS One 2014 4;9(8):e103697. Epub 2014 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are important limiting nutrients for plant production and consumer performance in a variety of ecosystems. As a result, the N:P stoichiometry of herbivores has received increased attention in ecology. However, the mechanisms by which herbivores maintain N:P stoichiometric homeostasis are poorly understood. Here, using a field manipulation experiment we show that the grasshopper Oedaleus asiaticus maintains strong N:P stoichiometric homeostasis regardless of whether grasshoppers were reared at low or high density. Grasshoppers maintained homeostasis by increasing P excretion when eating plants with higher P contents. However, while grasshoppers also maintained constant body N contents, we found no changes in N excretion in response to changing plant N content over the range measured. These results suggest that O. asiaticus maintains P homeostasis primarily by changing P absorption and excretion rates, but that other mechanisms may be more important for regulating N homeostasis. Our findings improve our understanding of consumer-driven P recycling and may help in understanding the factors affecting plant-herbivore interactions and ecosystem processes in grasslands.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0103697PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4121213PMC
April 2015

Toxicology and the chemical foundation of plants of Erycibe.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2014 Oct 27;70(1):349-56. Epub 2014 Jul 27.

Department of Pharmacognosy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210038, People's Republic of China; The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines and The Shanghai Key Laboratory for Compound Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201210, People's Republic of China; Shanghai R&D Center for Standardization of Chinese Medicines, Shanghai 201210, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Erycibe is a relatively small genus in the family Convolvulaceae with over 10 identified species. Some Erycibe plant species are purportedly toxic at high doses. However, few toxicology studies have been conducted on those species. In this study, the toxicity of 40% ethanolic extracts of Erycibeobtusifolia, Erycibeschmidtii, and Erycibeellipptimba was evaluated. E. ellipptimba has been reported to be more toxic due to containing larger amounts of Baogongteng C, an alkaloid with known toxicity. Thus, E. ellipptimba was chosen for further toxicology study here. An HPLC-MS method was developed to identify the main components and determine the percentages of Baogongteng C in total alkaloid of E. ellipptimba (EWA). The toxicity of total alkaloid and Baogongteng C was evaluated and compared. The results indicated that Baogongteng A and Baogongteng C are the major toxic chemical compounds of the Erycibe species tested. The results also suggest EWA is cholinergic. Finally, in a subacute toxicity study of EWA, alterations observed with high dosage suggest that the liver and kidney could be the target organs of toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.07.019DOI Listing
October 2014

Quick identification of xanthine oxidase inhibitor and antioxidant from Erycibe obtusifolia by a drug discovery platform composed of multiple mass spectrometric platforms and thin-layer chromatography bioautography.

J Sep Sci 2014 Aug 30;37(16):2253-9. Epub 2014 Jun 30.

The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines and The Shanghai Key Laboratory for Compound Chinese medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, P. R. China; Department of Pharmacognosy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, P. R. China.

As a final step of the purine metabolism process, xanthine oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine into uric acid. Our research has demonstrated that Erycibe obtusifolia has xanthine oxidase inhibitory properties. The purpose of this paper is to describe a new strategy based on a combination of multiple mass spectrometric platforms and thin-layer chromatography bioautography for effectively screening the xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antioxidant properties of E. obtusifolia. This strategy was accomplished through the following steps. (i) Separate the extract of E. obtusifolia into fractions by an autopurification system controlled by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. (ii) Determine the active fractions of E. obtusifolia by thin-layer chromatography bioautography. (iii) Identify the structure of the main active compounds with the information provided by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry. (iv) Calculate the IC50 value of each compound against xanthine oxidase using high-performance liquid chromatography. Using the caulis of E. obtusifolia as the experimental material, seven target peaks were screened out as xanthine oxidase inhibitors or antioxidants. Our screening strategy allows for rapid analysis of small molecules with almost no sample preparation and can be completed within a week, making it a useful assay to identify unstable compounds and provide the empirical foundation for E. obtusifolia as a natural remedy for gout and oxidative-stress-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201400342DOI Listing
August 2014

Intrathecal Administration of Autologous CD34 Positive Cells in Patients with Past Cerebral Infarction: A Safety Study.

ISRN Neurol 2013 25;2013:128591. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

Cell Therapy Center, 323 Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army, Xi'an 710054, China.

Regenerative strategies in treatment of stroke have great potential. The goal of the current study was to investigate safety of intrathecal administration of autologous CD34 positive cells in treatment of patients with poststroke. A total of eight male patients with a history of stroke were enrolled. The patients were treated subcutaneously with 5  μ g/kg body weight rhG-CSF for 5 consecutive days, and then leukapheresis was performed to concentrate cells for CD34 positive immunoselection. All patients underwent intrathecal administration of CD34 positive cells via lumbar puncture. The primary outcome was safety evaluation for 12-month followup. In addition, behavioral function was evaluated with NIH stroke scale and Barthel index 1, 6, and 12 months after the last treatment, respectively. There were no major adverse events, and abnormal changes of blood tests during the whole treatment process included intrathecal administration and 12-month followup. The main message from the current study was that administration of G-CSF-mobilized autologous CD34 positive cells in patients with poststroke was safe. Future studies with larger population and control group are needed to confirm the safety and investigate the efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/128591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3800652PMC
November 2013
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