Publications by authors named "Zia Ul Sabah"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Differential Association of Selected Adipocytokines, Adiponectin, Leptin, Resistin, Visfatin and Chemerin, with the Pathogenesis and Progression of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in the Asir Region of Saudi Arabia: A Case Control Study.

J Pers Med 2022 May 1;12(5). Epub 2022 May 1.

Department of Family medicine, College of Medicine, University of Bisha, Bisha 61922, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Sedentary lifestyles, urbanization and improvements in socio-economic status have had serious effects on the burden of diabetes across the world. Diabetes is one of the 10 leading causes of death globally, and individuals with diabetes have a 2-3-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality. Adipose tissue is increasingly understood as a highly active endocrine gland that secretes many biologically active substances, including adipocytokines. However, the exact and discrete pathophysiological links between obesity and T2DM are not yet fully elucidated.

Methods: In the current study, we present the association of five diverse adipocytokines, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin and chemerin, with T2DM in 87 patients (46 males and 41 females) with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 85 healthy controls (44 males and 41 females) from the Asir region of Saudi Arabia. The patients were divided into four groups: normal BMI, overweight, obese and severely obese. The baseline biochemical characteristics, including HbA1c and anthropometric lipid indices, such as BMI and waist-hip ratio, were determined by standard procedures, whereas the selected adipokine levels were assayed by ELISA.

Results: The results showed significantly decreased levels of adiponectin in the T2DM patients compared to the control group, and the decrease was more pronounced in obese and severely obese T2DM patients. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the females compared to the males in the controls as well as all the four groups of T2DM patients. In the male T2DM patients, a progressive increase was observed in the leptin levels as the BMI increased, although these only reached significantly altered levels in the obese and severely obese patients. The serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the severely obese female patients compared to the controls, patients with normal BMI, and overweight patients. The leptin/adiponectin ratio was significantly higher in the obese and severely obese patients compared to the controls, patients with normal BMI, and overweight patients in both genders. The serum resistin levels did not show any significant differences between the males and females in thr controls or in the T2DM groups, irrespective of the BMI status of the T2DM patients. The visfatin levels did not reveal any significant gender-based differences, but significantly higher levels of visfatin were observed in the T2DM patients, irrespective of their level of obesity, although the higher values were observed in the obese and highly obese patients. Similarly, the serum chemerin levels in the controls, as well as in T2DM patients, did not show any significant gender-based differences. However, in the T2DM patients, the chemerin levels showed a progressive increase, with the increase in BMI reaching highly significant levels in the obese and severely obese patients, respectively.

Conclusion: In summary, it is concluded that significantly altered concentrations of four adipokines, adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and chemerin, were found in the T2DM patient group compared to the controls, with more pronounced alterations observed in the obese and highly obese patients. Thus, it can be surmised that these four adipokines play a profound role in the onset, progression and associated complications of T2DM. In view of the relatively small sample size in our study, future prospective studies are needed on a large sample size to explore the in-depth relationship between adipokines and T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm12050735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9143828PMC
May 2022

Clinical Implications of Glyoxalase1 Gene Polymorphism and Elevated Levels of the Reactive Metabolite Methylglyoxal in the Susceptibility of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the Patients from Asir and Tabuk Regions of Saudi Arabia.

J Pers Med 2022 Apr 15;12(4). Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Shaqra University, Shaqra 11961, Saudi Arabia.

Diabetes mellitus constitutes a big challenge to the global health care system due to its socioeconomic impacts and very serious complications. The incidence and the prevalence rate are increased in the Gulf region including the KSA. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is caused by diverse risk factors including obesity, unhealthy dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking and genetic factors. The molecular genetic studies have helped in the detection of many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with different diseases including cancers, cardiovascular diseases and T2DM. The glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) is a detoxifying enzyme and catalyzes the elimination of the cytotoxic product methylglyoxal (MG) by converting it to D-lactate, which is not toxic to tissues. MG accumulation is associated with the pathogenesis of different diseases including T2DM. In this study, we have investigated the association of the glyoxalase 1 SNPs (rs2736654) rs4746 C>A and rs1130534 T>A with T2DM using the amplification refractory mutation system PCR. We also measured the concentration of MG by ELISA in T2DM patients and matched heathy controls. Results show that the CA genotype of the GLO rs4647 A>C was associated with T2DM with OR = 2.57, -value 0.0008 and the C allele was also associated with increased risk to T2DM with OR = 2.24, -value = 0.0001. It was also observed that AT genotype of the rs1130534 was associated with decreased susceptibility to T2DM with OR = 0.3, -value = 0.02. The A allele of rs1130534 was also associated with reduced risk to T2DM with PR = 0.27 = 0.006. In addition, our ELISA results demonstrate significantly increased MG concentrations in serum of the T2DM patients. We conclude that the GLO1 SNP may be associated with decreased enzyme activity and a resultant susceptibility to T2DM. Further well-designed studies in different and large patient populations are recommended to verify these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm12040639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9030104PMC
April 2022

Potential impact of , and gene abnormalities on the development and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asir and Tabuk regions of Saudi Arabia.

Mol Med Rep 2022 May 16;25(5). Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Bisha, Bisha 61922, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia and is associated with serious complications. The risk factors for T2DM include both genetic and lifestyle factors. Genome‑wide association studies have indicated the association of genetic variations with many diseases, including T2DM. Glucokinase (GCK) plays a key role in the regulation of insulin release in the pancreas and catalyzes the first step in glycolysis in the liver. Genetic alterations in the gene have been implicated in both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are small non‑coding RNA molecules that are involved in the important physiological processes including glucose metabolism. In the present study, the association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the , and genes with susceptibility to T2DM in patients from two regions of Saudi Arabia were examined, using the tetra‑primer amplification refractory mutation system. The results showed that the AA genotype and the A allele of GCK rs1799884 were associated with T2DM [odds ratio (OR)=2.25, P=0.032 and OR=1.55, P=0.021, respectively]. Likewise, the CT genotype and T allele of rs11614913 were associated with an increased risk of T2DM (OR=2.36, P=0.0059 and OR=1.74, P=0.023, respectively). In addition, the CA genotype of rs6505162 C>A was found to be linked with T2DM (OR=2.12 and P=0.021). It was concluded in the present research study that gene variations in , and are potentially associated with an increased risk of T2DM. These results, in the future, may help in the identification and stratification of individuals susceptible to T2DM. Future longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes and in different ethnic populations are recommended to validate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2022.12675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8941532PMC
May 2022

The association of anemia as a risk of heart failure.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Feb 28;9(2):839-843. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

PG Student MD (Medicine), Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir.

Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the presence of anemia in patients with advanced heart failure (HF) and compared the clinical characteristics of patients with anemia and without anemia.

Methodology: The present study was conducted on 102 patients (60 males, 42 females) with advanced HF admitted in hospital. In all, general physical and clinical examinations were performed. All were subjected to complete blood count (CBC), hematocrit, and assessment of urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). The levels of serum iron, ferritin, iron saturation, and iron-binding capacity were also evaluated. The causes of HF were assessed.

Results: Mean age was 48.2 ± 5.7 and 42.2 ± 6.2 years in males and females patients, respectively. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 0.26 ± 0.8 in males and 0.24 ± 0.5 in females. 71.5% males and 76.3% females were on inotropic support. The etiology of HF was ischemia in 29% males and 27% females, high blood pressure in 15% males and 12% females, obesity in 18% males and 19% females, valvular heart disease in 7% males and 5% females, diabetes in 11% males and 6% females, and idiopathy in 20% males and 31% females. There was a significant difference in mean age, initial HB, final HB, hypertension, creatinine, BNP, and initial hematocrit level in patients with anemia and without anemia ( < 0.05). Deaths in hospital were also significant ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Anemia was seen in one-third of the patients with HF. Anemia was an independent marker with poor prognosis. Anemic patients were older than non-anemic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_791_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7114064PMC
February 2020

International longitudinal registry of patients with atrial fibrillation and treated with rivaroxaban: RIVaroxaban Evaluation in Real life setting (RIVER).

Thromb J 2019 25;17. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

8Thrombosis Research Institute, London, UK.

Background: Real-world data on non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are essential in determining whether evidence from randomised controlled clinical trials translate into meaningful clinical benefits for patients in everyday practice. RIVER (RIVaroxaban Evaluation in Real life setting) is an ongoing international, prospective registry of patients with newly diagnosed non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and at least one investigator-determined risk factor for stroke who received rivaroxaban as an initial treatment for the prevention of thromboembolic stroke. The aim of this paper is to describe the design of the RIVER registry and baseline characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed NVAF who received rivaroxaban as an initial treatment.

Methods And Results: Between January 2014 and June 2017, RIVER investigators recruited 5072 patients at 309 centres in 17 countries. The aim was to enroll consecutive patients at sites where rivaroxaban was already routinely prescribed for stroke prevention. Each patient is being followed up prospectively for a minimum of 2-years. The registry will capture data on the rate and nature of all thromboembolic events (stroke / systemic embolism), bleeding complications, all-cause mortality and other major cardiovascular events as they occur. Data quality is assured through a combination of remote electronic monitoring and onsite monitoring (including source data verification in 10% of cases). Patients were mostly enrolled by cardiologists ( = 3776, 74.6%), by internal medicine specialists 14.2% ( = 718) and by primary care/general practice physicians 8.2% ( = 417). The mean (SD) age of the population was 69.5 (11.0) years, 44.3% were women. Mean (SD) CHADS score was 1.9 (1.2) and CHADS-VASc scores was 3.2 (1.6). Almost all patients (98.5%) were prescribed with once daily dose of rivaroxaban, most commonly 20 mg (76.5%) and 15 mg (20.0%) as their initial treatment; 17.9% of patients received concomitant antiplatelet therapy. Most patients enrolled in RIVER met the recommended threshold for AC therapy (86.6% for 2012 ESC Guidelines, and 79.8% of patients according to 2016 ESC Guidelines).

Conclusions: The RIVER prospective registry will expand our knowledge of how rivaroxaban is prescribed in everyday practice and whether evidence from clinical trials can be translated to the broader cross-section of patients in the real world.

Trial Registration: Unique identifier: NCT02444221. Registerd 14 May 2015; Retrospectively Registered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12959-019-0195-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6482585PMC
April 2019

Accuracy of thallium scintigraphy versus coronary angiography for coronary artery disease in diabetics.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2010 Jan;20(1):6-9

Department of Cardiology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad.

Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of thallium scintigraphy in detection of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients.

Study Design: Cross-sectional validation study.

Place And Duration Of Study: The study was carried out from July to December 2007 in the Cardiology Department of the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad.

Methodology: A total of 60 diabetic patients suspected of having coronary artery disease were studied. Systematic probability sampling technique was used during their selection. All the patients underwent thallium scintigraphy followed by coronary angiography, which was used as gold standard test.

Results: Out of 60 patients, 44 had positive thallium scintigraphy and 16 were negative. Likewise, 46 had positive angiography and 14 were negative. Out of 46 patients with positive angiography, thallium scintigraphy was positive in 41 subjects (sensitivity 89%) and false negative in only 5 of the 46 patients. Out of 14 patients with negative angiography, 11 patients had a negative thallium scintigraphy (specificity 79%) and the remaining 3 had a positive thallium scintigraphy. This gives thallium scintigraphy a positive predictive value of 93% and a negative predictive value of 69% when compared with angiography.

Conclusion: Thallium scintigraphy is a useful modality in the detection of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/01.2010/JCPSP.0609DOI Listing
January 2010
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