Publications by authors named "Zia Shariat-Madar"

27 Publications

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Pregnane steroidogenesis is altered by HIV-1 Tat and morphine: Physiological allopregnanolone is protective against neurotoxic and psychomotor effects.

Neurobiol Stress 2020 May 29;12:100211. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, 23298, USA.

Pregnane steroids, particularly allopregnanolone (AlloP), are neuroprotective in response to central insult. While unexplored , AlloP may confer protection against the neurological dysfunction associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The HIV-1 regulatory protein, trans-activator of transcription (Tat), is neurotoxic and its expression in mice increases anxiety-like behavior; an effect that can be ameliorated by progesterone, but not when 5α-reduction is blocked. Given that Tat's neurotoxic effects involve mitochondrial dysfunction and can be worsened with opioid exposure, we hypothesized that Tat and/or combined morphine would perturb steroidogenesis in mice, promoting neuronal death, and that exogenous AlloP would rescue these effects. Like other models of neural injury, conditionally inducing HIV-1 Tat in transgenic mice significantly increased the central synthesis of pregnenolone and progesterone's 5α-reduced metabolites, including AlloP, while decreasing central deoxycorticosterone (independent of changes in plasma). Morphine significantly increased brain and plasma concentrations of several steroids (including progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, and their metabolites) likely via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Tat, but not morphine, caused glucocorticoid resistance in primary splenocytes. In neurons, Tat depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cell death. Physiological concentrations of AlloP (0.1, 1, or 10 nM) reversed these effects. High-concentration AlloP (100 nM) was neurotoxic in combination with morphine. Tat induction in transgenic mice potentiated the psychomotor effects of acute morphine, while exogenous AlloP (1.0 mg/kg, but not 0.5 mg/kg) was ameliorative. Data demonstrate that steroidogenesis is altered by HIV-1 Tat or morphine and that physiological AlloP attenuates resulting neurotoxic and psychomotor effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2020.100211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7109513PMC
May 2020

Dynorphins in Development and Disease: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease.

Curr Mol Med 2020 ;20(4):259-274

Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, University of Mississippi, United States.

It is well-established that cardiovascular disease continues to represent a growing health problem and significant effort has been made to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In this review, we report on past and recent high impact publications in the field of intracrine network signaling, focusing specifically on opioids and their interrelation with key modulators of the cardiovascular system and the onset of related disease. We present an overview of studies outlining the scope of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular processes that are affected by opioids, including heart function, ischemia, reperfusion, and blood flow. Specific emphasis is placed on the importance of dynorphin molecules in cerebrovascular and cardiovascular regulation. Evidence suggests that excessive or insufficient dynorphin could make an important contribution to cardiovascular physiology, yet numerous paradoxical observations frequently impede a clear understanding of the role of dynorphin. Thus, we argue that dynorphin-mediated signaling events for which an immediate regulatory effect is disputed should not be dismissed as unimportant, as they may play a role in cross-talk with other signaling networks. Finally, we consider the most recent evidence on the role of dynorphin during cardiovascular-related inflammation and on the potential value of endogenous and exogenous inhibitors of kappa-opioid receptor, a major dynorphin A receptor, to limit or prevent cardiovascular disease and its related sequelae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1566524019666191028122559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457512PMC
January 2020

4--Methylhonokiol Influences Normal Cardiovascular Development in Medaka Embryo.

Molecules 2019 Jan 29;24(3). Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA.

Although 4--Methylhonokiol (MH) effects on neuronal and immune cells have been established, it is still unclear whether MH can cause a change in the structure and function of the cardiovascular system. The overarching goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of MH, isolated from , on the development of the heart and vasculature in a Japanese medaka model in vivo to predict human health risks. We analyzed the toxicity of MH in different life-stages of medaka embryos. MH uptake into medaka embryos was quantified. The LC of two different exposure windows (stages 9⁻36 (0⁻6 days post fertilization (dpf)) and 25⁻36 (2⁻6 dpf)) were 5.3 ± 0.1 μM and 9.9 ± 0.2 μM. Survival, deformities, days to hatch, and larval locomotor response were quantified. Wnt 1 was overexpressed in MH-treated embryos indicating deregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway, which was associated with spinal and cardiac ventricle deformities. Overexpression of major proinflammatory mediators and biomarkers of the heart were detected. Our results indicated that the differential sensitivity of MH in the embryos was developmental stage-specific. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that certain molecules can serve as promising markers at the transcriptional and phenotypical levels, responding to absorption of MH in the developing embryo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6384692PMC
January 2019

Free Fatty Acids: Circulating Contributors of Metabolic Syndrome.

Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 2018 ;16(1):20-34

Department of Biomolecular Sciences Division of Pharmacology, The University of Mississippi, Mississippi 38677-1848, United States.

Metabolic syndrome induces an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Most importantly, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult population is expanding. Both clinical and preclinical studies indicate that increased Free Fatty Acids (FFAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and subsequent development of metabolic syndrome. The relevance of FFAs in protecting and restoring tissue function is quite vast. The search to correlate the functional deterioration of the tissues within the cardiovascular system and increased plasma concentrations of FFAs has been reported. The importance of reduction in the consumption of dietary fatty acids along with the identification of dysregulated genes responsible for persistent increased FFAs uptake and mitochondrial β-oxidation has been increasingly recognized. This review discusses the current empirical understanding of the different types of fatty acids and their metabolism and functions both in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. We also discuss in detail about the molecular and pathophysiological basis of increased FFAs, which augments Cardiovascular Disease (CVD).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871525716666180528100002DOI Listing
February 2019

Altered Prolylcarboxypeptidase Expression and Function in Response to Different Risk Factors of Diabetes.

Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 2017 ;14(3):175-189

Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677-1848, United States.

Background: Prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP, EC:3.4.16.2) is a cardioprotective protease. Plasma PRCP levels are elevated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus and cardiovascular diseases.

Objective: Since diabetic cardiomyopathy is a late complication of uncontrolled diabetes, we tested the hypothesis that glucose and free fatty acid related risk factors for T2D mellitus and cardiovascular disease may reduce the cardioprotective property of PRCP.

Method: We examined the effects of glucose, saturated fatty acids, and unsaturated fatty acids on PRCP expression in cultured H9c2 cells as an in-vitro model for pharmacological studies. Selective inhibitors, known cardioprotective agents and saturating amounts of neutralizing antibodies were used to validate the effect of free fatty acids on the expression and function of PRCP.

Results: The palmitate-mediated reduction of PRCP was concentration and time-dependent. Next, we explored the cardioprotective potential of thyroxin (T4) and insulin. Both T4 and insulin were able to prevent the palmitate-mediated reduction of PRCP expression in H9c2 cells. Inhibition of NF-kB with its specific inhibitor Bay 11-7082 or blockade of palmitate with polyunsaturated fatty acids was ineffective in preventing palmitate-mediated decreases in PRCP expression.

Conclusion: Our data indicate that elevated palmitate inhibits PRCP expression in rat cardiomyocyte. From this inference PRCP level should be monitored in obese or diabetic patients because this simple measure could identify individuals at high risk of developing health problems, such as heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871525714666161229130508DOI Listing
February 2018

Mechanism for neurotropic action of vorinostat, a pan histone deacetylase inhibitor.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 12 24;77:11-20. Epub 2016 Sep 24.

National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA; Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS, 38677, USA. Electronic address:

In this study we investigated the neurotrophic actions of vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA), a class I and class II HDAC inhibitor, on the differentiation of Neuroscreen-1 (NS-1) cells. NS-1 cell is a subclone of the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC 12). Vorinostat independently induced neurite outgrowth in NS-1 cells. The NS-1 cells were further interrogated for the effects of vorinostat on intracellular neurotrophin signaling pathways, to understand its mechanism of neurotrophic action. Selective inhibitors of MEK1/2 (PD98059 and U0126), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) (LY294002) and tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) (GW441756) were employed for these interrogations. Our results suggest that neurite outgrowth mediated by both nerve growth factor (NGF), an intrinsic neurotrophin, and vorinostat were blocked by the inhibitors of MEK1/2 & PI3K. Vorinostat induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 occurs at 2h post treatment. Phosphorylation of ERK was abolished in presence of U0126, further confirming the role of ERK pathway in vorinostat-induced differentiation of NS-1 cells. Vorinostat-induced neurite outgrowth also involves the activation of upstream extracellular kinase TrkA, as both vorinostat mediated neurite outgrowth and activation of ERK were attenuated in presence of the TrkA inhibitor, GW441756. Vorinostat also stimulated hyperacetylation of α-tubulin and histones H3/H4 in NS-1 cells. The results suggest that vorinostat exerts a positive effect on the neuritogenesis via activation of MEK1/2 & PI3K pathways involving an upstream kinase, TrkA. Bioactive small molecules with neurotrophic and neuritogenic actions, like vorinostat identified in the present study, hold great promise as therapeutic agents for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and neuronal injuries by virtue of their ability to stimulate neuritic outgrowth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2016.09.003DOI Listing
December 2016

The anticancer potential of steroidal saponin, dioscin, isolated from wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract in invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2016 Feb 10;591:98-110. Epub 2015 Dec 10.

National Center for Natural Product Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA; Division of Pharmacology, Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA; University of Mississippi Cancer Institute (Oxford Campus), School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA. Electronic address:

Previously, we observed that wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract (WYRE) was able to activate GATA3 in human breast cancer cells targeting epigenome. This study aimed to find out if dioscin (DS), a bioactive compound of WYRE, can modulate GATA3 functions and cellular invasion in human breast cancer cells. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were treated in the absence/presence of various concentrations of DS and subjected to gene analysis by RT-qPCR, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. We determined the ability of MDA-MB-231 cells to migrate into wound area and examined the effects of DS on cellular invasion using invasion assay. DS reduced cell viability of both cell lines in a concentration and time-dependent manner. GATA3 expression was enhanced by DS (5.76 μM) in MDA-MB-231 cells. DS (5.76 μM)-treated MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited the morphological characteristic of epithelial-like cells; mRNA expression of DNMT3A, TET2, TET3, ZFPM2 and E-cad were increased while TET1, VIM and MMP9 were decreased. Cellular invasion of MDA-MB-231 was reduced by 65 ± 5% in the presence of 5.76 μM DS. Our data suggested that DS-mediated pathway could promote GATA3 expression at transcription and translation levels. We propose that DS has potential to be used as an anti-invasive agent in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2015.12.001DOI Listing
February 2016

Prolylcarboxypeptidase gene expression in the heart and kidney: Effects of obesity and diabetes.

Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 2015 ;13(2):113-23

Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA.

Prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) regulates plasma prekallikrein/high molecular weight kininogen/bradykinin axis. It also modulates angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin III (Ang III), and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) physiological effects. Study suggests that increased plasma PRCP level is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, such as atherosclerosis, inflammation, and diabetes. Since expression pattern of PRCP in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat vascular tissue remain unproved, we aimed to study its expression in the heart and kidney. The purpose of the present study was also to obtain systemic information of inflammation status with regard to PRCP expression and function in a high-fat diet (HFD)- fed ZDF rats. The ZDF rats were divided into 2 groups, which were fed a high-fat diet for 16 weeks or 32 weeks. Differential expression and pathological significance of PRCP expression during the consecutive stages of renal disease development were identified. After 16 weeks, ZDF rats exhibited early transiently altered PRCP expression in the heart and kidneys. After 32 weeks, ZDF rats showed continuously altered expression in PRCP and inflammatory markers, which was linked to severe hyperglycemia and nephropathy. Altered expression of PRCP associated with inflammatory mediators was illustrated to be functionally relevant. In further support of an important role of PRCP, we found PRCP protein to be highly elevated in rat plasma and in human plasma and the anti-diabetic agents reversed it. These findings indicate that impairment of tissues within the cardiovascular system influences PRCP expression and suggest that pathogenic mechanisms of deregulated PRCP expression warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871525713666150911112916DOI Listing
October 2016

Novel Redox-Responsive Amphiphilic Copolymer Micelles for Drug Delivery: Synthesis and Characterization.

AAPS J 2015 Nov 27;17(6):1357-68. Epub 2015 Jun 27.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi, 38677, USA.

A novel redox-responsive amphiphilic polymer was synthesized with bioreductive trimethyl-locked quinone propionic acid for a potential triggered drug delivery application. The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize the redox-responsive amphiphilic block copolymer micelles containing pendant bioreductive quinone propionic acid (QPA) switches. The redox-responsive hydrophobic block (polyQPA), synthesized from QPA-serinol and adipoyl chloride, was end-capped with methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) of molecular weight 750 (mPEG750) to achieve a redox-responsive amphiphilic block copolymer, polyQPA-mPEG750. PolyQPA-mPEG750 was able to self-assemble as micelles to show a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 0.039% w/v (0.39 mg/ml, 0.107 mM) determined by a dye solubilization method using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The mean diameter of polymeric micelles was found to be 27.50 nm (PI = 0.064) by dynamic light scattering. Furthermore, redox-triggered destabilization of the polymeric micelles was confirmed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and particle size measurements in a simulated redox state. PolyQPA-mPEG750 underwent triggered reduction to shed pendant redox-responsive QPA groups and its polymeric micelles were swollen to be dissembled in the presence of a reducing agent, thereby enabling the release of loaded model drug, paclitaxel. The redox-responsive polyQPA-mPEG750 polymer micelles would be useful as a drug delivery system allowing triggered drug release in an altered redox state such as tumor microenvironments with an altered redox potential and/or redox enzyme upregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-015-9800-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4627446PMC
November 2015

Plasma Kallikrein Inhibitors in Cardiovascular Disease: An Innovative Therapeutic Approach.

Cardiol Rev 2016 May-Jun;24(3):99-109

From the *Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY; and †Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS.

Plasma prekallikrein is the liver-derived precursor of the trypsin-like serine protease plasma kallikrein, and circulates in plasma bound to high molecular weight kininogen. Plasma prekallikrein is activated to plasma kallikrein by activated factor XII or prolylcarboxypeptidase. Plasma kallikrein regulates the activity of multiple proteolytic cascades in the cardiovascular system such as the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, the kallikrein-kinin system, the fibrinolytic system, the renin-angiotensin system, and the complement pathways. As such, plasma kallikrein plays a central role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis, inflammation, and blood pressure regulation. Under physiological conditions, plasma kallikrein serves as a cardioprotective enzyme. However, its increased plasma concentration or hyperactivity perpetuates cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this article, we review the biochemistry and cell biology of plasma kallikrein and summarize data from preclinical and clinical studies that have established important functions of this serine protease in CVD states. Finally, we propose plasma kallikrein inhibitors as a novel class of drugs with potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of CVDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CRD.0000000000000069DOI Listing
January 2017

The prolyl peptidases PRCP/PREP regulate IRS-1 stability critical for rapamycin-induced feedback activation of PI3K and AKT.

J Biol Chem 2014 Aug 16;289(31):21694-705. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

From the Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612,

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway conveys signals from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) to regulate cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, and motility. Previously we found that prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) regulate proliferation and survival in breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that PRCP and the related family member prolylendopeptidase (PREP) are essential for proliferation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells. Depletion/inhibition of PRCP and PREP-induced serine phosphorylation and degradation of IRS-1, leading to inactivation of the cellular PI3K and AKT. Notably, depletion/inhibition of PRCP/PREP destabilized IRS-1 in the cells treated with rapamycin, blocking the feedback activation PI3K/AKT. Consequently, inhibition of PRCP/PREP enhanced rapamycin-induced cytotoxicity. Thus, we have identified PRCP and PREP as a stabilizer of IRS-1 which is critical for PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in pancreatic cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.550038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4118128PMC
August 2014

Domain 2 of uPAR regulates single-chain urokinase-mediated angiogenesis through β1-integrin and VEGFR2.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2013 Aug 24;305(3):H305-20. Epub 2013 May 24.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

How single-chain urokinase (ScuPA) mediates angiogenesis is incompletely understood. ScuPA (≥4 nM) induces phosphorylated (p)ERK1/2 (MAPK44 and MAPK42) and pAkt (Ser(473)) in umbilical vein and dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Activation of pERK1/2 by ScuPA is blocked by PD-98059 or U-0126, and pAkt (Ser(473)) activation is inhibited by wortmannin or LY-294002. ScuPA (32 nM) or protease-inhibited two-chain urokinase stimulates pERK1/2 to the same extent, indicating that signaling is not dependent on enzymatic activity. ScuPA induces pERK1/2, but not pAkt (Ser(473)), in SIN1(-/-) cells, indicating that the two pathways are not identical. Peptides from domain 2 of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) or domain 5 of high-molecular-weight kininogen compete with ScuPA for the induction of pERK1/2 and pAkt (Ser(473)). A peptide of the integrin-binding site on uPAR, a β1-integrin peptide that binds uPAR, antibody 6S6 to β1-integrin, tyrosine kinase inhibitors AG-1478 or PP3, and small interfering RNA knockdown of VEFG receptor 2, but not HER1-HER4, blocked ScuPA-induced pERK1/2 and pAkt (Ser(473)). ScuPA-induced endothelial cell proliferation was blocked by inhibitors of pERK1/2 and pAkt (Ser(473)), antibody 6S6, and uPAR or kininogen peptides. ScuPA initiated aortic sprouts and Matrigel plug angiogenesis in normal, but not uPAR-deficient, mouse aortae or mice, respectively, but these were blocked by PD-98059, LY-294002, AG-1478, or cleaved high-molecular-weight kininogen. In summary, this investigation indicates a novel, a nonproteolytic signaling pathway initiated by zymogen ScuPA and mediated by domain 2 of uPAR, β1-integrins, and VEGF receptor 2 leading to angiogenesis. Kininogens or peptides from it downregulate this pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00110.2013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3742872PMC
August 2013

High molecular weight kininogen activates B2 receptor signaling pathway in human vascular endothelial cells.

J Biol Chem 2011 Jul 17;286(28):24561-71. Epub 2011 May 17.

Departmen of Pharmacology, University of Mississippi, USA.

The nonenzymatic cofactor high molecular weight kininogen (HK) is a precursor of bradykinin (BK). The production of BK from HK by plasma kallikrein has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammation and vascular injury. However, the functional role of HK in the absence of prekallikrein (PK), the proenzyme of plasma kallikrein, on vascular endothelial cells is not fully defined. In addition, no clinical abnormality is seen in PK-deficient patients. Therefore, an investigation into the effect of HK, in the absence of PK, on human pulmonary artery endothelial cell (HPAEC) function was performed. HK caused a marked and dose-dependent increase in the intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)](i) level in HPAEC. Gd(3+) and verapamil potentiated the HK-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i). HK-induced Ca(2+) increase stimulated endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI(2)) production. The inhibitors of B(2) receptor-dependent signaling pathway impaired HK-mediated signal transduction in HPAEC. HK had no effect on endothelial permeability at physiological concentration. This study demonstrated that HK regulates endothelial cell function. HK could play an important role in maintaining normal endothelial function and blood flow and serve as a cardioprotective peptide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.211557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3137031PMC
July 2011

Murine prolylcarboxypeptidase depletion induces vascular dysfunction with hypertension and faster arterial thrombosis.

Blood 2011 Apr 4;117(14):3929-37. Epub 2011 Feb 4.

Department of Medicine, Hematology and Oncology Division, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7284, USA.

Prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) activates prekallikrein to plasma kallikrein, leading to bradykinin liberation, and degrades angiotensin II. We now identify PRCP as a regulator of blood vessel homeostasis. β-Galactosidase staining in PRCP(gt/gt) mice reveals expression in kidney and vasculature. Invasive telemetric monitorings show that PRCP(gt/gt) mice have significantly elevated blood pressure. PRCP(gt/gt) mice demonstrate shorter carotid artery occlusion times in 2 models, and their plasmas have increased thrombin generation times. Pharmacologic inhibition of PRCP with Z-Pro-Prolinal or plasma kallikrein with soybean trypsin inhibitor, Pro-Phe-Arg-chloromethylketone or PKSI 527 also shortens carotid artery occlusion times. Aortic and renal tissues have uncoupled eNOS and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PRCP(gt/gt) mice as detected by dihydroethidium or Amplex Red fluorescence or lucigenin luminescence. The importance of ROS is evidenced by the fact that treatment of PRCP(gt/gt) mice with antioxidants (mitoTEMPO, apocynin, Tempol) abrogates the hypertensive, prothrombotic phenotype. Mechanistically, our studies reveal that PRCP(gt/gt) aortas express reduced levels of Kruppel-like factors 2 and 4, thrombomodulin, and eNOS mRNA, suggesting endothelial cell dysfunction. Further, PRCP siRNA treatment of endothelial cells shows increased ROS and uncoupled eNOS and decreased protein C activation because of thrombomodulin inactivation. Collectively, our studies identify PRCP as a novel regulator of vascular ROS and homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-11-318527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3083303PMC
April 2011

Prolylcarboxypeptidase regulates proliferation, autophagy, and resistance to 4-hydroxytamoxifen-induced cytotoxicity in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.

J Biol Chem 2011 Jan 17;286(4):2864-76. Epub 2010 Nov 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

Endocrine therapy with tamoxifen (TAM) significantly improves outcomes for patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. However, intrinsic (de novo) or acquired resistance to TAM occurs in a significant proportion of treated patients. To identify genes involved in resistance to TAM, we introduced full-length cDNA expression library into estrogen receptor-positive MCF7 cells and exposed them to a cytotoxic dose of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHTAM). Four different library inserts were isolated from surviving clones. Re-introduction of the genes individually into naive MCF7 cells made them resistant to 4OHTAM. Cells overexpressing these genes had an increase in acidic autophagic vacuoles induced by 4OHTAM, suggesting their role in autophagy. One of them, prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP), was investigated further. Overexpression of PRCP increased cell proliferation, boosted several established markers of autophagy, including expression of LC3-2, sequestration of monodansylcadaverine, and proteolysis of BSA in an ER-α dependent manner, and increased resistance to 4OHTAM. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous PRCP in MCF7 cells increased cell sensitivity to 4OHTAM and at the same time decreased cell proliferation and expression of LC3-2, sequestration of monodansylcadaverine, and proteolysis of BSA. Inhibition of enzymatic activity of PRCP enhanced 4OHTAM-induced cytotoxicity in MCF7 cells. Cells with acquired resistance to 4OHTAM exhibited increased PRCP activity, although inhibition of PRCP prevented development of 4OHTAM resistance in parental MCF7 cells and restored response to 4OHTAM in MCF7 cells with acquired resistance to 4OHTAM. Thus, we have for the first time identified PRCP as a resistance factor for 4OHTAM resistance in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.143271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3024782PMC
January 2011

Factor XII stimulates ERK1/2 and Akt through uPAR, integrins, and the EGFR to initiate angiogenesis.

Blood 2010 Jun 12;115(24):5111-20. Epub 2010 Mar 12.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

Factor XII (FXII) and high molecular weight kininogen (HK) mutually block each other's binding to the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). We investigated if FXII stimulates cells by interacting with uPAR. FXII (3-62nM) with 0.05mM Zn(2+) induces extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2; mitogen-activated protein kinase 44 [MAPK44] and MAPK42) and Akt (Ser473) phosphorylation in endothelial cells. FXII-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 or Akt is a zymogen activity, not an enzymatic event. ERK1/2 or Akt phosphorylation is blocked upstream by PD98059 or Wortmannin or LY294002, respectively. An uPAR signaling region for FXII is on domain 2 adjacent to uPAR's integrin binding site. Cleaved HK or peptides from HK's domain 5 blocks FXII-induced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. A beta(1) integrin peptide that binds uPAR, antibody 6S6 to beta(1) integrin, or the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor AG1478 blocks FXII-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. FXII induces endothelial cell proliferation and 5-bromo-2'deoxy-uridine incorporation. FXII stimulates aortic sprouting in normal but not uPAR-deficient mouse aorta. FXII produces angiogenesis in matrigel plugs in normal but not uPAR-deficient mice. FXII knockout mice have reduced constitutive and wound-induced blood vessel number. In sum, FXII initiates signaling mediated by uPAR, beta(1) integrin, and the EGFR to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation, growth, and angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009-08-236430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890145PMC
June 2010

Prolylcarboxypeptidase regulates food intake by inactivating alpha-MSH in rodents.

J Clin Invest 2009 Aug 20;119(8):2291-303. Epub 2009 Jul 20.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

The anorexigenic neuromodulator alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH; referred to here as alpha-MSH1-13) undergoes extensive posttranslational processing, and its in vivo activity is short lived due to rapid inactivation. The enzymatic control of alpha-MSH1-13 maturation and inactivation is incompletely understood. Here we have provided insight into alpha-MSH1-13 inactivation through the generation and analysis of a subcongenic mouse strain with reduced body fat compared with controls. Using positional cloning, we identified a maximum of 6 coding genes, including that encoding prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP), in the donor region. Real-time PCR revealed a marked genotype effect on Prcp mRNA expression in brain tissue. Biochemical studies using recombinant PRCP demonstrated that PRCP removes the C-terminal amino acid of alpha-MSH1-13, producing alpha-MSH1-12, which is not neuroactive. We found that Prcp was expressed in the hypothalamus in neuronal populations that send efferents to areas where alpha-MSH1-13 is released from axon terminals. The inhibition of PRCP activity by small molecule protease inhibitors administered peripherally or centrally decreased food intake in both wild-type and obese mice. Furthermore, Prcp-null mice had elevated levels of alpha-MSH1-13 in the hypothalamus and were leaner and shorter than the wild-type controls on a regular chow diet; they were also resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Our results suggest that PRCP is an important component of melanocortin signaling and weight maintenance via control of active alpha-MSH1-13 levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI37209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2719925PMC
August 2009

Upregulation of prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated endothelium promotes inflammation.

J Inflamm (Lond) 2009 Jan 27;6. Epub 2009 Jan 27.

School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS, USA.

Background: Prolylcarboxypeptidase (Prcp) gene, along with altered PRCP and kallikrein levels, have been implicated in inflammation pathogenesis. PRCP regulates angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) - and bradykinin (BK) - stimulated nitric oxide production in endothelial cells. The mechanism through which kallikrein expression is altered during infection is not fully understood. Investigations were performed to determine the association between PRCP and kallikrein levels as a function of the upregulation of PRCP expression and the link between PRCP and inflammation risk in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelium activation.

Methods: The Prcp transcript expression in LPS-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) activation was determined by RT-PCR for mRNA. PRCP-dependent kallikrein pathway was determined either by Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) or by biochemical assay.

Results: We report that PRCP is critical to the maintenance of the endothelial cells, and its upregulation contributes to the risk of developing inflammation. Significant elevation in kallikrein was seen on LPS-treated HUVECs. The conversion of PK to kallikrein was blocked by the inhibitor of PRCP, suggesting that PRCP might be a risk factor for inflammation.

Conclusion: The increased PRCP lead to a sustained production of bradykinin in endothelium following LPS treatment. This amplification may be an additional mechanism whereby PRCP promotes a sustained inflammatory response. A better appreciation of the role of PRCP in endothelium may contribute to a better understanding of inflammatory vascular disorders and to the development of a novel treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9255-6-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2639534PMC
January 2009

Bradykinin B2 receptor knockout mice are protected from thrombosis by increased nitric oxide and prostacyclin.

Blood 2006 Jul 2;108(1):192-9. Epub 2006 Mar 2.

Hematology/Oncology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Bradykinin (BK) liberates nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and tissue plasminogen activator from endothelial cells. We hypothesized that BK B2 receptor knockout (KO) mice (BKB2R(-/-)) have increased thrombosis risk. Paradoxically, the BKB2R(-/-) mice have long bleeding times and delayed carotid artery thrombosis, 78 +/- 6.7 minutes, versus 31 +/- 2.7 minutes in controls. The mechanism(s) for thrombosis protection was sought. In BKB2R(-/-) plasma coagulation, fibrinolysis and anticoagulant proteins are normal except for an increased prekallikrein and decreased factor XI. BKB2R(-/-) mice have elevated BK 1-5 (160 +/- 75 fmol/mL, vs 44 +/- 29 fmol/mL in controls) and angiotensin II (182 +/- 41 pg/mL, vs 49 +/- 7 pg/mL in controls). Ramipril treatment shortens vessel occlusion time. BKB2R(-/-) mice have elevated plasma 6-keto-PGF1alpha (666 +/- 232 ng/mL, vs 23 +/- 5.3 ng/mL in controls) and serum nitrate (61 +/- 5.3 microM, vs 24 +/- 1.8 microM in controls). Treatment with L-NAME (NG-mono-methyl-L-arginine ester) or nimesulide shortens the thrombosis time. BKB2R(-/-) mice have increased angiotensin receptor 2 (AT2R) mRNA and protein expression. Treatment with an AT2R antagonist, PD123 319, normalizes the thrombosis time and nitrate and 6-keto-PGF1alpha. The long bleeding times in BKB2R(-/-) mice also correct with L-NAME and nimesulide therapy. In BKB2R(-/-) mice, angiotensin II binding to an overexpressed AT2R promotes thromboprotection by elevating nitric oxide and prostacyclin. These investigations indicate a pathway for thrombosis risk reduction via the plasma kallikrein/kinin and renin angiotensin systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2006-01-0094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1895832PMC
July 2006

The plasma kallikrein/kinin and renin angiotensin systems in blood pressure regulation in sepsis.

J Endotoxin Res 2004 ;10(1):3-13

Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0640, USA.

The hemodynamics of septic shock after endotoxinemia is influenced by the plasma kallikrein/kinin and the renin angiotensin systems. In recent years, new information has improved understanding of the protein/biologically active peptide interactions between these two systems. The plasma kallikrein/kinin system, more commonly known as the contact system, has undergone a re-evaluation as to how it assembles on cell membranes for physiological and pathophysiological activation and as to its role in Gram-negative sepsis. It has been proposed that it counterbalances the plasma renin angiotensin system. Furthermore, more knowledge about the renin angiotensin system has become available on how it either opposes the actions of the kallikrein/kinin system or, in some cases, summates with it. Understanding the interactions between these two systems may lead to development of better pharmacological treatments for endotoxin-induced shock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/096805104225003807DOI Listing
November 2004

Recombinant prolylcarboxypeptidase activates plasma prekallikrein.

Blood 2004 Jun 2;103(12):4554-61. Epub 2004 Mar 2.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Michigan, 5301 MSRB III, 1150 W Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0649, USA.

The serine protease prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP), isolated from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), is a plasma prekallikrein (PK) activator. PRCP cDNA was cloned in pMT/BIP/V5-HIS-C, transfected into Schneider insect (S2) cells, and purified from serum-free media. Full-length recombinant PRCP (rPRCP) activates PK when bound to high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK). Recombinant PRCP is inhibited by leupeptin, angiotensin II, bradykinin, anti-PRCP, diisopropyl-fluorophosphonate (DFP), phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), and Z-Pro-Proaldehyde-dimethyl acetate, but not by 1 mM EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), bradykinin 1-5, or angiotensin 1-7. Corn trypsin inhibitor binds to prekallikrein to prevent rPRCP activation, but it does not directly inhibit the active site of either enzyme. Unlike factor XIIa, the ability of rPRCP to activate PK is blocked by angiotensin II, not by neutralizing antibody to factor XIIa. PRCP antigen is detected on HUVEC membranes using flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy. PRCP antigen does not colocalize with LAMP1 on nonpermeabilized HUVECs, but it partially colocalizes in permeabilized cells. PRCP colocalizes with all the HK receptors, gC1qR, uPAR, and cytokeratin 1 antigen, on nonpermeabilized HUVECs. PRCP activity and antigen expression on cultured HUVECs are blocked by a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide. These investigations indicate that rPRCP is functionally identical to isolated HUVEC PRCP and is a major HUVEC membrane-expressed, PK-activating enzyme detected in the intravascular compartment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2003-07-2510DOI Listing
June 2004

Mapping the interaction between high molecular mass kininogen and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor.

J Biol Chem 2004 Apr 5;279(16):16621-8. Epub 2004 Feb 5.

Departments of Internal Medicine and Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a multifunctional, GPI-linked receptor that modulates cell adhesion/migration and fibrinolysis. We mapped the interaction sites between soluble uPAR (suPAR) and high molecular mass kininogen (HK). Binding of biotin-HK to suPAR was inhibited by HK, 56HKa, and 46HKa with an IC50 of 60, 110, and 8 nm, respectively. We identified two suPAR-binding sites, a higher affinity site in the light chain of HK and 46HKa (His477-Gly496) and a lower affinity site within the heavy chain (Cys333-Lys345). HK predominantly bound to suPAR fragments containing domains 2 and 3 (S-D2D3). Binding of HK to domain 1 (S-D1) was also detected, and the addition of S-D1 to S-D2D3 completely inhibited biotin-HK or -46HKa binding to suPAR. Using sequential and overlapping 20-amino acid peptides prepared from suPAR, two regions for HK binding were identified. One on the carboxyl-terminal end of D2 (Leu166-Thr195) blocked HK binding to suPAR and to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). This site overlapped with the urokinase-binding region, and urokinase inhibited the binding of HK to suPAR. A second region on the amino-terminal portion of D3 (Gln215-Asn255) also blocked HK binding to HUVEC. Peptides that blocked HK binding to uPAR also inhibited prekallikrein activation on HUVEC. Therefore, HK interacts with suPAR at several sites. HK binds to uPAR as part of its interaction with its multiprotein receptor complex on HUVEC, and the biological functions that depend upon this binding are modulated by urokinase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M313850200DOI Listing
April 2004

The relative priority of prekallikrein and factors XI/XIa assembly on cultured endothelial cells.

J Biol Chem 2003 Nov 27;278(45):43983-90. Epub 2003 Aug 27.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hematology and Oncology Division, the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0640, USA.

Investigations determined the relative preference of prekallikrein (PK) or factor XI/XIa (FXI/FXIa) binding to endothelial cells (HUVECs). In microtiter plates, biotinylated high molecular weight kininogen (biotin-HK) or biotin-FXI binding to HUVEC monolayers or their matrix proteins, but not fibronectin-coated plastic microtiter plate wells, was specifically blocked by antibodies to each of the receptors of HK, uPAR, gC1qR, or cytokeratin 1. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-PK specifically bound to HUVEC suspensions without added Zn2+, whereas FITC-FXI or -FXIa binding to HUVEC suspensions required 10 microM added Zn2+ to support specific binding. Plasma concentrations of FXI did not block FITC-PK binding to HUVECs in the absence or presence of 10 microM Zn2+. In the absence of HK, the level of FITC-FXI or -FXIa binding was half that seen in its presence. At physiologic concentrations, PK (450 nM) abolished FITC-FXI or -FXIa binding to HUVEC suspensions in the absence or presence of HK in the presence of 10 microM Zn2+. Released Zn2+ from 2-8 x 10(8) collagen-activated platelets/ml supported biotin-FXI binding to HUVEC monolayers, but platelet activation was not necessary to support biotin-PK binding to HUVECs. At physiologic concentrations, PK also abolished FXI binding to HUVECs in the presence of activated platelets, but FXI did not influence PK binding. PK in the presence or absence of HK preferentially bound to HUVECs over FXI or FXIa. Elevated Zn2+ concentrations are required for FXI but not PK binding, but the presence of physiologic concentrations of PK and HK also prevented FXI binding. PK preferential binding to endothelial cells contributes to their anticoagulant nature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M304239200DOI Listing
November 2003

Assembly and activation of the plasma kallikrein/kinin system: a new interpretation.

Int Immunopharmacol 2002 Dec;2(13-14):1841-9

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0640, USA.

Understanding the importance and physiologic activity of the plasma kallikrein/kinin system (KKS) has been thwarted by the absence of an inclusive theory for its assembly and activation. The contact activation hypothesis describes the assembly and activation of this system in test tubes and disease states, but not under physiologic circumstances. Recent investigations have indicated a new cohesive hypothesis for understanding physiologic activation of this system. Prekallikrein (PK) and factor XI (FXI) through high molecular weight kininogen (HK) assemble on a co-localized, multiprotein receptor complex on endothelial cells that consists of at least cytokeratin 1 (CKI), gClqR, and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (muPAR). When assembled on these proteins, prekallikrein becomes activated to kallikrein by the membrane-expressed enzyme prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP). Formed kallikrein then activates factor XII (FXII) for amplification of its activation and single chain urokinase. The plasma kallikrein/kinin system may serve as a physiologic counterbalance to the plasma renin angiotensin system (RAS) by lowering blood pressure and preventing thrombosis. Insights into the integrated role of these two systems may afford the development of novel therapeutic drugs to manage hypertension and thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1567-5769(02)00178-9DOI Listing
December 2002

Identification of prolylcarboxypeptidase as the cell matrix-associated prekallikrein activator.

FEBS Lett 2002 Jul;523(1-3):167-70

Departmento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Investigations determined that the cell matrix-associated prekallikrein (PK) activator is prolylcarboxypeptidase. PK activation on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) matrix is inhibited by antipain (IC(50)=50 microM) but not anti-factor XIIa antibody, 3 mM benzamidine, 5 mM iodoacetic acid or iodoacetamide, or 3 mM N-ethylmaleimide. Corn trypsin inhibitor (IC(50)=100 nM) or Fmoc-aminoacylpyrrolidine-2-nitrile (IC(50)=100 microM) blocks matrix-associated PK activation. Angiotensin II (IC(50)=100 microM) or bradykinin (IC(50)=3 mM), but not angiotensin 1-7 or bradykinin 1-5, inhibits matrix-associated PK activation. ECV304 cell matrix PK activator also is blocked by 100 microM angiotensin II, 1 microM corn trypsin inhibitor, and 50 microM antipain, but not angiotensin 1-7. 1 mM angiotensin II or 300 microM Fmoc-aminoacylpyrrolidine-2-nitrile indirectly blocks plasminogen activation by inhibiting kallikrein formation for single chain urokinase activation. On immunoblot, prolylcarboxypeptidase antigen is associated with HUVEC matrix. These studies indicate that prolylcarboxypeptidase is the matrix PK activator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0014-5793(02)02980-0DOI Listing
July 2002

Factor XII interacts with the multiprotein assembly of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, gC1qR, and cytokeratin 1 on endothelial cell membranes.

Blood 2002 May;99(10):3585-96

Department of Internal Medicine and Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0640, USA.

Investigations were performed to define the factor XII (FXII) binding site(s) on cultured endothelial cells (HUVECs). Biotin- or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-FXII in the presence of 10 microM Zn(2+) specifically binds to HUVEC monolayers or cells in suspension. Collagen-stimulated platelets release sufficient Zn(2+) to support FXII binding. On laser scanning confocal microscopy or electron microscopy, FITC-FXII or Nanogold-labeled FXII, respectively, specifically bind to HUVECs. Antibodies to gC1qR, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and, to a lesser extent, cytokeratin 1 (CK1) block FXII binding to HUVECs as determined by flow cytometry and soluble or solid phase binding assays. FITC-FXII on endothelial cells colocalizes with gC1qR, uPAR and, to a lesser extent, CK1 antigen. Combined recombinant soluble uPAR and CK1 inhibit 80% FITC-FXII binding to HUVECs. Peptide Y(39)HKCTHKGR(47) (YHK9) from the N-terminal region of FXII and peptide H(479)KHGHGHGKHKNKGKKNGKH(498) from HK's domain 5 cell-binding site block FITC-FXII binding to HUVECs. Peptide YHK9 also inhibits FXIIa's activation of prekallikrein and FXI on HUVECs. These combined investigations indicate that FXII through a region on its fibronectin type II domain binds to the same multiprotein receptor complex that comprises the HK binding site of HUVECs. However, plasma concentrations of HK and vitronectin inhibit FXII binding to HUVECs 100% and 50%, respectively, and plasma albumin and other proteins prevent a sufficient level of free Zn(2+) to be available to support FXII binding to HUVECs. Thus, physiologic FXII expression on HUVECs is secondary to HK binding and highly restricted in its ability to initiate prekallikrein or FXI activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.v99.10.3585DOI Listing
May 2002

Identification and characterization of prolylcarboxypeptidase as an endothelial cell prekallikrein activator.

J Biol Chem 2002 May 5;277(20):17962-9. Epub 2002 Feb 5.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Departments of Internal Medicine and Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0640, USA.

Our recent investigations have postulated a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)-associated prekallikrein activator (PKA). When prekallikrein (PK) assembles on high molecular weight kininogen on HUVEC, PK is activated to kallikrein. PKA was found in the 15,800 x g pellet of HUVEC lysates using an assay that measures PK activation only when bound to high molecular weight kininogen linked to microtiter plates. Sequential DEAE, wheat germ lectin affinity, and hydroxyapatite chromatography resulted in four protein bands on SDS-PAGE. One protein in the 73-kDa band was identified by amino acid sequencing as prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP). On gel filtration, PKA activity was a single homogenous peak identical in migration to the 73-kDa immunoblot of PRCP. Anti-PRCP inhibits PKA activity and PK activation on HUVEC. Purified PKA was blocked by diisopropyl fluorophosphate (1 mm), phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (3 mm), leupeptin (100 microm), antipain (IC(50) = 2 microm), HgCl(2) (IC(50) = 500 microm), Z-Pro-Pro-aldehyde-dimethyl acetate (IC(50) = 1 microm), and corn trypsin inhibitor (IC(50) = 40 nm). PKA did not correct the coagulant defect in factor XII deficient plasma, was purified from HUVEC cultured in factor XII-deficient serum, was not detected by antibody to factor XII, did not activate FXI, and was not inhibited by a neutralizing antibody to FXII. Angiotensin II (IC(50) = 2 microm) or bradykinin (IC(50) = 100 microm), but not angiotensin II-(1-7) or bradykinin(1-5), and the prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor Fmoc-Ala-Pyr-CN (IC(50) = 50 nm) also blocked purified PKA activation of PK. The K(m) of PK activation by PRCP is 6.7 nm. PRCP antigen is present on the membrane of fixed but not permeabilized HUVEC. PRCP appears to be a HUVEC-associated PK activator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M106101200DOI Listing
May 2002