Publications by authors named "Zhuo Chen"

1,147 Publications

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Consumer Privacy Protection With the Growth of AI-Empowered Online Shopping Based on the Evolutionary Game Model.

Front Public Health 2021 7;9:705777. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

School of Economics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic has driven some consumers to online shopping, and concerns about pandemic risks and personal hygiene have increased the demand for e-commerce. Providing personalized recommendations seems quite profitable for e-commerce platforms, and consumers also benefit from personalized content with the advancement of AI technologies. However, this possible win-win situation is marred by the increase in consumers' privacy concerns. Technical solutions have been widely studied to protect consumer privacy, while few analyses have been conducted from the perspective of psychological and behavioral implications. In this paper, an evolutionary game model of privacy protection between e-commerce platforms and consumers is established to determine the mechanisms by which various factors exert influence, and evolutionary stable strategies are obtained from equilibrium points. Then, the strategy selections are simulated with MATLAB 2020 software. Based on the results, the following conclusions are drawn: (1) the application of AI technologies in e-commerce will fundamentally benefit consumers, which makes them actively share personal information with e-commerce platforms with incentives for generous rewards; (2) it is profitable for e-commerce platforms to conduct data mining by improving the ability to use AI technologies and making efforts to reduce technical costs; and (3) regulators should improve the level of supervision instead of imposing a large penalty to enhance consumer trust, which could effectively increase the profits of e-commerce platforms and protect consumers' privacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.705777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292788PMC
July 2021

Application of Multigroup Technology in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer with Qi Stagnation and Blood Stasis Syndrome.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 9;2021:6522191. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), 1 Banshandong Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310022, China.

Objective: To explore the basic characteristics of intestinal flora, metabolomics, and proteomics of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with Qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome.

Methods: Twelve NSCLC patients with Qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome were selected for the QZXY group and 15 healthy volunteers were selected for the control group. Fecal samples from the two groups were collected to evaluate intestinal microecology using the 16s rDNA technique. Serum samples were collected to compare the differences in metabolomics and proteomics between the two groups using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Another 34 NSCLC patients with other syndromes were selected for the nQZXY group and their serum samples were collected. Metabolomics differences between the QZXY and nQZXY groups were compared using LC-MS, and four metabolites with the most obvious differences were selected for receiver operation characteristic curve representation. Finally, multigroup results were analyzed using the WGCNA software.

Results: There were two significantly different types of bacteria ( and ), 11 different proteins (six upregulated and five downregulated), and 38 different metabolites (nine upregulated, 29 downregulated) between the QZXY and control groups. There was a correlation between differential bacteria, proteins, and metabolites. The conjoint analysis found that the different substances were related to MAPK, PI3K/Akt, Ras signaling pathway, cancer pathways, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. There were four significant differences in metabolites , , , and ) between the QZXY and nQZXY groups.

Conclusions: NSCLC with Qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome had specific intestinal flora and protein and metabolites, which were closely related to the occurrence and development of tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6522191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285174PMC
July 2021

Recollections of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Complexities of Religious Coping and Muslim Religious and Psychological Adjustment in Afghanistan.

J Relig Health 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Psychology, School of Education and Psychological Sciences, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong, 643000, China.

Religious coping is a double-edged sword. Clarification of the psychological benefits for positive religious coping requires statistical controls for negative religious coping and vice versa. This study sought to further explore the complexities of Muslim religious coping by extending the analysis to Afghans who coped with the sufferings associated with recollections of childhood and adolescent sexual abuse. Two hundred Dari Persian-speaking Afghan university students (122 identified having experience of childhood sexual abuse) self-reported on variables that measure religious orientation, religious coping, Muslim experiential religiousness, mental health, and child abuse. Results showed that negative religious coping interfered with the possibly beneficial effects of positive religious coping on mental health and child abuse. After controlling for negative religious coping, the associations of positive religious coping became obvious. In addition, Muslim spirituality moderated the associations of religious coping with mental health outcomes and child abuse: for people with higher Muslim spirituality, positive religious coping associated with better mental health, and negative religious coping associated with less child abuse. Implications for religious coping and combating trauma in a religious context are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10943-021-01349-9DOI Listing
July 2021

First Report of Epicoccum nigrum Causing Brown Leaf Spot in Tea in Guizhou Province, China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Guizhou University, 71206, Key Laboratory of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, Huaxi street, Guiyang City, Guizhou Province, Guiyang, China, 550025;

Brown leaf spots were observed on tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze] in Sinan County (27.74 °N, 108.35 °E) and Kaiyang County (27.96 °N, 107.34 °E), Guizhou Province, China, from 2018 to 2020. For the leaf spots with the typical symptoms, the disease incidence was estimated to range between 56% and 61%, respectively. The disease severity was estimated to range from 39 to 43 across 12 tea plantations, respectively. The disease initially occurred at the margins of leaf tips, and the lesions expanded gradually, being dark brown and irregularly shaped and became necrotic. To identify the causal organism, two leaves from each of 15 tea twigs, one or two per plantation, were detached from 8- or 10-year-old tea plants on each of 12 plantations. Samples taken from the lesion margins were sterilized with 75% ethanol followed by 0.5% NaOCl, placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and then incubated at 25oC in darkness for 5 days (Wang et al. 2020). For each sample, hyphal tips from the margin of a growing colony were successively transferred to fresh PDA, and pure cultures were obtained. Three representative strains were grown on PDA, malt extract agar (MEA), and oatmeal agar (OA) plates. The colonies had smooth margins and abundant mycelia on all three media, with the colony colors being from gray to light purple on PDA, white on MEA, and purplish-red on OA at 5 days post-inoculation. At 20 days post-inoculation on MEA, stromata began to gradually form, which were droplet-like, 100 to 2,000 μm in diameter, and semi-immersed on the medium's surface. Black sporodochia were produced on the surfaces of stromata. Conidiophores were aggregated in sporodochia, densely compacted, and dark brown. Conidia were globose or pyriform, dark, multicellular, and measured 22.95 ± 3.59 × 19.82 ± 3.13 μm (n = 50) in diameter. The morphological characteristics of the mycelia and reproductive structures of the strains were identical to those of Epicoccum nigrum. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, and the partial 28S large subunit rDNA (LSU), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2), and beta-tubulin (TUB) genes of these strains were amplified using the primers V9G/ITS4 (De Hoog and Gerrits van den Ende 1998; White et al. 1990), LR0R/LR5 (Rehner and Samuels 1994), RPB2-5F2/fRPB2-7cR (Sung et al. 2007), and TUB2Fd/TUB4Rd (Woudenberg et al. 2009), respectively, and deposited in GenBank (accession no. MW646378, MW291537, MW602293, and MW602295 for ITS, LSU, RBP2, and TUB, respectively). A maximum parsimony phylogenetic analysis indicated that the representative strains clustered with E. nigrum CBS 173.73 (Chen et al. 2017). Pathogenicity tests were performed on 5-year-old potted tea and on 10-year-old C. sinensis cv. Fuding-dabaicha in the field. Mycelial plugs (6-mm diam.) and a conidial suspension (106 conidial/mL) were applied on punctured leaves using a sterile needle and non-punctured leaves. Inoculation with only a PDA plug or sterile water served as controls. Brown spots appeared on the wounded sites of tea leaves at 2 days post-inoculation. No symptoms were observed on the non-wounded leaves or wounded leaves inoculated with PDA plugs lacking mycelia. The re-isolated pathogen from diseased plants was identical to the purified strain ACCC39731 used for inoculation, with re-isolation frequency being 85.0%. To our knowledge, this is the first report of E. nigrum causing leaf spot on tea plants in China, and our findings will be useful for its management and further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-21-0815-PDNDOI Listing
July 2021

An Update Review of Biosimilars of Adalimumab in Psoriasis - Bioequivalence and Interchangeability.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 8;15:2987-2998. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Dermatology, Changhai Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China.

Biologic drugs have revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis and other rheumatological diseases. In recent years, many biosimilar agents that are highly similar in structure and function to their originator products have been developed, including the tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonist adalimumab. The considerably lower cost of these products has greatly cut the economic burden of the patients and increased the accessibility of biologic therapies worldwide. The US Food and Drug Administration and/or the European Medicines Agency have approved eight biosimilars of adalimumab (ABP 501/BI 695501/SB5/GP2017/FKB327/MSB11022/PF-06410293/CT-P17) for the treatment of psoriasis, and others are under review. Given that these agents showed pharmacokinetic, efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity profiles comparable to those of the originator, adalimumab biosimilars were licensed for all indications approved for reference adalimumab based on extrapolation; however, some of the equivalence studies were only conducted in one or two disease populations. This review discusses the bioequivalence of adalimumab biosimilars as demonstrated by various clinical trials, the extrapolation of indications, guidance and policies of the EU and US on interchangeability (nonmedical switching/automatic substitution) between biosimilars and originators, and the real-life practices of switching from reference adalimumab to the respective biosimilars. Further data from real-world studies and post-marketing analyses are needed better to address the efficacy and safety of the transition strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S317382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275172PMC
July 2021

Negative Employment Changes During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Psychological Distress: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey in the U.S.

J Occup Environ Med 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States (Matthews, Li); Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States (Chen); Department of Health Policy and Management, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States. School of Economics, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo, China (Chen); Surveillance and Health Equity Science, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, United States (Han); Department of Public Health Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, United States (Shi); Department of Population Health Science and Policy, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Science, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, New York, United States (Li); Department of Sociology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States (Wen); Department of Health Policy and Management, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States (Zhang); Department of Media, Journalism and Film, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, United States (Li); Department of Health Promotion, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States (Su); School of Nursing, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States (Li).

Objective: We examined associations of negative employment changes during the COVID-19 pandemic with mental health in a national sample of U.S. workers, and whether the associations differed by race.

Methods: Data were from the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic Study, a cross-sectional survey. The effects of negative employment changes on psychological distress in 1,510 workers were examined via linear regression, and stratified analyses were conducted across racial subgroups.

Results: After adjustment for covariates, compared to workers with no change in employment, those who experienced permanent job loss had the highest psychological distress (β and 95% CI = 3.27 [1.89, 4.65]). Permanent job loss had the greatest effect on psychological distress in Blacks and Asians.

Conclusion: Negative employment changes related to the pandemic may have deleterious impacts on workers' mental health, with disproportionate effects on racial minorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000002325DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of slurry ice during storage on myofibrillar protein of .

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 4;9(7):3806-3814. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

College of Biological and Environmental Sciences Zhejiang Wanli University Ningbo P.R. China.

In order to explore the effect of slurry ice on myofibrillar protein of , the changes in myofibrillar protein and muscle microstructure during storage were studied with crushed ice as a control. During the storage period, the rate of decrease in myofibrillar protein content, Ca-ATPase activity, and total sulfhydryl groups in the slurry ice group was lower than in the control group ( < .05). There was a significant linear correlation between the hydrophobicity and the storage time (  = 0.9881,  = 0.9878,  = 0.9674), and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble peptide content was lower than in the control group at the same time. Slurry ice (-1℃) was optimal in maintaining protein content in ; the arrangement of myofibrils in treated by slurry ice was compact and the gaps were small. Slurry ice can delay the denaturation and degradation of fish myofibrillar protein and maintain its quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269672PMC
July 2021

Graphene encapsuled Ru nanocrystal with highly-efficient peroxidase-like activity for glutathione detection at near-physiological pH.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Molecular Science and Biomedicine Laboratory (MBL), State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Biology, Aptamer Engineering Center of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China.

A novel nanozyme comprised of graphene encapsuled Ru nanocrystals ([email protected]) with effective and stable peroxidase-like activity prepared using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was used for the detection of glutathione at near-physiological pH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02953cDOI Listing
July 2021

Comparative Analysis of Glycosidic Aroma Compound Profiling in Three Varieties by Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

Front Plant Sci 2021 24;12:694979. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Glycosidic aroma compounds are the important precursors of volatile aroma in grapes, and they can be added with odorous aglycones enzyme- or acid-catalyzed hydrolysis during wine fermentation and storage. Developing an analytical method for intact glycosides can provide the possibility to study the accumulation of these aroma precursors in grape berries. For this purpose, a Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS). database based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was built, covering multiple aglycone classes. Subsequently, the profiles of glycosidic aroma compounds in L. cv. Muscat Blanc, Riesling, and Chardonnay berries during maturation were investigated. Pentosyl-hexosides were the most abundant glycosides in all three varieties. Both composition and concentration of glycosidic aroma compounds varied obviously among grape varieties. Except for monoterpenol pentosyl-hexosides, most glycosides were kept almost stable in their concentrations during berry maturation. This research provides an approach to understand the variation of glycosidic aroma components from the perspective of aglycones and glycosides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.694979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264444PMC
June 2021

Esculin protects against methionine choline-deficient diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by regulating the Sirt1/NF-B p65 pathway.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):922-932

Department of Pharmacy, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Context: Esculin, an active coumarin compound, has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, its potential role in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear.

Objective: This study explored the hepatoprotective effect and the molecular mechanism of esculin in methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH.

Materials And Methods: Fifty C57BL/6J mice were divided into five groups: control, model, low dosage esculin (oral, 20 mg/kg), high dosage esculin (oral, 40 mg/kg), and silybin (oral, 105 mg/kg). All animals were fed a MCD diet, except those in the control group (control diet), for 6 weeks.

Results: Esculin (20 and 40 mg/kg) inhibited MCD diet-induced hepatic lipid content (triglyceride: 16.95 ± 0.67 and 14.85 ± 0.78 vs. 21.21 ± 1.13 mg/g; total cholesterol: 5.10 ± 0.34 and 4.08 ± 0.47 vs. 7.31 ± 0.58 mg/g), fibrosis, and inflammation (ALT: 379.61 ± 40.30 and 312.72 ± 21.45 vs. 559.51 ± 37.01 U/L; AST: 428.22 ± 34.29 and 328.23 ± 23.21 vs. 579.36 ± 31.93 U/L). , esculin reduced tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, fibronectin, and collagen 4A1 levels, but had no effect on lipid levels in HepG2 cells induced by free fatty acid. Esculin increased Sirt1 expression levels and decreased NF-κB acetylation levels and . Interfering with Sirt1 expression attenuated the beneficial effect of esculin on inflammatory and fibrotic factor production in HepG2 cells.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that esculin ameliorates MCD diet-induced NASH by regulating the Sirt1/ac-NF-κB signalling pathway. Esculin could thus be employed as a therapy for NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2021.1945112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274538PMC
December 2021

Development of dual-mode precision current source for macro-microcomposite actuator based on field programmable gate array.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Jun;92(6):064702

School of Mechanical Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001, China.

To meet the requirements of variable input current forms, microstep adjustment, low error coefficient, high output linearity, and the low ripple of macro-microcomposite actuators developed by combining voice coil motors and a giant magnetostrictive actuator, in this study, a design scheme of dual-mode precise programmable current sources based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) was proposed. First, according to the working principle and control characteristics of macro-microcomposite drivers, an overall circuit system model of a driving power supply was established. Second, based on the circuit operational amplifier principle, an output current equation of the power supply was obtained, and a current switching circuit and a dual-mode current sampling circuit were designed. Finally, an FPGA was used as the current control core, and an incremental PI algorithm was introduced to compensate for the current feedback. The experimental results showed that the precision current source can output two current modes (positive current 0-5 A and positive and negative current -5 to 5 A) under the FPGA control. The average current error coefficient of the output in the two current output modes was ε ≦ 0.006, the maximum nonlinearity was η ≦ 0.005, and the error between the current adjusting step value and the preset value was less than 1%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0045102DOI Listing
June 2021

Synergistic interplay of ABA and BR signal in regulating plant growth and adaptation.

Nat Plants 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, and the Innovative Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Complex antagonistic interactions between abscisic acid (ABA) and brassinosteroid (BR) signalling pathways have been widely documented. However, whether or how ABA interacts synergistically with BR in plants remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that low, but not high, concentration of ABA increases lamina joint inclination of rice seedling, which requires functional BR biosynthesis and signalling. Transcriptome analyses confirm that about 60% of low-concentration ABA early response genes can be regulated by BR in the same directions. ABA activates BR signal in a fast, limited and short-term manner and the BR-biosynthesis regulatory gene, OsGSR1, plays a key role during this process, whose expression is induced slightly by ABA through transcriptional factor ABI3. Moreover, the early short-term BR signal activation is also important for ABA-mediated salt stress tolerance. Intriguingly, the process and effect of short-term BR signal activation were covered by high concentration of ABA, implying adaptive mechanisms existed in plants to cope with varying degrees of stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41477-021-00959-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Enhancing Influenza Epidemics Forecasting Accuracy in China with Both Official and Unofficial Online News Articles, 2019-2020.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 18;18(12). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

College of Business, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518000, China.

Real-time online data sources have contributed to timely and accurate forecasting of influenza activities while also suffered from instability and linguistic noise. Few previous studies have focused on unofficial online news articles, which are abundant in their numbers, rich in information, and relatively low in noise. This study examined whether monitoring both official and unofficial online news articles can improve influenza activity forecasting accuracy during influenza outbreaks. Data were retrieved from a Chinese commercial online platform and the website of the Chinese National Influenza Center. We modeled weekly fractions of influenza-related online news articles and compared them against weekly influenza-like illness (ILI) rates using autoregression analyses. We retrieved 153,958,695 and 149,822,871 online news articles focusing on the south and north of mainland China separately from 6 October 2019 to 17 May 2020. Our model based on online news articles could significantly improve the forecasting accuracy, compared to other influenza surveillance models based on historical ILI rates ( = 0.002 in the south; = 0.000 in the north) or adding microblog data as an exogenous input ( = 0.029 in the south; = 0.000 in the north). Our finding also showed that influenza forecasting based on online news articles could be 1-2 weeks ahead of official ILI surveillance reports. The results revealed that monitoring online news articles could supplement traditional influenza surveillance systems, improve resource allocation, and offer models for surveillance of other emerging diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296334PMC
June 2021

An SVM-Based NAND Flash Endurance Prediction Method.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Jun 25;12(7). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

NAND flash memory is widely used in communications, commercial servers, and cloud storage devices with a series of advantages such as high density, low cost, high speed, anti-magnetic, and anti-vibration. However, the reliability is increasingly getting worse while process improvements and technological advancements have brought higher storage densities to NAND flash memory. The degradation of reliability not only reduces the lifetime of the NAND flash memory but also causes the devices to be replaced prematurely based on the nominal value far below the minimum actual value, resulting in a great waste of lifetime. Using machine learning algorithms to accurately predict endurance levels can optimize wear-leveling strategies and warn bad memory blocks, which is of great significance for effectively extending the lifetime of NAND flash memory devices and avoiding serious losses caused by sudden failures. In this work, a multi-class endurance prediction scheme based on the SVM algorithm is proposed, which can predict the remaining P-E cycle level and the raw bit error level after various P-E cycles. Feature analysis based on endurance data is used to determine the basic elements of the model. Based on the error features, we present a variety of targeted optimization strategies, such as extracting the numerical features closely related to the endurance, and reducing the noise interference of transient faults through short-term repeated operations. Besides a high-parallel flash test platform supporting multiple protocols, a feature preprocessing module is constructed based on the ZYNQ-7030 chip. The pipelined module of SVM decision model can complete a single prediction within 37 us.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12070746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304406PMC
June 2021

An insight to sequential ozone‑chlorine process for synergistic disinfection on reclaimed water: Experimental and modelling studies.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 22;793:148563. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (SMARC), School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China; Beijing Laboratory for Environmental Frontier Technologies, Beijing 100084, PR China; Research Institute for Environmental Innovation (Suzhou), Tsinghua, Jiangsu, Suzhou, 215163, PR China. Electronic address:

Water reclamation plants (WRPs) are facing the challenges of ensuring microbial safety and require efficient disinfection systems. Sequential ozone‑chlorine disinfection is supposed to be a favorable alternative for reclaimed water disinfection. This study compared the inactivation efficiency of E.coli by single ozone, single chlorine, and sequential ozone‑chlorine disinfection approaches. Notably, a single ozone or chlorine process could only achieve a log removal rate of up to 5 log, whereas the sequential ozone‑chlorine disinfection could completely inactivate microorganisms (7.3 log). For sequential ozone‑chlorine disinfection, the efficiency of chlorination was improved by 2.4%-18.5%. The synergistic effect mainly attributed to the elimination of chlorine consuming substances by ozone. Through the chlorine decay model (CRS) fitting and calculating the integral CT value, the enhancement ability of ozone to chlorine disinfection was quantified. By introducing an enhancement coefficient (β), a succinct and accurate model was established to estimate the inactivation rate of sequential ozone‑chlorine disinfection (mean absolute percentage error: 0.035). The results and methodology of this study are informative to optimize the disinfection units of WRPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148563DOI Listing
June 2021

Activated Nrf-2 Pathway by Vitamin E to Attenuate Testicular Injuries of Rats with Sub-chronic Cadmium Exposure.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, People's Republic of China.

Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal element, cumulates in the testis and can cause male reproductive toxicity. Although vitamin E (VE) as one of potential antioxidants protects the testis against toxicity of Cd, the underlying mechanism remained uncompleted clear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Nrf-2 pathway is involved with the protective effect of VE on testicular damages caused by sub-chronic Cd exposure. Thirty-two SD rats were divided into four groups and orally administrated with VE and/or Cd for 28 consecutive days: control group, VE group (100 mg VE/kg), Cd group (5 mg CdCl/kg), and VE + Cd group (100 mg VE/kg + 5 mg CdCl/kg). The results showed that 28-day exposure of Cd caused accumulation of Cd, histopathological lesions, and alternations of sperm parameters (elevated rate of abnormal sperm, decreased count of sperm, declined motility, and viability of sperm). Moreover, the rats exposed to Cd showed significant oxidative stress (increased contents of MDA and decreased levels or activities of T-AOC, GSH, CAT, SOD and GSH-Px) and inhibition of Nrf-2 signaling pathway (downregulation of Nrf-2, HO-1, NQO-1, GCLC, GCLM and GST) of the testes. In contrast, VE treatment significantly reduced the Cd accumulation, alleviated histopathological lesions and dysfunctions, activated Nrf-2 pathway, and attenuated the oxidative stress caused by Cd in the testes of rats. In conclusion, VE, through upregulating Nrf-2 pathway, could protect testis against oxidative damages induced by sub-chronic Cd exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02784-1DOI Listing
June 2021

The Proteomic Landscape of Growth Factor Signaling Networks Associated with FAT1 Mutations in Head and Neck Cancers.

Cancer Res 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Head and Neck Surgery Branch/NIDCD, National Institutes of Health

FAT1 is frequently mutated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but the biological and clinical effects of FAT1 mutations in HNSCC remain to be fully elucidated. We investigated the landscape of altered protein and gene expression associated with FAT1 mutations and clinical outcomes of HNSCC patients. FAT1 mutation was stratified with clinical information from The Cancer Genome Atlas HNSCC databases with more than 200 proteins or phosphorylated sites. FAT1 mutation was significantly more prevalent among HPV(-), female, and older patients and was enriched in oral, larynx, and hypopharynx primary tumors. FAT1 mutation was also significantly associated with lower FAT1 gene expression and increased protein expression of HER3_pY1289, IRS1, and CAVEOLIN1. From an independent International Cancer Genome Consortium dataset, FAT1 mutation in oral cancer co-occurred with top mutated genes TP53 and CASP8. Poorer overall survival or progression-free survival was observed in patients with FAT1 mutation or altered HER3_pY1289, IRS1, or CAVEOLIN. Pathway analysis revealed dominant ERBB/neuregulin pathways mediated by FAT1 mutations in HNSCC, and protein signature panels uncovered the heterogeneity of patient subgroups. Decreased pEGFR, pHER2, and pERK and upregulated pHER3 and HER3 proteins were observed in two FAT1 knockout HNSCC cell lines, supporting that FAT1 alterations lead to altered EGFR/ERBB signaling. In squamous cancers of the lung and cervix, a strong association of FAT1 and EGFR gene expression was identified. Collectively, these results suggest that alteration of FAT1 appears to involve mostly HPV(-) HNSCC and may contribute to resistance to EGFR-targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-3659DOI Listing
June 2021

Characterization of glucose-binding proteins isolated from health volunteers and human type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Proteins 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Laboratory for Functional Glycomics, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, China.

Glucose is one of the most important monosaccharides. Although hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) lead to a series of changes; however, little is known about the alterations of serum proteins in T2DM, especially those proteins with glucose affinity. In this study, the glucose-binding proteins (GlcBPs) of serum were isolated from 30 health volunteer (HV) and 30 T2DM patients by glucose-magnetic particle conjugates (GMPC) and identified by mass spectrum analysis. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) indicated the main gene annotations and pathways of this GlcBPs, while Motif-X webtool provided the potential glucose-binding domains. Further docking analysis and glycan microarray were used to understand the interaction between the glucose and glucose-binding domains. A total of 149 and 119 GlcBPs were identified from HV and T2DM cases. Four hundred and sixty-eight GO annotations in 165 identified GlcBPs were available, while the majority involved in cellular processes and binding function. A short peptide, EGDEEITCLNGFWLE, which was derived from the Motif-X analysis, presented a high-binding ability to the glucose from both docking analysis and glycan analysis. GMPC provides a powerful tool for GlcBPs isolation and indicates the alteration of GlcBPs in T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prot.26163DOI Listing
June 2021

Transition-metal-free allylation of 2-azaallyls with allyl ethers through polar and radical mechanisms.

Nat Commun 2021 06 23;12(1):3860. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Roy and Diana Vagelos Laboratories, Penn/Merck Laboratory for High-Throughput Experimentation, Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Allylation of nucleophiles with highly reactive electrophiles like allyl halides can be conducted without metal catalysts. Less reactive electrophiles, such as allyl esters and carbonates, usually require a transition metal catalyst to facilitate the allylation. Herein, we report a unique transition-metal-free allylation strategy with allyl ether electrophiles. Reaction of a host of allyl ethers with 2-azaallyl anions delivers valuable homoallylic amine derivatives (up to 92%), which are significant in the pharmaceutical industry. Interestingly, no deprotonative isomerization or cyclization of the products were observed. The potential synthetic utility and ease of operation is demonstrated by a gram scale telescoped preparation of a homoallylic amine. In addition, mechanistic studies provide insight into these C(sp)-C(sp) bond-forming reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24027-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222226PMC
June 2021

De novo biosynthesis of -arabinosylated flavones by utilization of rice -glycosyltransferases.

Bioresour Bioprocess 2021 12;8(1):49. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

CAS-Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200032 China.

Flavone -arabinosides/xylosides are plant-originated glycoconjugates with various bioactivities. However, the potential utility of these molecules is hindered by their low abundance in nature. Engineering biosynthesis pathway in heterologous bacterial chassis provides a sustainable source of these -glycosides. We previously reported bifunctional -glucosyl/-arabinosyltransferases in japonica and indica, which influence the -glycoside spectrum in different rice varieties. In this study, we proved the -arabinosyl-transferring activity of rice -glycosyltransferases (CGTs) on the mono--glucoside substrate nothofagin, followed by taking advantage of specific CGTs and introducing heterologous UDP-pentose supply, to realize the production of eight different -arabinosides/xylosides in recombinant . Fed-batch fermentation and precursor supplement maximized the titer of rice-originated -arabinosides to 20-110 mg/L in an chassis. The optimized final titer of schaftoside and apigenin di--arabinoside reached 19.87 and 113.16 mg/L, respectively. We demonstrate here the success of de novo bio-production of -arabinosylated and -xylosylated flavones by heterologous pathway reconstitution. These results lay a foundation for further optimal manufacture of complex flavonoid compounds in microbial cell factories.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s40643-021-00404-3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40643-021-00404-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196924PMC
June 2021

Synergistic Lysozyme-Photodynamic Therapy Against Resistant Bacteria based on an Intelligent Upconversion Nanoplatform.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

CAS Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, and Fujian Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, China.

The rapid emergence of drug-resistant bacteria has raised a great social concern together with the impetus for exploring advanced antibacterial ways. NIR-triggered antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) by lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP) as energy donor exhibits the advantages of high tissue penetration, broad antibacterial spectrum and less acquired resistance, but is still limited by its low efficacy. Now we designed a bio-inorganic nanohybrid and combined lysozyme (LYZ) with UCNP-PDT system to enhance the efficiency against resistant bacteria. Benefiting from the rapid adhesion to bacteria, intelligently bacteria-responsive LYZ release and synergistic LYZ-PDT effect, the nanoplatform achieves an exceptionally strong bactericidal capacity and conspicuous bacteriostasis on methicillin-resistant S. aureus. These findings pave the way for designing efficiently antibacterial nanomaterials and provide a new strategy for combating deep-tissue bacterial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202103943DOI Listing
June 2021

A model for long-term infection of bovine papillomavirus type 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Acta Virol 2021 ;65(2):192-199

We have previously reported that bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) can replicate its genome and produces infectious virus-like particles in short-term BPV1 virion-infected Sacharomyces cerevisiae (Zhao and Frazer, 2002). Here, we report viral RNA transcription and L1 capsid protein expression in long-term BPV1 virion-infected S. cerevisiae culture. Northern blot hybridization showed that viral RNA was detected in long-term BPV1-infected S. cerevisiae cultures (82-108 days). The levels of the viral RNA transcription varied significantly over the long time period, which showed active transcription at an early stage (Day 3 to Day 16), weak transcription at a middle stage (Day 23 to Day 45) and stable transcription at the late stage of culture (Day 55 to Day 82/85/95). Three major BPV1 transcripts of 4.3, 2.6 and 1.8 Kb were identified, with 4.3 Kb a minor transcript and the 1.8 Kb the most prominent transcript compared with the 2.6 Kb species. Immunoblotting showed that L1 capsid protein was expressed, with its variable amounts corresponding to the levels of RNA transcription over the time period. 35S-methionine/cysteine labeling and immunoprecipitation proved that the detected L1 protein was newly synthesized in BPV1-infected S. cerevisiae cultures. 33.3-54.2% of the cell colonies expressed L1 protein. Thus, the S. cerevisiae system, as a promising model, may be used not only for the study of virus like particle formation of BPV1 in vitro, but also for further functional analysis of individual viral genes in BPV1 life cycle. Keywords: BPV1; viral RNA transcription; expression of L1 capsid protein; virion-infected Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4149/av_2021_204DOI Listing
June 2021

Functional Annotation of circRNAs in Tea Leaves after Infection by the Tea Leaf Spot Pathogen, Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

Phytopathology 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Guizhou University, 71206, Key Laboratory of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, Huaxi District, Guiyang, Guizhou Province of China, Guiyang, China, 550025;

Tea leaf spot, caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae, is an important disease that can seriously decrease the production and quality of tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze) leaves. The analysis of circular RNA (circRNA) in tea leaves after infection by the pathogen could improve understanding about the mechanism of host-pathogen interactions. In this study, high-performance sequencing of circRNA from C. sinensis Fuding-dabaicha leaves that had been infected with L. theobromae was conducted using the Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform. A total of 192 and 153 differentially-expressed circRNAs from tea leaves were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively, after infection with L. theobromae. A GO analysis indicated that the differentially expressed circRNA-hosting-genes for DNA binding were significantly enriched. The genes with significantly differential expressions that were annotated in the specified database (S genes) were Sigma factor E isoform 1, Triacylglycerol lipase SDP1, DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit 2, WRKY transcription factor WRKY24, and regulator of nonsense transcripts 1 homolog. A KEGG analysis indicated that the significantly enriched circRNA-hosting-genes involved in the plant-pathogen interaction pathway were Calmodulin-domain protein kinase 5 isoform 1, probable WRKY transcription factor 33, U-box domain-containing protein 35, probable inactive receptor-like protein kinase At3g56050, WRKY transcription factor WRKY24, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase YODA, SGT1, and protein DGS1, etc. Functional annotation of circRNAs in tea leaves infected by L. theobromae will provide a valuable resource for future research on host-pathogen interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-05-21-0184-ADOI Listing
June 2021

Unpacking the red packets: institution and informal payments in healthcare in China.

Eur J Health Econ 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Management, Lanzhou University, #222 Tianshui South Rd, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Informal cash payments from patient to healthcare providers for services provided by the healthcare system have attracted increasing scholarly interest. However, the root and mechanism of informal payments are not well understood. This paper contributes to the literature by positing informal payments as informal institutions. We use a nationally representative longitudinal survey in 28 provinces in China to explore the root of informal payments. Our empirical findings suggest that patients' informal payments for healthcare services may originate from information acquisition and processing, failure of government and market in allocating healthcare resources, and disparities in utilization. Further, this informal institution could be changed by the self-reinforcement of individual patients. These findings suggest that policies to facilitate transparency and to remove institutional barriers, such as the introduction of market competition, may reduce the incidence of informal payments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10198-021-01330-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Pregnancy-associated decrease of Siaα2-3Gal-linked glycans on salivary glycoproteins affects their binding ability to avian influenza virus.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Aug 17;184:339-348. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Laboratory for Functional Glycomics, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Salivary glycoproteins are known as an important barrier to inhibit influenza infection by presenting sialic acid (Sia) ligands that can bind with viral hemagglutination. Here, to further understand why pregnant women are more vulnerable to avian influenza virus (AIV), we investigated the alteration of protein sialylation in the saliva of women during pregnancy and postpartum, and its impact on the saliva binding affinity to AIV. Totally 1200 saliva samples were collected, the expression levels of terminal α2-3/6-linked Sia on salivary proteins were tested and validated, and the binding activities of salivary proteins were assessed against 3 strains of AIV and the H1N1 vaccine. Result showed that the expression of terminal α2-3-linked Sia in the saliva of women decreased dramatically during pregnancy compared to that of non-pregnancy control, especially for women in the second or third trimester (fold change = 0.53 and 0.37, p < 0.001). And their salivary protein binding ability to AIV declined accordingly. The variation of terminal α2-3-linked Sia on salivary MUC5B and IgA was consistent with the above results. This study indicates that the decrease of terminal α2-3-linked Sia on salivary glycoproteins of pregnant women affects their binding ability to AIV, which may provide new insights into AIV prevention and control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.006DOI Listing
August 2021

First report of Alternaria longipes causing leaf spot on tea in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Guizhou University, 71206, Key Laboratory of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, Huaxi street, Guiyang City, Guizhou Province, Guiyang, China, 550025;

Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze)] have been widely planted in Guizhou Province in recent years, and the cultivation area in the region ranks first among all the provinces or cities in China. Leaf spot disease was an important disease of tea in Kaiyang county, Guizhou Province, which mainly damaged young leaves and shoot of tea and led to a huge loss of the production of tea. The spots initially represented brown and round, and then the diameter of the spot was 4-6 mm during later period, with the color of the center in the spot changing white. Tea leaf spot disease always occurs in early spring and the region with 1300 m altitude. From 2016 to 2019, disease incidence of leaves was estimated at 84% to 92%, and the disease severity on a plant basis was determined to be 64% to 76%, depending on the field. To identify the causal agent of the foliar disease, pieces of the lesion margins were surface sterilized with 75% ethanol for 30 s, followed by 0.5% sodium hypochlorite for 5 min, rinsed with sterile water three times, plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated in the dark at 25C for 3 to 5 d. The hyphal tips from the margins of the growing colonies were successively picked and transferred to fresh PDA plates to purify the isolates. The result indicated that the isolates on PDA represented initially round form, and white mycelium. The reverse sides of the isolates firstly displayed light yellow on PDA. Conidiophores represent dark brown, geniculate. Brown conidia, narrow ovoid, length: 22.9 ± 4.5 μm, width: 11.1 ± 1.7 μm, with 4 to 8 transverse septa and with conspicuously ornamented walls. The gene of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (Berbee et al. 1999) and the Alternaria allergen 1 (Alt a1) (Hong et al. 2005) of three strains were amplified, sequenced and deposited in Genbank. Maximum parsimony phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences of combined GAPDH (1-583) and Alt a 1 (588-1065) indicated that the strain AXLKY_2019_010 was identical to reference strain Alternaria longipes strain EGS 30-033, and the clade was supported by 96% bootstrap values. According to the Koch's postulate, the tea leaves were inoculated with PDA plugs with actively growing mycelia using the methods of the puncture, cut and unwound under the laboratory conditions and the natural conditions. Slight yellow spots were gradually formed after 2 d post-inoculation on the inoculated leaves, and the color of the center of the spot changed to be white. With the prolonging of inoculation time, the size of lesion represented to be slightly enlarged. PDA plugs without mycelia were used as a control, and the control group showed no symptoms. The same isolates were consistently reisolated from inoculated leaves. A. longipes can cause leaf blight of carrots in Israel (Vintal et al. 2002), leaf spot of potato in Pakistan (Shoaib et al. 2014) and leaf spot of Atractylodes macrocephala in China (Tan et al. 2012). To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. longipes causing leaf spot on tea in China and our findings will be useful for its management and for further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-20-1583-PDNDOI Listing
June 2021

Linguistic Isolation and Mortality in Older Mexican Americans: Findings from the Hispanic Established Populations Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly.

Health Equity 2021 1;5(1):375-381. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Health Policy and Management, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

Limited English proficiency and increased language isolation are known to be associated with adverse health outcomes. It is not clear how neighborhood-level linguistic isolation may impact individual health and risk of death among Hispanic older adults. We examined the link between living in a linguistically isolated neighborhood and all-cause mortality among an older Mexican American cohort. Using a longitudinal sample of older Mexican Americans from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly, we calculated the days from the baseline interview (1993-1994) until observed death through five waves of follow-up (until 2004-2005) using Cox regression. A linguistically isolated neighborhood was defined as a census tract with more than 30% of linguistically isolated households. Our results showed that living in a neighborhood with more than 30% of linguistically isolated households predicted higher mortality (hazard ratio: 1.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.50), after adjusting for age, sex, nativity, years of education, marital status, self-reported health status, number of chronic conditions, ever smoked, ever drank, and other neighborhood-level contextual factors. Living in a neighborhood with a high proportion of linguistically isolated households predicted higher mortality among older Mexican Americans. Addressing the social capital shortage in linguistically isolated neighborhoods is one way to address health disparities in the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/heq.2020.0139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175265PMC
June 2021

Peptide late-stage C(sp)-H arylation by native asparagine assistance without exogenous directing groups.

Chem Sci 2020 Aug 12;11(34):9290-9295. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Institut fuer Organische und Biomolekulare Chemie, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen Tammannstrasse 2 Goettingen 37077 Germany

There is a strong demand for novel native peptide motifs for post-synthetic modifications of peptides without pre-installation and subsequent removal of directing groups. Herein, we report an efficient method for peptide late-stage C(sp)-H arylations assisted by the unmodified side chain of asparagine (Asn) without any exogenous directing group. Thereby, site-selective arylations of C(sp)-H bonds at the N-terminus of di-, tri-, and tetrapeptides have been achieved. Likewise, we have constructed a key building block for accessing agouti-related protein (AGRP) active loop analogues in a concise manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc03830jDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161531PMC
August 2020

Micron-Sized Monodisperse Particle LiNiCoMnO Derived by Oxalate Solvothermal Process Combined with Calcination as Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 15;14(10). Epub 2021 May 15.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.

Ni-rich cathode LiNiCoMnO (NCM, x ≥ 0.5) materials are promising cathodes for lithium-ion batteries due to their high energy density and low cost. However, several issues, such as their complex preparation and electrochemical instability have hindered their commercial application. Herein, a simple solvothermal method combined with calcination was employed to synthesize LiNiCoMnO with micron-sized monodisperse particles, and the influence of the sintering temperature on the structures, morphologies, and electrochemical properties was investigated. The material sintered at 800 °C formed micron-sized particles with monodisperse characteristics, and a well-order layered structure. When charged-discharged in the voltage range of 2.8-4.3 V, it delivered an initial discharge capacity of 175.5 mAh g with a Coulombic efficiency of 80.3% at 0.1 C, and a superior discharge capacity of 135.4 mAh g with a capacity retention of 84.4% after 100 cycles at 1 C. The reliable electrochemical performance is probably attributable to the micron-sized monodisperse particles, which ensured stable crystal structure and fewer side reactions. This work is expected to provide a facile approach to preparing monodisperse particles of different scales, and improve the performance of Ni-rich NCM or other cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14102576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155954PMC
May 2021

A prophylactic effect of macrophage-colony stimulating factor on chronic stress-induced depression-like behaviors in mice.

Neuropharmacology 2021 08 29;193:108621. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Nantong University, #19 Qixiu Road, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Innate immune activation has been shown to reduce the severity of nervous system disorders such as brain ischemia and traumatic brain damage. Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), a drug that is used to treat hematological system disease, is an enhancer of the innate immune response. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of M-CSF preconditioning on chronic social defeat stress (CSDS)-induced depression-like behaviors in mice. Results showed that a single M-CSF injection 1 day before stress exposure at the dose of 100 and 500 μg/kg, or a single M-CSF injection (100 μg/kg) 1 or 5 days but not 10 days before stress exposure prevented CSDS-induced depression-like behaviors in mice. Further analysis showed that a second M-CSF injection 10 days after the first M-CSF injection and a 2 × or 4 × M-CSF injections 10 days before stress exposure also prevented CSDS-induced depression-like behaviors. Molecular studies revealed that a single M-CSF injection prior to stress exposure skewed the neuroinflammatory responses in the brain in CSDS-exposed mice towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype. These behavioral and molecular actions of M-CSF were correlated with innate immune stimulation, as pre-inhibiting the innate immune activation by minocycline pretreatment (40 mg/kg) abrogated the preventive effect of M-CSF on CSDS-induced depression-like behaviors and neuroinflammatory responses. These results provide evidence to show that innate immune activation by M-CSF pretreatment may prevent chronic stress-induced depression-like behaviors via preventing the development of neuroinflammatory response in the brain, which may help to develop novel strategies for the prevention of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108621DOI Listing
August 2021
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