Publications by authors named "Zhou Liu"

163 Publications

Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Virtual Noncalcium Technique in Diagnosing Osteoporosis: Correlation With Quantitative Computed Tomography.

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2021 May-Jun 01;45(3):452-457

From the Department of Radiology, Xi'an Jiaotong University Affiliated Honghui Hospital.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate dual-energy computed tomography (CT) virtual noncalcium (VNCa) technique as a means of quantifying osteoporosis.

Methods: Dual-energy CT scans were obtained prospectively, targeting lumbar regions of 55 patients with chronic low back pain. A standard quantitative CT (QCT) phantom was positioned at the waist during each procedure, using proprietary software (QCT Pro; Mindways, Tex) to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in each vertebral body. Vendor dual-energy analytic software was altered with a specially modified configuration file to produce a "Virtual Non Calcium" or "VNCa" output, as such output variables were remapped to produce the following calcium values rather than iodine, yielding the following QCT parameters: CT value of calcium (originally "contrast media" [CM]), CT value of mixed energy imaging (regular CT value [rCT]), calcium density (originally "contrast agent density" [CaD]), and fat fraction (FF). Pearson test served to assess correlations between BMD and these parameters. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to construct an equation for generating regressive BMD (rBMD) values. In gauging diagnostic accuracies, the criterion-standard BMD cutoff point (<80 mg/cm3) was adopted for QCT, whereas the rBMD threshold was defined by receiver operating characteristic curve.

Results: Contrast media, rCT, CaD, and FF values (reflecting CT value of calcium, regular CT value, calcium density, and fat fraction, respectively) significantly correlated with BMD (r values: 0.885, 0.947, 0.877, and 0.492, respectively; all P < 0.01). Contrast media, CaD, and FF showed independent associations with BMD; the regressive equation was formulated as follows: rBMD = 54.82 - 0.19 × CM + 20.03 × CaD - 1.24 × FF. The area under the curve of rBMD in diagnosing osteoporosis was 0.966 ± 0.009 (P < 0.01). At an rBMD threshold of less than 81.94 mg/cm3, sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 92.0%, respectively.

Conclusions: Dual-energy CT VNCa technique may constitute a valid alternative method for quantifying the mineral content and marrow fat composition of bone in diagnostic assessments of osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RCT.0000000000001168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132909PMC
July 2021

F-PEG1-Vinyl Sulfone-Labeled Red Blood Cells as Positron Emission Tomography Agent to Image Intra-Abdominal Bleeding.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 5;8:646862. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

F-Labeled blood pool agents (BPAs) have attracted great attention for identifying bleeding sites. However, many BPAs are not sufficiently evaluated partially due to the limitations of labeling methods. In our previous work, we noticed that F-PEG1-vinyl sulfone (F-VS) could efficiently label red blood cells (RBCs) and . However, its application as BPA is not fully evaluated. In this study, we systematically explored the feasibility of using F-VS-labeled RBCs as a positron emission tomography (PET) BPA for intra-abdominal bleeding diagnosis. In brief, we first optimized the labeling conditions, which lead to an 80% labeling yield of RBCs after incubating with F-VS in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C for 20 min. F-VS-labeled RBCs were found to be stable , which could simplify its transportation/storage for applications. In normal rat PET study, the cardiovascular system could be clearly imaged up to 5 h post injection (p.i.). An intra-abdominal hemorrhage rat model demonstrated that the F-VS-labeled RBCs clearly showed the dynamic changes of extravascular radioactivity due to intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Validation in the model of gastrointestinal bleeding clearly demonstrated the great potential of using F-VS-labeled RBCs as a BPA, which could be further evaluated in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.646862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287037PMC
July 2021

The Prevalence of Vascular Dementia in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis from 2009-2019.

Iran J Public Health 2021 Jan;50(1):11-23

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Age-Related Cardiac and Cerebral Diseases, Institute of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, China.

Background: Vascular dementia (VD), as the second-largest type of dementia, is a serious stage of vascular cognitive impairment. It is significant to conduct retrospective epidemiological studies to characterize further the disease for public health. This study estimated the prevalence of VD among the population aged 18 yr and older in China.

Methods: Epidemiological investigations on VD published in journals and covering the period from 1999 to 2019 were identified manually and online by using Chinese databases (such as Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Chinese science-technology databases, and the Chinese Wan-fang and Chongqing VIP database) and English databases (such as PubMed, Elsevier Science Bibliographic Databases and Cochrane library). Studies were included if the diagnostic criteria for VD are clear and the quality of the included literature was evaluated using the quality evaluation criteria of epidemiological research methods. A random-effects model was employed according to the statistical test of homogeneity.

Results: Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria, including 100,923 subjects and 977 VD patients. The pooled prevalence of VD was 0.96% (95% [confidence interval, CI] 0.63%∼2.1%). The prevalence of VD increased with increasing age. There was a higher prevalence of VD in the northeast China population, in urban areas and males.

Conclusion: We stratified the included studies based on age, location, gender, and geographical distribution for prevalence. The prevalence of VD has slowly risen since 1999. It is obviously different between the North & South and urban &rural districts. While there are many benefits of systematic reviews, the methods presented have inherent limitations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v50i1.5068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213636PMC
January 2021

Exploration of spatial distribution of brain metastasis from small cell lung cancer and identification of metastatic risk level of brain regions: a multicenter, retrospective study.

Cancer Imaging 2021 Jun 13;21(1):41. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Keling Road, Suzhou New District, Suzhou, 215163, Jiangsu, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the spatial distribution of brain metastases (BMs) from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) a homogenous sample, and to identify the metastatic risk levels in brain regions.

Methods: T1-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from SCLC patients were retrospectively reviewed from three medical institutions in China. All images were registered to the standard brain template provided by the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) 152 database, followed by transformation of the location of all BMs to the space of standard brain. The MNI structural atlas and Anatomical Automatic Labeling (AAL) atlas were then used to identify the anatomical brain regions, and the observed and expected rates of BMs were compared using 2-tailed proportional hypothesis testing. The locations and sizes of brain lesions were analyzed after image standardization.

Results: A total of 215 eligible patients with 1033 lesions were screened by MRI, including 157 (73%) males and 58 (27%) females. The incidence of crucial structures were as follows: hippocampus 0.68%, parahippocampal 0.97%, brainstem 2.05%, cauate 0.68%, putamen 0.68%, pallidum 0.2%, thalamus 1.36%. No BMs were found in the amygdala, pituitary gland, or pineal gland. The cumulative frequency of the important structures was 6.62%. Based on the results of MNI structural atlas, the cerebellum, deep white matter and brainstem was identified as a higher risk region than expected for BMs (P = 9.80 ×10, 9.04 ×10), whereas temporal lobe were low-risk regions (P = 1.65 ×10). More detailed AAL atlas revealed that the low-risk regions for BMs was inferior frontal gyrus (P = 6.971 ×10), while the high-risk regions for BMs was cerebellar hemispheres (P = 1.177 ×10).

Conclusion: Many crucial structures including the hippocampus, parahippocampus, pituitary gland and thalamus etc. have low frequency of brain metastases in a population of SCLC patients. This study provides the help to investigate the clinical feasibility of HA-WBRT and non-uniform dose of PCI in a population of SCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40644-021-00410-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201893PMC
June 2021

Pyridaben induced cardiotoxicity during the looping stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Aug 19;237:105870. Epub 2021 May 19.

Ganzhou Key Laboratory for Drug Screening and Discovery, School of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Gannan Normal University, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

Pyridaben is a widely used acaricide in agriculture and reaches a high concentration (97 μg/L) in paddy water for a short time when pyridaben was applied to rice. However, its toxicity to aquatic organisms is still poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the pyridaben cardiotoxicity to aquatic organisms using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. We found that pyridaben is highly toxic to aquatic organisms, and LC of pyridaben for zebrafish at 72 hpf was 100.6 μg/L. Pyridaben caused severe cardiac malformations and functional abnormalities. Morphologic abnormity included severe pericardial edema, cardiomegaly, decreased cardiomyocytes, thinning of the myocardial layer, linear heart, and increased the distance between sinus venous and bulbus arteriosus (SV-BA). Functional failure included arrhythmia, heart failure, and reduced pumping efficiency. The genes involved in heart development, WNT signaling, BMP signaling, ATPase, and cardiac troponin C were abnormally expressed in the pyridaben treatment group. Exposure to pyridaben increased oxidative stress and induced cell apoptosis. The above causes may lead to cardiac toxicity. The results suggest that pyridaben exposure induced elevated oxidative stress through the WNT signaling pathway, which in turn led to apoptosis in the heart and cardiotoxicity. Besides, pyridaben exposure at the critical stage of cardiac looping (24-36 hpf) resulted in the greatest cardiotoxicity. The chorion reduced the entry of pyridaben and protected zebrafish embryos, resulting in cardiotoxicity second only to the stage of cardiac looping. The study should provide valuable information that pyridaben exposure causes cardiotoxicity in zebrafish embryos and have potential health risks for other aquatic organisms and humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105870DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of sulfometuron-methyl on zebrafish at early developmental stages.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 1;220:112385. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Ganzhou Key Laboratory for Drug Screening and Discovery, School of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Gannan Normal University, China; Jiangxi Engineering Laboratory of Zebrafish Modeling and Drug Screening for Human Diseases, Ji'an, Jiangxi, China; Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Organs, Ji'an 343009, Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

Sulfometuron methyl (SM) is a widely used herbicide and thus leading to accumulation in the environment. The toxicity assessments of SM in model organisms are currently rare. In the present study, zebrafish were utilized for evaluating the detrimental effects of SM in aquatic vertebrates. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L SM from 5.5 to 72 h post-fertilization (hpf), respectively. Consequently, SM exposure resulted in increasing the mortality rate and reducing hatching rate in larval zebrafish at 10, 20, and 40 mg/L SM-treated groups. The reduced numbers of immune cells (neutrophils and macrophages) were observed after SM exposure by a dose-dependent manner. The inflammatory responses (TLR4, MYD88, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, and TGF-β) were measured to estimate immune responses. Anti-inflammatory factors (IL-10 and TGF-β) were down-regulated in all the treated groups and significantly altered at 40 mg/L exposure group. Additionally, behavioral tests suggested that SM treatment significantly increased the total distance, average speed, and maximum acceleration of larval zebrafish during light-dark transition and subsequently enzymology test displayed the same trend to locomotor behaviors. The content significantly increased in oxidative stress, as reflected in ROS level in all the treated groups. The numbers of cell apoptosis were significantly increased at 20, and 40 mg/L and the highest concentration group induced the substantial increment (P < 0.001) of apoptosis-related genes including p53, Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-9, and caspase-3. In summary, our results demonstrated that exposure to SM caused toxicity of development, immune system, locomotor behavior, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis at the early developmental stages of zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112385DOI Listing
September 2021

Contrast-enhanced to noncontrast CT transformation via an adjacency content-transfer-based deep subtraction residual neural network.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 16;66(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, People's Republic of China.

To reduce overall patient radiation exposure in some clinical scenarios (since cancer patients need frequent follow-ups), noncontrast CT is not used in some institutions. However, although less desirable, noncontrast CT could provide additional important information. In this article, we propose a deep subtraction residual network based on adjacency content transfer to reconstruct noncontrast CT from contrast CT and maintain image quality comparable to that of a CT scan originally acquired without contrast. To address the slight structural dissimilarity of the paired CT images (noncontrast CT and contrast CT) due to involuntary physiological motion, we introduce a contrastive loss network derived from the adjacency content-transfer strategy. We evaluate the results of various similarity metrics (MSE, SSIM, NRMSE, PSNR, MAE) and the fitting curve (HU distribution) of the output mapping to estimate the reconstruction performance of the algorithm. To build the model, we randomly select a total of 15,405 CT paired images (noncontrast CT and contrast-enhanced CT) for training and 10,270 CT paired images for testing. The proposed algorithm preserves the robust structures from the contrast-enhanced CT scans and learns the noncontrast attenuation pattern from the noncontrast CT scans. During the evaluation, the deep subtraction residual network achieves higher MSE, MAE, NRMSE, and PSNR scores (by 30%) than those of the baseline models (BEGAN, CycleGAN, Pixel2Pixel) and better simulates the HU curve of noncontrast CT attenuation. After validation based on an analysis of the experimental results, we can report that the noncontrast CT images reconstructed by our proposed algorithm not only preserve the high-quality structures from the contrast-enhanced CT images, but also mimic the CT attenuation of the originally acquired noncontrast CT images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ac0758DOI Listing
July 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Qingpeng Ointment for Subacute and Chronic Eczema: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Biomed Res Int 2021 15;2021:5594953. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Dermatology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Qingpeng ointment for the treatment of subacute and chronic eczema.

Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on Qingpeng ointment for subacute and chronic eczema were searched on PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Journal from their inception to 30 November 2020. Quality assessment and data analysis were performed by Review Manager 5.3.

Results: A total of 26 RCTs were included. Qingpeng ointment could significantly improve the total efficacy rate (TER) (RR = 2.60, 95% CI: 2.11 to 3.21, < 0.00001), reduce the total symptom score (TSS) (SMD = -2.35, 95% CI: -3.74 to -0.97, = 0.0009), and decrease visual analogue scale (VAS) for pruritus (MD = -3.86, 95% CI: -4.41 to -3.31, < 0.00001) compared with the placebo. The TER of Qingpeng ointment was similar to that of topical corticosteroid (TCS) (RR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.03, = 0.25), and the TSSs between Qingpeng ointment and medium or low potency TCS were not significantly different (SMD = -0.05, 95% CI: -0.22 to 0.12, = 0.54). However, Qingpeng ointment was not superior to TCS in reducing VAS score (SMD = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.96, = 0.05). In addition, Qingpeng ointment combined with TCS performed better than TCS alone in all three outcomes. For safety, nothing but skin irritative reactions occurred in the Qingpeng ointment group, and its incidence of skin irritative reactions was similar to those of the placebo (RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 0.61 to 3.55, = 0.40) and TCS (RR = 1.82, 95% CI: 0.79 to 4.22, = 0.16). The combined therapy did not increase the risk of skin irritative reactions (RR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.27 to 1.78, = 0.44).

Conclusion: Qingpeng ointment is an effective and safe treatment for subacute and chronic eczema. It is also an add-on treatment to TCS for eczema. However, due to the suboptimal quality of the included studies, more large-sample and high-quality RCTs are needed to improve the evidence quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5594953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064792PMC
June 2021

Nano-assembly of ruthenium(II) photosensitizers for endogenous glutathione depletion and enhanced two-photon photodynamic therapy.

Nanoscale 2021 Apr;13(16):7590-7599

MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising noninvasive cancer treatment. PDT in the clinic faces several hurdles due to the unique tumor environment, a feature of which is high levels of glutathione (GSH). An excess amount of GSH consumes reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by photosensitizers (PSs), reducing PDT efficiency. Herein, nano-photosensitizers (RuS1 NPs and RuS2 NPs) are reported. These consist of ruthenium complexes joined by disulfide bonds forming GSH sensitive polymer nanoparticles. The NPs achieve enhanced uptake compared to their constituent monomers. Inside cancer cells, high levels of GSH break the S-S bonds releasing PS molecules in the cell. The level of GSH is also then reduced leading to excellent PDT activity. Furthermore, RuS2 NPs functionalized with tumor targeting hyaluronic acid ([email protected] NPs) assessed in vivo were highly effective with minimal side effects. To the best of our knowledge, RuS NPs are the first metal complex-based nano-assembled photosensitizers which exhibit enhanced specificity and consume endogenous GSH simultaneously, thus achieving excellent two-photon PDT efficiency in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr00773dDOI Listing
April 2021

The herbal agent plantamajoside, exerts a potential inhibitory effect on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 31;21(6):573. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, P.R. China.

Plantamajoside (PMS), a major component of , has several pharmacological properties, including anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. However, the effects of PMS on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have yet to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PMS on HCC and elucidate the underlying mechanism. All assays were conducted using 5 groups, namely control, sorafenib, and PMS 100, 50, and 25 µg/ml groups. Cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. Cell migration was evaluated with the wound healing and Transwell assays, respectively. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were evaluated via flow cytometry. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis and western blotting were used to further investigate the mechanism of action of PMS. Sorafenib and PMS both significantly attenuated the proliferation and migration of HCC cells, and markedly promoted cell apoptosis. PMS induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The efficacy of PMS increased in a dose-dependent manner. Further study evaluated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ), nuclear factor (NF)-κB and cyclooxygenase (Cox-2) using RT-qPCR analysis and western blotting. The results demonstrated that PMS promoted the expression of PPARγ and suppressed the expression of NF-κB and Cox-2. In conclusion, PMS was shown to affect cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. Furthermore, PMS promoted the expression of PPARγ and inhibited the expression of NF-κB and Cox-2, which may be the mechanism underlying its biological effects. Based on the results of the present study, PMS appears to be a promising agent for HCC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027734PMC
June 2021

Tribological Performance Studies of Waterborne Polyurethane Coatings with Aligned Modified Graphene [email protected]

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 26;6(13):9243-9253. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Baosteel Research Institute, Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201900, China.

In this study, the chemical graft method was used to connect modified graphene oxide (GO) and FeO through covalent bonds. To make full use of the tribological properties of graphene, aligned graphene [email protected]/waterborne polyurethane ([email protected]/WPU) was prepared in a magnetic field and tribological experiments were carried out on it. The [email protected] was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characterization results show that FeO is successfully loaded on the surface of GO and [email protected] has better dispersibility in WPU. Among the coatings without alignment inducement of [email protected], 0.5 wt % [email protected]/WPU has the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate. In addition, the 0.5 wt % aligned [email protected]/WPU composite coating has the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate compared with nonaligned and pure WPU coatings. The excellent tribological properties of the aligned composite coating come from its ability to quickly form a uniform and continuous transfer film on the friction counterpair, which avoids direct friction between the friction counterpair and the coating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028171PMC
April 2021

Characteristics of human papillomavirus infection among women with cervical cytological abnormalities in the Zhoupu District, Shanghai City, China, 2014-2019.

Virol J 2021 Mar 8;18(1):51. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences Affiliated Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is currently the main cause of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions in female patients. By analyzing 6-year patient data from Shanghai Zhoupu Hospital in China, we retrospectively analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of women to determine the relationship between HPV genotype and cytological test results.

Methods: From 2014 to 2019, 23,724 cases of cervical shedding were collected from Zhoupu Hospital in Shanghai, China. By comparing the results of HPV and ThinPrep cytology test (TCT), the HPV infection rate of patients was retrospectively analyzed. HPV genotyping using commercial kits can detect 21 HPV subtypes (15 high-risk and 6 low-risk). According to the definition of the Bethesda system, seven types of cervical cytology results were involved.

Results: 3816 among 23,724 women, nearly 16.08%, were infected with HPV. The top three highest HPV prevalence rates were high-risk type infection, including HPV52 (3.19%), 58 (2.47%) and 16 (2.34%). The number of single-type HPV infections (3480 (91.20%)) was much larger than the number of multi-type ones (336 (8.8%)). Single-type infections were mainly in women aged 50-60 (16.63%) and women under 30 (15.37%), while multi-type infections were more common in women over 60 (2.67%). By analyzing the long-term trends, between 2014 and 2019, HPV52, 58, and 16 subtypes changed significantly, and the HPV positive rate also changed significantly during this period. Among 4502 TCT positive women, 15 (4.04%), 125 (2.64%),159 (1.54%), 4202 (17.71%) and 1 (0.004%) had atypical glandular cells (AGC), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), atypical squamous cells (ASC)and cervical adenocarcinoma, respectively. The HPV infection rates were 66.08%, 63.99%, 115.20%, 119.50%, and 31.72% for NILM, AGCs, HSILs LSILs and ASCs, respectively.

Conclusions: HPV and TCT screening were very important steps in the secondary prevention of cervical cancer. Through the tracking and analysis of HPV and TCT results in this study, it can provide valuable information for Shanghai's HPV screening and prevention strategies, and provide references for clinical decision-making in the treatment of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-021-01518-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938559PMC
March 2021

Genetic Effects of the Schizophrenia-Related Gene in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Front Genet 2021 19;12:553974. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Institute of Neurology, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, China.

Recent studies have reported patients who concurrently exhibit conditions of epilepsy and schizophrenia, indicating certain shared pathologies between them. This study aimed to investigate the genetic effects of the schizophrenia-related gene in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). A total of 496 TLE patients and 528 healthy individuals were successfully genotyped for six polymorphisms (rs760665, rs1011313, rs2619528, rs2619522, rs909706, and rs2619538), including 335 TLE patients and 325 healthy controls in cohort 1, and 161 TLE patients and 203 healthy controls in cohort 2. The frequency of the TT genotype at rs909706 T > C was lower in TLE patients than in normal controls in the initial cohort (cohort 1), which was confirmed in an independent cohort (cohort 2). However, the intronic T allele failed to be in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with any functional variations nearby; thus, together with the CCAC and TCAT haplotypes (rs1011313-rs2619528-rs2619522-rs909706) observed in the study, this allele acts only as a protective factor against susceptibility to TLE. Meanwhile, a mutant allele rs2619538 T > A was exclusively observed in TLE patients, and a dual-luciferase assay revealed that the mutant allele was increased by approximately 22% in the promoter compared with the wild-type allele. Together with the trend of increasing expression in epilepsy patients and animal models in this study, these are the first findings to demonstrate the genetic association of with TLE. Homozygous mutation of rs2619538 T > A likely promotes expression and facilitates subsequent processes in epilepsy pathologies. Thus, the role of in TLE deserves further exploration in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.553974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933566PMC
February 2021

Anti-Cognitive Decline by Yinxing-Mihuan-Oral-Liquid via Activating CREB/BDNF Signaling and Inhibiting Neuroinflammatory Process.

Exp Aging Res 2021 May-Jun;47(3):273-287. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Chongqing, China.

Cognitive decline in the normal aging process is one of the most common and prominent problems. Delaying and alleviating cognitive impairment is an important strategy of anti-aging. This study is to aim at investigating the effects of Yinxing-Mihuan-Oral-Liquid(GMOL) on the CREB/BDNF signaling in the normal aging process. SD rats were randomly divided into GMOL group and control group. The Morris water maze (MWM) was introduced for behavioral test. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used for cAMP response element binding protein 1(CREB1), p-CREB(Ser133), brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF), synaptophysin(SYP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP). Western blot was conducted for investigating the levels of CREB1 and p-CREB(Ser133), BDNF, SYP, GFAP and interleukin 6(IL-6).   Our data showed that compared with the control group, GMOL group had higher expression of memory-related proteins, decreased inflammatory factors, and enhanced spatial learning and memory ability. The study results show that GMOL ameliorates cognitive impairment of the normal aged SD rats via enhancing the expression of memory biomarkers and inhibiting inflammatory process. The potential neuroprotective role of GMOL in the process of aging may be related to mitigating cognitive decline via activating CREB/BDNF signaling and inhibiting inflammatory process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0361073X.2021.1878756DOI Listing
June 2021

Expression of a phenoloxidase cascade inhibitor enhances the virulence of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the insect Helicoverpa armigera.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Apr 24;117:103986. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, 152 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, 430079, China. Electronic address:

Entomopathogenic fungi have high potential for controlling insect pests, although the slow killing speed has blocked their widespread application. To increase the virulence of entomopathogenic fungi, genetic modification can be employed. Egf1.0 is an immunosuppressive protein encoded by polydnavirus, carried by parasitoid wasp Microplitis demolitor, which blocks the prophenoloxidase (PPO) activation response of host insects. In this study, we explored the feasibility of genetically modifying entomopathogenic fungi with increased virulence by expressing Egf1.0. In comparison with the wild-type parents, the median lethal concentration (LC) of Beauveria bassiana expressing Egf1.0 against Helicoverpa armigera was reduced by 2.7-fold, and the median lethal time (LT) was reduced by 22.8%. In vitro assay showed that recombinant Egf1.0 was able to inhibit the PPO activation response of H. armigera. In vivo assay revealed that the expression of Egf1.0 in B. bassiana caused a higher degree of suppression to PPO activation response of H. armigera. These assays suggested that the increased virulence of the transgenic fungi is due to the increased ability to suppress the host insect's immune response. Moreover, colony growth, conidia yield, and germination assays revealed that the expression of Egf1.0 in B. bassiana had no effect on its growth and development. In conclusion, the expression of Egf1.0 can significantly enhance the pathogenicity of B. bassiana against host insects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2020.103986DOI Listing
April 2021

Hematological parameters in patients with bloodstream infection: A retrospective observational study.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2020 11 30;14(11):1264-1273. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Introduction: To date, the relationship between the causative pathogens and the changes of hematological parameters was rarely referred and deserves further investigation.

Methodology: A total of 825 adult patients, including 134 negative blood cultures patients and 691 bloodstream infection (BSI) patients, were screened for eligibility in this study. Receiver operating characteristic curves and binary logistic regression models were used to assess the power of hematological parameters to distinguish patients with BSI caused by different pathogens.

Results: Except for platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and platelet larger cell count (P-LCC), the other hematological parameters investigated in the study were significantly different in patients with BSI caused by different pathogens, including Candida. The specific combinations of lymphocyte count (LYM), platelet count (PLT), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), mean platelet volume (MPV), MPV-to-PLT ratio (MPV/PLT), platelet larger cell ratio (P-LCR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) can improve the ability to distinguish various BSI from negative blood cultures. The highest area under the curve of was 0.753 (95% CI 0.709-0.797) for positive blood cultures, 0.715 (95% CI 0.658-0.771) for Gram-positive pathogens BSI, 0.777 (95% CI 0.730-0.824) for Gram-negative pathogens BSI, 0.797 (95% CI 0.747-0.846) for Escherichia coli BSI, 0.943 (95% CI 0.899-0.987) for Enterobacter aerogenes BSI, 0.830 (95% CI 0.740-0.921) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa BSI, and 0.767 (95% CI 0.695-0.839) for Staphylococcus aureus BSI.

Conclusions: The specific combinations of hematological parameters can improve the power to distinguish patients with BSI caused by different pathogens. Attention to these parameters can be easily integrated into daily medical activities, without extra costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.12811DOI Listing
November 2020

Gain-of-Function Mutations in Acid Stress Response () Protect Escherichia coli from Killing by Gallium Nitrate, an Antimicrobial Candidate.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 02 17;65(3). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, China

Widespread antimicrobial resistance encourages repurposing/refining of nonantimicrobial drugs for antimicrobial indications. Gallium nitrate (GaNt), an FDA-approved medication for cancer-related hypercalcemia, recently showed good activity against several clinically significant bacteria. However, the mechanism of GaNt antibacterial action is still poorly understood. In the present work, resistant and tolerant mutants of were sought via multiple rounds of killing by GaNt. Multiround-enrichment yielded no resistant mutant; whole-genome sequencing of one representative GaNt-tolerant mutant uncovered mutations in three genes (, , and ) potentially linked to protection from GaNt-mediated killing. Subsequent genetic analysis ruled out a role for and , but two gain-of-function mutations in conferred tolerance. The mutation-mediated GaNt tolerance depended on EvgS-to-EvgA phosphotransfer; EvgA-mediated upregulation of GadE. YdeO, and SarfA also contributed to tolerance, the latter two likely through their regulation of GadE. GaNt-mediated killing of wild-type cells correlated with increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation that was abolished by the -tolerant mutation. Moreover, GaNt-mediated killing was mitigated by dimethyl sulfoxide, and the -tolerant mutation upregulated genes encoding enzymes involved in ROS detoxification and in the glyoxylate shunt of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Collectively, these findings indicate that GaNt kills bacteria through elevation of ROS; gain-of-function mutations in confer tolerance by constitutively activating the EvgA-YdeO/GadE cascade of acid resistance pathways and by preventing GaNt-stimulated ROS accumulation by upregulating ROS detoxification and shifting TCA cycle carbon flux. The striking lethal activity of GaNt suggests that clinical use of the agent may not quickly lead to resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01595-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092542PMC
February 2021

Rapid Identification of KL49 Associated with Clinical Mortality.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 12;13:4125-4132. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Bacteriology & Antibacterial Resistance Surveillance Laboratory, Shenzhen Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Shenzhen People's Hospital, The Second Clinical Medical College, Jinan University, The First Affiliated Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518020, People's Republic of China.

Objective: We aimed to establish a tool for rapid identification of KL49 .

Methods: Based on the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) synthesis genes database, we investigated the distribution of K locus type 49 (KL49) genes in other KL types and established a rapid identification method for KL49. We collected 61 clinical carbapenem-resistant (CRAB) strains, identified KL49 by detection, and used whole genome sequencing (WGS) for verification. A mouse pneumonia model was used to confirm the hypervirulence phenotype. We tested the presence of gene in 165 CRAB strains from three provinces in China and evaluated the correlation of carrying CRAB infection with mortality.

Results: The gene is the CPS synthesis gene found only in KL49. We screened out nine WGS-validated KL49 strains from 61 CRAB clinical strains using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the gene. The survival rates of KL49 strains were significantly lower than nonKL49 strains in a mouse pneumonia model. The survival rates of LAC-4 knockout strain decreased significantly. Analysis of phylogenetics showed the worldwide spread of KL49 . Infection of carrying CRAB is an independent risk for mortality (OR, 10.76; 95%CI: 3.08-37.55; <0.001).

Conclusion: The hypervirulence phenotype of KL49 CRAB and the association with mortality highlight the urgent need for implementing control measures. The rapid identification assay has the potential to facilitate early medical intervention and worldwide surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S278891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7669520PMC
November 2020

Comprehensive Analysis of Differently Expressed and Methylated Genes in Preeclampsia.

Comput Math Methods Med 2020 1;2020:2139270. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China.

Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the mainly caused maternal and infant incidences and mortalities worldwide. However, the mechanisms underlying PE remained largely unclear. The present study identified 1716 high expressions of gene and 2705 low expressions of gene using GSE60438 database, and identified 7087 hypermethylated and 15120 hypomethylated genes in preeclampsia using GSE100197. Finally, 536 upregulated genes with hypomethylation and 322 downregulated genes with hypermethylation were for the first time revealed in PE. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that these genes were associated with peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation, skeletal system development, leukocyte migration, transcription regulation, T cell receptor and IFN--involved pathways, innate immune response, signal transduction, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and hemopoiesis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis demonstrated that aberrantly methylated differentially expressed genes were involved in regulating adherens junction, pluripotency of stem cell regulation, immune processing, T cell receptor and NF-B pathways, HTLV-I and HSV infections, leishmaniasis, and NK-induced cytotoxicity. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis identified several hub networks and key genes, including MAPK8, CCNF, CDC23, ABL1, NF1, UBE2E3, CD44, and PIK3R1. We hope these findings will draw more attention to these hub genes in future PE studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2139270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652635PMC
November 2020

Effective administration of cranial drilling therapy in the treatment of fourth degree temporal, facial and upper limb burns at high altitude: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Oct;8(20):5062-5069

Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Qinghai University, Xi'ning 810016, Qinghai Province, China.

Background: Fourth degree burns damage the full thickness of the skin and affect underlying tissues. Skin grafting after debridement is often used to cover the wounds of salvageable severe burns. A granulation wound can be formed by drilling the skull to the barrier layer to solve the problem of skull exposure. Low oxygen levels present at high altitudes aggravate ischemia and hypoxia which can negatively impact wound healing. The impaired healing in such cases can be ameliorated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Case Summary: We describe a patient who presented with fourth degree burns to the left temporal and facial regions upon admission in December 2018. The periosteum of the skull and the deep fascia of the face were exposed. After the first stage of debridement and skin grafting, the temporal skin did not survive well. Granulation was induced by cranial drilling, and then a local flap was transferred to cover the wound. The left temporal and facial wounds were completely covered and the patient recovered well.

Conclusion: Skin grafting and flap transfer after early debridement to cover the wound and control infection were of great significance. In the later stages of the patient's treatment, survival of the skin graft and skin flap was observed. The second stage repair was performed to achieve successful skin grafting by cranial granulation. Granulation was formed by drilling the skull, and then the wound was closed, which is suitable for cases with skull exposure and wounds with poor blood supply. We consider that hyperbaric oxygen treatment and improving tissue oxygen supply were beneficial in this patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i20.5062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7642563PMC
October 2020

Does a Deep Learning-Based Computer-Assisted Diagnosis System Outperform Conventional Double Reading by Radiologists in Distinguishing Benign and Malignant Lung Nodules?

Front Oncol 2020 9;10:545862. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Radiology, National Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Cancer Hospital & Shenzhen Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Shenzhen, China.

Background: In differentiating indeterminate pulmonary nodules, multiple studies indicated the superiority of deep learning-based computer-assisted diagnosis system (DL-CADx) over conventional double reading by radiologists, which needs external validation. Therefore, our aim was to externally validate the performance of a commercial DL-CADx in differentiating benign and malignant lung nodules.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 233 patients with 261 pathologically confirmed lung nodules were enrolled. Double reading was used to rate each nodule using a four-scale malignancy score system, including unlikely (0-25%), malignancy cannot be completely excluded (25-50%), highly likely (50-75%), and considered as malignant (75-100%), with any disagreement resolved through discussion. DL-CADx automatically rated each nodule with a malignancy likelihood ranging from 0 to 100%, which was then quadrichotomized accordingly. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the agreement in malignancy risk rating between DL-CADx and double reading, with ICC value of <0.5, 0.5 to 0.75, 0.75 to 0.9, and >0.9 indicating poor, moderate, good, and perfect agreement, respectively. With malignancy likelihood >50% as cut-off value for malignancy and pathological results as gold standard, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for double reading and DL-CADx, separately.

Results: Among the 261 nodules, 247 nodules were successfully detected by DL-CADx with detection rate of 94.7%. Regarding malignancy rating, DL-CADx was in moderate agreement with double reading (ICC = 0.555, 95% CI 0.424 to 0.655). DL-CADx misdiagnosed 40 true malignant nodules as benign nodules and 30 true benign nodules as malignant nodules with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 79.2, 45.5, and 71.7%, respectively. In contrast, double reading achieved better performance with 16 true malignant nodules misdiagnosed as benign nodules and 26 true benign nodules as malignant nodules with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 91.7, 52.7, and 83.0%, respectively.

Conclusion: Compared with double reading, DL-CADx we used still shows inferior performance in differentiating malignant and benign nodules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.545862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581733PMC
October 2020

Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Pathology of Amyloid-β.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;78(2):505-514

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Chongqing, Chongqing, China.

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely reported in several neurodegenerative disorders, including in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, and Huntington disease. An increasing number of studies have implicated altered glucose and energy metabolism in patients with AD. There is compelling evidence of abnormalities in some of the key mitochondrial enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, including the pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes, which play a great significance role in the pathogenesis of AD. Changes in some of the enzyme activities of the mitochondria found in AD have been linked with the pathology of amyloid-β (Aβ). This review highlights the role of mitochondrial function in the production and clearance of Aβ and how the pathology of Aβ leads to a decrease in energy metabolism by affecting mitochondrial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200519DOI Listing
May 2021

Highly Thermostable and Efficient Formamidinium-Based Low-Dimensional Perovskite Solar Cells.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jan 11;60(2):856-864. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, 201210, China.

Currently, most two-dimensional (2D) metal halide perovskites are of the Ruddlesden-Popper type and contain the thermally unstable methylammonium (MA) molecules, which leads to inferior photovoltaic performance and mild stability. Here we report a new type of MA-free formamidinium (FA) based low-dimensional perovskites, featuring a general formula of (PDA)(FA) Pb I with propane-1,3-diammonium (PDA) as the organic spacer cation. The perovskite films with well-oriented crystal grains are attained under the assistance of the FACl additive, where the role of Cl is investigated through the grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction technique. The photovoltaic device based on the optimized (PDA)(FA) Pb I film demonstrates a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 13.8 %, the highest record for the FA-based 2D perovskite solar cells. In addition, compared to (PDA)(MA) Pb I , the MA-containing analogue and a renowned stable 2D perovskite, both the (PDA)(FA) Pb I films and their derived devices exhibit exceedingly higher thermal stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202006970DOI Listing
January 2021

Interface Engineering in Multiphase Systems toward Synthetic Cells and Organelles: From Soft Matter Fundamentals to Biomedical Applications.

Adv Mater 2020 Oct 21;32(43):e2002932. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518000, China.

Synthetic cells have a major role in gaining insight into the complex biological processes of living cells; they also give rise to a range of emerging applications from gene delivery to enzymatic nanoreactors. Living cells rely on compartmentalization to orchestrate reaction networks for specialized and coordinated functions. Principally, the compartmentalization has been an essential engineering theme in constructing cell-mimicking systems. Here, efforts to engineer liquid-liquid interfaces of multiphase systems into membrane-bounded and membraneless compartments, which include lipid vesicles, polymer vesicles, colloidosomes, hybrids, and coacervate droplets, are summarized. Examples are provided of how these compartments are designed to imitate biological behaviors or machinery, including molecule trafficking, growth, fusion, energy conversion, intercellular communication, and adaptivity. Subsequently, the state-of-art applications of these cell-inspired synthetic compartments are discussed. Apart from being simplified and cell models for bridging the gap between nonliving matter and cellular life, synthetic compartments also are utilized as intracellular delivery vehicles for nuclei acids and nanoreactors for biochemical synthesis. Finally, key challenges and future directions for achieving the full potential of synthetic cells are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202002932DOI Listing
October 2020

Electrohydrodynamics of droplets and jets in multiphase microsystems.

Soft Matter 2020 Sep;16(37):8526-8546

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518000, Guangdong, China.

Electrohydrodynamics is among the most promising techniques for manipulating liquids in microsystems. The electric stress actuates, generates, and coalesces droplets of small sizes; it also accelerates, focuses, and controls the motion of fine jets. In this review, the current understanding of dynamic regimes of electrically driven drops and jets in multiphase microsystems is summarized. The experimental description and underlying mechanism of force interplay and instabilities are discussed. Conditions for controlled transitions among different regimes are also provided. Emerging new phenomena either due to special interfacial properties or geometric confinement are emphasized, and simple scaling arguments proposed in the literature are introduced. The review provides useful perspectives for investigations involving electrically driven droplets and jets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sm01357aDOI Listing
September 2020

Conformational and Compositional Tuning of Phenanthrocarbazole-Based Dopant-Free Hole-Transport Polymers Boosting the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 Oct 1;142(41):17681-17692. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Institute of Artificial Photosynthesis, DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Centre on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian 116024, China.

Conjugated polymers are regarded as promising candidates for dopant-free hole-transport materials (HTMs) in efficient and stable perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Thus far, the vast majority of polymeric HTMs feature structurally complicated benzo[1,2-:4,5-']dithiophene (BDT) analogs and electron-withdrawing heterocycles, forming a strong donor-acceptor (D-A) structure. Herein, a new class of phenanthrocarbazole ()-based polymeric HTMs (, , and ) has been synthesized by inserting a unit into a polymeric thiophene or selenophene chain with the aim of enhancing the π-π stacking of adjacent polymer chains and also to efficiently interact with the perovskite surface through the broad and planar conjugated backbone of the . Suitable energy levels, excellent thermostability, and humidity resistivity together with remarkable photoelectric properties are obtained via meticulously tuning the conformation and elemental composition of the polymers. As a result, PSCs containing as dopant-free HTM show a stabilized power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 20.8% and significantly enhanced longevity, rendering one of the best types of PSCs based on dopant-free HTMs. Subsequent experimental and theoretical studies reveal that the planar conformation of the polymers contributes to an ordered and face-on stacking of the polymer chains. Furthermore, introduction of the "Lewis soft" selenium atom can passivate surface trap sites of perovskite films by Pb-Se interaction and facilitate the interfacial charge separation significantly. This work reveals the guiding principles for rational design of dopant-free polymeric HTMs and also inspires rational exploration of small molecular HTMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c08352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584363PMC
October 2020

High BANCR expression is associated with worse prognosis in human malignant carcinomas: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Cancer 2020 Sep 9;20(1):870. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, 149 Dalian Road, Zunyi, 563000, Guizhou, China.

Background: BRAF-activated noncoding RNA (BANCR) is aberrantly expressed in various tumor tissues and has been confirmed to function as a tumor suppressor or oncogene in many types of cancers. Considering the conflicting results and insufficient sampling, a meta-analysis was performed to explore the prognostic value of BANCR in various carcinomas.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) was conducted to collect relevant articles.

Results: The pooled results showed a strong relationship between high BANCR expression and poor overall survival (OS) (HR (hazard ratio) =1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-2.15, P = 0.002) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.27-1.85, P < 0.00001). In addition, high BANCR expression predicted advanced tumor stage (OR (odds ratio) =2.39, 95% CI: 1.26-4.53, P = 0.008), presence of lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.08-3.83, P = 0.03), positive distant metastasis (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.92-4.96, P < 0.00001) and larger tumor sizes (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.09-2.46, P = 0.02). However, no associations were found for smoking status (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.65-1.56, P = 0.98), age (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.71-1.09, P = 0.236) and sex (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.72-1.16, P = 0.469). The sensitivity analysis of OS showed that the results of each publication were almost consistent with the combined results, and the merged results have high robustness and reliability.

Conclusions: The results showed that elevated BANCR expression was associated with unfavorable prognosis for most cancer patients, and BANCR could serve as a promising therapeutic target and independent prognostic predictor in most of cancer types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07177-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488167PMC
September 2020

Protection of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

Mediators Inflamm 2020 5;2020:2058272. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Age-Related Cardiac and Cerebral Diseases, Institute of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524001, China.

Given the growing evidence of a link between gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis and multiple sclerosis (MS), fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), aimed at rebuilding GM, has been proposed as a new therapeutic approach to MS treatment. To evaluate the viability of FMT for MS treatment and its impact on MS pathology, we tested FMT in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. We provide evidence that FMT can rectify altered GM to some extent with a therapeutic effect on EAE. We also found that FMT led to reduced activation of microglia and astrocytes and conferred protection on the blood-brain barrier (BBB), myelin, and axons in EAE. Taken together, our data suggest that FMT, as a GM-based therapy, has the potential to be an effective treatment for MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2058272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426773PMC
July 2021

Secular trends in the incidence of eating disorders in China from 1990 to 2017: a joinpoint and age-period-cohort analysis.

Psychol Med 2020 Aug 3:1-11. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, Shaanxi, China.

Background: Eating disorders (ED) have increasingly become a global topic of concern for public health. A better understanding of ED incidence is a basic requirement for improving its management. However, the temporal trend of ED incidence in China is still unknown.

Methods: The incidence rates of ED from 1990 to 2017 were collected from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 database according to the following: subtype, i.e. anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN); sex; and age group. The average annual percent changes and relative risks were calculated using joinpoint regression and the age-period-cohort model, respectively.

Results: From 1990 to 2017, age-standardized incidence rates of ED continued to increase in males and females, and this variation trend was observed in AN and BN. Joinpoint regression analysis showed that the incidence rates increased in all age groups. Adolescents had the highest risk of developing ED, followed by young adults. Age effects were the most influential risk factor for ED incidence. Period effects showed that the risk of developing ED continuously increased with increasing time periods in BN, but not in ED and AN. Concerning the cohort effects, people born after the 1990s presented a higher risk of ED, though they presented a lower risk of BN as compared to the whole cohort.

Conclusions: ED incidence rates continue to increase in China, particularly among adolescents and young adults. Further etiological studies are needed to explain these increases and to facilitate the early identification of high-risk individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720002706DOI Listing
August 2020
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