Publications by authors named "Zhonghua Sun"

240 Publications

Use of shear wave elastography on the maternal cervix to recognise cervical insufficiency using a transabdominal ultrasound approach.

Australas J Ultrasound Med 2021 May 18;24(2):89-98. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences School of Molecular and Life Sciences Curtin University Perth Western Australia Australia.

Introduction: The ramifications of preterm birth on society and the role of cervical length in identifying cervical insufficiency are well known. The main goal of this work was to apply shear wave elastography to the maternal cervix to assess the stiffness of the cervix and identify cervical insufficiency, using a transabdominal ultrasound approach.

Methods: Measurements of shear wave speed were obtained using a transabdominal ultrasound approach, at the anterior and posterior portions of the internal and external cervical os on 504 participants. A total of 455 participants were contacted following the expected date of birth of the fetus and birth details were obtained.

Results: The anterior and posterior portions of the internal os showed a significant correlation between shear wave speed and time until delivery of the fetus for women who gave birth spontaneously, with Linear being 0.024 (P = 0.012) and 0.017 (P = 0.05) respectively, and these correlations increased for the group of participants that were scanned between the 18th and end of the 20th week of pregnancy to Linear = 0.043 (P = 0.001) and 0.021 (P = 0.040) respectively. A ratio of internal os/external os anteriorly also showed a correlation of Linear = 0.030 (P = 0.009).

Conclusion: A transabdominal ultrasound technique has identified a reduction in shear wave speeds at the internal os in the mid-trimester, in women who had a subsequent preterm birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajum.12236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8412007PMC
May 2021

3D-Printed Coronary Plaques to Simulate High Calcification in the Coronary Arteries for Investigation of Blooming Artifacts.

Biomolecules 2021 09 3;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Taylor's University, No. 1, Jalan Taylor's, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia.

The diagnostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is significantly affected by high calcification in the coronary arteries owing to blooming artifacts limiting its accuracy in assessing the calcified plaques. This study aimed to simulate highly calcified plaques in 3D-printed coronary models. A combination of silicone + 32.8% calcium carbonate was found to produce 800 HU, representing extensive calcification. Six patient-specific coronary artery models were printed using the photosensitive polyurethane resin and a total of 22 calcified plaques with diameters ranging from 1 to 4 mm were inserted into different segments of these 3D-printed coronary models. The coronary models were scanned on a 192-slice CT scanner with 70 kV, pitch of 1.4, and slice thickness of 1 mm. Plaque attenuation was measured between 1100 and 1400 HU. Both maximum-intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR) images (wide and narrow window widths) were generated for measuring the diameters of these calcified plaques. An overestimation of plaque diameters was noticed on both MIP and VR images, with measurements on the MIP images close to those of the actual plaque sizes (<10% deviation), and a large measurement discrepancy observed on the VR images (up to 50% overestimation). This study proves the feasibility of simulating extensive calcification in coronary arteries using a 3D printing technique to develop calcified plaques and generate 3D-printed coronary models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11091307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8468360PMC
September 2021

3D Printing in Medical Applications.

Authors:
Zhonghua Sun

Curr Med Imaging 2021 ;17(7):811-813

Discipline of Medical Radiation Science, Curtin Medical School, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157340561707210702114259DOI Listing
November 2021

Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Strain in Suspected Myocarditis With Preserved LV-EF: A Comparison Between Patients With Negative and Positive Late Gadolinium Enhancement Findings.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Aug 8. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is absent in many patients with suspected myocarditis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF), which poses difficulties in diagnosis and risk stratification.

Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of ventricular myocardial strain in patients with suspected myocarditis, preserved LV-EF, and negative Lake Louis Criteria (LLC) by comparing the findings in LGE negative and LGE positive patients.

Study Type: Retrospective.

Population: A total of 108 patients with clinically suspected myocarditis who did not satisfy LLC were divided into LGE negative (N = 65) and LGE positive (N = 43) groups. A control group consisted of 50 healthy volunteers.

Field Strength/sequence: Steady-state free precession cine and phase-sensitive inversion recovery segmented gradient echo LGE sequences at 3.0 T.

Assessment: Myocardial strain of the ventricles was evaluated by feature tracking, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were assessed during follow-up since the date of magnetic resonance examination.

Statistical Tests: Independent-samples t test, Mann-Whitney U test, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and Cox proportional hazard regression were performed. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Cardiac function and myocardial deformability were impaired in all patients relative to controls. Left ventricular-global radial (LV-GRS), circumferential (LV-GCS), and longitudinal (LV-GLS) strain had diagnostic value, even in LGE negative patients (sensitivity = 0.446, 0.523, and 0.662; specificity = 0.92, 0.80, and 0.64; AUC = 0.685, 0.675, and 0.648, respectively). After a median follow-up of 530.5 (interquartile range: 168.5-969.25) days, MACE occurred in 18 (16.67%) patients. Right ventricular GLS showed prognostic value in all patients and in LGE negative patients, both in univariable analysis (hazard ratio [HR] 1.049, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.001-1.099 and HR 1.068, 95% CI 1.011-1.127, respectively) and in multivariable Cox survival analysis. LV-GLS was associated with MACE in LGE positive patients in multivariable Cox survival analysis.

Data Conclusion: Myocardial strain provides diagnostic and prognostic value in suspected myocarditis with preserved LV-EF, even in the absence of LGE.

Level Of Evidence: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27873DOI Listing
August 2021

Clinical Value of Virtual Reality versus 3D Printing in Congenital Heart Disease.

Biomolecules 2021 06 14;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Discipline of Medical Radiation Science, Curtin Medical School, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6102, Australia.

Both three-dimensional (3D) printing and virtual reality (VR) are reported as being superior to the current visualization techniques in conveying more comprehensive visualization of congenital heart disease (CHD). However, little is known in terms of their clinical value in diagnostic assessment, medical education, and preoperative planning of CHD. This cross-sectional study aims to address these by involving 35 medical practitioners to subjectively evaluate VR visualization of four selected CHD cases in comparison with the corresponding 3D printed heart models (3DPHM). Six questionnaires were excluded due to incomplete sections, hence a total of 29 records were included for the analysis. The results showed both VR and 3D printed heart models were comparable in terms of the degree of realism. VR was perceived as more useful in medical education and preoperative planning compared to 3D printed heart models, although there was no significant difference in the ratings ( = 0.54 and 0.35, respectively). Twenty-one participants (72%) indicated both the VR and 3DPHM provided additional benefits compared to the conventional medical imaging visualizations. This study concludes the similar clinical value of both VR and 3DPHM in CHD, although further research is needed to involve more cardiac specialists for their views on the usefulness of these tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11060884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8232263PMC
June 2021

Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography for Detecting Subclinical Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients With Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

Tex Heart Inst J 2021 06;48(2)

Department of Echocardiography, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University and Beijing Institute of Heart Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Myocardial ischemia and left ventricular dysfunction have been documented in young adults with familial hypercholesterolemia. We investigated whether speckle-tracking echocardiography can be used to detect subclinically impaired global and regional myocardial function in patients with this lipid disorder. This single-center study included 47 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 37 healthy control subjects who underwent transthoracic Doppler echocardiography and speckle-tracking echocardiography from January 2003 through December 2016. Conventional echocardiographic and strain parameters in the 2 groups were analyzed and compared. Left ventricular dimensions were significantly larger at end-diastole (P=0.02) and end-systole (P=0.013), left ventricular walls were significantly thicker (P <0.0001), and the early transmitral/early diastolic mitral annular velocity ratio was significantly higher (P=0.006) in the patient group than in the control group. In the patient group, global longitudinal and circumferential strain values were significantly lower (P <0.0001) and global radial strain values significantly higher (P=0.006); all segmental longitudinal strain (P <0.04) and most segmental circumferential strain values (P ≤0.01) were significantly lower; and some segmental radial strains, especially at the apex, were significantly higher (P ≤0.04). However, average longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strains in the different segments of the 3 main coronary artery territories were significantly lower in the patient group (P <0.01). Global longitudinal strain (r=0.561; P=0.001) and global circumferential strain (r=0.565; P <0.0001) were inversely correlated with low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels. We conclude that speckle-tracking echocardiography can be used to detect subclinical global and regional systolic abnormalities in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14503/THIJ-18-6720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262826PMC
June 2021

Imaging features of mycotic aortic aneurysms.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Jun;11(6):2861-2878

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Beijing Aortic Disease Centre, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Heart Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing Engineering Research Centre for Vascular Prostheses, Beijing, China.

Infectious aortitis (IA) is a rare and life-threatening cardiovascular disease. Early diagnosis and timely intervention are crucial for reducing mortality associated with mycotic aortic aneurysms (MAAs); however, early diagnosis is challenging due to the nonspecific symptoms. Some cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage or after developing complications, such as rupture or aortic fistula. Current state-of-the-art imaging modalities-including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT-can detect infected aneurysms in clinically suspicious cases. MAA features on imaging include lobulated pseudoaneurysm, indistinct irregular arterial wall, perianeurysmal gas, perianeurysmal edema, perianeurysmal soft tissue mass, aneurysmal thrombosis, and high metabolic activity with increased uptake of FDG. Enlarged lymph nodes are often found adjacent to the aneurysm, while iliopsoas abscess (IPA), spondylitis, and aortic fistulas are commonly associated complications. After surgery or endovascular repair, radiological features-including ectopic gas, peri-graft fluid, thickening of adjacent bowel, pseudoaneurysm formed at the graft anastomosis, and increased uptake of FDG-may indicate an infection of aortic graft. This article provides an overview of the clinical and imaging features of MAAs. Thus, familiarity with the imaging appearances of MAAs may assist radiologists in the diagnosis and facilitation of timely treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107294PMC
June 2021

Chest CT Imaging in the Diagnosis of COVID-19: Rapid Publications are not Equal to Quality of Research.

Authors:
Zhonghua Sun

Curr Med Imaging 2021 ;17(4):447-451

Discipline of Medical Radiation Science Curtin University Perth, 6845, Western Australia, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157340561704210419121707DOI Listing
June 2021

Hemodynamic Comparison of Stent-Grafts for the Treatment of Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease.

J Endovasc Ther 2021 08 2;28(4):623-635. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Multi-Modality Medical Imaging (M3I) Group, Technical Medical Centre, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To compare the flow patterns and hemodynamics of the AFX stent-graft and the covered endovascular reconstruction of aortic bifurcation (CERAB) configuration using laser particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments.

Materials And Methods: Two anatomically realistic aortoiliac phantoms were constructed using polydimethylsiloxane polymer. An AFX stent-graft with a transparent cover made with a new method was inserted into one phantom. A CERAB configuration using Atrium's Avanta V12 with transparent covers made with a previously established method was inserted into the other phantom, both modified stent-grafts were suitable for laser PIV, enabling visualization of the flow fields and quantification of time average wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and relative residence time (RRT).

Results: Disturbed flow was observed at the bifurcation region of the AFX, especially at the end systolic velocity (ESV) time-point where recirculation was noticeable due to vortical flow. In contrast, predominantly unidirectional flow was observed at the CERAB bifurcation. These observations were confirmed by the quantified hemodynamic results from PIV analysis where mean TAWSS of 0.078 Pa (range: 0.009-0.242 Pa) was significantly lower in AFX as compared with 0.229 Pa (range: 0.013-0.906 Pa) for CERAB (p<0.001). Mean OSI of 0.318 (range: 0.123-0.496) in AFX was significantly higher than 0.252 (range: 0.055-0.472) in CERAB (p<0.001). Likewise, mean RRT of 180 Pa (range: 9-3603 Pa) in AFX was also significantly higher than 88 Pa (range: 2-840 Pa) in CERAB (p=0.0086).

Conclusion: In this in vitro study, the flow pattern of a modified AFX stent-graft was found to be more disturbed especially at the end systolic phase, its hemodynamic outcomes less desirable than CERAB configuration.

Clinical Relevance: While the AFX stent-graft has an advantage over the CERAB configuration in eliminating radial mismatch, and maintaining the anatomical bifurcation for future endovascular intervention, this in vitro study revealed that the associated lower TAWSS, higher OSI and RRT may predispose to thrombosis and are, thus, less desirable as compared to a CERAB configuration. Further investigation is warranted to confirm whether these findings translate into the clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15266028211016431DOI Listing
August 2021

CT Findings of Pulmonary Metastases from Primary Cardiac Angiosarcoma.

Curr Med Imaging 2021 ;17(10):1216-1220

Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare malignancy with high predilection to involve surrounding structures such as pulmonary metastases. We analysed the chest computed tomography (CT) imaging features of patients diagnosed with primary cardiac angiosarcoma with pulmonary metastases in this study.

Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed 12 patients with confirmed primary cardiac angiosarcoma, out of which eight (all men) with pulmonary metastasis were included in the analysis. The patients' age ranged from 17 to 74 (mean: 48) years. CT was performed in all patients with unenhanced, contrast-enhanced, and both scans were done in 1, 3 and 4 patients, respectively.

Results: Nodular lesions were observed in 7 patients with multiple solid nodules observed in 6 out of 7 patients. A solitary solid nodule was found in the remaining patient in the upper lobe and apical segment of the right lung with a diameter of 11.7 mm. All solid nodules were distributed along with bronchovascular bundles in the lungs, and their maximum diameter ranged from 2.3 to 19.9 mm. Nodules larger than 10 mm in diameter were heterogeneously enhanced on contrast-enhanced CT images (5/8 patients), whereas those smaller than 10 mm were homogeneously enhanced (3/8 patients). Other imaging features, namely the tree-in-bud pattern, emphysema, pleural effusion, and mediastinal lymph node enlargement, were observed in 4, 3, 3, and 2 patients, respectively.

Conclusion: CT enhancement features of pulmonary metastasis in patients with primary cardiac angiosarcoma depend on the size of pulmonary nodules, with larger ones being heterogeneous and smaller ones homogeneous. Other signs are less noticed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405617666210521151753DOI Listing
December 2021

Food reward depends on TLR4 activation in dopaminergic neurons.

Pharmacol Res 2021 07 8;169:105659. Epub 2021 May 8.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642, China; National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642, China. Electronic address:

The rising prevalence of obesity and being overweight is a worldwide health concern. Food reward dysregulation is the basic factor for the development of obesity. Dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play a vital role in food reward. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a transmembrane pattern recognition receptor that can be activated by saturated fatty acids. Here, we show that the deletion of TLR4 specifically in DA neurons increases body weight, increases food intake, and decreases food reward. Conditional deletion of TLR4 also decreased the activity of DA neurons while suppressing the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the VTA, which regulates the concentration of DA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to affect food reward. Meanwhile, AAV-Cre-GFP mediated VTA-specific TLR4-deficient mice recapitulates food reward of DAT-TLR4-KO mice. Food reward could be rescued by re-expressing TLR4 in VTA DA neurons. Moreover, effects of intra-VTA infusion of lauric acid (a saturated fatty acid with 12 carbon) on food reward were abolished in mice lacking TLR4 in DA neurons. Our study demonstrates the critical role of TLR4 signaling in regulating the activity of VTA DA neurons and the normal function of the mesolimbic DA system that may contribute to food reward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105659DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison of diametric and volumetric changes in Stanford type B aortic dissection patients in assessing aortic remodeling post-stent graft treatment.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 May;11(5):1723-1736

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: The study aims to analyze the correlation between the maximal diameter (both axial and orthogonal) and volume changes in the true (TL) and false lumens (FL) after stent-grafting for Stanford type B aortic dissection.

Method: Computed tomography angiography was performed on 13 type B aortic dissection patients before and after procedure, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. The lumens were divided into three regions: the stented area (Region 1), distal to the stent graft to the celiac artery (Region 2), and between the celiac artery and the iliac bifurcation (Region 3). Changes in aortic morphology were quantified by the increase or decrease of diametric and volumetric percentages from baseline measurements.

Results: At Region 1, the TL diameter and volume increased (pre-treatment: volume =51.4±41.9 mL, maximal axial diameter =22.4±6.8 mm, maximal orthogonal diameter =21.6±7.2 mm; follow-up: volume =130.7±69.2 mL, maximal axial diameter =40.1±8.1 mm, maximal orthogonal diameter =31.9+2.6 mm, P<0.05 for all comparisons), while FL decreased (pre-treatment: volume =129.6±150.5 mL; maximal axial diameter =43.0±15.8 mm; maximal orthogonal diameter =28.3±12.6 mm; follow-up: volume =66.6±95.0 mL, maximal axial diameter =24.5±19.9 mm, maximal orthogonal diameter =16.9±13.7, P<0.05 for all comparisons). Due to the uniformity in size throughout the vessel, high concordance was observed between diametric and volumetric measurements in the stented region with 93% and 92% between maximal axial diameter and volume for the true/false lumens, and 90% and 92% between maximal orthogonal diameter and volume for the true/false lumens. Large discrepancies were observed between the different measurement methods at regions distal to the stent graft, with up to 46% differences between maximal orthogonal diameter and volume.

Conclusions: Volume measurement was shown to be a much more sensitive indicator in identifying lumen expansion/shrinkage at the distal stented region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047377PMC
May 2021

Controllable synthesis of CoFeSe/NiCoSe hybrid nanotubes with heterointerfaces and improved oxygen evolution reaction performance.

Nanoscale 2021 Mar 22;13(12):6241-6247. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Collaborative Innovation Center of Functionalized Probes for Chemical Imaging in Universities of Shandong, Key Laboratory of Molecular and Nano Probes, Ministry of Education, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Clean Production of Fine Chemicals, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China.

The rational construction of heterointerfaces in hollow nanohybrids is considered as a promising and challenging approach for enhancing their electrocatalytic performance. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of CoFeSe/NiCoSe hybrid nanotubes (CFSe/NCSe HNTs) with open ends and abundant heterointerfaces. The CFSe/NCSe HNT hybrid nanotubes are obtained by using NiCo-aspartic acid nanofibres (NiCo-Asp NFs) as the templates which can be converted to the CFSe/NCSe HNTs via proton etching, three metal coprecipitation, Kirkendall effect and anion-exchange reaction. The CFSe/NCSe HNTs may function as the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts, and they exhibit a low overpotential of 224 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm and outstanding stability with only 1.4% current density change even after 15 h, superior to those of the reported single-component counterparts. The obtained density of states and differential charge density confirm the existence of a heterointerface which can induce the accumulation of electrons at the interface of CFSe-NCSe and consequently increase the carrier density and electrical conductivity of the CFSe/NCSe HNTs. This research provides a new avenue for the fabrication of hollow nanohybrids with heterointerfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr00406aDOI Listing
March 2021

Molecular basis of cross-resistance to acetohydroxy acid synthase-inhibiting herbicides in Sagittaria trifolia L.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Mar 29;173:104795. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

College of Plant Protection, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110866, China. Electronic address:

Acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS)-inhibiting herbicides are one of the most commonly used herbicides for controlling the growth of Sagittaria trifolia L. in paddy fields in Northeastern China. In this study, we collected five suspected resistant populations of S. trifolia (R1-R5) from three different provinces of Northeastern China. The results of whole-plant bioassays revealed that those populations showed high level of resistance to bensulfuron-methyl with resistance index (GR R/S) ranging from 39.90 to 88.50. The results of AHAS-activity assays were consistent with the results of the whole-plant bioassays. The AHAS gene analysis showed that R2 and R3 populations contained Pro-197-Leu mutations that were highly resistant to penoxsulam; R1 and R4 populations contained Pro-197-Ser mutations that were highly resistant to bispyribac‑sodium; R5 population contained Trp-574-Leu mutation that showed high resistance to IMI, PT, PTB and SU herbicides. The AHAS with resistance mutations showed less sensitivity to feedback inhibition by BCAAs and R genotypes had increased free BCAAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2021.104795DOI Listing
March 2021

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance shows promise in grading cardiac tumors.

Int J Cardiol 2021 06 20;332:225-226. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.03.038DOI Listing
June 2021

Myocardial extracellular volume fraction analysis in doxorubicin-induced beagle models: comparison of dual-energy CT with equilibrium contrast-enhanced single-energy CT.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Feb;11(1):102-110

Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Dual-energy CT (DECT) permits the simultaneous operation of two different kV levels, providing a potential method toward the assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of DECT for evaluation of the myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) fraction in comparison with single-energy CT (SECT).

Methods: Myocardial ECV was quantified in fifteen dogs using DECT and dynamic equilibrium SECT before and after doxorubicin administration. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) was used to assess myocardial function. The histological collagen volume fraction (CVF) was calculated as the gold standard. The Bland-Altman analysis was performed to compare the agreement between DECT-ECV and SECT-ECV. The association among ECV values derived from DECT and SECT, CVF, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined by correlation analysis. The variations of these values were evaluated using repeated ANOVA.

Results: The DECT- and SECT-ECV were increased with the elongation of modeling time (pre-modeling . 16-week models . 24-week models: DECT-ECV 24.1%±1.1%, 35.1%±1.3% and 37.6%±1.4%; SECT-ECV 22.9%±0.8%, 33.6%±1.2% and 36.3%±1.0%; n=30 in per-subject analysis, all P<0.05). Both ECV values of DECT and SECT correlated well with the histological CVF results (R=0.935 and 0.952 for the DECT-ECV and SECT-ECV; all P<0.001; n=13). Bland-Altman plots showed no significant differences between DECT- and SECT-ECV.

Conclusions: DECT-ECV correlated well with both SECT-ECV and histology, showing the feasibility of DECT in evaluating doxorubicin-induced diffuse myocardial interstitial fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cdt-20-798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944207PMC
February 2021

Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of eutopic endometrium and ectopic lesions of adenomyosis.

Cell Biosci 2021 Mar 8;11(1):51. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Gynecology, The Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. 16369 Jingshi Road, Jinan, 250014, Shandong, China.

Background: Adenomyosis (AM) is a common benign chronic gynaecological disorder; however, the precise pathogenesis of adenomyosis is still poorly understood. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) can uncover rare subpopulations, explore genetic and functional heterogeneity, and reveal the uniqueness of each cell. It provides us a new approach to reveal biological issues from a more detailed and microscopic perspective. Here, we utilize this revolutionary technology to identify the changes of gene expression patterns between ectopic lesions and the eutopic endometrium at the single-cell level and explore a potential novel pathogenesis of AM.

Methods: A control endometrium (sample with leiomyoma excluding endometrial disorders, n = 1), eutopic endometrium and ectopic lesion (from a patient with adenomyosis, n = 1) samples were analysed by scRNA-seq, and additional leiomyoma (n = 3) and adenomyosis (n = 3) samples were used to confirm colocalization and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation. Protein colocalization was visualized by immunofluorescence, and CD34-periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) double staining was used to assess the formation of VM.

Results: The scRNA-seq results suggest that cancer-, cell motility- and inflammation- (CMI) associated terms, cell proliferation and angiogenesis play important roles in the progression of AM. Moreover, the colocalization of EPCAM and PECAM1 increased significantly in the ectopic endometrium group (P < 0.05), cell subpopulation with high copy number variation (CNV) levels possessing tumour-like features existed in the ectopic lesion sample, and VNN1- and EPCAM-positive cell subcluster displayed active cell motility in endometrial epithelial cells. Furthermore, during the transformation of epithelial cells to endothelial cells, we observed the significant accumulation of VM formation (positively stained with PAS but not CD34, P < 0.05) in ectopic lesions.

Conclusions: In the present study, our results support the theory of adenomyosis derived from the invasion and migration of the endometrium. Moreover, cell subcluster with high CNV level and tumour-associated characteristics is identified. Furthermore, epithelial-endothelial transition (EET) and the formation of VM in tumours, the latter of which facilitates the blood supply and plays an important role in maintaining cell growth, were also confirmed to occur in AM. These results indicated that the inhibition of EET and VM formation may be a potential strategy for AM management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-021-00562-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938473PMC
March 2021

Quantitative Assessment of 3D Printed Model Accuracy in Delineating Congenital Heart Disease.

Biomolecules 2021 02 12;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Discipline of Medical Radiation Science, Curtin Medical School, Curtin University, GPO Box, U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.

Background: Three-dimensional (3D) printing is promising in medical applications, especially presurgical planning and the simulation of congenital heart disease (CHD). Thus, it is clinically important to generate highly accurate 3D-printed models in replicating cardiac anatomy and defects. The present study aimed to investigate the accuracy of the 3D-printed CHD model by comparing them with computed tomography (CT) images and standard tessellation language (STL) files.

Methods: Three models were printed, comprising different CHD pathologies, including the tetralogy of Fallot (ToF), ventricular septal defect (VSD) and double-outlet right-ventricle (DORV). The ten anatomical locations were measured in each comparison. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman analysis and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) determined the model accuracy.

Results: All measurements with three printed models showed a strong correlation (r = 0.99) and excellent reliability (ICC = 0.97) when compared to original CT images, CT images of the 3D-printed models, STL files and 3D-printed CHD models.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated the high accuracy of 3D-printed heart models with excellent correlation and reliability when compared to multiple source data. Further investigation into 3D printing in CHD should focus on the clinical value and the benefits to patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11020270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917618PMC
February 2021

Investigation of Three-dimensional Printing Materials for Printing Aorta Model Replicating Type B Aortic Dissection.

Curr Med Imaging 2021 ;17(7):843-849

Discipline of Medical Radiation Science, Curtin Medical School, Curtin University, Perth, 6845, Australia.

Aim: This study aims to determine a printing material that has both elastic property and radiology equivalence close to the real aorta for simulation of endovascular stent-graft repair of aortic dissection.

Background: With the rapid development of Three-Dimensional (3D) printing technology, a patient- specific 3D printed model is able to help surgeons to make a better treatment plan for Type B aortic dissection patients. However, the radiological properties of most 3D printing materials have not been well characterized. This study aims to investigate the appropriate materials for printing human aorta with mechanical and radiological properties similar to the real aortic Computed Tomography (CT) attenuation.

Objective: Quantitative assessment of CT attenuation of different materials used in 3D printed models of aortic dissection for developing patient-specific 3D printed aorta models to simulate type B aortic dissection.

Methods: A 25-mm length of aorta model was segmented from a patient's image dataset with a diagnosis of type B aortic dissection. Four different elastic commercial 3D printing materials, namely Agilus A40 and A50, Visijet CE-NT A30 and A70 were selected and printed with different hardness. Totally four models were printed out and CT scanned twice on a 192-slice CT scanner using the standard aortic CT angiography protocol, with and without contrast inside the lumen. Five reference points with the Region Of Interest (ROI) of 1.77 mm2 were selected at the aortic wall, and intimal flap and their Hounsfield units (HU) were measured and compared with the CT attenuation of original CT images. The comparison between the patient's aorta and models was performed through a paired-sample t-test to determine if there is any significant difference.

Results: The mean CT attenuation of the aortic wall of the original CT images was 80.7 HU. Analysis of images without using contrast medium showed that the material of Agilus A50 produced the mean CT attenuation of 82.6 HU, which is similar to that of original CT images. The CT attenuation measured at images acquired with the other three materials was significantly lower than that of the original images (p<0.05). After adding contrast medium, Visijet CE-NT A30 had an average CT attenuation of 90.6 HU, which is close to that of the original images without a statistically significant difference (p>0.05). In contrast, the CT attenuation measured at images acquired with other three materials (Agilus A40, A50 and Visiject CE-NT A70) was 129 HU, 135 HU and 129.6 HU, respectively, which is significantly higher than that of original CT images (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Both Visijet CE-NT and Agilus have tensile strength and elongation close to actual patient's tissue properties producing similar CT attenuation. Visijet CE-NT A30 is considered the appropriate material for printing aorta to simulate contrast-enhanced CT imaging of type B aortic dissection. Due to the lack of body phantoms in the experiments, further research with the simulation of realistic anatomical body environment should be conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405617666210218102046DOI Listing
November 2021

Myocardial extracellular volume fraction quantification in an animal model of the doxorubicin-induced myocardial fibrosis: a synthetic hematocrit method using 3T cardiac magnetic resonance.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Feb;11(2):510-520

Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Visualization of diffuse myocardial fibrosis is challenging and mainly relies on histology. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), which uses extracellular contrast agents, is a rapidly developing technique for measuring the extracellular volume (ECV). The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the synthetic myocardial ECV fraction based on 3.0 T CMR compared with the conventional ECV fraction.

Methods: This study was approved by the local animal care and ethics committee. Fifteen beagle models with diffuse myocardial fibrosis, including 12 experimental and three control subjects, were generated by injecting doxorubicin 30 mg/m intravenously every three weeks for 24 weeks. Short-axis (SAX) and 4-chamber long-axis (LAX) T1 maps were acquired for both groups. The association between hematocrit (Hct) and native T1 was derived from 9 non-contrast CMR T1 maps of 3 control beagles using regression analysis. Synthetic ECV was then calculated using the synthetic Hct and compared with conventional ECV at baseline and the 16 and 24 week after doxorubicin administration. The collagen volume fraction (CVF) value was measured on digital biopsy samples. Bland-Altman plots were used to analyze the agreement between conventional and synthetic ECV. Correlation analyses were performed to explore the association among conventional ECV, synthetic ECV, CVF, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).

Results: The regression model synthetic Hct = 816.46*R1 - 0.01 (R=0.617; P=0.012) was used to predict the Hct from native T1 values. The conventional and synthetic ECV fractions of experimental animals at the 16 and 24 week after modeling were significantly higher than those measured at the baseline (31.4%±2.2% and 36.3%±2.1% 22.9%±1.7%; 29.9%±2.4% and 36.1%±2.6% 22.0%±2.4%; all with P<0.05). Bland-Altman plots showed a bias (1.0%) between conventional and synthetic ECV with 95% limits of agreement of -2.5% to 4.4% in the per-subject analysis (n=21) and a bias (1.0%) between conventional and synthetic ECV with 95% limits of agreement of -2.4% to 4.3% in the per-segment analysis (n=294). Conventional and synthetic ECV were well correlated with CVF (r=0.937 and 0.925, all with P<0.001, n=10).

Conclusions: Our study showed promising results for using synthetic ECV compared with the conventional ECV for providing accurate quantification of myocardial ECV without the need for blood sampling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7779919PMC
February 2021

Preparation and characterization of an eco-friendly dust suppression and sand-fixation liquid mulching film.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Mar 24;256:117429. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Lithium Battery Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Zaozhuang, 277000, China.

An eco-friendly dust suppression and sand-fixation liquid mulching film was prepared via a facile secondary spraying process in this work. Water polyurethane (WPU) was blended with dissolved humic acid (HA) firstly, and then the blend solutions (HWPU) were sprayed on the surface of cationic starch (CS) / sodium lignosulfonate (LS) film to synthesize the liquid mulching film (CLS-HWPU). The effects of liquid mulching film composition on mechanical properties in dry and wet states were investigated. The results showed that the optimal composition of liquid mulching film was: 3% (CS), 0.9 % (LS), 1.5 % (glycerol), 2% (HA), and 30 % (WPU). The CLS-HWPU liquid mulching films were characterized in terms of light transmittance, degradation performance test, contact angle test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (ATR-FTIR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and erosion resistance test. The results indicated that the CLS-HWPU film had good UV resistance, thermal stability, anti-erosion, and biodegradation. The CLS-HWPU film meets the demand of dust suppression and sand-fixation in dusty areas and desertification environments, which opens a new application field for liquid mulching film with high safety and environmental protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117429DOI Listing
March 2021

Digital Variance Angiography: A Promising Alternative Technology to Traditional Angiography for Improvement of Image Quality with Reduction of Radiation and Contrast Medium Doses.

Authors:
Zhonghua Sun

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2021 03 3;44(3):460-461. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, 6845, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-020-02739-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Rates and Patterns of First-Time Admissions for Acute Coronary Syndromes across Western Australia Using Linked Administrative Health Data 2007-2015.

J Clin Med 2020 Dec 25;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 25.

School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6102, Australia.

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is globally recognised as a significant health burden, for which the reduction in total ischemic times by way of the most suitable reperfusion strategy has been the focus of national and international initiatives. In a setting such as western Australia, characterised by 79% of the population dwelling in the greater capital region, transfers to hospitals capable of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is often a necessary but time-consuming reality for outer-metropolitan and rural patients.

Methods: Hospital separations, emergency department admissions and death registration data between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2015 were linked by the Western Australian Data Linkage Unit, identifying patients with a confirmed first-time diagnosis of ACS, who were either a direct admission or experienced an inter-hospital transfer.

Results: Although the presentation rates of ACS remained stable over the nine years evaluated, the rates of first-time admissions for ACS were more than double in the rural residential cohort, including higher rates of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, the most time-critical manifestation of ACS. Consequently, rural patients were more likely to undergo an inter-hospital transfer. However, 42% of metropolitan admissions for a first-time ACS also experienced a transfer.

Conclusion: While the time burden of inter-hospital transfers for rural patients is a reality in health care systems where it is not feasible to have advanced facilities and workforce skills outside of large population centres, there is a concerning trend of inter-hospital transfers within the metropolitan region highlighting the need for further initiatives to streamline pre-hospital triage to ensure patients with symptoms indicative of ACS present to PCI-equipped hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794922PMC
December 2020

Clinical Applications of Patient-Specific 3D Printed Models in Cardiovascular Disease: Current Status and Future Directions.

Authors:
Zhonghua Sun

Biomolecules 2020 11 20;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, School of Molecular and Life Sciences Curtin University, GPO Box, U1987, Perth 6845, Australia.

Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been increasingly used in medicine with applications in many different fields ranging from orthopaedics and tumours to cardiovascular disease. Realistic 3D models can be printed with different materials to replicate anatomical structures and pathologies with high accuracy. 3D printed models generated from medical imaging data acquired with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound augment the understanding of complex anatomy and pathology, assist preoperative planning and simulate surgical or interventional procedures to achieve precision medicine for improvement of treatment outcomes, train young or junior doctors to gain their confidence in patient management and provide medical education to medical students or healthcare professionals as an effective training tool. This article provides an overview of patient-specific 3D printed models with a focus on the applications in cardiovascular disease including: 3D printed models in congenital heart disease, coronary artery disease, pulmonary embolism, aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection, and aortic valvular disease. Clinical value of the patient-specific 3D printed models in these areas is presented based on the current literature, while limitations and future research in 3D printing including bioprinting of cardiovascular disease are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10111577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699768PMC
November 2020

Quantitative Measurement of Breast Density Using Personalized 3D-Printed Breast Model for Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Oct 6;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.

Despite the development and implementation of several MRI techniques for breast density assessments, there is no consensus on the optimal protocol in this regard. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate MRI protocols for the quantitative assessment of breast density using a personalized 3D-printed breast model. The breast model was developed using silicone and peanut oils to simulate the MRI related-characteristics of fibroglandular and adipose breast tissues, and then scanned on a 3T MRI system using non-fat-suppressed and fat-suppressed sequences. Breast volume, fibroglandular tissue volume, and percentage of breast density from these imaging sequences were objectively assessed using Analyze 14.0 software. Finally, the repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to examine the differences between the quantitative measurements of breast volume, fibroglandular tissue volume, and percentage of breast density with respect to the corresponding sequences. The volume of fibroglandular tissue and the percentage of breast density were significantly higher in the fat-suppressed sequences than in the non-fat-suppressed sequences ( < 0.05); however, the difference in breast volume was not statistically significant ( = 0.529). Further, a fat-suppressed T2-weighted with turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM) imaging sequence was superior to the non-fat- and fat-suppressed T1- and T2-weighted sequences for the quantitative measurement of breast density due to its ability to represent the exact breast tissue compositions. This study shows that the fat-suppressed sequences tended to be more useful than the non-fat-suppressed sequences for the quantitative measurements of the volume of fibroglandular tissue and the percentage of breast density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10100793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599838PMC
October 2020

End-to-end Res-Unet based reconstruction algorithm for photoacoustic imaging.

Biomed Opt Express 2020 Sep 27;11(9):5321-5340. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Computational Intelligence and Intelligent System, Faculty of Information Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China.

Recently, deep neural networks have attracted great attention in photoacoustic imaging (PAI). In PAI, reconstructing the initial pressure distribution from acquired photoacoustic (PA) signals is a typically inverse problem. In this paper, an end-to-end Unet with residual blocks (Res-Unet) is designed and trained to solve the inverse problem in PAI. The performance of the proposed algorithm is explored and analyzed by comparing a recent model-resolution-based regularization algorithm (MRR) with numerical and physical phantom experiments. The improvement obtained in the reconstructed images was more than 95% in pearson correlation and 39% in peak signal-to-noise ratio in comparison to the MRR. The Res-Unet also achieved superior performance over the state-of-the-art Unet++ architecture by more than 18% in PSNR in simulation experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.396598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510873PMC
September 2020

Clinical and Imaging Features of Primary Cardiac Angiosarcoma.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Sep 30;10(10). Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China.

This study aims to explore computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of patients diagnosed with primary cardiac angiosarcoma. The study involved the analysis of 12 patients diagnosed with primary cardiac angiosarcoma who underwent non-contrast (8/12) or contrast-enhanced CT (10/12) or MRI (4/12). Imaging appearances, including the tumor location and adjacent infiltration, were analyzed. All 12 lesions were located in the right atrium with a broad base. Adjacent invasion including the tricuspid valve and right ventricle (2/12), inferior or superior vena cava (2/12), pericardium (10/12), and right coronary artery (7/12) was common. On unenhanced CT scans, tumors in two patients were homogeneous in density, whereas the others were inhomogeneous. Ten patients showed heterogeneous enhancement. The enhancement pattern showed no direct correlation with the differentiation degree of the tumor. Four lesions manifested as heterogeneous intensity, with hyperintense hemorrhage foci on both T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Three showed rim enhancement and one showed patchy enhancement. Primary cardiac angiosarcoma often involves the right side of the heart with infiltration of peripheral structures. CT features include typical inhomogeneous density on unenhanced scans and heterogeneous centripetal enhancement on enhanced scans. A cauliflower-like appearance on both T1- and T2-weighted MRI is common. The characteristic enhancement pattern of MRI remains to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10100776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600236PMC
September 2020

3D visualization and 3D printing in abnormal gastrointestinal system manifestations of situs ambiguus.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2020 Sep;10(9):1877-1883

Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7417755PMC
September 2020

Shear Wave Elastography of the Maternal Cervix: A Comparison of Transvaginal and Transabdominal Ultrasound Approaches.

J Ultrasound Med 2021 Apr 24;40(4):701-712. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Objectives: This work aimed to compare the use of shear wave elastography on the maternal cervix with transvaginal (TV) and transabdominal (TA) ultrasound approaches to assess differences in shear wave speeds (SWSs) obtained for possible clinical use.

Methods: In both TV and TA ultrasound approaches, SWS measurements were attempted at the anterior and posterior portions of the internal and external cervical os on 38 gravid participants.

Results: A larger number of SWS measurements were obtained at the anterior portion of the cervix by both approaches. The numbers of reliable measurements of the SWS obtained at the anterior and posterior portions of the internal and external os were 99, 65, 103, and 77 in the TA approach and 93, 53, 110, and 87 in the TV approach, respectively. The mean difference in -the SWS obtained between the TV and TA ultrasound approaches was statistically significant at the anterior and posterior portions of the internal os, with differences of 0.67 and 0.52 m/s (P < .05). Differences were not significant at the external os both anteriorly and posteriorly, with differences of 0.15 and - 0.07 m/s (P > .05).

Conclusions: Both TA and TV ultrasound approaches may be used to obtain SWSs in the maternal cervix. This study has shown that SWSs obtained by each approach need to be considered independently, as the TV approach produced significantly greater SWSs at the internal os compared to the TA approach, but the values were similar at the external os.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15440DOI Listing
April 2021

Polyphyllin II inhibits human bladder cancer migration and invasion by regulating EMT-associated factors and MMPs.

Oncol Lett 2020 Sep 9;20(3):2928-2936. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Central Laboratory, The Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong 250014, P.R. China.

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) serves vital roles in the angiogenesis, cell invasion and metastasis of various malignant tumors, including bladder cancer. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been demonstrated to exhibit anticancer properties. The present study aimed to screen the sensitivity of bladder cancer to natural compounds by using six classic anti-inflammatory and detoxifying herbs, including the ethanol extract of (PPE), decoction, Dahuang Huanglian Xiexin decoction, Bazhengsan and combined with , were used to treat bladder cancer cells . Bladder cancer was more sensitive to PPE compared with the other tested herbs, and PPE significantly suppressed bladder cancer cell migration and invasion. Thus, the present study focused on PPE. Bladder cancer cells were treated with monomer components of PPE, including polyphyllin (PP) I, PPII, PPVI and PPVII. The results demonstrated that PPII treatment significantly inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion, increased the expression level of E-cadherin and decreased the levels of N-cadherin, snail family transcriptional repressor 2, twist family bHLH transcription factor 1, matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) 2 and MMP9 compared with those in the control group (untreated cells). These results suggested that PPII treatment may suppress bladder cancer cell migration and invasion by regulating the expression of EMT-associated genes and MMPs. Therefore, PPE and PPII may have antimetastatic effects and PPII may serve as a potential therapeutic option for inhibiting bladder cancer metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399771PMC
September 2020
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