Publications by authors named "Zhonghua Su"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Protocol for a pharmacogenomic study on individualised antipsychotic drug treatment for patients with schizophrenia.

BJPsych Open 2021 Jun 29;7(4):e121. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Institute of Mental Health, The Sixth Hospital of Peking University, China; and Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health & National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University), China.

Background: Schizophrenia is a severe and complex psychiatric disorder that needs treatment based on extensive experience. Antipsychotic drugs have already become the cornerstone of the treatment for schizophrenia; however, the therapeutic effect is of significant variability among patients, and only around a third of patients with schizophrenia show good efficacy. Meanwhile, drug-induced metabolic syndrome and other side-effects significantly affect treatment adherence and prognosis. Therefore, strategies for drug selection are desperately needed. In this study, we will perform pharmacogenomics research and set up an individualised preferred treatment prediction model.

Aims: We aim to create a standard clinical cohort, with multidimensional index assessment of antipsychotic treatment for patients with schizophrenia.

Method: This trial is designed as a randomised clinical trial comparing treatment with different kinds of antipsychotics. A total sample of 2000 patients with schizophrenia will be recruited from in-patient units from five clinical research centres. Using a computer-generated program, the participants will be randomly assigned to four treatment groups: aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone. The primary outcomes will be measured as changes in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of schizophrenia, which reflects the efficacy. Secondary outcomes include the measure of side-effects, such as metabolic syndromes. The efficacy evaluation and side-effects assessment will be performed at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 3 months.

Results: This trial will assess the efficacy and side effects of antipsychotics and create a standard clinical cohort with a multi-dimensional index assessment of antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia patients.

Conclusion: This study aims to set up an individualized preferred treatment prediction model through the genetic analysis of patients using different kinds of antipsychotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2021.945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269926PMC
June 2021

Frontal Alpha Complexity of Different Severity Depression Patients.

J Healthc Eng 2020 14;2020:8854725. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

School of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China.

Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide, and objective biomarkers are required for future computer-aided diagnosis. This study aims to assess the variation of frontal alpha complexity among different severity depression patients and healthy subjects, therefore to explore the depressed neuronal activity and to suggest valid biomarkers. 69 depression patients (divided into three groups according to the disease severity) and 14 healthy subjects were employed to collect 3-channel resting Electroencephalogram signals. Sample entropy and Lempel-Ziv complexity methods were employed to evaluate the Electroencephalogram complexity among different severity depression groups and healthy group. Kruskal-Wallis rank test and group -test were performed to test the difference significance among four groups and between each two groups separately. All indexes values show that depression patients have significantly increased complexity compared to healthy subjects, and furthermore, the complexity keeps increasing as the depression deepens. Sample entropy measures exhibit superiority in distinguishing mild depression from healthy group with significant difference even between nondepressive state group and healthy group. The results confirm the altered neuronal activity influenced by depression severity and suggest sample entropy and Lempel-Ziv complexity as promising biomarkers in future depression evaluation and diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8854725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528126PMC
September 2020

A typical antipsychotic treatment induced gradually expanding white matter alterations in healthy individuals with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations-an artificially controlled pilot study.

Int J Neurosci 2021 Jun 30;131(6):536-543. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Psychiatric-Neuroimaging-Genetics Laboratory, Wenzhou Seventh People's Hospital, Wenzhou, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of atypical antipsychotics (AaPs) on brain white matter (WM) tracts in healthy individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations (Hi-AVHs).

Methods: We analyzed neuroimaging, AVH symptoms, and cognitive assessment data obtained from 39 Hi-AVHs who reported being distressed by persistent AVHs and volunteered to receive AaP treatment. We used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and tests to explore AaP pharmacotherapy effects on AVH symptoms and brain WM alterations in Hi-AVH subjects.

Results: TBSS and tests revealed WM alterations after AaP treatment, relative to pretreatment observations. Although AaPs alleviated AVH symptoms, WM alterations in these subjects expanded over 8 months of AaP treatment, encompassing most major WM tracts by the end of the observation period, including the corpus callosum, arcuate fasciculus, cortico-spinal tracts, anterior commissure, and posterior commissure.

Conclusions: The worsening of AaP-associated WM alterations observed in this study suggest that AaPs may not be a good choice for the treatment of Hi-AVHs despite their ability to alleviate AVHs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2020.1750387DOI Listing
June 2021

Cardiorespiratory Coupling Analysis Based on Entropy and Cross-Entropy in Distinguishing Different Depression Stages.

Front Physiol 2019 29;10:359. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

School of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Aims: This study used entropy- and cross entropy-based methods to explore the cardiorespiratory coupling of depressive patients, and thus to assess the values of those entropy methods for identifying depression patients with different disease severities.

Methods: Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration signals from 69 depression patients were recorded simultaneously for 5 min. Patients were classified into three groups according to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores: group Non-De (HDRS 0-7), Mid-De (HDRS 8-17), and Con-De (HDRS >17). Sample entropy (SEn), fuzzy measure entropy (FMEn) and high-frequency power (HF) were computed on the original RR interval time series and breath-to-breath interval time series. Cross sample entropy (CSEn) and cross fuzzy measure entropy (CFMEn) were computed on interval time series resampled at 2 Hz and 4 Hz, respectively. The difference among three patient groups and correlation between entropy values and HDRS scores were analyzed by statistical analysis. Surrogate data were also employed to confirm the validation of entropy measures in this study.

Results: A consistent increasing trend has been found among most entropy measures from Non-De, to Mid-De, and to Con-De groups, and a significant ( < 0.05) difference in FMEn of RR intervals exists between Non-De and Mid-De or Con-De groups. Significant differences have been also found in all cross entropies, between Non-De and Con-De groups and between Mid-De and Con-De groups. Furthermore, significant correlations also exist between HDRS scores and FMEn of RR intervals ( = 0.24, < 0.05), CSEn at 4 Hz ( = 0.26, < 0.05) or 2 Hz ( = 0.28, < 0.05) resampling, and CFMEn at 4 Hz ( = 0.31, < 0.01) or 2 Hz ( = 0.30, < 0.05) resampling. A significant difference of cardiorespiratory coupling parameters between different depression stages and significant correlations between entropy measures and depression severity both indicate central autonomic dysregulation in depression patients and reflect varying degrees of vagal modulation reduction among different depression levels. Analysis based on surrogate data confirms that the non-linear properties of the physiological signals played a major role in depression recognition.

Conclusion: The current study demonstrates the potential of cardiorespiratory coupling in the auxiliary diagnosis of depression based on the entropy method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449862PMC
March 2019

Prevalence and risk factors of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China: An observational survey.

Psychiatry Res 2017 07 2;253:401-406. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Peking University Sixth Hospital, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health (Peking University), National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University Sixth Hospital), 51, Huayuan Bei Road, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:

This multi-center observational study investigated the prevalence of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China and its potential risk factors. It was performed in 2014 and covered 14 hospitals. Newly hospitalized patients with schizophrenia or suspected schizophrenia who met the diagnostic criteria of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, were recruited. Agitation and related risk factors were evaluated by a questionnaire designed for the survey. General demographic data, disease characteristics, scores on schizophrenia rating scales and agitation rating scales (e.g., Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component [PANSS-EC] and Behavioral Activity Rating Scale [BARS]) were collected. Among the 1512 patients screened in the study, 1400 (92.59%) were eligible. According to the PANSS-EC and BARS, the prevalence of agitation was 60.92% (853 of 1400) and 59.00% (826 of 1400), respectively. The overall prevalence of agitation was 47.50% (665 of 1400). The most important risk factor of agitation was being aggressive at baseline (Modified Overt Aggression Scale score ≥4, odds ratio=6.54; 95% confidence interval=4.93-8.69). Other risk factors included a history of aggressive behavior, northern region of residence, involuntary hospitalization, disease severity, low level of education, living alone, being unemployed or retired.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.02.065DOI Listing
July 2017

Comparison for Efficacy and Tolerability among Ten Drugs for Treatment of Parkinson's Disease: A Network Meta-Analysis.

Sci Rep 2017 04 4;8:45865. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Department of Neurology, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, Tianjin Brain Center, Tianjin, 300350, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long term disorder affects the central nervous system and we aim to determine the relative efficacy of the current available drugs used in PD. Firstly, we performed a systematic review in current literature and eligible studies were retrieved from online databases, relevant data were extracted. Efficacy of these medications was assessed by different Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scales (UPDRS). Mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR) were produced by pairwise or network meta-analysis (NMA). Finally, we performed a cluster analysis for the included medications with respect to their surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). Pairwise meta-analysis suggests that selegiline had a higher ranking in UPDRS II, UPDRS III and UPDRS total than bromocriptine and levodopa. Selegiline was more tolerable than bromocriptine (OR = 0.62, CI: 0.39 to 0.98) and pramipexole was less tolerable than levodopa (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.00 to 2.04). Results of NMA indicate that patients with levodopa, pramipexole, ropinirole and selegiline exhibited a significantly improved UPDRS III than those with lazabemide. To sum up, levodopa, selegiline, ropinirole and rotigotine were recommended for PD patients as they appeared relatively high efficacy and tolerability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep45865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5379205PMC
April 2017

GABRB2 Haplotype Association with Heroin Dependence in Chinese Population.

PLoS One 2015 12;10(11):e0142049. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Division of Life Science and Applied Genomics Center, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China.

Substance dependence is a frequently observed comorbid disorder in schizophrenia, but little is known about genetic factors possibly shared between the two psychotic disorders. GABRB2, a schizophrenia candidate gene coding for GABAA receptor β2 subunit, is examined for possible association with heroin dependence in Han Chinese population. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GABRB2, namely rs6556547 (S1), rs1816071 (S3), rs18016072 (S5), and rs187269 (S29), previously associated with schizophrenia, were examined for their association with heroin dependence. Two additional SNPs, rs10051667 (S31) and rs967771 (S32), previously associated with alcohol dependence and bipolar disorder respectively, were also analyzed. The six SNPs were genotyped by direct sequencing of PCR amplicons of target regions for 564 heroin dependent individuals and 498 controls of Han Chinese origin. Interestingly, it was found that recombination between the haplotypes of all-derived-allele (H1; OR = 1.00) and all-ancestral-allele (H2; OR = 0.74) at S5-S29 junction generated two recombinants H3 (OR = 8.51) and H4 (OR = 5.58), both conferring high susceptibility to heroin dependence. Additional recombination between H2 and H3 haplotypes at S1-S3 junction resulted in a risk-conferring haplotype H5 (OR = 1.94x109). In contrast, recombination between H1 and H2 haplotypes at S3-S5 junction rescued the risk-conferring effect of recombination at S5-S29 junction, giving rise to the protective haplotype H6 (OR = 0.68). Risk-conferring effects of S1-S3 and S5-S29 crossovers and protective effects of S3-S5 crossover were seen in both pure heroin dependent and multiple substance dependence subgroups. In conclusion, significant association was found with haplotypes of the S1-S29 segment in GABRB2 for heroin dependence in Han Chinese population. Local recombination was an important determining factor for switching haplotypes between risk-conferring and protective statuses. The present study provide evidence for the schizophrenia candidate gene GABRB2 to play a role in heroin dependence, but replication of these findings is required.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0142049PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4643001PMC
June 2016

Mechanisms of behavior modification in clinical behavioral medicine in China.

Int J Behav Med 2014 Aug;21(4):580-3

Shandong Key Laboratory of Behavioral Medicine, Jining Medical University, No. 16 Hehua Road, Jining Beihu New District, Shandong, 272067, China,

Background: Behavior modification, as the core of clinical behavioral medicine, is often used in clinical settings.

Purpose: We seek to summarize behavior modification techniques that are commonly used in clinical practice of behavioral medicine in China and discuss possible biobehavioral mechanisms.

Methods: We reviewed common behavior modification techniques in clinical settings in China, and we reviewed studies that explored possible biobehavioral mechanisms.

Results: Commonly used clinical approaches of behavior modification in China include behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, health education, behavior management, behavioral relaxation training, stress management intervention, desensitization therapy, biofeedback therapy, and music therapy. These techniques have been applied in the clinical treatment of a variety of diseases, such as chronic diseases, psychosomatic diseases, and psychological disorders. The biobehavioral mechanisms of these techniques involve the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine system, neurobiochemistry, and neuroplasticity.

Conclusion: Behavior modification techniques are commonly used in the treatment of a variety of somatic and psychological disorders in China. Multiple biobehavioral mechanisms are involved in successful behavior modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-014-9405-7DOI Listing
August 2014

An investigation of economic costs of schizophrenia in two areas of China.

Int J Ment Health Syst 2013 Nov 15;7(1):26. Epub 2013 Nov 15.

Department of Psychiatry, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Jining Medical University, Jining 272051, Shandong, PR China.

Background: Schizophrenia is a severe psychotic disorder characterized by significant disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions and behavior. Even if it is not a very frequent disorder, but it is the most burdensome and costly illnesses worldwide. The total population was approximate 1.3 billion and there are approximate 8 million schizophrenic patients in China. Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, but there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in China.

Objective: To evaluate the economic cost of schizophrenic patients in China.

Methodology: 356 schizophrenic patients who met with DSM-IV criteria were enrolled and investigated with the Economic Burden Questionnaire(EBQ), 299 schizophrenic patients completed the study for 12 months. All the data were combined and classified by researcher. EBQ include all kinds of cost such as direct cost, indirect cost and total cost as well. It was filled in by patients and their close caregivers. Comparison of cost was made between not only out-patients and in-patients but also urban patients and rural patients. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was made to identify the main influence factors of total cost.

Results: (i) The per case per annum total costs, direct costs and indirect costs of schizophrenia amounted to US$2586.21, US$862.81(33.4%) and US$1723.40(66.6%) respectively. The per case total cost, direct cost and direct medical cost of in-patients were more higher than out-patients (P < 0.05). (ii) There was significant difference in per case per annum total cost, direct cost, direct medical cost, cost due to lost working-days and disability between urban and rural schizophrenic patients (P < 0.05), the former is higher than the latter. (iii) The results of multivariate stepwise regression analysis show that five variables were significantly correlated with higher cost: professional status(cadre), diagnostic subtype(residual schizophrenia), urban or rural patients(urban patients), in-patients or out-patients(in-patients) and researcher centre(southern center). The standardized regression coefficient were 0.308, 0.218, 0.212, 0.156 and 0.149 respectively, the correlation of determination R square was 0.2741, F = 15.651, P < 0.0000. These characteristics explain 27.41% of the variability in the total cost.

Conclusion: (i) Economic cost of schizophrenia were serious, we must pay close attention to it. (ii) The indirect cost are the majority of the total cost. The cost of urban patients are more higher than the cost of rural patients, the cost of in-patients are more higher than the cost of out-patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-4458-7-26DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3843524PMC
November 2013

Association of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene G196A rs6265 polymorphisms and the cognitive function and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2013 15;6(8):1617-23. Epub 2013 Jul 15.

School of Mental Health, Jining Medical University, #16 Hehua Road, Jining 272067, Shandong Province, PR China.

Unlabelled: This study aimed to explore the association between BDNF G196A gene rs6265 polymorphisms and the cognitive function and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia.

Methods: BDNF G196A rs6265 genotype and allele frequency were measured using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods in 224 drug-free patients with schizophrenia and 220 controls. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and cognitive functioning was assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Trail Making Test (TMT). In the patient group, differences in severity of symptoms across the three genotypes (i.e., G/G, G/A and A/A) of G196A were assessed using one-way analysis of variance.

Results: G/A genotype had higher frequencies than GG or AA genotype in both patients and controls. There was no significant difference in G/G, G/A, A/A genotype frequency between patients and controls (P > 0.05). The allele G had higher frequencies than allele A in both patients and controls. There was no significant difference in G or A allele frequency between patients and controls (P > 0.05). There was significant difference in A/A genotype frequency between positive group patients and negative group patients. There was no significant difference in cognitive performance between patients with G/G, G/A and A/A genotype (all P > 0.05).

Conclusion: BDNF G196A gene rs6265 polymorphism is not associated with the cognitive function but with the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3726978PMC
March 2014

Relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene C270T polymorphisms and the psychotic symptoms and cognitive functioning of patients with schizophrenia.

Shanghai Arch Psychiatry 2012 Dec;24(6):328-34

Department of Psychiatry,Second Affiliated Hospital, Jining Medical University,Jining,Shandong Province,China.

Background: Findings from previous studies linking brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and schizophrenia are inconsistent and few studies have assessed the relationship between BDNF C270T gene polymorphisms and the clinical and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia.

Aim: Compare the prevalence of the BDNF C270T gene polymorphisms between patients with schizophrenia and controls and, in the patients, assess the relationship of genotypes to the severity of symptoms.

Methods: BDNF C270T genotype and allele frequency were measured using Polymerase Chain Reaction methods in 224 drug-free patients with schizophrenia and 220 controls. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and cognitive functioning was assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Trail Making Test (TMT). In the patient group, differences in severity of symptoms across the three genotypes (i.e., C/C, C/T, and T/T) of C270T were assessed using one-way analysis of variance.

Results: The frequency of the T allele was much higher in patients than in controls (15.6% vs. 4.3%, χ(2)=31.47, p<0.001) and the C/T genotype was more common among patients than controls (27.7% vs. 7.7%, χ(2)=34.93, p<0.001). Compared to controls, patients performed poorly on all the cognitive tests, but there were no significant differences in the cognitive measures between patients with the three different genotypes. The total PANSS score, the PANSS negative symptoms subscale score, and the PANSS general psychopathology subscale score were not significantly different between the three groups of patients. However, the PANSS positive symptoms subscale score showed a small, statistically significant elevation in the severity of positive symptoms in the C/T genotype compared to the C/C genotype.

Conclusion: We confirm previous findings about differences in the prevalence of the BDNF C270T gene polymorphisms in schizophrenia, but do not find strong evidence of a relationship between different genotypes and the severity of the clinical or cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Clinical and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia fluctuate over the course of the illness and with treatment, so stable, individual-specific measures of these parameters (that is, traits) need to be identified before it will be possible to definitively assess their relationship to different genotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1002-0829.2012.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4198899PMC
December 2012

The Chinese version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-C): reliability, validity, and responsiveness in Chinese patients with alcohol dependence.

Alcohol 2012 Dec;46(8):777-81

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Jianshe Road East, Xinxiang 453000, China.

We evaluated the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Chinese version of the 5th edition Addiction Severity Index (ASI-C-5) in Chinese male alcohol-dependent inpatients. Three hundred and fifty-four inpatients with alcohol dependence from five regions of China were interviewed in person by five trained interviewers using the ASI-C-5. Responses were then analyzed for internal consistency reliability, discriminant validity, criterion validity, and responsiveness. Forty subjects were re-interviewed 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. The ASI-C-5 had good internal consistency, with an overall standardized Cronbach's alpha of 0.79. The Cronbach's alpha values for internal consistency of domain CSs ranged from 0.48 to 0.95, and were above 0.60 for six domains. The 7 day test-retest reliability was acceptable as evidenced by high Pearson correlation coefficients (0.75-0.92, p < 0.01) for 6 of 7 domain CSs. Correlation coefficients between the seven domain CSs ranged from 0.007 to 0.390 (p < 0.05 or 0.01 two-sided), indicating strong discriminant validity. The correlation coefficient between the alcohol dependence composite score of ASI-C-5 and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was 0.69 (p < 0.01), indicating good criterion validity. The frequency of extreme scores was low, except for significant floor effects in the "Drugs" and "Legal Status" domains. Collectively, these findings suggest that the ASI-C-5 exhibited strong reliability, validity, and responsiveness in Chinese male alcohol-dependent inpatients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2012.08.005DOI Listing
December 2012

Converging evidence implicates the dopamine D3 receptor gene in vulnerability to schizophrenia.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2011 Jul 18;156B(5):613-9. Epub 2011 May 18.

Department of Psychiatry, Tsinghua University Yuquan Hospital, Beijing, China.

The dopamine D3 receptor has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). A glycine-to-serine polymorphism at codon 9 of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3), rs6280, has been widely studied for its association with SZ, but with conflicting results. Altered levels of DRD3 mRNA have also been reported in SZ compared with normal controls. Moreover, it has been suggested that DRD3 is subject to recent positive selection in European populations. To explore the potential role of DRD3 in SZ from these various aspects, we conducted a threefold study. First, we tested the genetic association of rs6280 with SZ in 685 SZ patients and 768 normal controls. Second, we examined DRD3 mRNA levels in peripheral leukocytes in a subset of 37 patients and 37 controls. Finally, we investigated the possible recent positive selection on DRD3 in an East Asian population. Consequently, we observed that the genotypic distribution of rs6280 was nominally associated with SZ (P = 0.045), with the ancestral CC genotype being significantly over-represented in SZ patients. DRD3 mRNA levels were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P = 5.91E-5). The derived C-allele of rs6280 might have been subject to recent positive selection (P < 0.001) in the East Asian population. Taken together, our results suggest that DRD3, a gene possibly under natural selection, might be involved in vulnerability to SZ in the Han Chinese population. These findings may further add to the body of data implicating DRD3 as a schizophrenia risk gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.31203DOI Listing
July 2011

Drinking and drinking-lelated problems in China.

Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi 2007 Dec;42(6):595-601

Mental Health Institute, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan, China.

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December 2007

A comparative survey on alcohol and tobacco use in urban and rural populations in the Huaihua District of Hunan Province, China.

Alcohol 2006 Jun 2;39(2):87-96. Epub 2006 Oct 2.

Mental Health Institute and WHO Collaborating Center for Drug Abuse and Health, the 2nd Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410011, Hunan, PR China.

Modern Chinese society is comprised primarily of two subgroups-urban and rural subpopulations. However, comparative data regarding alcohol and tobacco use between urban and rural subgroups in China is sparse. An epidemiological survey was conducted in the Huaihua District of Hunan Province of China, and 3,543 urban and 4,294 rural dwellers aged 15-65 years were interviewed. The drinking rates were higher in the urban area (45.9%) than in the rural area (39.6%), whereas the smoking rates were higher in the rural area (35.9%) than in the urban area (28.7%). Rural respondents were more likely to report heavy drinking (Adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.77) and heavy smoking (Adjusted OR=2.46) than urban populations. Specifically, rural males had higher odds of heavy alcohol and tobacco use than urban males, whereas more urban females were more likely to drink and smoke than rural counterparts. The findings suggest that the status of alcohol and tobacco use varies in the urban and rural area. The heavy alcohol and tobacco consumption among rural populations underscores the need to develop and implement culturally appropriate public health intervention and awareness arising programs especially in rural China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2006.07.003DOI Listing
June 2006

Conditioned place preference associates with the mRNA expression of diazepam binding inhibitor in brain regions of the addicted rat during withdrawal.

Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005 Jun 1;137(1-2):47-54. Epub 2005 Apr 1.

Mental Health Institute and WHO Collaborating Center for Psychosocial Factors, Drug Abuse and Health, the 2nd Hospital of Xiangya Medical College, Central South University, Changsha 410011, Hunan, PR China.

The diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) modulating the functions of the GABAA receptors is involved in the maladaptation of neural system during using opiate, but its role in opiate dependence is not fully understood. Using conditioned place preference (CPP) rat model and in situ hybridization technique, we examined the correlation between opiate dependence and the mRNA expression of DBI. We found that chronic morphine treatment enabled CPP and increased the DBI mRNA expression in crucial brain regions of addiction. Withdrawal for 3 days caused significant physical signs and further increased the DBI mRNA expression. Both the DBI mRNA and CPP expression remained significantly high but physical signs were at control level in the animals withdrawal for 6 days. Remarkably, the DBI mRNA expressions in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (CA1), ventral tagmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and amygdala (AMG) were positively correlated to CPP during the periods from withdrawal for 3 days to withdrawal for 6 days. These findings suggest that DBI may play a role in both physical and psychological dependence of opiates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molbrainres.2005.02.021DOI Listing
June 2005

China: alcohol today.

Addiction 2005 Jun;100(6):737-41

Mental Health Institute, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Renmin Middle Road 139#, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01036.xDOI Listing
June 2005

Longitudinal surveys of prevalence rates and use patterns of illicit drugs at selected high-prevalence areas in China from 1993 to 2000.

Addiction 2004 Sep;99(9):1176-80

Mental Health Institute, WHO Collaborating Center for Psychosocial Factor, Drug Abuse and Health, 2nd Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Hunan, China.

Aims: To identify the prevalence, patterns and trends of illicit drug use in the general population of selected high-prevalence areas in China between 1993 and 2000.

Design, Setting And Participants: Cluster sampling was employed and the Epidemiological Inventory for Illicit Drug Use (EIIDU) used as survey instrument. In 1993, 1996 and 2000, 56 792, 67 319 and 53 747 individuals aged 15 or above in community were interviewed, respectively, at the three time-points.

Measurements: Demographics and drug-related data were collected and the prevalence patterns of illicit drug are described.

Findings: The life-time prevalences of illicit drug use in the three consecutive surveys in 1993, 1996 and 2000 were 1.08, 1.60 and 1.52%, respectively, and the 1-year prevalence rates were 0.91, 1.17 and 1.17%, respectively. Heroin was the first choice for drug use (51.8% in 1993, 83.4% in 1993 and 95.9% in 2000). The two most frequent routes of drug administration were inhalation (89.2% in 1993, 60.1% in 1996 and 93.5% in 2000) and intravenous injection (27.2% in 1993, 31.0% in 1996 and 25.7% in 2000).

Conclusion: At least for the time being, illicit drug use may have plateaued in these selected high-prevalence areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00830.xDOI Listing
September 2004

Drinking and drinking patterns and health status in the general population of five areas of China.

Alcohol Alcohol 2004 Jan-Feb;39(1):43-52

Mental Health Institute, WHO Collaborating Research Center for Abuse and Health, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Aims: To understand drinking patterns, health status related to drinking and the level of unrecorded alcoholic beverage consumption for the general population living in five areas of China in 2001.

Methods: By cluster sampling, 24992 community residents aged 15 years or older were interviewed by trained psychiatrists using structured questionnaires provided by WHO.

Results: The 1-year drinking rate was 59.0%, and the point prevalence rate of dependence was 3.8%. The average annual consumption of pure alcohol was 4.47 l. The 1-year morbidity from gastritis/ulcer in the whole sample was 7.9%, which associated nonlinearly to alcohol intake, and heart disease and cerebral infarction/cerebral haemorrhage showed V-shaped curve relationships.

Conclusions: The rate of alcohol use was higher in men than in women, and the annual alcohol consumption per capita was higher than that in the 1990s in the selected areas. Alcohol consumption plays a role in the development of alcohol-related physical diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agh018DOI Listing
April 2004
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