Publications by authors named "Zhong Chen"

1,625 Publications

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Revealing the Precise Role of Calretinin Neurons in Epilepsy: We Are on the Way.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by hyperexcitability in the brain. Its pathogenesis is classically associated with an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Calretinin (CR) is one of the three major types of calcium-binding proteins present in inhibitory GABAergic neurons. The functions of CR and its role in neural excitability are still unknown. Recent data suggest that CR neurons have diverse neurotransmitters, morphologies, distributions, and functions in different brain regions across various species. Notably, CR neurons in the hippocampus, amygdala, neocortex, and thalamus are extremely susceptible to excitotoxicity in the epileptic brain, but the causal relationship is unknown. In this review, we focus on the heterogeneous functions of CR neurons in different brain regions and their relationship with neural excitability and epilepsy. Importantly, we provide perspectives on future investigations of the role of CR neurons in epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-021-00753-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Self-floating photocatalytic hydrogel for efficient removal of Microcystis aeruginosa and degradation of microcystins-LR.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 1;284:131283. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

College of Civil Engineering, Fuzhou University, 350116, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) and the release of cyanotoxins have posed adverse impacts to aquatic system and human health. In this study, a novel self-floating Ag/[email protected] (ALFO) photocatalytic hydrogel was prepared via freeze-thaw method for removal of Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa). The ALFO hydrogel performed an excellent photocatalytic activity with a 99.4% removal efficiency of chlorophyll a within 4 h. It can still remove above 95% chlorophyll a after six consecutive recycles. Besides it has also shown excellent mechanical strength and elasticity, which can ensure its use in practical applications. The mechanisms of M. aeruginosa inactivation are attributed to •O and •OH generated by the ALFO hydrogel under visible light radiation. In addition, •O and •OH can further oxidative degrade and even mineralize the leaked algae organic matter, avoiding the recurrence of CyanoHABs. What's more, the ALFO hydrogel owns good photocatalytic degradation performance for microcystins-LR (MC-LR) with a 97% removal efficiency within 90 min. A possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of MC-LR was proposed through the identification of the intermediate products during the photocatalytic reaction, which confirmed the reduction of MC-LR toxicity. This work develops recyclable a self-floating ALFO hydrogel to simultaneously inactivate M. aeruginosa and degrade MC-LR, providing a prospective method for governing and controlling CyanoHABs in practical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131283DOI Listing
July 2021

Innovative Cardiac Resynchronization: Deployable Lead as an Anchor to Facilitate Guidewire Advancement.

JACC Case Rep 2021 Apr 3;3(4):594-596. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

St. George's University Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

An acutely angulated coronary sinus ostium coupled with a dilated right atrium presents technical challenges for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implantation. Innovative use of a deployable left ventricle lead as an anchor to support guidewire navigation within the cardiac venous system permits optimal CRT deployment. ().
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccas.2021.01.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8302769PMC
April 2021

A benchmarking study of SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequencing protocols using COVID-19 patient samples.

iScience 2021 Jul 21:102892. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Center for Genomics, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, United States of America.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging new type of coronavirus that is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic and the unprecedented global health emergency. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a critical role in understanding the disease. Performance variation exists across SARS-CoV-2 viral WGS technologies, but there is currently no benchmarking study comparing different WGS sequencing protocols. We compared seven different SARS-CoV-2 WGS library protocols using RNA from patient nasopharyngeal swab samples under two storage conditions with low and high viral inputs. We found large differences in mappability and genome coverage, and variations in sensitivity, reproducibility and precision of single-nucleotide variant calling across different protocols. For certain amplicon-based protocol, appropriate primer trimming step is critical for accurate single-nucleotide variant calling. We ranked the performance of protocols based on six different metrics. Our findings offer guidance in choosing appropriate WGS protocols to characterize SARS-CoV-2 and its evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294598PMC
July 2021

DELLA-NAC Interactions Mediate GA Signaling to Promote Secondary Cell Wall Formation in Cotton Stem.

Front Plant Sci 2021 9;12:655127. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Application and Safety Control of Genetically Modified Crops, Biotechnology Research Center, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Gibberellins (GAs) promote secondary cell wall (SCW) development in plants, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still to be elucidated. Here, we employed a new system, the first internode of cotton, and the virus-induced gene silencing method to address this problem. We found that knocking down major DELLA genes via VIGS phenocopied GA treatment and significantly enhanced SCW formation in the xylem and phloem of cotton stems. Cotton DELLA proteins were found to interact with a wide range of SCW-related NAC proteins, and virus-induced gene silencing of these NAC genes inhibited SCW development with downregulated biosynthesis and deposition of lignin. The findings indicated a framework for the GA regulation of SCW formation; that is, the interactions between DELLA and NAC proteins mediated GA signaling to regulate SCW formation in cotton stems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.655127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299300PMC
July 2021

Characterization and expression pattern of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase gene families in Populus.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 21;187:9-23. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China; Key Laboratory of Silviculture and Conservation of the Ministry of Education, College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China; National Energy R&D Center for Non-food Biamass, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

Trehalose plays an important role in plant metabolism, growth development, and stress tolerance. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (TPS) and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase gene (TPP) are vital for the synthesis of trehalose. Populus is a prominent perennial woody plant, in which systematic genome-wide analysis of the TPS and TPP family is limited. In this study, 13 PtTPS and 10 PtTPP genes were identified in the Populus genome. Phylogenetic analysis indicated PtTPS and PtTPP genes were both divided into two subfamilies, and gene members of each subfamily have highly conserved intron structures. Analysis of cis-acting elements showed that PtTPS and PtTPP genes were involved in plant hormones and environmental stress responses. Expression profiles also found PtTPSs and PtTPPs expressed differently in response to salt stress, cold, mechanical damage, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate treatment. Furthermore, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR results found PtTPSs and PtTPPs displayed a specific expression pattern in the seven developmental stages of Populus male and female floral buds. This work will not only lead a foundation on reveal the functions of PtTPS and PtTPP gene families in trehalose regulation of poplar but also provide references to related trehalose research in other perennial plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.096DOI Listing
July 2021

Multiplet analysis by strong-coupling-artifact-suppression 2D J-resolved NMR spectroscopy.

J Chem Phys 2021 Jul;155(3):034202

Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.

Benefitting from the capability of recording scalar (J) couplings and bonding information, 2D J-resolved NMR spectroscopy constitutes an important tool for molecular structure analysis and mixture component identification. Unfortunately, conventional 2D J-resolved experiments generally encounter challenges of insufficient spectral resolution and strong coupling artifacts. In this study, a general NMR approach is exploited to record absorption-mode artifact-free 2D J-resolved spectra. This proposal adopts the advanced triple-spin-echo pure shift yielded by chirp excitation element to eliminate J coupling splittings and preserve chemical shifts along the F2 dimension, and it additionally utilizes the echo-train J acquisition to reveal the multiplet structure along the F1 dimension in accelerated experimental acquisition. Thus, it permits one to extract multiplet structure information from crowded spectral regions in one-shot experiments, with considerable resolution advantage resulting from completely decoupling F2 dimension and absorption-mode presentation, thus facilitating analysis on complex samples. More importantly, this method grants the superior performance on suppressing strong coupling artifacts, which have been affirmed by experiments on a series of chemical samples. As a consequence, this proposed method serves as a useful tool for J coupling measurements and multiplet structure analyses on complex samples that contain crowded NMR resonances and strong coupling spin systems, and it may exhibit broad application potentials in fields of physics, chemistry, and medical science, among others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0056999DOI Listing
July 2021

Subicular caspase-1 contributes to pharmacoresistance in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Ann Neurol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Translational Medicine of Zhejiang Province, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

Objective: Unidentified mechanisms largely restrict the viability of effective therapies in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Our previous study revealed that hyperactivity of the subiculum is crucial for the genesis of pharmacoresistance in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear.

Methods: Here, we examined the role of subicular caspase-1, a key neural pro-inflammatory enzyme, in pharmacoresistant TLE.

Results: We found that the expression of activated caspase-1 in the subiculum, but not the CA1, was upregulated in pharmacoresistant amygdaloid-kindled rats. Early overexpression of caspase-1 in the subiculum was sufficient to induce pharmacoresistant TLE in rats, whereas genetic ablation of caspase-1 interfered with the genesis of pharmacoresistant TLE in both kindled rats and kainic acid-treated mice. The pro-pharmacoresistance effect of subicular caspase-1 was mediated by its downstream inflammasome-dependent interleukin-1β. Further electrophysiological results showed that inhibiting caspase-1 decreased the excitability of subicular pyramidal neurons through influencing the excitation/inhibition balance of pre-synaptic input. Importantly, a small-molecular caspase-1 inhibitor CZL80 attenuated seizures in pharmacoresistant TLE models, and decreased the neural excitability in the brain slices obtained from pharmacoresistant TLE patients.

Interpretation: These results support the subicular caspase-1-interleukin-1β inflammatory pathway as a novel alternative mechanism hypothesis for pharmacoresistant TLE, and present caspase-1 as a potential target. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.26173DOI Listing
July 2021

LncRNA PCGEM1 mediates oxaliplatin resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma via miR-129-5p/ETV1 axis in vitro.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department Of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most severe malignant cancers that leads to high death rate worldwide. Recent research revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) exert a critical role regarding chemoresistance in numerous cancers, including HCC.

Objectives: Our research aimed to explore the function and molecular mechanism of lncRNA PCGEM1 on oxaliplatin resistance of HCC in vitro.

Material And Methods: Expression of the lncRNA PCGEM1, together with miR-129-5p, and the mRNA level of ETV1 and drug resistance-related genes including LRPA, MDR1 and MDR3 were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in an oxaliplatin-resistant HCC cell line (Hep3B/OXA). Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was employed to assess the viability and cell survival rate, and transwell assays were performed to measure the number of migrated or invaded cells. In addition, the relation among lncRNA PCGEM1, miR-129-5p and ETV1 were determined using luciferase assay.

Results: Our data indicated that PCGEM1 and ETV1 expression were enhanced in Hep3B/OXA cells. Furthermore, knockdown of lncRNA PCGEM1 significantly decreased the migration, invasion and mRNA expressions of LRPA, MDR1 and MDR3, and the cell viability in Hep3B/OXA cells. The starBase online tool and luciferase assays verified that miR-129-5p targeted PCGEM1 and ETV1, signifying that PCGEM1 could enhance ETV1 expression via suppressing miR-129-5p.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that PCGEM1 modulated oxaliplatin resistance by targeting the miR-129-5p/ETV1 pathway in HCC in vitro, suggesting a potential strategy for the treatment of chemoresistant HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/135533DOI Listing
July 2021

Effectiveness of collateral arteries embolization before endovascular aneurysm repair to prevent type II endoleaks: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Vascular 2021 Jul 15:17085381211032764. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, 12517Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of preventive collateral arteries embolization before endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to reduce type II endoleaks (T2EL), aneurysm enlargement, and re-interventions.

Methods: A comprehensive search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Embase was conducted to identify articles in English, related to preventive collateral arteries embolization before EVAR, published until October 2020.

Results: A total of 12 relevant studies, including 11 retrospective studies and one randomized controlled trial, were identified and fulfilled the specified inclusion criteria. A total of 1706 patients in 11 studies were involved in the meta-analysis. The overall incidence of T2EL was 17.3% in the embolization group vs. 34.5% in the control group (OR 0.36, < 0.01). The incidence of persistent T2EL was 15.3% vs. 30.0% (OR 0.37, < 0.01). Five studies reported the incidence of sac enlargement, with the rate 10.2% vs. 24.9% (OR 0.25, < 0.01). Nine studies reported T2EL related re-interventions, and it was 1.3% in the embolization group and 10.4% in control (OR 0.14, < 0.01). The technical success of collateral arteries embolization was 92.1% (455/494) in the 12 studies. 1.2% (10/829) patients suffered a mild complication of collateral arteries embolization, and 2/829 patients died because of the embolization.

Conclusion: Collateral arteries embolization is a promising measure to prevent the occurrence of T2EL, sac enlargement, and re-intervention. High-quality studies need to be conducted to provide stronger evidence-based medical suggestions about the embolize operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17085381211032764DOI Listing
July 2021

Monitoring Autophagy by Optical Microscopy.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1208:117-130

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, NHC and CAMS Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Thanks to the advances in optical microscope technology and our knowledge of autophagic biomarkers, single-molecule events of autophagy are now accessible to human eyes. Different proteins are involved hierarchically in the biogenesis and maturation of autophagosomes. Detecting these autophagy-related proteins either by immunostaining or fluorescent protein labelling makes the dynamic autophagic process visible. However, low antibody specificity and weak endogenous expression of autophagy-related proteins in certain tissues limit the applicability of immunostaining in autophagy detection. To cope with this, live-cell imaging combined with various fluorescent probes has been developed and employed in monitoring autophagy. As the most widely used autophagic biomarker, LC3 can be used to visualize autophagosomes, and fluorescent probes targeting LC3, i.e., RFP/mCherry-GFP-LC3, and GFP-LC3-RFP-LC3ΔG, can examine autophagy flux dynamically and quantitatively. In addition, the application of novel fluorophores such as Keima helps to detect the temporal and spatial characteristics of autophagy. Furthermore, selective autophagy can be clarified by labelling corresponding substrates and autophagosomes or lysosomes simultaneously. With the help of two-photon microscopy, the process of autophagy in live animals has been uncovered. Here, we summarize the methods for observing autophagy by optical microscopy and the selection of fluorescent markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-2830-6_8DOI Listing
July 2021

The characteristics and risk factors of healthcare-seeking men with lower urinary tract symptoms in China: Initial report from the POInT group.

Neurourol Urodyn 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Bristol Urological Institute, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK.

Aims: To investigate the clinical characteristics of health care-seeking men presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in China and to reveal risk factors for symptom severity.

Methods: This multicenter, hospital-based, cross-sectional study recruited 1477 eligible male subjects, who were at least 45 years, seeking health care at 9 participating hospitals across the mainland China. The general medical information and subjective symptoms were recorded, followed by the measurement of prostate volume, urodynamic indices, and laboratory tests for kidney function, plus glucose/lipid metabolism. Univariate and multivariate linear regression were employed for the detection of risk factors for symptom severity.

Results: The proportion of mild, moderate, and severe LUTS was 14.6%, 32.6%, and 52.8%, respectively, with 62.2% reporting the triple combination of storage, voiding, and postmicturition symptoms. Median prostate volume was 44.6 ml, and 71.1% were experiencing comorbidities. Thirteen independent risk factors for LUTS severity were identified, namely, nocturnal voiding episodes and the presence of straining and weak steam; the triple combination of symptom subtypes; general and nocturia quality of life; Q and bladder outlet obstruction index; and numbers of comorbidities, hypertension, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin.

Conclusions: The majority of health care-seeking LUTS men present with moderate-to-severe and overlapping symptoms, with a high prevalence of both lower urinary tract dysfunction and systemic comorbidities. The evidence from both urological and nonurological independent risk factors demonstrate the multifactorial nature of LUTS, for which a multidisciplinary management is essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nau.24737DOI Listing
July 2021

Prevalence of bradyarrhythmias needing pacing in COVID-19.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Cardiology, St George's University Hospital NHS trust, London, UK.

Background: The Sars-Cov-2 infection is a multisystem illness that can affect the cardiovascular system. Tachyarrhythmias have been reported but the prevalence of bradyarrhythmia is unclear. Cases have been described of transient high-degree atrioventricular (AV) block in COVID-19 that were managed conservatively.

Method: A database of all patients requiring temporary or permanent pacing in two linked cardiac centers was used to compare the number of procedures required during the first year of the pandemic compared to the corresponding period a year earlier. The database was cross-referenced with a database of all patients testing positive for Sars-Cov-2 infection in both institutions to identify patients who required temporary or permanent pacing during COVID-19.

Results: The number of novel pacemaker implants was lower during the COVID-19 pandemic than the same period the previous year (540 vs. 629, respectively), with a similar proportion of high-degree AV block (38.3% vs. 33.2%, respectively, p = .069). Four patients with the Sars-Cov-2 infection had a pacemaker implanted for high-degree AV block, two for sinus node dysfunction. Of this cohort of six patients, two succumbed to the COVID-19 illness and one from non-COVID sepsis. Device interrogation demonstrated a sustained pacing requirement in all cases.

Conclusion: High-degree AV block remained unaltered in prevalence during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was no evidence of transient high-degree AV block in patients with the Sars-Cov-2 infection. Our experience suggests that all clinically significant bradyarrhythmia should be treated by pacing according to usual protocols regardless of the COVID status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.14313DOI Listing
July 2021

Potential therapeutic agents for ischemic white matter damage.

Neurochem Int 2021 Jul 3;149:105116. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Pharmacology, NHC and CAMS Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, School of Medicine, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

Ischemic white matter damage (WMD) is increasingly being considered as one of the major causes of neurological disorders in older adults and preterm infants. The functional consequences of WMD triggers a progressive cognitive decline and dementia particularly in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Despite the major stride made in the pathogenesis mechanisms of ischemic WMD in the last century, effective medications are still not available. So, there is an urgent need to explore a promising approach to slow the progression or modify its pathological course. In this review, we discussed the animal models, the pathological mechanisms and the potential therapeutic agents for ischemic WMD. The development in the studies of anti-oxidants, free radical scavengers, anti-inflammatory or anti-apoptotic agents and neurotrophic factors in ischemic WMD were summarized. The agents which either alleviate oligodendrocyte damage or promote its proliferation or differentiation may have potential value for the treatment of ischemic WMD. Moreover, drugs with multifaceted protective activities or a wide therapeutic window may be optimal for clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2021.105116DOI Listing
July 2021

A deep imputation and inference framework for estimating personalized and race-specific causal effects of genomic alterations on PSA.

J Bioinform Comput Biol 2021 Jul 2:2150016. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Computer Science, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA 70125, USA.

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) level in the serum is one of the most widely used markers in monitoring prostate cancer (PCa) progression, treatment response, and disease relapse. Although significant efforts have been taken to analyze various socioeconomic and cultural factors that contribute to the racial disparities in PCa, limited research has been performed to quantitatively understand how and to what extent molecular alterations may impact differential PSA levels present at varied tumor status between African-American and European-American men. Moreover, missing values among patients add another layer of difficulty in precisely inferring their outcomes. In light of these issues, we propose a data-driven, deep learning-based imputation and inference framework (DIIF). DIIF seamlessly encapsulates two modules: an imputation module driven by a regularized deep autoencoder for imputing critical missing information and an inference module in which two deep variational autoencoders are coupled with a graphical inference model to quantify the personalized and race-specific causal effects. Large-scale empirical studies on the independent sub-cohorts of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) PCa patients demonstrate the effectiveness of DIIF. We further found that somatic mutations in TP53, ATM, PTEN, FOXA1, and PIK3CA are statistically significant genomic factors that may explain the racial disparities in different PCa features characterized by PSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219720021500165DOI Listing
July 2021

Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Using a Rotary Cutter for Treating Kümmell's Disease with Intravertebral Vacuum Cleft.

Pain Physician 2021 Jul;24(4):E477-E482

Department of Nuclear Medicine, PLA 960th Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, P.R. China.

Background: Reported data indicate that the curative effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) on the patients with intravertebral vacuum cleft (IVC) is worse than on those without IVC.

Objectives: This study was to prospectively investigate the advantage of rotary cutter-PVP (RC-PVP) in patients with Kümmell's disease with IVC.

Study Design: A prospective outcome study.

Setting: A tertiary care hospital.

Methods: Patients who underwent conventional PVP served as the control group. For the RC-PVP group, the rotary cutters were applied before the cement injection to destroy the IVC structure and the surrounding necrotic bone. The following data were compared between the two groups: the cement filling patterns, effective therapeutic rate, the pre- to post-procedural changes of spinal geometry, and the subsequent fractures.

Results: This study included a total of 64 patients (30 and 34 patients in RC-PVP group and control group, respectively). In the RC-PVP group, the cement in 26 cases was filled as a mixed pattern, while the filling pattern in the control group was mainly the cystic type (n = 31). There were no significant differences in the height restoration rate between the RC-PVP and control groups (32.7 ± 13.6 and 32.4 ± 13.9, respectively, P = 0.93). The RC-PVP group had a higher effective rate during the first week and the first month (93.3% vs. 70.6%, P = 0.02) and at 3 months (90.4% vs. 73.9%, P = 0.03). Long-term follow-up indicated that vertebral recollapse of the same treated vertebral body occurred in 5 patients after conventional PVP, which was not observed in the RC-PVP group.

Limitations: The small number of included patients and no long-term follow-up.

Conclusions: RC-PVP, with the destruction of IVC, may lead to better clinical outcomes with fewer complications.
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July 2021

Special issue: Neuroinflammatory pathways as treatment targets in brain disorders autophagic regulation of neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke.

Neurochem Int 2021 Sep 27;148:105114. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Key Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Translational Medicine of Zhejiang Province, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Despite the high lethality and increasing prevalence, effective therapy for ischemic stroke is still limited. As a crucial pathophysiological mechanism underlying ischemic injury, neuroinflammation remains a promising target for novel anti-ischemic strategies. However, the potential adverse effects limit the applications of traditional anti-inflammatory therapies. Recent explorations into the mechanisms of inflammation reveal that autophagy acts as a critical part in inflammation regulation. Autophagy refers to the hierarchically organized process resulting in the lysosomal degradation of intracellular components. Autophagic clearance of intracellular danger signals (DAMPs) suppresses the inflammation activation. Alternatively, autophagy blunts inflammation by removing either inflammasomes or the transcriptional modulators of cytokines. Interestingly, several compounds have been proved to alleviate neuroinflammatory responses and protect against ischemic injury by activating autophagy, highlighting autophagy as a promising target for the regulation of ischemia-induced neuroinflammation. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanism underlying autophagic regulation of neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is less clear and further explorations are still needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2021.105114DOI Listing
September 2021

Solar-assisted isotropically thermoconductive sponge for highly viscous crude oil spill remediation.

iScience 2021 Jun 29;24(6):102665. Epub 2021 May 29.

National Engineering Research Center of Chemical Fertilizer Catalyst (NERC-CFC), College of Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, P. R. China.

Efficiently cleaning up high-viscosity crude oil spills is still a serious global problem. In this paper, a composite filler PPy-polydopamine/BN (PPB) with high photothermal effect and high thermal conductivity was first prepared. Then the polyurethane sponge is decorated with polydimethylsiloxane and PPB to obtain a solar-assisted isotropically thermoconductive adsorbent ([email protected]), which exhibits remarkable stability and durable mechanical properties. Meanwhile, the [email protected] sponge has good thermal conductivity, and its surface temperature rises to 91°C in just 1 min under irradiation (1 sun). Therefore, the [email protected] sponge can quickly heat and adsorb the crude oil contacted by the surface, significantly speed up the crude oil recovery process, and the adsorption capacity is as high as about 45 g/g. Finally, the oil adsorption method of the three-dimensional adsorbent is demonstrated, which provides a new idea for the subsequent development of advanced oil spill adsorbent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215226PMC
June 2021

Spaceflight decelerates the epigenetic clock orchestrated with a global alteration in DNA methylome and transcriptome in the mouse retina.

Precis Clin Med 2021 Jun 17;4(2):93-108. Epub 2021 May 17.

Center for Genomics, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.

Astronauts exhibit an assortment of clinical abnormalities in their eyes during long-duration spaceflight. The purpose of this study was to determine whether spaceflight induces epigenomic and transcriptomic reprogramming in the retina or alters the epigenetic clock. The mice were flown for 37 days in animal enclosure modules on the International Space Station; ground-based control animals were maintained under similar housing conditions. Mouse retinas were isolated and both DNA methylome and transcriptome were determined by deep sequencing. We found that a large number of genes were differentially methylated with spaceflight, whereas there were fewer differentially expressed genes at the transcriptome level. Several biological pathways involved in retinal diseases such as macular degeneration were significantly altered. Our results indicated that spaceflight decelerated the retinal epigenetic clock. This study demonstrates that spaceflight impacts the retina at the epigenomic and transcriptomic levels, and such changes could be involved in the etiology of eye-related disorders among astronauts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcmedi/pbab012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8220224PMC
June 2021

Comparison of clinical outcomes between open and modified endoscopic release for carpal tunnel syndrome.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 10;22(2):861. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Orthopedics, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211100, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to investigate a novel technology, requiring only a single portal and no special equipment, to perform endoscopic treatment of carpal tunnel (CT) syndrome (CTS). This novel technique involves a surgical approach and standard operating procedures and is designed to minimize the potential for complications. Patients with CTS were randomly assigned using a computer-generated random allocation and stratified by site to either the modified endoscopic CT release (MECTR) group (n=48) or open CT release (OCTR) group (n=46). Various medical indexes were compared between the two groups, including operative time, hospitalization time, the time required to resume a normal life or work, intraoperative complications, incision infection rate, the amelioration of symptoms (Kelly grading), post-operative scar pain score, recovery of grip strength and pinch strength, two-point discrimination and the presence of sympathetic dystrophy. The results revealed that all patients had grade A wound healing and the symptoms were completely relieved. No significant differences were observed between the two groups with regards to the incision infection rate, intraoperative complications, grip strength, pinch strength, two-point discrimination, presence of sympathetic dystrophy and clinical symptom amelioration. In addition, compared with the OCTR group, the MECTR group had a decreased operative and hospitalization time, post-operative scar pain score and time required to resume a normal lifestyle. Post-operative electromyographic examination also revealed that the median nerve sensory conduction speed increased compared with that prior to surgery in both groups. In conclusion, the use of MECTR for the treatment of CTS achieved higher patient satisfaction, a shorter operative time and hospitalization time, an earlier return to work time or resumption of a normal life, as well as less post-operative scar pain compared with OCTR. Thus, these results suggested that MECTR may be an effective method for the treatment of idiopathic CTS. Trial registration no. ChiCTR2000041165, retrospectively registered 20th December 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8220677PMC
August 2021

Janus Particle Preparation through UV-Induced Partial Photodegradation of Spin-Coated Particle Films.

Langmuir 2021 Jul 26;37(27):8167-8176. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798.

Janus particles contain two or more chemical properties typically on opposing faces. With various property combinations possible, there are several potential applications, such as surfactants and drug delivery. However, scaling up the particle production process at reasonable cost is a limiting factor, and the method reported here aims to circumvent this issue. The process is based on a top-down destructive strategy that consists of two steps. Photocatalytic titanium dioxide particles prefunctionalized with a surface coating were assembled as particle films via spin-coating on a substrate. The particle films were placed directly under an ultraviolet light source, which induced the photodegradation of the surface coating only on the particle surfaces exposed to the light. The generated Janus particles were amphiphobic-amphiphilic in character. The Janus particles had a theoretical Janus balance close to ideal and remained attached at a hexane/water interface after disruption. They were able to make Pickering emulsions of water in silicone oil with a low energy input. The reported method may be easily scaled up to facilitate the production of gram-scale yields. The use of UV is clean and efficient and can be applied to semiconductor particles with surface coatings that are susceptible to photodegradation, making this method highly versatile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00848DOI Listing
July 2021

NADPH is superior to NADH or edaravone in ameliorating metabolic disturbance and brain injury in ischemic stroke.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Pharmacology and Laboratory of Aging and Nervous Diseases, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuropsychiatric Diseases, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China.

Our previous studies confirm that exogenous reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) exerts a neuroprotective effect in animal models of ischemic stroke, and its primary mechanism is related to anti-oxidative stress and improved energy metabolism. However, it is unknown whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) also plays a neuroprotective role and whether NADPH is superior to NADH against ischemic stroke? In this study we compared the efficacy of NADH, NADPH, and edaravone in ameliorating brain injury and metabolic stress in ischemic stroke. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (t-MCAO/R) mouse model and in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model were established. The mice were intravenously administered the optimal dose of NADPH (7.5 mg/kg), NADH (22.5 mg/kg), or edaravone (3 mg/kg) immediately after reperfusion. We showed that the overall efficacy of NADPH in ameliorating ischemic injury was superior to NADH and edaravone. NADPH had a longer therapeutic time window (within 5 h) after reperfusion than NADH and edaravone (within 2 h) for ischemic stroke. In addition, NADPH and edaravone were better in alleviating the brain atrophy, while NADH and NADPH were better in increasing the long-term survival rate. NADPH showed stronger antioxidant effects than NADH and edaravone; but NADH was the best in terms of maintaining energy metabolism. Taken together, this study demonstrates that NADPH exerts better neuroprotective effects against ischemic stroke than NADH and edaravone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00705-5DOI Listing
June 2021

The Proteomic Landscape of Growth Factor Signaling Networks Associated with FAT1 Mutations in Head and Neck Cancers.

Cancer Res 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Head and Neck Surgery Branch/NIDCD, National Institutes of Health

FAT1 is frequently mutated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but the biological and clinical effects of FAT1 mutations in HNSCC remain to be fully elucidated. We investigated the landscape of altered protein and gene expression associated with FAT1 mutations and clinical outcomes of HNSCC patients. FAT1 mutation was stratified with clinical information from The Cancer Genome Atlas HNSCC databases with more than 200 proteins or phosphorylated sites. FAT1 mutation was significantly more prevalent among HPV(-), female, and older patients and was enriched in oral, larynx, and hypopharynx primary tumors. FAT1 mutation was also significantly associated with lower FAT1 gene expression and increased protein expression of HER3_pY1289, IRS1, and CAVEOLIN1. From an independent International Cancer Genome Consortium dataset, FAT1 mutation in oral cancer co-occurred with top mutated genes TP53 and CASP8. Poorer overall survival or progression-free survival was observed in patients with FAT1 mutation or altered HER3_pY1289, IRS1, or CAVEOLIN. Pathway analysis revealed dominant ERBB/neuregulin pathways mediated by FAT1 mutations in HNSCC, and protein signature panels uncovered the heterogeneity of patient subgroups. Decreased pEGFR, pHER2, and pERK and upregulated pHER3 and HER3 proteins were observed in two FAT1 knockout HNSCC cell lines, supporting that FAT1 alterations lead to altered EGFR/ERBB signaling. In squamous cancers of the lung and cervix, a strong association of FAT1 and EGFR gene expression was identified. Collectively, these results suggest that alteration of FAT1 appears to involve mostly HPV(-) HNSCC and may contribute to resistance to EGFR-targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-3659DOI Listing
June 2021

7T MRI with post-processing for the presurgical evaluation of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2021 8;14:17562864211021181. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurology and Epilepsy Center, Research Center of Neurology in Second Affiliated Hospital, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of seven-tesla (7T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with post-processing of three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted (T1W) images by the morphometric analysis program (MAP) in epilepsy surgical candidates whose 3T MRI results were inconclusive or negative.

Methods: We recruited 35 patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. A multidisciplinary team including an experienced neuroradiologist evaluated their seizure semiology, video-electroencephalography data, 3T MRI and post-processing results, and co-registered FDG-PET. Eleven patients had suspicious lesions on 3T MRI and the other 24 patients were strictly MRI-negative. 7T MRI evaluation was then performed to aid clinical decision. Among patients with pathologically proven focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II, signs of FCD were retrospectively evaluated in each MRI sequence (T1W, T2W, and FLAIR), and positive rates were analyzed in each MAP feature map (junction, extension, and thickness).

Results: 7T MRI evaluation confirmed the lesion in nine of the 11 (81.8%) patients with suspicious lesions on 3T MRI. It also revealed new lesions in four of the 24 (16.7%) strictly MRI-negative patients. Histopathology showed FCD type II in 11 of the 13 (84.6%) 7T MRI-positive cases. Unexpectedly, three of the four newly identified FCD lesions were located in the posterior quadrant. Blurred gray-white boundary was the most frequently observed sign of FCD, appearing on 7T T1W image in all cases and on T2W and FLAIR images in only about half cases. The 7T junction map successfully detected FCD (10/11) in more cases than the extension (1/11) and thickness (0/11) maps. The 3D T1W images at 7T exhibited superior cerebral gray-white matter contrast, more obviously blurred gray-white boundary of FCD, and larger and brighter positive zones in post-processing than 3T T1W images.

Conclusion: 7T MRI with post-processing can enhance the detection of subtle epileptogenic lesions for MRI-negative epilepsy and may optimize surgical strategies for patients with focal epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17562864211021181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191069PMC
June 2021

Adaptive Robust Local Online Density Estimation for Streaming Data.

Int J Mach Learn Cybern 2021 Jun 3;12(6):1803-1824. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Computer Science, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans LA, USA.

Accurate online density estimation is crucial to numerous applications that are prevalent with streaming data. Existing online approaches for density estimation somewhat lack prompt adaptability and robustness when facing concept-drifting and noisy streaming data, resulting in delayed or even deteriorated approximations. To alleviate this issue, in this work, we first propose an adaptive local online kernel density estimator (ALoKDE) for real-time density estimation on data streams. ALoKDE consists of two tightly integrated strategies: (1) a statistical test for concept drift detection and (2) an adaptive weighted local online density estimation when a drift does occur. Specifically, using a weighted form, ALoKDE seeks to provide an unbiased estimation by factoring in the statistical hallmarks of the latest learned distribution and any potential distributional changes that could be introduced by each incoming instance. A robust variant of ALoKDE, i.e., R-ALoKDE, is further developed to effectively handle data streams with varied types/levels of noise. Moreover, we analyze the asymptotic properties of ALoKDE and R-ALoKDE, and also derive their theoretical error bounds regarding bias, variance, MSE and MISE. Extensive comparative studies on various artificial and real-world (noisy) streaming data demonstrate the efficacies of ALoKDE and R-ALoKDE in online density estimation and real-time classification (with noise).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13042-021-01275-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210923PMC
June 2021

A fundamental viewpoint on the hydrogen spillover phenomenon of electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 9;12(1):3502. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Special Functional and Smart Polymer Materials of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China.

Hydrogen spillover phenomenon of metal-supported electrocatalysts can significantly impact their activity in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, design of active electrocatalysts faces grand challenges due to the insufficient understandings on how to overcome this thermodynamically and kinetically adverse process. Here we theoretically profile that the interfacial charge accumulation induces by the large work function difference between metal and support (∆Φ) and sequentially strong interfacial proton adsorption construct a high energy barrier for hydrogen transfer. Theoretical simulations and control experiments rationalize that small ∆Φ induces interfacial charge dilution and relocation, thereby weakening interfacial proton adsorption and enabling efficient hydrogen spillover for HER. Experimentally, a series of Pt alloys-CoP catalysts with tailorable ∆Φ show a strong ∆Φ-dependent HER activity, in which PtIr/CoP with the smallest ∆Φ = 0.02 eV delivers the best HER performance. These findings have conclusively identified ∆Φ as the criterion in guiding the design of hydrogen spillover-based binary HER electrocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23750-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190308PMC
June 2021

On the exciton-assisted radiative recombination via impurity trap levels in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jun 25;32(37). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Xiamen Yankon Energetic Lighting Co., Ltd Xiamen, People's Republic of China.

For decades, problems of parasitic emissions have been ubiquitously encountered in nearly all deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs). In this work, 450 nm parasitic peaks in 275 nm AlGaN DUV-LEDs have been studied in details. Upon careful comparisons and analyses on the electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra at various injection levels and different temperatures, we have discovered a mechanism of exciton-assisted radiative recombination, namely, the reinforcement on radiative recombination via other impurity-trap levels (ITLs) by excitons that are generated in the midst of the band gap. For DUV-LED samples under investigation herein, a system of radiative ITLs within the band gap cannot be neglected. It includes two types of impurities located at two different energy levels, 3.80 eV and 2.75 eV, respectively. The former, establishing a sub-band edge, which behaves like an energy entrance to this system, contains a series of hydrogen-like excitons at a temperature lower than 100 K, which behaves like an energy entrance to this system. On the one hand, these excitons absorb carriers from band-edge and reduce the band-edge recombination. On the other hand they transfer the energy to lower impurity levels, enhancing the radiative recombination and giving rise to the 450 nm parasitic peak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac0930DOI Listing
June 2021

'Close' cardiac monitoring: life-threatening complication of a loop recorder implant.

Europace 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Cardiology department, Ashford and St Peter's Hospital NHS trust, Surrey, KT16 0PZ, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab086DOI Listing
June 2021

Lateral Habenula Serves as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Neuropathic Pain.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Pharmacology and Department of Anesthesiology of the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-021-00728-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Metabolomics analysis of the soapberry (Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.) pericarp during fruit development and ripening based on UHPLC-HRMS.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 2;11(1):11657. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Key Laboratory of Silviculture and Conservation of the Ministry of Education, College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, 35 E Qinghua Road, Beijing, 100083, China.

Soapberry (Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.) is a multi-functional tree with widespread application in toiletries, biomedicine, biomass energy, and landscaping. The pericarp of soapberry can be used as a medicine or detergent. However, there is currently no systematic study on the chemical constituents of soapberry pericarp during fruit development and ripening, and the dynamic changes in these constituents still unclear. In this study, a non-targeted metabolomics approach using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) was used to comprehensively profile the variations in metabolites in the soapberry pericarp at eight fruit growth stages. The metabolome coverage of UHPLC-HRMS on a HILIC column was higher than that of a C18 column. A total of 111 metabolites were putatively annotated. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis of pericarp metabolic composition revealed clear metabolic shifts from early (S1-S2) to late (S3-S5) development stages to fruit ripening stages (S6-S8). Furthermore, pairwise comparison identified 57 differential metabolites that were involved in 18 KEGG pathways. Early fruit development stages (S1-S2) were characterized by high levels of key fatty acids, nucleotides, organic acids, and phosphorylated intermediates, whereas fruit ripening stages (S6-S8) were characterized by high contents of bioactive and valuable metabolites, such as troxipide, vorinostat, furamizole, alpha-tocopherol quinone, luteolin, and sucrose. S8 (fully developed and mature stage) was the most suitable stage for fruit harvesting to utilize the pericarp. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first metabolomics study of the soapberry pericarp during whole fruit growth. The results could offer valuable information for harvesting, processing, and application of soapberry pericarp, as well as highlight the metabolites that could mediate the biological activity or properties of this medicinal plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91143-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172880PMC
June 2021
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