Publications by authors named "Zhiyuan Li"

263 Publications

Bioinformatics and Expression Analysis of IDA-Like Genes Reveal Their Potential Functions in Flower Abscission and Stress Response in Tobacco ( L.).

Front Genet 2021 27;12:670794. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao, China.

The inflorescence deficient in abscission-like () genes have been shown to play critical roles in floral organ abscission, lateral root formation and various stress responses in . The gene family has been characterized in a number of plant species, while limited information is available about genes of tobacco. In the current study, 15 NtIDL members were identified in the tobacco genome, and were classified into six groups together with IDL members from other species. Evolution analysis suggested that the NtIDL members form group VI might have originated from duplication events. Notably, NtIDL06 shared high similarities with AtIDA in the EPIP sequence, and its encoding gene was highly expressed in the abscission zone of flowers at late developmental stages, implying that NtIDL06 might regulate tobacco flower abscission. In addition, the results from -elements analysis of promoters and expression after stress treatments suggested that members might be involved in various stress responses of tobacco. The results from this study provide information for further functional analysis related to flower abscission and stress responses of genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.670794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110903PMC
April 2021

Utilization of Ogura CMS germplasm with the clubroot resistance gene by fertility restoration and cytoplasm replacement in Brassica oleracea L.

Hortic Res 2020 May 1;7(1):61. Epub 2020 May 1.

Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, #12 Zhong Guan Cun Nandajie Street, Beijing, 100081, China.

Clubroot disease, a major plant root disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, has become one of the most destructive diseases among cultivated cruciferous vegetables. However, clubroot-resistant Brassica oleracea materials are rare. A few clubroot-resistant cabbage varieties are available on the market, but all are Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) types. Therefore, in this study, to reutilize the clubroot-resistant Ogura CMS germplasm of cabbage, a new fertility-restored Ogura CMS material, 16Q2-11, was used as a bridge to transfer the clubroot resistance (CR) gene from the Ogura CMS cytoplasm to the normal cytoplasm by a two-step method (a fertility restoration and cytoplasm replacement method). In the first cross for fertility restoration of Ogura CMS clubroot-resistant cabbage (FRCRC), 16Q2-11 was used as a restorer to cross with Ogura CMS materials containing the CR gene CRb2. Eleven Rfo-positive progenies were generated, of which four contained CRb2: F8-514, F8-620, F8-732 and F8-839. After inoculation with race 4 of P. brassicae, these four CRb2-positive individuals showed resistance. Furthermore, F8-514 and F8-839 were then used as male parents in the second cross of FRCRC to cross with cabbage inbred lines, resulting in the successful introgression of the CRb2 gene into the inbred lines. All offspring produced from this step of cross, which had a normal cytoplasm, showed a high resistance to race 4 of P. brassicae and could be utilized for the breeding of clubroot-resistant cabbage varieties in the future. This is the first time that the Ogura CMS restorer has been used to restore the fertility of Ogura CMS clubroot-resistant cabbages, which could improve germplasm diversity in cabbage and provide a reference method for using CMS germplasm in Brassica crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-0282-8DOI Listing
May 2020

Comparison of Gonadal Transcriptomes Uncovers Reproduction-Related Genes with Sexually Dimorphic Expression Patterns in .

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 7;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Guangdong Research Center on Reproductive Control and Breeding Technology of Indigenous Valuable Fish Species, Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Aquaculture Environment of Zhanjiang, Fisheries College, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China.

is a new and emerging aquaculture species in south China. However, due to the lack of understanding of reproductive regulation, the management of breeding and reproduction under captivity remains a barrier for the commercial aquaculture of . More genetic information is needed to identify genes critical for gonadal development. Here, the first gonadal transcriptomes of were analyzed and 151.89 million clean reads were generated. All reads were assembled into 57,077 unigenes, and 24,574 could be annotated. By comparing the gonad transcriptomes, 11,487 differentially expressed genes were obtained, of which 4599 were upregulated and 6888 were downregulated in the ovaries. Using enrichment analyses, many functional pathways were found to be associated with reproduction regulation. A set of sex-biased genes putatively involved in gonad development and gametogenesis were identified and their sexually dimorphic expression patterns were characterized. The detailed transcriptomic data provide a useful resource for further research on reproductive manipulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11041042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068034PMC
April 2021

Nitrogen deficiency maintains the yield and improves the antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Horticulture and Forestry, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830052, China.

Nitrogen (N) deficiency levels were investigated for their potential to maintain the yield and improve antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria. Inflorescences and leaves at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 d after flowering were frozen at -80 °C and plant growth, antioxidant activity, bioactive substance, enzyme activity and gene expression were evaluated. N deficiency maintained the total number of flowers, promoted phenol and flavonoid accumulation and enhanced antioxidant activity. Moreover, N deficiency stimulated activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase (4CL) and induced CtPAL, CtC4H and Ct4CL gene expression. The data also suggest that N deficiency-induced phenolic and flavonoid accumulation occurs due to the activation of biosynthetic pathways in C. tinctoria. We characterize the unique features of C. tinctoria under N deficiency conditions and provide valuable information for the cultivation of high-N use efficiency varieties with low input and high output.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bbb/zbab048DOI Listing
April 2021

White Laser Realized via Synergic Second- and Third-Order Nonlinearities.

Research (Wash D C) 2021 23;2021:1539730. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Physics and Optoelectronics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China.

White laser with balanced performance of broad bandwidth, high average and peak power, large pulse energy, high spatial and temporal coherence, controllable spectrum profile, and overall chroma are highly desirable in various fields of modern science. Here, for the first time, we report an innovative scheme of harnessing the synergic action of both the second-order nonlinearity (2-NL) and the third-order nonlinearity (3-NL) in a single chirped periodically poled lithium niobate (CPPLN) nonlinear photonic crystal driven by a high-peak-power near-infrared (NIR) (central wavelength~1400 nm, energy~100 J per pulse) femtosecond pump laser to produce visible to near infrared (vis-NIR, 400-900 nm) supercontinuum white laser. The CPPLN involves a series of reciprocal-lattice bands that can be exploited to support quasiphase matching for simultaneous broadband second- and third-harmonic generations (SHG and THG) with considerable conversion efficiency. Due to the remarkable 3-NL which is due to the high energy density of the pump, SHG and THG laser pulses will induce significant spectral broadening in them and eventually generate bright vis-NIR white laser with high conversion efficiency up to 30%. Moreover, the spectral profile and overall chroma of output white laser can be widely modulated by adjusting the pump laser intensity, wavelength, and polarization. Our work indicates that one can deeply engineer the synergic and collective action of 2-NL and 3-NL in nonlinear crystals to accomplish high peak power, ultrabroadband vis-NIR white laser and hopefully realize the even greater but much more challenging dream of ultraviolet-visible-infrared full-spectrum laser.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34133/2021/1539730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014043PMC
March 2021

Viologen-Based Cationic Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient CrO Adsorption and Dye Separation.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 7;60(8):5988-5995. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116, P. R. China.

A novel cationic metal-organic framework composed of {Cu(COO)} paddle-wheel units and a tetracarboxylic viologen derivative, namely, {[Cu(bdcbp)(HO)]·2NO·2HO} (, HbdcbpCl = 1,1'-bis(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride), has been successfully synthesized and structurally characterized. In , the {Cu(COO)} unit and viologen derivative both act as four-connected nodes forming an ssb-type cationic network with 4.8 topology, in which the positive charges are distributed on the organic viologen moieties. Deeper insight of the structure indicates that the 3D architecture of can be seen as packing of a 26-faceted polyhedral cage and two cuboid cages. Notably, displays a highly efficient anion exchange ability for capture and removal of anionic pollutants. UV-vis absorption spectra and digital images demonstrate that is capable of adsorbing the dichromate anion and anionic dyes effectively, such as methyl orange (MO), Congo red (CR), and New Coccine (NC). Meaningfully, anionic dyes (MO, CR, and NC) can be efficiently and selectively removed by in the presence of cationic dye methylene blue (MLB). Such behaviors of anionic pollutant adsorption and dye separation are mainly caused by an ion-exchange process facilitated by the large cavity and decentralized distribution of positive charge in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00404DOI Listing
April 2021

Ameliorates Experimental Allergic Airway Inflammation Activation of ICOSTregs and Inhibition of Th2 Response.

Front Immunol 2021 17;12:620943. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

ENT Institute and Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Inhibition of allergic airway diseases (AAD) by immunomodulation of the adaptive immune system through restoration of the enteric dysbiosis is an emerging therapeutic strategy. Patients with allergic rhinitis (n = 6) and healthy controls (n = 6) were enrolled, and gut microbiome composition analysis was performed by 16S rDNA sequencing. We also established an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation murine model. Dysbiosis of the gut flora was observed in both AAD patients and the mice, with the decrease of the biodiversity and the quantity of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Oral application of ameliorated the symptoms of OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and attenuated the airway inflammation in mice. In addition, nasal lavage fluid (NALF) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from AAD mice orally administered with showed reduced numbers of immune cells, and diminished secretion of T helper (Th)-2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) compared with the corresponding control mice, whereas the levels of Th1 cytokineIFN-γ was not changed in both the groups. When was co-administered with metronidazole in AAD mice, the immunomodulatory effect was weakened and the allergic inflammatory response was aggravated. The ratios of CD4Foxp3 cells, CD4ICOS T cells, CD4ICOS Foxp3 regulatory T cells, and IL-10-expressing CD4Foxp3 cells were increased in lymphocytes of spleen, mesenteric, and cervical lymph nodes of AAD mice administrated with . Therefore, our data indicate that oral administration of effectively inhibited the development of AAD in murine model; inhibition was mediated by the activation of Tregs and inhibition of Th2 response without promoting a Th1 response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.620943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010693PMC
March 2021

Potato NAC Transcription Factor StNAC053 Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance in Transgenic .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 4;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Key Laboratory for Tobacco Gene Resources, Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266101, China.

The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and play important roles in stress responses. However, little is known about the functions of potato NAC family members. Here we report the cloning of a potato NAC transcription factor gene , which was significantly upregulated after salt, drought, and abscisic acid treatments. Furthermore, the StNAC053-GFP fusion protein was found to be located in the nucleus and had a C-terminal transactivation domain, implying that StNAC053 may function as a transcriptional activator in potato. Notably, plants overexpressing displayed lower seed germination rates compared to wild-type under exogenous ABA treatment. In addition, the overexpression lines displayed significantly increased tolerance to salt and drought stress treatments. Moreover, the lines were found to have higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) under multiple stress treatments. Interestingly, the expression levels of several stress-related genes including , , , , and , were significantly upregulated in these -overexpressing lines. Taken together, overexpression of the stress-inducible gene could enhance the tolerances to both salt and drought stress treatments in , likely by upregulating stress-related genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961516PMC
March 2021

Generation of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell line (CSUXHi005-A) from human urine epithelial cells.

Stem Cell Res 2021 Mar 17;53:102289. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Urine epithelial cells were harvested from a 32-year old female patient with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) and reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by non-integration system. The SCA3 derived iPSCs line, CSUXHi005-A, maintained 76 CAG expansions in the ATXN3 gene, was characterized by the expression of pluripotency markers and normal karyotype. The newly generated iPSCs retain the ability to differentiate into three germ layers by teratoma test, which provide an ideal tool for disease modeling, drug screening, and cellular therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2021.102289DOI Listing
March 2021

α Promoter Methylation May Modify the Association Between Lipid Metabolism and Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Farmers.

Front Public Health 2021 4;9:578134. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Environment Health & Environment and Health Innovation Team, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

This study is aimed to explore the potential association among the estrogen receptor alpha (α) promoter methylation, lipid metabolism and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 1143 rural residents were recruited randomly from Henan Province, China. The circulating methylation levels in α promoter region were determined by quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and fasting plasma-glucose (FPG) were measured. The α promoter methylation levels were negatively associated with HDL-C levels whether gender stratification was performed ( < 0.05) and positively correlated with LDL-C in men ( < 0.05). Each unit standard deviation (SD) increment in TG was associated with a 43% increase (95% CI: 1.25, 1.64) in the risks of T2DM in all participants, a 36% increase (95% : 1.13, 1.64) in the risks of T2DM in men and a 49% increase (95% CI: 1.21, 1.83) in the risks of T2DM in women. Furthermore, each SD increment in HDL-C was associated with a reduction of 25% (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.97) in the risks of T2DM in men, and the risk of T2DM in men may be more susceptible to HDL-C than that in women ( for interaction < 0.05). Additionally, we found that the risk of T2DM in participants with lower methylation levels (≤4.07%) were more susceptible to HDL-C ( for interaction < 0.05). These findings suggested that lipid metabolism was associated with α promoter methylation levels and the risk of T2DM. Besides, the levels of α promoter methylation and gender can modify the association of HDL-C and T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.578134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969800PMC
March 2021

Generation of UCiPSC-derived neurospheres for cell therapy and its application.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Mar 18;12(1):188. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510530, China.

Background: Neural stem cell (NSC) therapy remains one of the most potential approaches for the treatment of neurological disorders. The discovery of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and the establishment of hiPSC-derived human neural stem cells (hiNSCs) have revolutionized the technique of cell therapy. Meanwhile, it is often required that NSCs are stored and transported to a long distance for research or treatment purposes. Although high survival rates could be maintained, conventional methods for cell transportation (dry ice or liquid nitrogen) are inconvenient and expensive. Therefore, the establishment of a safe, affordable, and low-cost strategy to store and transport easily accessible hiPSCs and hiNSCs, with characteristics that match fetal hNSCs, is incredibly urgent.

Methods: We reprogrammed human urinary cells to iPSCs using a non-integrating, virus-free technique and differentiated the iPSCs toward iNSCs/neurospheres and neurons, under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compatible conditions. The pluripotency of iPSCs and iNSCs was characterized by a series of classical methods (surface markers, karyotype analysis, and in vitro as well as in vivo differentiation capabilities, etc.).

Results: Here, our results showed that we successfully generated hiNSCs/neurospheres from more available, non-invasive, and more acceptable urinary cells by a virus-free technique. Next, we demonstrated that the iNSCs differentiated into mature cerebral cortical neurons and neural networks. Interestingly, hiNSCs survived longer as neurospheres at ambient temperature (AT) than those cultured in a monolayer. Within 7 days approximately, the neural viability remained at > 80%, while hiNSCs cultured in a monolayer died almost immediately. Neurospheres exposed to AT that were placed under standard culture conditions (37 °C, 5% CO) recovered their typical morphology, and retained their proliferation and differentiation abilities.

Conclusions: In this study, we provided a simple method for the storage of NSCs as neurospheres at AT as an alternative method to more costly and inconvenient traditional methods of cryopreservation. This will enable hiNSCs to be transported over long distances at AT and facilitate the therapeutic application of NSCs as neurospheres without any further treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02238-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7977190PMC
March 2021

Phospho-regulation and function of ULK1-ATG13 during the cell cycle.

Autophagy 2021 Apr 17;17(4):1054-1056. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Key Laboratory of High Magnetic Field and Ion Beam Physical Biology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, P. R. China.

Although it has been reported that some autophagy-related proteins could regulate the cell cycle, the function of ULK1-ATG13, the only protein kinase complex in macroautophagy/autophagy, remains unclear. We recently found that mitotic ULK1 and ATG13 are both substrates of the key cell cycle regulator CDK1-CCNB/cyclin B. CDK1-induced ULK1-ATG13 phosphorylation promotes mitotic autophagy and cell cycle progression. Moreover, and double-knockout significantly inhibits cell cycle progression and tumor cell proliferation and . These findings bridge the mutual regulation between autophagic and mitotic key kinases and provide a theoretical basis for autophagy- and cell division-related diseases based on combination therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1898750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078760PMC
April 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Harnessing peak transmission around symptom onset for non-pharmaceutical intervention and containment of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Nat Commun 2021 02 19;12(1):1147. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

COVID-19 Modelling Group, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Within a short period of time, COVID-19 grew into a world-wide pandemic. Transmission by pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic viral carriers rendered intervention and containment of the disease extremely challenging. Based on reported infection case studies, we construct an epidemiological model that focuses on transmission around the symptom onset. The model is calibrated against incubation period and pairwise transmission statistics during the initial outbreaks of the pandemic outside Wuhan with minimal non-pharmaceutical interventions. Mathematical treatment of the model yields explicit expressions for the size of latent and pre-symptomatic subpopulations during the exponential growth phase, with the local epidemic growth rate as input. We then explore reduction of the basic reproduction number R through specific transmission control measures such as contact tracing, testing, social distancing, wearing masks and sheltering in place. When these measures are implemented in combination, their effects on R multiply. We also compare our model behaviour to the first wave of the COVID-19 spreading in various affected regions and highlight generic and less generic features of the pandemic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21385-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895830PMC
February 2021

Software-Defined Optimal Computation Task Scheduling in Vehicular Edge Networking.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 1;21(3). Epub 2021 Feb 1.

College of Computer Science and Communication Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

With the development of smart vehicles and various vehicular applications, Vehicular Edge Computing (VEC) paradigm has attracted from academic and industry. Compared with the cloud computing platform, VEC has several new features, such as the higher network bandwidth and the lower transmission delay. Recently, vehicular computation-intensive task offloading has become a new research field for the vehicular edge computing networks. However, dynamic network topology and the bursty computation tasks offloading, which causes to the computation load unbalancing for the VEC networking. To solve this issue, this paper proposed an optimal control-based computing task scheduling algorithm. Then, we introduce software defined networking/OpenFlow framework to build a software-defined vehicular edge networking structure. The proposed algorithm can obtain global optimum results and achieve the load-balancing by the virtue of the global load status information. Besides, the proposed algorithm has strong adaptiveness in dynamic network environments by automatic parameter tuning. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the utilization of computation resources and meet the requirements of computation and transmission delay for various vehicular tasks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21030955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867062PMC
February 2021

Addition of Sodium Additives for Improved Performance of Water-Gas Shift Reaction over Ni-Based Catalysts.

ACS Omega 2021 Jan 14;6(3):2346-2353. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, P. R. China.

The effect of Na loading on water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) activity of Ni@TiO -Na ( = 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 wt %) catalysts has been investigated. Herein, we report sodium-modified Ni@TiO catalysts (denoted as Ni@TiO -Na) derived from NiTi-layered double hydroxide (NiTi-LDH) precursor. The optimized Ni@TiO -1Na catalyst exhibits enhanced catalytic performance toward WGSR at relatively low temperature and reaches an equilibrium CO conversion at 300 °C, which is much superior to those for most of the reported Ni-based catalysts. The H-temperature-programmed reduction (H-TPR) result demonstrates that the Ni@TiO -1Na catalyst has a stronger metal-support interaction (MSI) than the sodium-free Ni@TiO catalyst. The presence of stronger MSI significantly facilitates the electron transfer from TiO support to the interfacial Ni atoms to modulate the electronic structure of Ni atoms (a sharp increase in Ni species), inducing the generation of more surface sites (O-Ti) accompanied by more interfacial sites (Ni-O-Ti), revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ni-O-Ti interfacial sites serve as dual-active sites for WGSR. The increase in the dual-active sites accounts for improvement in the catalytic performance of WGSR. With the tunable Ni-TiO interaction, a feasible strategy in creating active sites by adding low-cost sodium addictive has been developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841924PMC
January 2021

hucMSCs transplantation promotes locomotor function recovery, reduces apoptosis and inhibits demyelination after SCI in rats.

Neuropeptides 2021 Apr 15;86:102125. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013, China; NHC Key Laboratory of Birth Defect for Research and Prevention, Hunan Provincial Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530, China; GZMU-GIBH Joint School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangdong, China; Changsha Stomatological Hospital, Changsha, Hunan 410004, China; Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou 510005, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause a variety of cells apoptosis, neurodegeneration, and eventually permanent paralysis. This study aimed to examine whether transplanting human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) can promote locomotor function recovery, reduce apoptosis and inhibit demyelination in SCI models.

Main Methods: Rats were allocated into Sham group (spinal cord exposure only), SCI + PBS group (spinal cord impact plus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) injections), SCI + hucMSCs group (spinal cord impact plus hucMSCs injections) groups. Behavioral tests, Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotion scores (BBB scores), were carried out at 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days after SCI surgery. Hematoxylin-eosin staining observed spinal cord morphology. Nissl staining detected the number of nissl bodies. Myelin basic protein (MBP) and oligodendrocyte (CNPase) were examed by immunohistochemical staining. The apoptosis of oligodendrocyte and neurons were detected by immunofluorescence.

Results: The 28-day behavioral test showed that the BBB score of rats in the SCI + hucMSCs group increased significantly, comparing to the SCI + PBS group. The numbers of nissl bodies and myelin sheath in the damaged area of SCI + hucMSCs group were also significantly increased compared to the SCI + PBS group. HucMSCs transplanting decreased the expression of protein level of Caspase-3 and Bax and increased the Bcl-2, MBP and CNPase, rescued the apoptosis of neurons and the oligodendrocyte.

Conclusion: These results showed that hucMSCs can improve motor function, tissue repairing and reducing apoptosis in SCI rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.npep.2021.102125DOI Listing
April 2021

Hepatitis A virus-induced hsa-miR-146a-5p attenuates IFN-β signaling by targeting adaptor protein TRAF6.

Arch Virol 2021 Mar 18;166(3):789-799. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 935 Jiaoling Road, Kunming, 650118, Yunnan, China.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV), a unique hepatotropic human picornavirus, is the causative agent of acute hepatitis A in humans. Some studies have shown that HAV antagonizes the innate immune response by disrupting interferon-beta (IFN-β) signaling by viral proteins. However, whether microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-coding RNAs, are involved in the antagonism of IFN-β induction upon HAV infection is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms by which HAV-induced miRNAs antagonize IFN-β signaling. A variety of analytical methods, including miRNA microarray, RT-qPCR, dual-luciferase reporter assay, and Western blotting, were performed using HAV-infected cells. The results indicated that HAV infection upregulates the expression of hsa-miR-146a-5p, which in turn partially suppresses the induction of IFN-β synthesis, thereby promoting viral replication. Mechanistically, TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6), a key adaptor protein in the RIG-I/MDA5-mediated IFN-I signaling pathway, is targeted and degraded by hsa-miR-146a-5p. As TRAF6 is necessary for IFN-β induction, inhibition of this protein attenuates IFN-β signaling. Taken together, the results from this study indicated that HAV disrupts RIG-I/MDA5-mediated IFN-I signaling partially through the cleavage of the essential adaptor molecule TRAF6 via hsa-miR-146a-5p.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-04952-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Plasmon-driven nanowire actuators for on-chip manipulation.

Nat Commun 2021 Jan 15;12(1):385. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Laboratory of Integrated Opto-Mechanics and Electronics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical System, Engineering Research Center of Optical Instrument and System (Ministry of Education), University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 200093, Shanghai, China.

Chemically synthesized metal nanowires are promising building blocks for next-generation photonic integrated circuits, but technological implementation in monolithic integration will be severely hampered by the lack of controllable and precise manipulation approaches, due to the strong adhesion of nanowires to substrates in non-liquid environments. Here, we demonstrate this obstacle can be removed by our proposed earthworm-like peristaltic crawling motion mechanism, based on the synergistic expansion, friction, and contraction in plasmon-driven metal nanowires in non-liquid environments. The evanescently excited surface plasmon greatly enhances the heating effect in metal nanowires, thereby generating surface acoustic waves to drive the nanowires crawling along silica microfibres. Advantages include sub-nanometer positioning accuracy, low actuation power, and self-parallel parking. We further demonstrate on-chip manipulations including transporting, positioning, orientation, and sorting, with on-situ operation, high selectivity, and great versatility. Our work paves the way to realize full co-integration of various functionalized photonic components on single chips.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20683-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810692PMC
January 2021

An evidence review of face masks against COVID-19.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 01;118(4)

Department of Epidemiology, Jonathan and Karin Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095.

The science around the use of masks by the public to impede COVID-19 transmission is advancing rapidly. In this narrative review, we develop an analytical framework to examine mask usage, synthesizing the relevant literature to inform multiple areas: population impact, transmission characteristics, source control, wearer protection, sociological considerations, and implementation considerations. A primary route of transmission of COVID-19 is via respiratory particles, and it is known to be transmissible from presymptomatic, paucisymptomatic, and asymptomatic individuals. Reducing disease spread requires two things: limiting contacts of infected individuals via physical distancing and other measures and reducing the transmission probability per contact. The preponderance of evidence indicates that mask wearing reduces transmissibility per contact by reducing transmission of infected respiratory particles in both laboratory and clinical contexts. Public mask wearing is most effective at reducing spread of the virus when compliance is high. Given the current shortages of medical masks, we recommend the adoption of public cloth mask wearing, as an effective form of source control, in conjunction with existing hygiene, distancing, and contact tracing strategies. Because many respiratory particles become smaller due to evaporation, we recommend increasing focus on a previously overlooked aspect of mask usage: mask wearing by infectious people ("source control") with benefits at the population level, rather than only mask wearing by susceptible people, such as health care workers, with focus on individual outcomes. We recommend that public officials and governments strongly encourage the use of widespread face masks in public, including the use of appropriate regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2014564118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7848583PMC
January 2021

Charge-Transfer Resonance and Electromagnetic Enhancement Synergistically Enabling MXenes with Excellent SERS Sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 S Protein Detection.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Jan 5;13:52. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

State Key Laboratory of High-Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai, 200050 People's Republic of China.

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 has seriously threatened human health. Rapidly and sensitively detecting SARS-CoV-2 viruses can help control the spread of viruses. However, it is an arduous challenge to apply semiconductor-based substrates for virus SERS detection due to their poor sensitivity. Therefore, it is worthwhile to search novel semiconductor-based substrates with excellent SERS sensitivity. Herein we report, for the first time, NbC and TaC MXenes exhibit a remarkable SERS enhancement, which is synergistically enabled by the charge transfer resonance enhancement and electromagnetic enhancement. Their SERS sensitivity is optimized to 3.0 × 10 and 1.4 × 10 under the optimal resonance excitation wavelength of 532 nm. Additionally, remarkable SERS sensitivity endows TaC MXenes with capability to sensitively detect and accurately identify the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Moreover, its detection limit is as low as 5 × 10 M, which is beneficial to achieve real-time monitoring and early warning of novel coronavirus. This research not only provides helpful theoretical guidance for exploring other novel SERS-active semiconductor-based materials but also provides a potential candidate for the practical applications of SERS technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00565-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783703PMC
January 2021

A Multifunctional Nanosystem Based on Bacterial Cell-Penetrating Photosensitizer for Fighting Periodontitis Via Combining Photodynamic and Antibiotic Therapies.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 02 7;7(2):772-786. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

School of Dentistry & Hospital of Stomatology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, P. R. China.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an emerging approach that involves photosensitizers, light, and molecular oxygen, has shown promise for fighting periodontitis. However, PDT does not always acquire the desired therapeutic outcomes since some photosensitizers have strong hydrophobic properties and are difficult to absorb efficiently by periodontal pathogenic bacteria. Here, a hydrophobic photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) was hydrophilically modified via conjugation with TAT peptide, a cationic cell-penetrating peptide, to improve its solubility and enhance its bacterial adsorption by promoting its interaction with the negatively charged cell walls and penetration through the cell membranes. The obtained TAT-Ce6 conjugate (TAT-Ce6) was used to prepare self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) for loading tinidazole (TDZ), a clinically used antibiotic agent, thus hoping to achieve synergistic antiperiodontitis effects through combining PDT and antibiotic therapy. Compared to free Ce6, TAT-Ce6 nanoparticles (TAT-Ce6 NPs) had greatly enhanced adsorption and penetration abilities for periodontal pathogen bacteria and also exhibited significantly increased PDT efficiencies in both periodontal pathogen bacteria and monocyte macrophages. Upon 635 nm laser irradiation, TDZ-loaded TAT-Ce6 (TAT-Ce6/TDZ) NPs exerted remarkable synergistic antiperiodontitis effects of PDT and antibiotic therapy, reflecting in the effective killing of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in vitro and the reduced adsorption of alveolar bone in the Sprague-Dawley rat model of periodontitis. Altogether, this study develops a novel photosensitizer that can be efficiently absorbed by the periodontal pathogenic bacteria and also provides a potent combination strategy of PDT with antibiotic therapy for clinical periodontitis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c01638DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparative genomic analysis of mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-9 in Salmonella enterica.

J Infect 2021 04 3;82(4):e15-e17. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Antimicrobial Resistance and Pathogen Genomics, Beijing 100101, China; Department of Pathogenic Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.12.029DOI Listing
April 2021

A CRISPR/Cas12a Based Universal Lateral Flow Biosensor for the Sensitive and Specific Detection of African Swine-Fever Viruses in Whole Blood.

Biosensors (Basel) 2020 Dec 10;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 10.

School of Food Science and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan 528231, China.

Cross-border pathogens such as the African swine fever virus (ASFV) still pose a socio-economic threat. Cheaper, faster, and accurate diagnostics are imperative for healthcare and food safety applications. Currently, the discovery of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) has paved the way for the diagnostics based on Cas13 and Cas12/14 that exhibit collateral cleavage of target and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) reporter. The reporter is fluorescently labeled to report the presence of a target. These methods are powerful; however, fluorescence-based approaches require expensive apparatuses, complicate results readout, and exhibit high-fluorescence background. Here, we present a new CRISPR-Cas-based approach that combines polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, Cas12a, and a probe-based lateral flow biosensor (LFB) for the simultaneous detection of seven types of ASFV. In the presence of ASFVs, the LFB responded to reporter trans-cleavage by naked eyes and achieved a sensitivity of 2.5 × 10 M within 2 h, and unambiguously identified ASFV from swine blood. This system uses less time for PCR pre-amplification and requires cheaper devices; thus, it can be applied to virus monitoring and food samples detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios10120203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763806PMC
December 2020

A practical framework for predicting residential indoor PM concentration using land-use regression and machine learning methods.

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 2;265:129140. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Geography and Resource Management, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China; Institute of Environment, Energy and Sustainability, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China; Stanley Ho Big Data Decision Analytics Research Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

People typically spend most of their time indoors. It is of importance to establish prediction models to estimate PM concentration in indoor environments (e.g., residential households) to allow accurate assessments of exposure in epidemiological studies. This study aimed to develop models to predict PM concentration in residential households. PM concentration and related parameters (e.g., basic information about the households and ventilation settings) were collected in 116 households during the winter and summer seasons in Hong Kong. Outdoor PM concentration at households was estimated using a land-use regression model. The random forest machine learning algorithm was then applied to develop indoor PM prediction models. The results show that the random forest model achieved a promising predictive accuracy, with R and cross-validation R values of 0.93 and 0.65, respectively. Outdoor PM concentration was the most important predictor variable, followed in descending order by the household marked number, outdoor temperature, outdoor relative humidity, average household area and air conditioning. The external validation result using an independent dataset confirmed the potential application of the random forest model, with an R value of 0.47. Overall, this study shows the value of a combined land-use regression and machine learning approach in establishing indoor PM prediction models that provide a relatively accurate assessment of exposure for use in epidemiological studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129140DOI Listing
February 2021

A heterozygous SCN1A (c.A5768G/+) mutant human induced pluripotent stem cell line (USTCi002-A) generated using TALEN-mediated precise gene editing.

Stem Cell Res 2020 12 16;49:102058. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Joint School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530, China; Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 511436, China; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, 510005 Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Severe mycological epilepsy of infancy is a catastrophic disease with preferential dysfunction of interneurons, frequentepisoderate, cognitive and sudden death. The disease is mainly caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutation of SCN1A gene encoding α subunit of the sodium channel Nav1.1. To generate mutations in normal iPSC, Transcription activator-like effector nucleases was used to introduce the epilepsy-causing mutation A5768G into the endogenous locus of SCN1A gene. The gene editing induced pluripotent stem cell line and normal iPSC were obtained from the same donor to eliminate significantly the genetic background noise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2020.102058DOI Listing
December 2020

Altered metabolic profiles and biomarkers associated with astragaloside IV-mediated protection against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in rats: An HPLC-TOF/MS-based untargeted metabolomics study.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 01 24;183:114299. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China. Electronic address:

Cisplatin (CDDP)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) limits the therapeutic use of CDDP, which urgently needs to be addressed. Our previous study demonstrated that astragaloside IV (AS IV), an active compound of the traditional Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus, alleviated CDDP-induced AKI. To explore the mechanism, we performed a metabolomics study to explore the altered metabolic pathways and screen for sensitive biomarkers. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into three groups, which were treated with vehicle solutions (Control), intraperitoneally injected CDDP, and intraperitoneally injected CDDP plus oral AS IV, respectively. Metabolic profiles of serum, urine, and kidney samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry. There were 38 key metabolites in the urine samples, 20 in the serum samples, and 16 in the kidney samples that were significantly altered due to AS IV-mediated protection against CDDP-induced AKI relative to CDDP-only treatment. CDDP + AS IV co-treatment significantly altered two pathways in the blood (biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism), five pathways in the urine (phenylalanine metabolism; phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis; arginine biosynthesis; arginine and proline metabolism; and histidine metabolism), and five pathways in the kidneys (glutathione metabolism; alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism; glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism; arginine and proline metabolism; and D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism). The metabolic pathways were mainly associated with improvements in inflammatory responses, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. Adrenic acid in serum and L-histidine and L-methionine in urine were identified as sensitive biomarkers. This study provides new insights to understand the mechanism of AS IV-mediated protection against CDDP-induced AKI and has identified three candidate biomarkers to evaluate preventative treatment and assess therapeutic effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114299DOI Listing
January 2021

Fluoride exposure and intelligence in school-age children: evidence from different windows of exposure susceptibility.

BMC Public Health 2020 Nov 4;20(1):1657. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, Henan, China.

Background: The intellectual loss induced by fluoride exposure has been extensively studied, but the association between fluoride exposure in different susceptibility windows and children's intelligence is rarely reported. Hence, we conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association between fluoride exposure in prenatal and childhood periods and intelligence quotient (IQ).

Methods: We recruited 633 local children aged 7-13 years old randomly from four primary schools in Kaifeng, China in 2017. The children were divided into four groups, of which included: control group (CG, n = 228), only prenatal excessive fluoride exposure group (PFG, n = 107), only childhood excessive fluoride exposure group (CFG, n = 157), both prenatal and childhood excessive fluoride exposure group (BFG, n = 141). The concentrations of urinary fluoride (UF) and urinary creatinine (UCr) were determined by fluoride ion-selective electrode assay and a creatinine assay kit (picric acid method), respectively. The concentration of UCr-adjusted urinary fluoride (CUF) was calculated. IQ score was assessed using the second revision of the Combined Raven's Test-The Rural in China (CRT-RC2). Threshold and saturation effects analysis, multiple linear regression analysis and logistic regression analysis were conducted to analyze the association between fluoride exposure and IQ.

Results: The mean IQ score in PFG was respectively lower than those in CG, CFG and BFG (P < 0.05). The odds of developing excellent intelligence among children in PFG decreased by 51.1% compared with children in CG (OR = 0.489, 95% CI: 0.279, 0.858). For all the children, CUF concentration of ≥1.7 mg/L was negatively associated with IQ scores (β = - 4.965, 95% CI: - 9.198, - 0.732, P = 0.022). In children without prenatal fluoride exposure, every 1.0 mg/L increment in the CUF concentration of ≥2.1 mg/L was related to a reduction of 11.4 points in children's IQ scores (95% CI: - 19.2, - 3.5, P = 0.005).

Conclusions: Prenatal and childhood excessive fluoride exposures may impair the intelligence development of school children. Furthermore, children with prenatal fluoride exposure had lower IQ scores than children who were not prenatally exposed; therefore the reduction of IQ scores at higher levels of fluoride exposure in childhood does not become that evident.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09765-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7640398PMC
November 2020

An integrated classification model for incremental learning.

Multimed Tools Appl 2020 Oct 21:1-16. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Centre for Artificial Intelligence, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, Australia.

Incremental Learning is a particular form of machine learning that enables a model to be modified incrementally, when new data becomes available. In this way, the model can adapt to the new data without the lengthy and time-consuming process required for complete model re-training. However, existing incremental learning methods face two significant problems: 1) noise in the classification sample data, 2) poor accuracy of modern classification algorithms when applied to modern classification problems. In order to deal with these issues, this paper proposes an integrated classification model, known as a Pre-trained Truncated Gradient Confidence-weighted (Pt-TGCW) model. Since the pre-trained model can extract and transform image information into a feature vector, the integrated model also shows its advantages in the field of image classification. Experimental results on ten datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperform the original counterparts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11042-020-10070-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577649PMC
October 2020

Uric acid drives intestinal barrier dysfunction through TSPO-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

Inflamm Res 2021 Jan 19;70(1):127-137. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Medical Research Center, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, No. 167, Wutai Mountain Road, Qingdao, 266003, People's Republic of China.

Background And Aim: Intestinal epithelial dysfunction is the foundation of various intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases, while the effects and mechanism of uric acid on the intestinal barrier are little known. TSPO has been shown to be related to the generation of ROS and is involved in regulating inflammation, whether uric acid drives intestinal epithelial dysfunction through TSPO-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation is unknown.

Methods: UOX gene knockout mouse (UOX-/-) were used for models of hyperuricemia. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran was used to assess in vivo intestinal permeability. Serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and culture supernatants IL-1β were measured using ELISA Kit. IEC-6 exposed to different concentrations of uric acid was used for in vitro experiment. Protein content and mRNA were assessed using Western blotting and Q-PCR, respectively. Intracellular ROS was determined using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscope. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected on an immunofluorescence. Small interfering RNA transfection was used to assess the interaction between translocator protein (TSPO) and NLRP3 inflammasome. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) was used as ROS scavenger.

Results: Our results showed that hyperuricemia mice were characteristic by increased intestinal permeability. Hyperuricemia upregulated TSPO, increased production of ROS and activated NLRP3 inflammasome, which resulted in lower expression of occludin and claudin-1. In vitro, we showed that soluble uric acid alone increased the expression of TSPO, depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS release and activated NLRP3 inflammasome, which further reduced the expression of occludin and claudin-1. Silencing TSPO suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation and increased expression of claudin-1 and occludin, which was accompanied by lower levels of ROS. Scavenging ROS also significantly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation without change of TSPO, indicating that TSPO-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation was dependent on ROS.

Conclusions: In conclusion, uric acid drives intestinal barrier dysfunction through TSPO-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-020-01409-yDOI Listing
January 2021