Publications by authors named "Zhiwei Li"

388 Publications

Compatibility of ingredients of Danshen (Radix ) and Honghua () and their protective effects on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 8;22(2):849. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

College of Life Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310053, P.R. China.

Danshen (Radix ) and Honghua () (Danhong) are two drugs commonly prescribed together, which are often used in the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases in China. Due to the complexity of the ingredients of Danhong, the present study focused on performing the orthogonal compatibility method on the primary effective molecules of this drug: Tanshinol, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid B and hydroxysafflor yellow A. These four molecules were studied to determine their protective effects and to screen for the most compatible ingredients to improve cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IR) in rats. Focal middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed to establish the cerebral IR model in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, IR group and nine orthogonal administration groups with different ratios of Danhong effective ingredients and Danhong injection group. Neurological deficit score and cerebral infarction volume were measured postoperatively. Morphological pathological alterations were observed via H&E staining. Bcl-2 and Bax were quantified using ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to analyze the expression of caspase-3 in the hippocampus. The expression levels of cytochrome , apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 (apaf-1), caspase-9, caspase-3 and p53 mRNA in the hippocampus were assessed via reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The results demonstrated that different compatibility groups significantly reduced the neurological function score and decreased the volume of cerebral infarct compared with the IR group. These groups were also indicated to improve the pathological damage to the brain tissue. In addition, certain compatibility groups significantly decreased the number of caspase-3 positive cells in the hippocampus and the expression levels of cytochrome , apaf-1, caspase-9, caspase-3 and p53 mRNA in the brain tissue. Orthogonal group 4 (30 mg/kg tanshinol; 2.5 mg/kg salvianolic acid A; 16 mg/kg salvianolic acid B; 8 mg/kg hydroxysafflor yellow A) was indicated to be the most effective. The four effective ingredients of Danhong exhibited a protective effect on rats with cerebral IR injury, potentially through the inhibition of apoptosis via the downregulation of key targets upstream of the caspase-3 pathway. In addition, the present study provided novel insights for the continued study of the drug compatibility rules of TCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210257PMC
August 2021

Construction and optimization of herpes simplex virus vectors for central nervous system gene delivery based on CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing.

Curr Gene Ther 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Key Laboratory of The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kuming Medical College, Kunming, 650101, China.

Aims: We aim to define parameters affecting the safety and long-term transgene expression of attenuated HSV-1 vectors and optimize the expression cassettes to achieve robust and sustained expression in CNS.

Background: Engineered, attenuated Herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors are promising vehicles for gene delivery to the peripheral and central nervous systems. The virus latent promoter (LAP) is commonly used to drive exogenous gene expression; however, parameters affecting the safety and long-term transgene expression of attenuated HSV-1 vectors have not been fully understood.

Objective: This study aimed to construct attenuated HSV-1 vectors using the CRISPR-Cas9 system and examine the influence of transgene cassette construction and insertion site on transgene expression and vector safety.

Method: In this study, we used a CRISPR-Cas9 system to accurately and efficiently edit attenuated HSV-1 strain 1716, and constructed two series of recombinant virus LMR and LMRx with different sets of gene cassettes insertion in Exon1(LAP2) and 2.0 kb intron downstream of LAP, respectively. The transgene expression and viral gene transcriptional kinetics were compared in in-vitro cell lines. The reporter gene expression and safety profiles of each vector were further evaluated in the mouse hippocampus gene transduction model.

Result: The in-vitro cell line analysis indicated that the insertion of a gene expression cassette would disrupt virus gene transcription. Mouse hippocampus transducing analysis suggested that complete expression cassette insertion at 2.0 kb intron could achieve robust and longtime gene expression than the other constructs. Recombinants with gene expression cassettes lacked Poly (A), which induced significant neuronal inflammation due to persistent viral antigen expression and microglia activation.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that the integrity of LAT transcripts was not necessary for the establishment of long-term latent expression. Exogenous strong promoters (like cBh promoter) could remain active during latency when placed in Exon1 or 2.0 Kb Intron of LAT locus, although their transcriptional activity declined with time. Consistent with previous research, the foreign gene expression would last much longer when the gene cassette was located downstream of Exon1, which suggested a role of LAP2 in maintaining promoter activity during latency. Besides, over-transcription of the downstream part of LAT may induce continuous activation of the attenuated vectors, suggesting an important role of LAT in maintaining viral reactivation potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1566523219666210618154326DOI Listing
June 2021

Nanohollow Carbon for Rechargeable Batteries: Ongoing Progresses and Challenges.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Sep 19;12(1):183. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117574, Singapore.

Among the various morphologies of carbon-based materials, hollow carbon nanostructures are of particular interest for energy storage. They have been widely investigated as electrode materials in different types of rechargeable batteries, owing to their high surface areas in association with the high surface-to-volume ratios, controllable pores and pore size distribution, high electrical conductivity, and excellent chemical and mechanical stability, which are beneficial for providing active sites, accelerating electrons/ions transfer, interacting with electrolytes, and giving rise to high specific capacity, rate capability, cycling ability, and overall electrochemical performance. In this overview, we look into the ongoing progresses that are being made with the nanohollow carbon materials, including nanospheres, nanopolyhedrons, and nanofibers, in relation to their applications in the main types of rechargeable batteries. The design and synthesis strategies for them and their electrochemical performance in rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, potassium-ion batteries, and lithium-sulfur batteries are comprehensively reviewed and discussed, together with the challenges being faced and perspectives for them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00521-2DOI Listing
September 2020

Computerized assisted evaluation system for canine cardiomegaly via key points detection with deep learning.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Jun 5;193:105399. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

New Ruipeng Pet Healthcare Group Co. LTD., Beijing, 100010, China.

Cardiomegaly is the main imaging finding for canine heart diseases. There are many advances in the field of medical diagnosing based on imaging with deep learning for human being. However there are also increasing realization of the potential of using deep learning in veterinary medicine. We reported a clinically applicable assisted platform for diagnosing the canine cardiomegaly with deep learning. VHS (vertebral heart score) is a measuring method used for the heart size of a dog. The concrete value of VHS is calculated with the relative position of 16 key points detected by the system, and this result is then combined with VHS reference range of all dog breeds to assist in the evaluation of the canine cardiomegaly. We adopted HRNet (high resolution network) to detect 16 key points (12 and four key points located on vertebra and heart respectively) in 2274 lateral X-ray images (training and validation datasets) of dogs, the model was then used to detect the key points in external testing dataset (396 images), the AP (average performance) for key point detection reach 86.4 %. Then we applied an additional post processing procedure to correct the output of HRNets so that the AP reaches 90.9 %. This result signifies that this system can effectively assist the evaluation of canine cardiomegaly in a real clinical scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2021.105399DOI Listing
June 2021

Triglyceride glucose index and carotid atherosclerosis incidence in the Chinese population: A prospective cohort study.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The association of the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index with carotid atherosclerosis has not been reported in longitudinal studies. The present study aimed to investigate whether the TyG index increases the risk of carotid atherosclerosis incidence.

Methods And Results: This study included data from the Beijing Health Management Cohort (BHMC; n = 6955) and the Beijing Physical Examination Cohort (BPEC; n = 8473). Participants without a history of carotid atherosclerosis who underwent health examination in 2011 or 2012 were annually followed until 2019. The TyG index was denoted as ln [triglycerides (mmol/L)∗fasting glucose (mmol/L)/2]. During a median follow-up of 5.02 years and 5.36 years, 1441 individuals in the BHMC group and 2181 individuals in the BPEC group developed carotid plaque, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of the continuous TyG index were 1.253 (95% CI, 1.044 to 1.505) and 1.252 (95% CI, 1.091 to 1.437) for the BHMC and BPEC groups, respectively. Individuals in the highest quartile of the TyG index were associated with an increased risk of carotid plaque compared with those in the lowest quartile (BHMC: HR, 1.366; 95% CI, 1.101 to 1.695, P for trend = 0.010; BPEC: HR, 1.379; 95% CI, 1.196 to 1.591, P for trend = 0.013).

Conclusion: These findings suggested that a higher TyG index increases the risk of carotid atherosclerosis incidence in the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.03.027DOI Listing
April 2021

Calculation of Transport Parameters Using and AMOEBA Polarizable Force Field Methods.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Jun 26;125(22):4918-4927. Epub 2021 May 26.

Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P. R. China.

The transport properties of chemical species such as coefficients of diffusion, thermal conductivity, and viscosity have been widely used in combustion modeling. Lennard-Jones parameters fitted from the accurate intermolecular potential energy surfaces are crucial to obtain such information. Hence, a fast and accurate energy function is always desired for this purpose. In this study, the quality of a widely used polarizable force field AMOEBA was examined for the interaction between noble gases and -alkanes. First, the intermolecular energy was compared between AMOEBA, MP2/CBS, MP2/aug'-cc-pVDZ, and QCISD(T)/CBS. The root mean squared error of the original AMOEBA was 10.31 cm against QCISD(T)/CBS for all conformations. This was comparable with the errors of 10.84 and 7.75 cm for MP2/aug'-cc-pVDZ and MP2/CBS, respectively. Further optimizing the van der Waals parameters of noble gases, the error of the force field against QCISD(T)/CBS was reduced to 6.24 cm, even better than the MP2/CBS results. Based on the optimized force field parameters, the intermolecular Lennard-Jones parameters were derived using the spherically averaged method and one-dimensional minimization method for a set of (-alkanes, noble gases) pairs. The discrepancy of the one-dimensional minimization predicted Lennard-Jones collision rates from the tabulated values was typically within 10%, while it could be as large as 20-30% for the spherically averaged method. Additionally, the binary diffusion coefficients were calculated using the present Lennard-Jones parameters. In this case, the parameters derived from the spherically averaged method perform better. The mean unsigned error of the diffusion coefficients is usually within 5%, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The results demonstrate that the AMOEBA force field can be used to generate the transport parameters systematically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpca.1c03028DOI Listing
June 2021

Design of a new multi-epitope vaccine against based on T and B cell epitopes using bioinformatics methods.

Epidemiol Infect 2021 May 25;149:e136. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medicine, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, 830011Xinjiang, China.

Brucellosis is one of the most serious and widespread zoonotic diseases, which seriously threatens human health and the national economy. This study was based on the T/B dominant epitopes of Brucella outer membrane protein 22 (Omp22), outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) and outer membrane protein 28 (Omp28), with bioinformatics methods to design a safe and effective multi-epitope vaccine. The amino acid sequences of the proteins were found in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, and the signal peptides were predicted by the SignaIP-5.0 server. The surface accessibility and hydrophilic regions of proteins were analysed with the ProtScale software and the tertiary structure model of the proteins predicted by I-TASSER software and labelled with the UCSF Chimera software. The software COBEpro, SVMTriP and BepiPred were used to predict B cell epitopes of the proteins. SYFPEITHI, RANKpep and IEDB were employed to predict T cell epitopes of the proteins. The T/B dominant epitopes of three proteins were combined with HEYGAALEREAG and GGGS linkers, and carriers sequences linked to the N- and C-terminus of the vaccine construct with the help of EAAAK linkers. Finally, the tertiary structure and physical and chemical properties of the multi-epitope vaccine construct were analysed. The allergenicity, antigenicity and solubility of the multi-epitope vaccine construct were 7.37-11.30, 0.788 and 0.866, respectively. The Ramachandran diagram of the mock vaccine construct showed 96.0% residues within the favoured and allowed range. Collectively, our results showed that this multi-epitope vaccine construct has a high-quality structure and suitable characteristics, which may provide a theoretical basis for future laboratory experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268821001229DOI Listing
May 2021

Regulation of SEI Formation by Anion Receptors to Achieve Ultra-Stable Lithium Metal Battery.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, CHINA.

Despite high specific capacity (3860 mAh g -1 ), the utilization of Li-metal anodes in rechargeable batteries are still hampered due to their insufficient cyclability. Herein, we report an anion-receptor-mediated carbonate electrolyte with improved performance and can ameliorate the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) composition comparing to the blank electrolyte. It demonstrates a high average Coulombic efficiency (97.94%) over 500 cycles in the Li/Cu cell at a capacity of 1 mAh cm -2 . Raman spectrum and molecular modelling further clarify the screening effects of the anion receptor on the Li + -PF 6 - ion coupling that results in the enhanced ion dynamics. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) distinguishes the disparities in the SEI components of the developed electrolyte and the blank one, which is rationalized by the molecular insights of the Li-metal/electrolyte interface. Thus, we prepare a 2.5 Ah prototype pouch cell, exhibiting a high energy density (357 Wh kg -1 ) with 90.90% capacity retention over 50 cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202104671DOI Listing
May 2021

From colloidal particles to photonic crystals: advances in self-assembly and their emerging applications.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 May;50(10):5898-5951

Research Institute for Frontier Science, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, School of Space and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China.

Over the last three decades, photonic crystals (PhCs) have attracted intense interests thanks to their broad potential applications in optics and photonics. Generally, these structures can be fabricated via either "top-down" lithographic or "bottom-up" self-assembly approaches. The self-assembly approaches have attracted particular attention due to their low cost, simple fabrication processes, relative convenience of scaling up, and the ease of creating complex structures with nanometer precision. The self-assembled colloidal crystals (CCs), which are good candidates for PhCs, have offered unprecedented opportunities for photonics, optics, optoelectronics, sensing, energy harvesting, environmental remediation, pigments, and many other applications. The creation of high-quality CCs and their mass fabrication over large areas are the critical limiting factors for real-world applications. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art techniques in the self-assembly of colloidal particles for the fabrication of large-area high-quality CCs and CCs with unique symmetries. The first part of this review summarizes the types of defects commonly encountered in the fabrication process and their effects on the optical properties of the resultant CCs. Next, the mechanisms of the formation of cracks/defects are discussed, and a range of versatile fabrication methods to create large-area crack/defect-free two-dimensional and three-dimensional CCs are described. Meanwhile, we also shed light on both the advantages and limitations of these advanced approaches developed to fabricate high-quality CCs. The self-assembly routes and achievements in the fabrication of CCs with the ability to open a complete photonic bandgap, such as cubic diamond and pyrochlore structure CCs, are discussed as well. Then emerging applications of large-area high-quality CCs and unique photonic structures enabled by the advanced self-assembly methods are illustrated. At the end of this review, we outlook the future approaches in the fabrication of perfect CCs and highlight their novel real-world applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00706dDOI Listing
May 2021

Metabolism and Chronic Inflammation: The Links Between Chronic Heart Failure and Comorbidities.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 5;8:650278. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pathophysiology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology Institute of Basic Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Heart failure (HF) patients often suffer from multiple comorbidities, such as diabetes, atrial fibrillation, depression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic kidney disease. The coexistance of comorbidities usually leads to multi morbidity and poor prognosis. Treatments for HF patients with multi morbidity are still an unmet clinical need, and finding an effective therapy strategy is of great value. HF can lead to comorbidity, and in return, comorbidity may promote the progression of HF, creating a vicious cycle. This reciprocal correlation indicates there may be some common causes and biological mechanisms. Metabolism remodeling and chronic inflammation play a vital role in the pathophysiological processes of HF and comorbidities, indicating metabolism and inflammation may be the links between HF and comorbidities. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the major underlying mechanisms and therapeutic implications for comorbidities of HF. We first summarize the potential role of metabolism and inflammation in HF. Then, we give an overview of the linkage between common comorbidities and HF, from the perspective of epidemiological evidence to the underlying metabolism and inflammation mechanisms. Moreover, with the help of bioinformatics, we summarize the shared risk factors, signal pathways, and therapeutic targets between HF and comorbidities. Metabolic syndrome, aging, deleterious lifestyles (sedentary behavior, poor dietary patterns, smoking, etc.), and other risk factors common to HF and comorbidities are all associated with common mechanisms. Impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, autophagy, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress, are among the major mechanisms of both HF and comorbidities. Gene enrichment analysis showed the PI3K/AKT pathway may probably play a central role in multi morbidity. Additionally, drug targets common to HF and several common comorbidities were found by network analysis. Such analysis has already been instrumental in drug repurposing to treat HF and comorbidity. And the result suggests sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, IL-1β inhibitors, and metformin may be promising drugs for repurposing to treat multi morbidity. We propose that targeting the metabolic and inflammatory pathways that are common to HF and comorbidities may provide a promising therapeutic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.650278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131678PMC
May 2021

Development of a nomogram model to predict survival outcomes in patients with primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors based on SEER database.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 18;21(1):567. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Lung Disease, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Background: Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors (PH-NETs) are extremely rare and unknown. Because of its rarity, its prognosis features and influencing factors are not well established.

Methods: Data of 140 patients with PH-NETs diagnosed in the SEER database from 1975 to 2016 were collected. The demographics and clinic-pathological features were described. By using propensity-score matching (PSM) analysis, three associated cohorts were selected to describe the malignancy of PH-NETs and univariate analysis was conducted. Then, multivariate Cox analyses were performed and a predicting nomograph was constructed. C-index, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calibration curves were used to evaluate the predictive value of nomogram.

Results: The overall survival outcomes of PH-NETs were superior to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a mean survival time 30.64 vs 25.11 months (p = 0.052), but inferior to gastrointestinal tract neuroendocrine tumors in situ (GI-NETs in situ) with a mean survival time 30.64 vs 41.62 months (p = 0.017). With reference to gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors with liver metastasis (GI-NETs-LM), GI-NETs-LM had better outcomes in short time (1-year survival rate: 64.75% vs 56.43%) but was worse in long time (5-year survival rate: 8. 63% vs 18.57%). Multivariate Cox analyses showed that tumor grade and surgery were two independent factors for prognosis of the patients (p < 0.00). Tumor grade and surgery were used to construct the predicting nomogram. The C-index was 0.79 (95%CI = 0.75-0.83). The area under curve (AUC) values in ROC were 0.868 in 1-year and 0.917 in 3-year survival and the calibration curves showed good consistency.

Conclusions: The overall prognosis PH-NETs is generally favorable, better than HCC and GI-NETs-LM in long term. Preoperative biopsy and complete pathological diagnosis were recommended. Radical surgical intervention including transplantation was the first choice in PH-NETs therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08337-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130428PMC
May 2021

Assessment on the Impact on Human Health, Environment, Water and Soil by Disposing Household Expired Drugs: A Cross-Sectional Study in China.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 23;14:1711-1721. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, People's Republic of China.

Background: The household expired drugs disposal has been a huge public issue in many countries, including China, which may affect various side and toxic effects on human health and environment, water resources, and soil too. This paper explores the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Guangzhou city residents regarding household expired drugs and their effect on human health and provided the scientific pieces of evidence to carry out the long-term recovery mechanism for expired medicines.

Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, including univariate and unconditional logistic regression models, was carried out to analyze the data.

Results: A total of 613 community residents with a 99.4% response rate enrolled for the study. More than half 60.2% of residents stated that expired drugs pollute the environment, soil, and water resources, where 81.2% of respondents knew that it would produce side effects or toxic effects. However, still, 71.6% of respondents disposed of directly into the trash bin or sink, and, only 24.8% had good practice that they use a designed recycling bin. Likewise, only 8.3% of respondents placed expired drugs into collection points nearly 3-5 times in a year, while 65.1% of participants never disposed of in the collection point, which found a worse practice.

Conclusion: Overall, the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Guangzhou residents regarding household expired drugs disposal were not ideal. To improve the resident's awareness about family expired drugs disposal, ensure the financial support for the recycling process, establish an accessible and acceptable recycling point, and introduce relevant laws and regulations for the long-term mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S301910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079354PMC
April 2021

Danhong Injection Attenuates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats Through the Suppression of the Neuroinflammation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:561237. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

College of Basic Medical Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

Neuroinflammation is one of the major causes of damage of the central nervous system (CNS) and plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia, which can result in long-term disability and neuronal death. Danhong injection (DHI), a traditional Chinese medicine injection, has been applied to the clinical treatment of cerebral stoke for many years. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of DHI on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) in rats and explored its potential anti-neuroinflammatory properties. CIRI in adult male SD rats was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1 h and reperfusion for 24 h. Results showed that DHI (0.5, 1, and 2 ml/kg) dose-dependently improved the neurological deficits and alleviated cerebral infarct volume and histopathological damage of the cerebral cortex caused by CIRI. Moreover, DHI (0.5, 1, and 2 ml/kg) inhibited the mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in ischemic brains, downregulated TNF-α, IL-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in serum, and reduced the neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase, MPO) in ischemic brains, in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining results also revealed that DHI dose-dependently diminished the protein expressions of ICAM-1 and COX-2, and suppressed the activation of microglia (ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1, Iba-1) and astrocyte (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP) in the cerebral cortex. Western blot analysis showed that DHI significantly downregulated the phosphorylation levels of the proteins in nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinas (MAPK) signaling pathways in ischemic brains. These results indicate that DHI exerts anti-neuroinflammatory effects against CIRI, which contribute to the amelioration of CNS damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.561237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076794PMC
April 2021

Enhancing the Capacity and Stability by CoFeO Modified g-CN Composite for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Materials of Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Hefei 230026, China.

As society progresses, the task of developing new green energy brooks no delay. Li-O batteries have high theoretical capacity, but are difficult to put into practical use due to problems such as high overvoltage, low charge-discharge efficiency, poor rate, and cycle performance. The development of high-efficiency catalysts to effectively solve the shortcomings of Li-O batteries is of great significance to finding a solution for energy problems. Herein, we design CoFeO/g-CN composites, and combine the advantages of the g-CN material with the spinel-type metal oxide material. The flaky structure of g-CN accelerates the transportation of oxygen and lithium ions and inhibits the accumulation of CoFeO particles. The CoFeO materials accelerate the decomposition of LiO and reduce electrode polarization in the charge-discharge reaction. When CoFeO/g-CN composites are used as catalysts in Li-O batteries, the battery has a better discharge specific capacity of 9550 mA h g (catalyst mass), and the cycle stability of the battery has been improved, which is stable for 85 cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11051088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146125PMC
April 2021

Wi-Fi-Based Location-Independent Human Activity Recognition via Meta Learning.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 9;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China.

Wi-Fi-based device-free human activity recognition has recently become a vital underpinning for various emerging applications, ranging from the Internet of Things (IoT) to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Although this technology has been successfully demonstrated for location-dependent sensing, it relies on sufficient data samples for large-scale sensing, which is enormously labor-intensive and time-consuming. However, in real-world applications, location-independent sensing is crucial and indispensable. Therefore, how to alleviate adverse effects on recognition accuracy caused by location variations with the limited dataset is still an open question. To address this concern, we present a location-independent human activity recognition system based on Wi-Fi named WiLiMetaSensing. Specifically, we first leverage a Convolutional Neural Network and Long Short-Term Memory (CNN-LSTM) feature representation method to focus on location-independent characteristics. Then, in order to well transfer the model across different positions with limited data samples, a metric learning-based activity recognition method is proposed. Consequently, not only the generalization ability but also the transferable capability of the model would be significantly promoted. To fully validate the feasibility of the presented approach, extensive experiments have been conducted in an office with 24 testing locations. The evaluation results demonstrate that our method can achieve more than 90% in location-independent human activity recognition accuracy. More importantly, it can adapt well to the data samples with a small number of subcarriers and a low sampling rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21082654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069986PMC
April 2021

Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals the heterogeneity of liver-resident immune cells in human.

Cell Discov 2020 Apr 28;6(1):22. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Institute of Hepatology, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518112, China.

The liver plays a critical role in both immune defense and tolerance in the body. The liver-resident immune cells (LrICs) determine the immune properties, but the unique composition and heterogeneity of these cells are incompletely understood. Here, we dissect the diversity of LrICs by a comprehensive transcriptomic profiling using the unbiased single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq). A total of 70, 706 of CD45 immune cells from the paired liver perfusion, spleen and peripheral blood as references were profiled. We identified more than 30 discrete cell populations comprising 13 of T and NK cell, 7 of B cell, 4 of plasma cell, and 8 of myeloid cell subsets in human liver and donor-paired spleen and blood, and characterized their tissue distribution, gene expression and functional modules. Especially, four of CXCR6 T and NK cell subsets were found to be present preferentially in the liver, where they manifested heterogeneity, distinct function and prominent homeostatic proliferation. We propose a universal category system of T and NK cells based on distinct chemokine receptors, confirmed subsequently by phenotype, transcriptional factors and functionality. We also identified adaptive changes by the spleen and liver-derived monocyte and macrophage populations. Finally, we give a global glimpse on B cell and plasma cell subsets in human spleen and liver. We, therefore, reveal the heterogeneity and functional diversity of LrICs in human. This study presents comprehensively the landscape of LrICs and will enable further study on their roles in various human diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0157-zDOI Listing
April 2020

Memristor Based Binary Convolutional Neural Network Architecture With Configurable Neurons.

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:639526. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

College of Electronic Science and Technology, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China.

The memristor-based convolutional neural network (CNN) gives full play to the advantages of memristive devices, such as low power consumption, high integration density, and strong network recognition capability. Consequently, it is very suitable for building a wearable embedded application system and has broad application prospects in image classification, speech recognition, and other fields. However, limited by the manufacturing process of memristive devices, high-precision weight devices are currently difficult to be applied in large-scale. In the same time, high-precision neuron activation function also further increases the complexity of network hardware implementation. In response to this, this paper proposes a configurable full-binary convolutional neural network (CFB-CNN) architecture, whose inputs, weights, and neurons are all binary values. The neurons are proportionally configured to two modes for different non-ideal situations. The architecture performance is verified based on the MNIST data set, and the influence of device yield and resistance fluctuations under different neuron configurations on network performance is also analyzed. The results show that the recognition accuracy of the 2-layer network is about 98.2%. When the yield rate is about 64% and the hidden neuron mode is configured as -1 and +1, namely ±1 MD, the CFB-CNN architecture achieves about 91.28% recognition accuracy. Whereas the resistance variation is about 26% and the hidden neuron mode configuration is 0 and 1, namely 01 MD, the CFB-CNN architecture gains about 93.43% recognition accuracy. Furthermore, memristors have been demonstrated as one of the most promising devices in neuromorphic computing for its synaptic plasticity. Therefore, the CFB-CNN architecture based on memristor is SNN-compatible, which is verified using the number of pulses to encode pixel values in this paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.639526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8032997PMC
March 2021

Acute effect of particulate matter pollution on hospital admissions for stroke among patients with type 2 diabetes in Beijing, China, from 2014 to 2018.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 8;217:112201. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China; Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Beijing 100069, China. Electronic address:

Background: The health effect of particulate matter pollution on stroke has been widely examined; however, the effect among patients with comorbid type 2 diabetes (T2D) in developing countries has remained largely unknown.

Methods: A time-series study was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of fine particulate matter (PM) and inhalable particulate matter (PM) on hospital admissions for stroke among patients with T2D in Beijing, China, from 2014 to 2018. An over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model was employed to adjust for important covariates, such as weather conditions and long-term and seasonal trends.

Results: A total of 159,298 hospital admissions for stroke comorbid with T2D were reported. Approximately linear exposure-response curves were observed for PM and PM in relation to stroke admissions among T2D patients. A 10 μg/m increase in the four-day moving average of PM and PM was associated with 0.14% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05-0.23%) and 0.14% (95% CI: 0.06-0.22%) incremental increases in stroke admissions among T2D patients, respectively. A 10 μg/m increase in PM in the two-day moving average corresponded to a 0.72% (95% CI: 0.02-1.42%) incremental increase in hemorrhagic stroke, and a 10 μg/m increase in PM in the four-day moving average corresponded to a 0.14% (95% CI: 0.06-0.22%) incremental increase in ischemic stroke.

Conclusions: High particulate matter might be a risk factor for stroke among patients with T2D. PM and PM have a linear exposure-response relationship with stroke among T2D patients. The study provided evidence of the risk of stroke due to particulate matter pollution among patients with comorbid T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112201DOI Listing
July 2021

A tetravalent single-chain variable fragment antibody for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2021 Apr;22(4):305-309

Key Laboratory of Environment Correlative Dietology, College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) synthesized by is a foodborne and heat-stable toxin, which is a great threat to human health (Pexaraet al., 2010). Highly sensitive antibodies are a key factor in the immunological detection of SEA, which is one of the most effective ways to detect SEA because of its accuracy, agility, and efficiency (Nouri et al., 2018). In this study, we constructed a tetravalent anti-SEA antibody gene by linking the tetramerization domain of human p53 to the C-terminus of the anti-SEA single-chain variable fragment (scFv), which was then transformed into BL21 (DE3) for the production of a SEA-specific tetravalent antibody. Successful expression of the tetravalent antibody was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot. An indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that the tetravalent antibody exhibited SEA-specific binding activity. A sandwich ELISA demonstrated that compared to the scFv monomer, the tetravalent antibody was more sensitive in detecting SEA. Molecular docking analysis revealed that the SEA interacted with the scFv mainly on the opposite side of the residue linked to p53. Thus, this study indicated that genetically engineered tetramerization is a potential way to improve the sensitivity of SEA-specific scFv.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B2000661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042527PMC
April 2021

Changes in Incidence and Epidemiological Characteristics of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Mainland China, 2005-2016.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e215302. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Importance: The World Health Organization End TB (Tuberculosis) Strategy aims to decrease the global incidence and mortality of TB by 90% and 95%, respectively, as of 2035.

Objective: To characterize the recent epidemiological trend of pulmonary TB (PTB) in mainland China based on the national surveillance data.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study collected demographic and clinical data of all patients reported in the national Tuberculosis Information Management System of China from January 1, 2005, to November 21, 2016. Data were analyzed from December 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020.

Exposures: Pulmonary TB was defined as bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed TB in the lung parenchyma or the tracheobronchial tree.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Temporal and spatial variation of annual incidence and demographic features of PTB in mainland China.

Results: In total, 10 582 903 patients with PTB were reported in mainland China from 2005 to 2016. The median age of patients with PTB was 46 (interquartile range [IQR], 30-61) years, and 28.53% were 60 years or older. Most patients with PTB were male (69.8%) and farmers or herders (70.0%). The mean (SD) incidence of PTB was 66.61 (8.09) per 100 000 population. The annual incidence decreased from 72.95 per 100 000 population in 2005 to 52.18 per 100 000 population in 2016, and the reduction was greater in the eastern and central regions (31.6%; from 69.43 to 47.48 per 100 000 population) than in the western region (21.0%; from 82.06 to 64.82 per 100 000 population). Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (135.03 per 100 000 population), Guizhou Province (115.98 per 100 000 population), and the Tibet Autonomous Region (101.98 per 100 000 population) had the highest mean annual incidences. The median time from onset of illness to diagnosis decreased from 36 (IQR, 16-92) days from 2005 to 2007 to 31 (IQR, 15-63) days in 2008 and later (P < .001) and was longer in the western region than in the eastern and central regions (41 [IQR, 20-91] vs 30 [IQR, 13-61] days; P < .001).

Conclusions And Relevance: Although this study found that the incidence of PTB in mainland China showed a downward trend from 2005 to 2016, to achieve the World Health Organization 2035 goal, innovative and more efficient prevention and control strategies are needed, particularly among the most susceptible population, that is, farmers and herders in western China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.5302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035653PMC
April 2021

Inflammatory Markers Predict Survival in Patients With Advanced Gastric and Colorectal Cancers Receiving Anti-PD-1 Therapy.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 15;9:638312. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, China.

There is a lack of useful biomarkers for predicting the efficacy of anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) therapy for advanced gastric and colorectal cancer. To address this issue, in this study we investigated the correlation between inflammatory marker expression and survival in patients with advanced gastric and colorectal cancer. Data for 111 patients with advanced gastric and colorectal cancer treated with anti-PD-1 regimens were retrospectively analyzed. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and clinical characteristics of each patient were selected as the main variables. Overall response rate, disease control rate, and progression-free survival were primary endpoints, and overall survival and immune-related adverse events (irAEs) were secondary endpoints. The chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to evaluate relationships between categorical variables. Uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed, and median progression-free survival and overall survival were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The overall response rate and disease control rate of anti-PD-1therapy in advanced gastric and colorectal tumors were 12.61 and 66.66%, respectively. The patients with MLR < 0.31, NLR < 5, and PLR < 135 had a significantly higher disease control rate than those with MLR > 0.31, NLR > 5, and PLR > 135 ( < 0.05). The multivariate analysis revealed that MLR < 0.31, BMI > 18.5, and anti-PD-1 therapy in first-line were associated with prolonged PFS. MLR < 0.31 and BMI > 18.5 were associated with prolonged overall survival. The irAE rate differed significantly between PLR groups, and PLR < 135 was associated with an increased rate of irAEs ( = 0.028). These results indicate that the inflammatory markers NLR, MLR, and PLR have clinical utility for predicting survival or risk of irAEs in patients with advanced gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.638312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005614PMC
March 2021

Reconfigurable electronics by disassembling and reassembling van der Waals heterostructures.

Nat Commun 2021 Mar 23;12(1):1825. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha, China.

Van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) have attracted tremendous interest owing to the ability to assemble diverse building blocks without the constraints of lattice matching and processing compatibility. However, once assembled, the fabricated vdWHs can hardly be separated into individual building blocks for further manipulation, mainly due to technical difficulties in the disassembling process. Here, we show a method to disassemble the as-fabricated vdWHs into individual building blocks, which can be further reassembled into new vdWHs with different device functionalities. With this technique, we demonstrate reconfigurable transistors from n-type to p-type and back-gate to dual-gate structures through re-stacking. Furthermore, reconfigurable device behaviors from floating gate memory to Schottky diode and reconfigurable anisotropic Raman behaviors have been obtained through layer re-sequencing and re-twisting, respectively. Our results could lead to a reverse engineering concept of disassembled vdWHs electronics in parallel with state-of-the-art vdWHs electronics, offering a general method for multi-functional pluggable electronics and optoelectronics with limited material building blocks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22118-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988143PMC
March 2021

Circulating Neutrophil Dysfunction in HBV-Related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:620365. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background And Aims: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is characterized by systemic inflammation accompanied by defective anti-bacterial immunity. The role of neutrophils in immune derangement of ACLF has not been fully elucidated. This study is aimed to characterize the role of circulating neutrophils in HBV-related ACLF patients.

Methods: Quantitative, phenotypic, transcriptomic, and functional alterations of circulating neutrophils were compared in ACLF and non-ACLF subjects and analyzed for associations with short-term outcomes. Interventional experiments were performed to test the impact on ACLF-patient neutrophil function .

Results: Circulating absolute neutrophil count was significantly increased in patients with ACLF and was an independent risk factor for 28-day mortality. ACLF-patient neutrophils differentially expressed a panel of surface markers (include TLR-1, TLR-2, TLR-4, CEACAM-1 and FPR1), as well as a distinct transcriptomic signature. ACLF-neutrophils displayed significantly impaired phagocytosis but an increased capacity to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which was more pronounced in patients with poor outcome. Healthy neutrophils mimicked functional characteristics of ACLF counterpart after co-cultured with plasma from ACLF patients. The oxidative burst and cytokine production capacities remained unchanged. Plasma GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IP-10 levels, as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration, were markedly elevated in ACLF patients but not DAMP molecules HMGB-1 and HSP70. Finally, a glycolysis inhibitor, 2-deoxy-glucose, reduced NET formation of ACLF patients' neutrophils.

Conclusions: Circulating ACLF-patient neutrophils exhibit alterations in number, phenotype, gene expression and function, which was associated with poor outcome and shaped by the ACLF circulatory environment. Inhibiting glycolysis can reverse neutrophil dysfunction in ACLF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.620365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947208PMC
February 2021

Hypoxia-Induced LIN28A mRNA Promotes the Metastasis of Colon Cancer in a Protein-Coding-Independent Manner.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 16;9:642930. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Pathology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

The hypoxic microenvironment is beneficial to the metastasis but not to the proliferation of cancer cells. However, the mechanisms regarding to hypoxia differentially regulating cancer metastasis and proliferation are largely unknown. In this study, we revealed that hypoxia induced the expression of LIN28A at mRNA level but segregated LIN28A mRNAs in the P-bodies and thus inhibits the production of LIN28A protein. This unexpected finding suggests that there may be non-coding role for LIN28A mRNA in the progression of colon cancer. We further showed that the non-coding LIN28A mRNA promotes the metastasis but not proliferation of colon cancer cells and . Mechanistically, we revealed that methionyl aminopeptidase 2 (METAP2) is one of the up-regulated metastasis regulators upon over-expression of non-coding LIN28A identified by mass spectrum, and confirmed that it is non-coding LIN28A mRNA instead of LIN28A protein promotes the expression of METAP2. Moreover, we demonstrated that knockdown of DICER abolished the promotional effects of non-coding LIN28A on the metastasis and METAP2 expression. Conclusively, we showed that hypoxia induces the production of LIN28A mRNAs but segregated them into the P-bodies together with miRNAs targeting both LIN28A and METAP2, and then promotes the metastasis by positively regulating the expression of METAP2. This study uncovered a distinctive role of hypoxia in manipulating the metastasis and proliferation by differently regulating the expression of LIN28A at mRNA and protein level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.642930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921329PMC
February 2021

Alternative splicing of MaMYB16L regulates starch degradation in banana fruit during ripening.

J Integr Plant Biol 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

South China Botanical Garden, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510650, China.

The alternative splicing of select genes is an important mechanism to regulate responses to endogenous and environmental signals in plants. However, the role of alternative splicing in regulating fruit ripening remains unclear. Here, we discovered that MaMYB16L, an R1-type MYB transcription factor, undergoes alternative splicing and generates two transcripts, the full-length isoform MaMYB16L and a truncated form MaMYB16S, in banana fruit. During banana fruit ripening, the alternative splicing process intensifies with downregulated MaMYB16L and upregulated MaMYB16S. Moreover, MaMYB16L is a transcriptional repressor that directly binds with the promoters of many genes associated with starch degradation and MaDREB2, a positive ripening regulator, and represses their expression. In contrast, MaMBY16S lacks a DNA-binding domain but competitively combines and forms non-functional heterodimers with functional MaMYB16L. MaMYB16L-MaMYB16S heterodimers decrease the binding capacity and transrepression activity of MaMYB16L. The downregulation of MaMYB16L and the upregulation of MaMYB16S, that is, a decreased ratio of active to non-active isoforms, facilitates the activation of ripening-related genes and thereby promotes fruit ripening. Furthermore, the transient overexpression of MaMYB16S promotes banana fruit ripening, whereas the overexpression of MaMYB16L delays this process. Therefore, the alternative splicing of MaMYB16L might generate a self-controlled regulatory loop to regulate banana fruit ripening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jipb.13088DOI Listing
March 2021

Dysbiotic Gut Microbiota and Dysregulation of Cytokine Profile in Children and Teens With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Front Neurosci 2021 10;15:635925. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States.

Inflammation and the gut-brain axis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). To further understand the relationship between aberrant immune responses and dysbiotic features of the gut microbiome in ASD, we enrolled 45 ASD individuals and 41 healthy control subjects with ages ranging from 2 to 19 years. We found that ASD group subjects have significantly higher plasma levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, TNF-β, and IFN-γ when compared to healthy controls (FDR-adjusted < 0.05). The plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and IL-6 are found to be further associated with several largely pathogenic gut microbiota uniquely detected in subjects with ASD. Furthermore, the ASD gut microbiome is characterized by reduced levels of several beneficial microbiota, including (FDR-adjusted < 0.01) and Lachnospiraceae (FDR-adjusted < 0.001). Analysis of Lachnospiraceae family and genus level taxa suggested that relative abundances of such taxa are negatively correlated with pro-inflammatory signaling cytokines IFN-γ and IL-6, particularly in subjects with severe ASD as defined by CARS ( < 0.05). Several largely pathogenic genera are determined to be associated with the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and IL-6 (FDR-adjusted < 0.1). Additionally, IL-4 is significantly negatively correlated with CARS total score ( < 0.05). Based on such results, we propose that the association between the disturbances of specific cytokines and alterations in gut microbiota abundance observed in children and adolescents with ASD provides additional evidence on the induction of aberrant pro-inflammatory mechanisms in ASD and its early diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.635925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902875PMC
February 2021

Hessian-MRLoG: Hessian information and multi-scale reverse LoG filter for pulmonary nodule detection.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 16;131:104272. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Computer Department, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen, 333403, China.

Computer-aided detection (CADe) of pulmonary nodules is an effective approach for early detection of lung cancer. However, due to the low contrast of lung computed tomography (CT) images, the interference of blood vessels and classifications, CADe has the problems of low detection rate and high false-positive rate (FPR). To solve these problems, a novel method using Hessian information and multi-scale reverse Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) (Hessian-MRLoG) is proposed and developed in this work. Also, since the intensity distribution of the LoG operator and the lung nodule in CT images are inconsistent, and their shapes are mismatched, a multi-scale reverse Laplacian of Gaussian (MRLoG) is constructed. In addition, in order to enhance the effectiveness of target detection, the second-order partial derivatives of MRLoG are partially adjusted by introducing an adjustment factor. On this basis, the Hessian-MRLoG model is developed, and a novel elliptic filter is designed. Ultimately, in this study, the method of Hessian-MRLoG filtering is proposed and developed for pulmonary nodule detection. To verify its effectiveness and accuracy, the proposed method was used to analyze the LUNA16 dataset. The experimental results revealed that the proposed method had an accuracy of 93.6% and produced 1.0 false positives per scan (FPs/scan), indicating that the proposed method can improve the detection rate and significantly reduce the FPR. Therefore, the proposed method has the potential for application in the detection, localization and labeling of other lesion areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104272DOI Listing
April 2021

A Compact Model of Ovonic Threshold Switch Combining Thermal Dissipation Effect.

Front Neurosci 2021 9;15:635264. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

College of Electronic Science and Technology, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China.

Ovonic threshold switch (OTS) has received great attention in neuromorphic computing due to its support for high-density synapse array as a selector and leaky-integration-firing functions Hodgkin-Huxley neurons. However, there is no simple and complete model for device simulation and integrated circuit design, which hindered application until now. In this work, we developed a compact physical model of OTS based on the Poole-Frenkel effect accompanied by the thermal dissipation effect for the first time. The thermal dissipation effect describes the energy flow between the device and the environment so that the model is more practical. Compared with previous experiments, the numerical results fairly fitted the electrical characteristics, demonstrating the model validity. In addition, the relation of the device performance with material and structure was deduced, which can facilitate optimizing the OTS device. The model will be useful for device design and implemented with high speed for simplicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.635264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901986PMC
February 2021

Pancreas preservation time as a predictor of prolonged hospital stay after pancreas transplantation.

J Int Med Res 2021 Feb;49(2):300060520987059

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation, Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China.

Objective: Length of hospital stay is a sensitive indicator of short-term prognosis. In this retrospective study, we investigated how pancreas preservation time affects length of hospital stay after pancreas transplantation.

Methods: Patients receiving pancreas transplantation (1998.7-2018.6) were identified from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database and grouped according to pancreas preservation time. We analyzed the relationship of pancreas preservation time with graft and patient survival and prolonged length of stay (PLOS; i.e., hospital stay ≥20 days).

Results: We included 18,099 pancreas transplants in the survival analysis. Pancreas preservation time >20 hours had a significantly higher risk of graft failure than 8 to 12 hours. Pancreas preservation time was not significantly associated with patient survival. We included 17,567 pancreas transplants in the analysis for PLOS. Compared with 8 to 12 hours, pancreas preservation time >12 hours had a significantly higher PLOS risk, which increased with increased pancreas preservation time. In simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation, we also found that pancreas preservation time was positively associated with PLOS risk with pancreas preservation time >12 hours.

Conclusion: Pancreas preservation time is a sensitive predictor of PLOS. Transplant centers should minimize pancreas preservation time to optimize patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520987059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925952PMC
February 2021