Publications by authors named "Zhiqiang Gao"

300 Publications

Efficacy and safety of first-line anlotinib-based combinations for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a three-armed prospective study.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2022 Jul;11(7):1394-1404

Department of Respiratory, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The evidence of combined therapies of multi-target agents in first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was limited. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of anlotinib combined with epidermal growth factor receptor () tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), chemotherapy, or immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) in advanced NSCLC.

Methods: This open-label, three-arm, prospective study (NCT03628521) enrolled untreated locally advanced/metastatic NSCLC patients. Patients with mutation NSCLC received anlotinib and erlotinib (cohort A). Patients without // mutation received anlotinib combined with carboplatin plus pemetrexed/gemcitabine (cohort B), or sintilimab (cohort C). The primary outcomes were safety and objective response rate (ORR). The secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), disease control rate (DCR), and overall survival (OS). Treatments were performed for at least 2 cycles and efficacy was evaluated every 2 cycles using RECIST version 1.1. Safety was assessed throughout the study.

Results: A total of 30, 30, and 22 patients were enrolled in cohorts A, B, and C, respectively. There were 3 patients did not complete the treatment in cohort A. In cohorts A and B, ≥ grade 3 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) occurred in 77.3% and 60.0% of patients, respectively. The most common TRAEs were rash (10.0%) and decreased platelet count (30.0%) in cohorts A and B, respectively. The ORRs were 92.9% and 60.0% in cohorts A and B, respectively, and DCRs were 96.4% and 96.7%, respectively. The ORR and incidence of ≥ grade 3 TRAEs of cohort C were, which 72.7% and 54.5%, which had been published previously. Median PFSs [95% confidence interval (CI)] were 21.6 (15.6 to 24.9), 13.0 [10.5 to not estimated (NE)], and 15.6 (12.9 to NE) months in cohorts A, B, and C, respectively. Median OS was 28.1 (95% CI: 21.82 to NE) months in cohort B. The 24-month OS rates in cohorts A and C were 87.1% and 83.9%, respectively.

Conclusions: Anlotinib-based combinations with -TKI, chemotherapy, and ICI are well-tolerated and encouraging as first-line therapies for advanced NSCLC, which could be verified in future studies. Anlotinib-based combination might provide multiple choices for first-line treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr-22-438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9359953PMC
July 2022

Human Umbilical Cord Wharton Jelly Cells Treatment Prevents Osteoporosis Induced by D-Galactose.

Int J Clin Pract 2022 20;2022:4593443. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Spine Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, 150 Jimo Rd., Shanghai 200120, China.

Methods: Sixteen male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: control (ordinary feeding), D-gal (D-galactose) group, D-gal + MSC (human umbilical cord Wharton jelly cells), and D-gal + MSC-TNF groups. Except for the control group (fed with same amount of saline solution), other mice received gastric feeding of 250 mg/kg D-galactose every day for 8 weeks. TNF (10 ng/mL for 24 h) cocultured or noncocultured HUCWJCs (5 × 10) were suspended in 0.1 ml of sterile PBS and injected into tail veins every other week in D-gal + MSC-TNF and D-gal + MSC groups, respectively, and only 0.1 ml of sterile PBS for control and D-gal groups. The bone mass was detected by qPCR, ELISA, microcomputed tomography (CT), and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation of periosteal-derived osteoblasts (POB) were assessed. Transwell assay and scratch healing were performed to detect POB migration and invasion ability. The effect of HUCWJCs on POB signaling pathway expression was evaluated by immunoblotting.

Results: The malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum was higher and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was lower in the D-gal group compared to the other groups ( < 0.05). Mice in D-gal group showed significantly decreased bone mass when compared to the control group, while HUCWJCs treatment partially rescued the phenotype, as demonstrated by CT and histology ( < 0.05). Mechanically, HUCWJCs treatment partially promoted proliferation and migration and decreased apoptosis of POB induced by oxidative stress via activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway.

Conclusion: HUCWJCs can prevent the progression of osteoporosis by inhibiting oxidative stress, which may act by regulating osteoblasts fate through the MAPK signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/4593443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9328953PMC
August 2022

High COL10A1 expression potentially contributes to poor outcomes in gastric cancer with the help of LEF1 and Wnt2.

J Clin Lab Anal 2022 Aug 5:e24612. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, The HwaMei Hospital, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, China.

Background: COL10A1 is a secreted, short-chain collagen found in several types of cancer. Studies have shown that COL10A1 aberrant expression is considered an oncogenic factor. However, its underlying mechanisms and regulation of gastric cancer remain undefined.

Methods: The data on the expression of COL10A1, clinicopathological characteristics, and outcome of patients with GC were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The ALGGEN-PROMO database defined the related transcription factors. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis were used to identify the differential expression levels of COL10A1 and related transcription factors.

Results: We found that high COL10A1 expression is an independent risk factor for gastric cancer. Upregulation of LEF1 and Wnt2 was also observed in gastric cancer, suggesting a potential correlation between LEF1/COL10A1 regulation in the Wnt2 signaling pathway.

Conclusion: High COL10A1 expression may contribute to poor outcomes via upregulation of LEF1 and Wnt2 in gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.24612DOI Listing
August 2022

Automatic and Accurate Acquisition of Stem-Related Phenotypes of Mature Soybean Based on Deep Learning and Directed Search Algorithms.

Front Plant Sci 2022 11;13:906751. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

College of Arts and Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

The stem-related phenotype of mature stage soybean is important in soybean material selection. How to improve on traditional manual methods and obtain the stem-related phenotype of soybean more quickly and accurately is a problem faced by producers. With the development of smart agriculture, many scientists have explored soybean phenotypes and proposed new acquisition methods, but soybean mature stem-related phenotype studies are relatively scarce. In this study, we used a deep learning method within the convolutional neural network to detect mature soybean stem nodes and identified soybean structural features through a novel directed search algorithm. We subsequently obtained the pitch number, internodal length, branch number, branching angle, plant type spatial conformation, plant height, main stem length, and new phenotype-stem curvature. After 300 epochs, we compared the recognition results of various detection algorithms to select the best. Among them, YOLOX had a maximum average accuracy (mAP) of 94.36% for soybean stem nodes and scale markers. Through comparison of the phenotypic information extracted by the directed search algorithm with the manual measurement results, we obtained the Pearson correlation coefficients, R, of plant height, pitch number, internodal length, main stem length, stem curvature, and branching angle, which were 0.9904, 0.9853, 0.9861, 0.9925, 0.9084, and 0.9391, respectively. These results show that our algorithm can be used for robust measurements and counting of soybean phenotype information, which can reduce labor intensity, improve efficiency, and accelerate soybean breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.906751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9310015PMC
July 2022

Wide space sowing achieved high productivity and effective nitrogen use of irrigated wheat in South Shanxi, China.

PeerJ 2022 11;10:e13727. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

College of Agriculture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China.

Wheat ( L.) is a staple crop worldwide, and its yield has improved since the green revolution, which was attributed to chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer application. However, regular N application decreases N use efficiency (NUE, the ratio of grain dry matter yield to N supply from soil and fertilizer). Various practices have been implemented to maintain high crop yield and improve NUE. Nowadays, the enhanced sowing method, ., wide space sowing (WS), has improved the productivity of wheat crops. However, how the sowing method and N application rate affect N use and yield productivity has not been fully elucidated. Field experiments with treatments using two sowing methods (WS, and drill sowing, DS) and four N application rates (0, 180, 240, and 300 kg ha, represented as N0, N180, N240, and N300, respectively) were conducted from 2017 to 2019. The results showed that grain yield under WS was 13.57-16.38% higher than that under DS. The yield advantage under WS was attributed to an increased ear number. Both the higher stem and productive stem percentage accounted for the increased ear number under WS. Higher total N quantity and larger leaf area index at anthesis under WS contributed to higher dry matter production, resulting in higher grain yield. Higher dry matter production was due to pre-anthesis dry weight and post-anthesis dry weight. The wheat crop under WS had a 12.44-15.00% higher NUE than that under DS. The increased NUE under WS was attributed to higher N uptake efficiency (the ratio of total N quantity at maturity to N supply from soil and fertilizer), which was the result of greater total N quantity. The higher total N quantity under WS was due to both higher pre-anthesis N uptake and post-anthesis N uptake. Remarkably, compared to DS with 240 kg N ha, WS with 180 kg N ha had almost equal grain yield, dry matter, and total N quantity. Therefore, wheat crops under WS could achieve both high NUE and grain yield simultaneously with only moderate N fertilizer in South Shanxi, China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.13727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9281599PMC
July 2022

[Analysis of intraoperative EABR characteristics and postoperative efficacy of cochlear implant in patients with tinnitus].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2022 Jun;36(6):423-428

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,Peking University First Hospital.

To investigate the characteristics of intraoperative electrically stimulated auditory brainstem responses(EABR) in patients with neural deafness and tinnitus, and to analyze the inhibitory effect of cochlear implantation on tinnitus and its correlation with auditory evoked potential. Twenty-eight adult patients with neuronal deafness accompanied by tinnitus who underwent cochlear implant surgery in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2014 to 2015 were selected, and 10 age-matched patients without tinnitus with the same age were selected as the control group. Preoperative audiology, imaging and tinnitus history of the patients were retrospectively analyzed. During the operation, EABR were used to detect the auditory central functions at all levels, and the electrophysiological characteristics of the two groups were analyzed. The tinnitus handicap inventory(THI) was used to evaluate the severity of tinnitus before and after surgery, and the correlation between EABR results and THI score was analyzed. There were no postoperative complications such as facial paralysis, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, meningitis, etc. , and electroacoustic reactions were observed in all 38 patients. The results of intraoperative EABR showed that there were significant differences in Ⅲ wave amplitude, Ⅴ wave amplitude and Ⅴ wave latency between tinnitus group and control group(<0.05). The mean C value of (162.78± 24.57)CL and the mean intraoperative EABR threshold of (158.62± 10.31) CL were collected in the two groups 12 months after starting the machine, and there was a significant correlation according to linear correlation analysis(=0.903, <0.01). The total THI scores of 28 tinnitus patients were 65.00±14.93, 55.00±15.93 and 36.00±21.02 at three time points before, 1 day after and 1 year after cochlear implantation, respectively. The scores of 1 year after cochlear implantation were significantly different by ANOVA(<0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference 1 day after operation(>0.05). There was significant correlation between the intraoperative EABR wave Ⅲ amplitude and the linear correlation analysis of THI changes 1 year after operation(=0.873, <0.05). There is significant difference in intraoperative EABR between patients with neural deafness accompanied with tinnitus and patients without tinnitus. Cochlear electrical stimulation has a good inhibitory effect on tinnitus, and intraoperative EABR can be used as a objective assessment tool for cochlear implant to inhibit tinnitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2022.06.004DOI Listing
June 2022

Cochlear Implantation in Young Mandarin-Speaking Children: One Year After First Fitting.

Otol Neurotol 2022 07;43(6):e645-e650

MED-EL Medical Electronics, Innsbruck, Austria.

Introduction: Bilateral cochlear implantation has been shown to be beneficial in terms of sound localization and speech recognition in children with congenital deafness. However, little is known about the benefits of bilateral cochlear implantationin children who communicate in a tonal language such as Mandarin. This study aims to investigate the auditory perception and speech intelligibility of Mandarin-speaking children 1 year after first fitting.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-nine children aged between 11.5 and 17.9 months with severe-to-profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were recruited; 10 were unilaterally implanted and 19 were bilaterally implanted. A test battery was used to monitor improvements during the first year of cochlear implant use.

Results: Bilaterally implanted children scored better in the spatial domain of the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of hearing scale for Parents (SSQ-P) in comparison to unilaterally implanted children. Significant improvements were observed in auditory performance and speech intelligibility at 6 and 12 months after first fitting for both groups of children.

Discussion: Young children that speak a tonal language, such as Mandarin, can obtain significant improvements in hearing and speech abilities within the first year of cochlear implant use. Furthermore, bilateral implantation provides users with better spatial hearing in comparison to unilateral implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000003555DOI Listing
July 2022

The clinical application of head-shaking test combined with head-shaking tilt suppression test in distinguishing between peripheral and central vertigo at bedside vs. examination room.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the clinical value of using Head-Shaking Test (HST)+Head-Shaking Tilt Suppression Test (HSTST) to distinguish between peripheral and central vertigo as well as to analyze the consistency of findings between tests at the bedside vs. in the examination room.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients who presented for central or peripheral vertigo from July 2019 to July 2021. The results were compared between HST and HST+HSTST. The concordance between bedside and examination room outcomes was analyzed.

Results: Forty-seven (58.8%) patients in the peripheral vertigo group and 33 (41.2%) patients in the central vertigo group were included. In the peripheral group, 44 (both examination room and bedside: 93.6%) patients had horizontal Head-Shaking Nystagmus (hHSN), most of which were suppressed in HSTST. However, in the central group, most cases had perverted HSN (pHSN; examination room: 72.7%; bedside: 66.7%), which was seldomly suppressed in HSTST. The HST+HSTST showed a >20% higher specificity in identifying peripheral vertigo than HST alone. The bedside results were consistent with the examination room results using the kappa test (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Suppressed hHSN was a strong indicator of peripheral vertigo. Conversely, pHSN was more often seen in central vertigo, which was not readily suppressed in HSTST. The bedside results of HST+HSTST yielded qualitative agreement with the tests in the examination room. HST+HSTST could be used as reliable methods in the clinic to distinguish between peripheral and central vestibular disorders.

Level Of Evidence: Level 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjorl.2022.03.003DOI Listing
May 2022

Cobot Motion Planning Algorithm for Ensuring Human Safety Based on Behavioral Dynamics.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Jun 9;22(12). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

School of Mechanical and Precision Instrument Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China.

Recently, the safety of workers has gained increasing attention due to the applications of collaborative robots (cobot). However, there is no quantitative research on the impact of cobot behavior on humans' psychological reactions, and these results are not applied to the cobot motion planning algorithms. Based on the concept of the gravity field, this paper proposes a model of the psychological safety field (PSF), designs a comprehensive experiment on different speeds and minimum distances when approaching the head, chest, and abdomen, and obtains the ordinary surface equation of psychological stress about speed and minimum distance by using data fitting. By combining social rules and PSF models, we improve the robot motion planning algorithm based on behavioral dynamics. The validation experiment results show that our proposed improved robot motion planning algorithm can effectively reduce psychological stress. Eighty-seven point one percent (87.1%) of the experimental participants think that robot motion planned by improved robot motion planning algorithms is more "friendly", can effectively reduce psychological stress, and is more suitable for human-robot interaction scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22124376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9228175PMC
June 2022

Flexible bioelectronic device fabricated by conductive polymer-based living material.

Sci Adv 2022 06 22;8(25):eabo1458. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100910, P. R. China.

Living materials are worked as an inside collaborative system that could naturally respond to changing environmental conditions. The regulation of bioelectronic processes in living materials could be effective for collecting biological signals and detecting biomarkers. Here, we constructed a living material with conjugated polymers poly[3-(3'-,,-triethylamino-1'-propyloxy)-4-methyl-2,5-thiophene chloride] (PMNT) and MR-1 biofilm. In addition, the living material was integrated as a flexible bioelectronic device for lactate detection in physiological fluids (sweat, urine, and plasma). Owing to the electroconductivity of conjugated polymers, PMNT could optimize the bioelectronic process in the living material. The collected electrical signal could be wirelessly transferred to a portable smartphone for reading and analyzing. Because lactate is also a biomarker for cancer treatment, the flexible bioelectronic device was further used to detect and count the cancer cells. The proof of the bioelectronic device using conductive polymer-based living material exhibits promising applications in the next-generation personal health monitoring systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abo1458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9216517PMC
June 2022

Chlorophyll fluorescence and grain filling characteristic of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in response to nitrogen application level.

Mol Biol Rep 2022 Jul 20;49(7):7157-7172. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

College of Agriculture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, 030801, Shanxi, China.

Background: This study aims to understand the influence of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters on yield of winter wheat in some areas of China. Nitrogen (N) application is believed to improve photosynthesis in flag leaf ultimately increase final yield.

Methods And Results: To understand the response of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of wheat, flag leaf and the effect of N fertilization was carried out at booting stage under greenhouse during year 2018-2019 using winter wheat cultivar "Yunhan-20410' 'Yunhan-618". The results showed that the maximum chlorophyll content of flag leaves occurred at booting stage. Under, Yunhan-20410 condition, maximum photochemical quantum efficiency (FV/Fm), potential activity (ΦPSII), potential activity of PSII (FV/FO), and photochemical quenching coefficient (qp) showed "high-low" variation, and the maximum values were observed between May 4 and May 12. However, Yunhan-20410 showed FV/Fm, FV/FO, and qp showed "low-high-low" curve at booting stage. Compared to Yunhan-618, Yunhan-20410 at booting stage significantly decreased FV/Fm, FV/FO, qp, and ΦPSII (P<0.05), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) significantly increased (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The outcome of present investigation suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence parameters could be valuable insight to understand yield stability under stress condition. Moreover, the investigated parameters could be useful criteria for selection of genotypes under varying nitrogen application levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-022-07612-wDOI Listing
July 2022

Evaluation of auditory pathway by EABR before cochlear implantation and the postoperative effect analysis.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Otolaryngology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Dongcheng District, 100730, Beijing, China.

Objective: To investigate the evaluation value of electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR) monitoring before cochlear implantation in patients with cochlear nerve defects (CND).

Methods: A total of 54 patients with cochlear nerve defects who underwent cochlear implantation in our hospital from 2011 to 2018 were selected as the CND group, and 20 patients with normal cochlear implantation were selected as the control group. The preoperative audiological characteristics, EABR characteristics and follow-up neural response telemetry results of the two groups were retrospectively analysed, and the preoperative EABR threshold and initiation C value were subjected to linear regression and correlation analysis.

Results: The EABR waveform of the CND group was significantly different from the control group in terms of average wave V threshold, average dynamic range and V-wave I/O curve slope (P < 0.05). Average C value and dynamic range had a statistically significant difference from the control group (P < 0.05). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between the EABR threshold and C value, wave V I/O slope and postoperative category of auditory perception (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The EABR test can be used to evaluate the auditory pathway function before cochlear implantation and its postoperative effect in patients with CND.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-022-07458-9DOI Listing
May 2022

Polyurethane-gelatin methacryloyl hybrid ink for 3D printing of biocompatible and tough vascular networks.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Jun 16;58(49):6894-6897. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P. R. China.

A polyurethane-gelatin methacryloyl (PU-GelMA) hybrid ink was developed as a photo-crosslinkable elastic hydrogel. With the additional acrylic monomer, the ink can be tuned to accommodate elasticity and printability. Attributed to the shear-thinning properties of GelMA, PU-GelMA was preferable for extrusion printing. 3D-constructs were printed by direct extrusion or by using a sacrificial scaffold to resemble the vascular networks. The proliferation of endothelial cells on the PU-GelMA hydrogel indicated decent biocompatibility and potential utilization in artificial vessels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc02176eDOI Listing
June 2022

Analysis of the reasons for the outbreak of Yellow Sea green tide in 2021 based on long-term multi-source data.

Mar Environ Res 2022 Jun 17;178:105649. Epub 2022 May 17.

Shandong Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai Shandong, 264003, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

The green tide disaster is the result of human activities changing the natural environment conditions. What changes have occurred in the environmental factors that affect the green tide outbreak over a long period, and what is the impact of this change on the green tide outbreak? To further understand the outbreak mechanism of green tide, in this study, we used the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform to extract and analyze the green tide from 2007 to 2021, analyze the long-term trend of various influencing factors (sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), precipitation, eutrophication, "nori" aquaculture) in the past 30 years, and explore the impact of each factor on the outbreak of green tide. We found that: 1) SST, seawater eutrophication, and "nori" aquaculture worked together to promote the large-scale outbreak of green tide in 2007; 2) In the context of eutrophication is not effectively controlled, elevated SST, SSS, and PAR will be more conducive to the germination of green tide algae and promote green tide to form a floating state on the sea surface earlier, after that, once there is a year with abundant precipitation, the green tide will break out on a large scale, which is exactly the case in 2021. Exploring the environmental conditions and the long-term regularity of green tide outbreaks to provide a basis for scientific and rational control of green tides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2022.105649DOI Listing
June 2022

[Numerical simulation modeling of middle ear-eustachian tube ventilation based on Chinese digital visual human body].

Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2022 Apr;57(4):452-457

Department of Otolaryngology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

To establish a three-dimensional model of middle ear-eustachian tube based on Chinese digital visual human dataset, and the deformation and pressure changes of the middle ear-eustachian tube system after eustachian tube opening are simulated by computer numerical simulation. The first female Chinese Digital Visual Human data was adopted. The images were imported by Amira image processing software, and the images were segmented by Geomagic software to form a three-dimensional model of middle ear-eustachian tube system, including eustachian tube, tympanum, tympanic membrane, auditory ossicles, and mastoid air cells system. The 3D model was imported into Hypermesh software for meshing and analysis. The structural mechanics calculation was carried out by Abaqus, and gas flow was simulated by Xflow. The tissue deformation and middle ear pressure changes during eustachian tube opening were numerically simulated by fluid-solid coupling algorithm. Several pressure monitoring points including tympanum, mastoid, tympanic isthmus, and external auditory canal were set up in the model, and the pressure changes of each monitoring point were recorded and compared. In this study, a three-dimensional model of middle ear-eustachian tube and a numerical simulation model of middle ear ventilation were established, including eustachian tube, tympanum, mastoid air cells, tympanic membrane, and auditory ossicles. The dynamic changes of the model after ventilation could be divided into five stages according to the pressure. In addition, the pressure changes of tympanum and tympanic isthmus were basically synchronous, and the pressure changes of mastoid air cells system were later than that of tympanum and tympanic isthmus, which verified the pressure buffering effect of mastoid. The extracted pressure curve of the external auditory canal was basically consistent with that of tympanometry in terms of value and trend, which verified the effectiveness of the model. The numerical simulation model of middle ear-eustachian tube ventilation established in this paper can simulate the tissue deformation and middle ear pressure changes after eustachian tube opening, and its accuracy and effectiveness are also verified. This not only lays a foundation for further research, but also provides a new research method for the study of middle ear ventilation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn115330-20210530-00311DOI Listing
April 2022

A controller design method for high-order unstable linear time-invariant systems.

ISA Trans 2022 Apr 14. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

State Key Lab of Power Systems, Department of Energy and Power Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

This paper deals with high-order unstable systems, which are dangerous and more difficult to control. Their presence is increasingly prevalent, posing a great challenge to both traditional PID-based industrial designs and various advanced control strategies which are difficult to implement on common industrial control platforms. In this paper, the generalized desired dynamic equational (G-DDE) PID controller, developed by authors earlier, is proposed as a viable alternative. In addition to guarantee the closed-loop stability, its simple structure and tuning procedure are specifically appealing to practitioners. Simulations and experimental results show advantages of G-DDE PID in reference tracking, disturbance rejection and robustness, thus making G-DDE PID a convenient and effective control strategy for high-order unstable systems, readily implementable on common industrial platforms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2022.04.012DOI Listing
April 2022

Inhibition of miR-130b-3p restores autophagy and attenuates intervertebral disc degeneration through mediating ATG14 and PRKAA1.

Apoptosis 2022 06 18;27(5-6):409-425. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Spine Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital, Pudong District, Tongji University School of Medicine, 150 Jimo Rd, Shanghai, 200120, China.

Oxidative stress-induced autophagy dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) not only have been regarded as important regulators of IVDD but also reported to be related to autophagy. This research was aimed to explore the role of miR-130b-3p in IVDD and its regulation on autophagy mechanism. The miR-130b-3p expression in the patient's degenerative nucleus pulposus (NP) samples and rat NP tissues was detected by qRT-PCR and FISH assay. The miR-130b-3p was knocked down or overexpressed in the human NP cells by lentivirus transfection. TBHP was used to induce oxidative stress in the human NP cells. Apoptosis, senescence, and autophagy were evaluated by flow cytometry, β-gal staining, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and Western blot in the miR-130b-3p knocked down human NP cells under TBHP treatment. The relationship between the miR-130b-3p and ATG14 or PRKAA1 was confirmed by luciferase assay. The siRNA transfection was used to knock down the ATG14 and PRKAA1 expression, and then the human NP cells functions were further determined. In the in vivo experiment, the IVDD rat model was constructed and an adeno-associated virus (AAV)-miR-130b-3p inhibitor was intradiscally injected. After that, MRI and histological staining were conducted to evaluate the role of miR-130b-3p inhibition in the IVDD rat model. We found that the miR-130b-3p was upregulated in the degenerative NP samples from humans and rats. Interestingly, the inhibition of miR-130b-3p rescued oxidative stress-induced dysfunction of the human NP cells, and miR-130b-3p inhibition upregulated autophagy. Mechanistically, we confirmed that the miR-130b-3p regulated the ATG14 and PRKAA1 directly and the knockdown of the ATG14 or PRKAA1 as well as the treatment of autophagy inhibitor blockaded the autophagic flux and reversed the protective effects of miR-130b-3p inhibition in the TBHP-induced human NP cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of the miR-130b-3p via AAV- miR-130b-3p injection ameliorated the IVDD in a rat model. These data demonstrated that the miR-130b-3p inhibition could upregulate the autophagic flux and alleviate the IVDD via targeting ATG14 and PRKAA1.The translational potential of this article: The suppression of miR-130b-3p may become an effective therapeutic strategy for IVDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-022-01725-0DOI Listing
June 2022

Did Wheat Breeding Simultaneously Alter Grain Concentrations of Macro- and Micro-Nutrient Over the Past 80 Years of Cultivar Releasing in China?

Front Plant Sci 2022 30;13:872781. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

College of Agronomy, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Biofortification of wheat with mineral through crop breeding is a sustainable and cost-effective approach to address human mineral malnutrition. A better understanding of the trends of grain concentrations of mineral nutrients in wheat over the breeding period may help to assess the breeding progress to date. A 2-year field experiment using 138 Chinese wheat landraces and 154 cultivars was conducted. Grain concentrations of micronutrients (Cu and Mn) and macronutrients (N, P, and K) were measured and corrected for a yield level to elucidate the trends of these mineral nutrients over the 80 years of cultivar releasing and identify genetic variation for these mineral nutrients in cultivars and landraces. Large genetic variation exists for grain mineral nutrients concentrations among tested genotypes, indicating that selection for enhancing mineral nutrient concentrations in wheat is possible. Landraces showed a slightly wide genetic variation of grain Cu concentration and a much narrow variation of Mn concentration when compared to modern cultivars. Grain concentrations of Cu and Mn decreased slightly with increasing grain yield with a weak correlation, while N, P, and K concentrations declined obviously with increasing yield with a strong correlation, revealing that increased grain yield had a strong negative effect on grain concentration of macronutrients, but a relative weak negative effect on micronutrients concentrations. When considering the impact of the variation in yield on mineral concentrations, grain concentrations of Cu, Mn, N, P, and K in wheat cultivars released from 1933 to 2017 exhibited different trends with a year of variety release. Grain Cu, N, and P concentrations showed significant decreasing trends over a breeding period, while grain Mn and K concentrations showed no clear trend, suggesting wheat breeding in China over the past 80 years has decreased grain concentrations of Cu, N, and P, and did not alter Mn and K concentrations. Finally, a total of 14 outstanding accessions with high grain mineral nutrients concentrations/contents were identified, and these genotypes can be considered as promising donors for developing mineral-dense wheat cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.872781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9009353PMC
March 2022

Asymptomatic Chondrosarcoma of the Skull base: A Case Report.

Ear Nose Throat J 2022 Apr 11:1455613221091101. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 34732Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

Chondrosarcoma of the skull base is a malignant tumor of cartilage origin. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific, early can be asymptomatic. We report a case of asymptomatic chondrosarcoma of the skull base which is difficult to confirm the diagnosis. The patient underwent Type A resection of chondrosarcoma of the skull base through the left subtemporal fossa approach, with postoperative radiotherapy. And the patient achieved good postoperative recovery. Therefore, chondrosarcoma of the skull base is a rare malignant tumor with slow growth. Early detection, excision, and postoperative radiotherapy can achieve a good therapeutic effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01455613221091101DOI Listing
April 2022

Equivalent efficacy assessment of QL1101 and bevacizumab in nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer patients: A two-year follow-up data update.

Chin J Cancer Res 2022 Feb;34(1):28-39

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China.

Objective: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibodies are an effective means of treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we aim to update the equivalent efficacy assessment between QL1101 and bevacizumab based on two-year follow-up data.

Methods: In total, 535 eligible NSCLC patients were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to the QL1101 group and the bevacizumab group. The full end time of this study was defined as 24 months after the last enrolled patient was randomized. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR); equivalence was confirmed if the two-sided 90% confidence interval (90% CI) of the relative risk was within the range of 0.75-1.33. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: The two-year updated data showed similar ORR (QL1101 bevacizumab: 53.1% 54.3%; relative risk=0.977; 90% CI: 0.838-1.144), PFS (235 d 254 d, log-rank P=0.311), and OS (577 d 641 d, log-rank P=0.099) results between the QL1101 group and the bevacizumab group. The mean shrinkage ratio of targeted lesions was also similar between the QL1101 group and the bevacizumab group (22.5% 23.5%). For patients who received QL1101 maintenance therapy, similar results were shown between the QL1101 group (n=157) and the bevacizumab group (n=148) (PFS: 253 d 272 d, log-rank P=0.387; OS: 673 d . 790 d, log-rank P=0.101; mean tumor shrinkage rate: 26.6% 27.5%).

Conclusions: This study reported that QL1101 had similar efficacy in treating nonsquamous NSCLC in terms of ORR, PFS and OS based on two-year updated data, providing a basis for the clinical application of QL1101.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21147/j.issn.1000-9604.2022.01.03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8913254PMC
February 2022

Research on the long-term relationship between green tide and chlorophyll-a concentration in the Yellow Sea based on Google Earth Engine.

Mar Pollut Bull 2022 Apr 21;177:113574. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Shandong Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Green tide has broken out for 15 years in the Yellow Sea, affecting the marine ecological environment. This study extracted green tide information from 2007 to 2021, processed chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration data from 1997 to 2021 based on the Google Earth Engifne platform, and examined the relationship between them. Results showed that (1) the green tide had a inhibitory effect on the growth of phytoplankton, and the larger the scale of the green tide was, the stronger the inhibitory effect was and the slower the recovery of phytoplankton had after the green tide dissipated; (2) both the early distribution area of green tide and the Chl-a concentration in spring were correlated with the green tide scale. In addition, the feasibility of Chl-a to predict the scale of the green tide was preliminarily explored. With a view to improving the ability to predict green tide in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.113574DOI Listing
April 2022

Rationale and design of a phase II trial of dacomitinib in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor mutations: a prospective and single arm study (DANCE study).

BMC Cancer 2022 Mar 19;22(1):294. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Department of Pulmonary, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 241 West Huaihai Road, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Background: Dacomitinib is a second-generation, irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI). ARCHER-1050 showed that this agent can improve progression-free survival and overall survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with sensitive EGFR mutation compared to gefitinib. However, it is unclear whether dacomitinib is effective in patients with sensitizing uncommon EGFR mutations in exon 18-21. The aim of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of dacomitinib in these patients.

Methods: This is a single arm, prospective, open label and phase II trial. Sample size will be calculated by a minimax two-stage design method based on the following parameters: α = 0.075, 1-β = 0.9, P0 = 0.20, P1 = 0.45 and a dropout rate of 10%. A total of 30 eligible patients will be included. Patients will receive continuous oral therapy with dacomitinib (45 mg/day) until disease progression, withdrawal of consent, or unacceptable toxicity, whichever occurs first. The primary endpoint is objective response rate (ORR) per RECIST version 1.1, as assessed by investigators' review. The second endpoint is disease control rate (DCR), PFS, OS, and safety.

Discussion: We conduct a single arm, phase II study to investigate the safety and efficacy of dacomitinib in advanced NSCLC patients with sensitizing uncommon EGFR mutations. The results of the DANCE study will provide new data regarding efficacy and safety of these patients.

Trial Registration: NCT04504071.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-022-09409-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8933987PMC
March 2022

Bacteria-Mediated Intracellular Click Reaction for Drug Enrichment and Selective Apoptosis of Drug-Resistant Tumor Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Mar 8;14(10):12106-12115. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, P. R. China.

Functionalized biocarriers that can perform bio-orthogonal reactions in tumor cells may provide solutions to overcome the efflux of the chemotherapeutic agent from drug-resistant tumor cells. Herein, we report the enrichment of therapeutic drugs in tumor cells through intracellular click reaction with functionalized bacteria. Specifically, an intracellular bioactive drug enrichment template ([email protected]) is constructed by combining positively charged oligo(phenylene-vinylene)-alkyne (OPV-C≡CH) with via electrostatic interaction. After the cell uptake of [email protected] and Cu(II)-based complex, Cu(I) generated in situ can catalyze the bio-orthogonal click reaction to covalently anchor the azide-bearing molecules of cyanine 5 (Cy5-N) and paclitaxel (PTX-N) on [email protected] These molecules and their functions were retained and enriched inside the drug-resistant tumor cells A549T, which can label cells with fluorescent probes and selectively induce the apoptosis of drug-resistant tumor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c01493DOI Listing
March 2022

Application of ABR in pathogenic neurovascular compression of the 8th cranial nerve in vestibular paroxysmia.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2022 Mar 5. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Perking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Peking Union Medical College, No.1 Shuaifuyuan,Wangfujing, Dongcheng District, 100730, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To investigate the clinical value of electrophysiological tests in indicating pathogenic vascular contact of the 8th nerve in definite vestibular paroxysmia (VP) cases to provide a reference for decompression surgery.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients who had vertigo, unilateral tinnitus, or hearing loss and exhibited vascular contact of the 8th cranial nerve by MRI. Participants were classified into the VP or non-VP group according to the criteria of the Bárány Society in 2016. The demographic characteristics and audiological and electrophysiological test results of the two groups were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for ABR to determine the best parameters and cutoff values to predict the existence of pathological neurovascular contact in VP.

Results: Thirteen patients in the VP group and 66 patients in the non-VP group were included. VP patients had longer interpeak latency (IPL) I-III and wave III latency compared to non-VP patients (p < 0.001; p < 0.001). According to the ROC analyses, IPL I-III and wave III latency were the best indicators for the diagnosis of VP. The optimal cutoff for IPL I-III was 2.3 ms (sensitivity 84.6%, specificity 95.5%), and that for wave III latency was 4.0 ms (sensitivity 92.3%, specificity 77.3%). There were no differences in the PTA, caloric test, o-VEMP, or c-VEMP results between the two groups.

Conclusion: Prolonged IPL I-III and the wave III latency of ABR strongly suggested that vascular contact of the 8th cranial nerve was pathological, which may provide some references for microvascular decompression surgery of VP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-022-05157-2DOI Listing
March 2022

Effect of subject state on auditory brainstem response threshold using Kalman-weighted averaging.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2022 Apr 17;155:111085. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aims to explore the impact of a subject's testing state on auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds using a novel ABR system (Vivosonic Integrity™), which incorporates Kalman-weighted averaging and bluetooth electrical isolation to address the limitation of conventional ABR limitation to obtain a stable result under non-sedated conditions, especially for infants and children.

Method: Twenty-four adults (18-34 years old, 48 ears) with normal hearing were enrolled for ABR testing under three different states (lying quietly in the supine position or sleeping-lying; watching silent videos quietly in a seated position-sitting; and writing in a seated position-writing), which simulate the behaviors of young children most often encountered during non-sedated Kalman-weighted ABR testing in clinical practice. The click ABR (cABR) and tone-burst ABR (tbABR) thresholds (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) of each subject and the time taken to reach the monaural threshold for each kind of stimulus were recorded.

Results: (1) The cABR and tbABR thresholds were observed to increase in the following order: lying < sitting < writing. Significant threshold differences were found between any two states, except for between the sitting and lying states for the cABR and between sitting and writing for the 0.5 kHz tbABR. (2) The time required for cABR testing in the writing state was significantly longer than that in the lying and sitting states. The time required for 1 and 4 kHz tbABR testing in the lying state was significantly shorter than that in the sitting or writing state. For 2 KHz tbABR, only testing time under writing was significantly longer than that under lying. There were no significant differences in the time used for 0.5 kHz tbABR testing among different states.

Conclusions: Different testing states have significant impacts on the thresholds of ABRs using Kalman-weighted averaging. A subject's state during ABR testing warrants consideration, and normal levels and correction values to estimate the hearing threshold from the ABR threshold should be determined for different testing states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2022.111085DOI Listing
April 2022

A High Precision and Multifunctional Electro-Optical Conversion Efficiency Measurement System for Metamaterial-Based Thermal Emitters.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Feb 9;22(4). Epub 2022 Feb 9.

School of Physical Science and Technology, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China.

In this study, a multifunctional high-vacuum system was established to measure the electro-optical conversion efficiency of metamaterial-based thermal emitters with built-in heaters. The system is composed of an environmental control module, an electro-optical conversion measurement module, and a system control module. The system can provide air, argon, high vacuum, and other conventional testing environments, combined with humidity control. The test chamber and sample holder are carefully designed to minimize heat transfer through thermal conduction and convection. The optical power measurements are realized using the combination of a water-cooled KBr flange, an integrating sphere, and thermopile detectors. This structure is very stable and can detect light emission at the μW level. The system can synchronously detect the heating voltage, heating current, optical power, sample temperatures (both top and bottom), ambient pressure, humidity, and other environmental parameters. The comprehensive parameter detection capability enables the system to monitor subtle sample changes and perform failure mechanism analysis with the aid of offline material analysis using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the system can be used for fatigue and high-low temperature impact tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22041313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8963016PMC
February 2022

Risk factors for epiretinal membrane in eyes with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment that received silicone oil tamponade.

Br J Ophthalmol 2022 Feb 19. Epub 2022 Feb 19.

Ophthalmology, Eye Hospital and School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China

Background/aims: This study investigated the risk factors for epiretinal membrane (ERM) in eyes with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) that received silicone oil (SO) tamponade.

Methods: This retrospective analysis included 1140 patients (1140 eyes) with RRD who underwent primary vitrectomy and SO tamponade. The prevalence of ERM was estimated and possible risk factors (eg, type 2 diabetes, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), SO tamponade time (SOTT), photocoagulation, vitreous haemorrhage, choroidal detachment, cryotherapy and retinal tear size) were analysed via multiple logistic regression.

Results: The prevalence of ERM was 12.3% (140/1140), and the accuracy of preoperative ERM diagnosis was 40.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors for ERM in eyes with SO tamponade included preoperative PVR (OR=4.336, 95% CI 2.533 to 7.424, p<0.001), type 2 diabetes (OR=3.996, 95% CI 2.013 to 7.932, p<0.001), photocoagulation energy (OR=1.785, 95% CI 1.306 to 2.439, p<0.001) and SOTT (OR=1.523, 95% CI 1.261 to 1.840, p<0.001). No statistically significant associations were observed between the incidence of ERM and other risk factors. Preoperative PVR showed the strongest association with risk of ERM. The risk of ERM was positively associated with SOTT, photocoagulation energy and preoperative PVR grade.

Conclusion: In eyes with RRD that received SO tamponade, the prevalence of ERM was 12.3%, while the accuracy of preoperative ERM diagnosis was low. Preoperative PVR, type 2 diabetes, photocoagulation energy and SOTT were the main risk factors for ERM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-320121DOI Listing
February 2022

Interactions between the hippocampus and the auditory pathway.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2022 03 3;189:107589. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Otolaryngology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing 100730, China. Electronic address:

Increasing evidence has shown that noise overexposure could lead to impaired hippocampal function. Hippocampal alteration is also observed in several auditory deficits, including hearing loss, and tinnitus. Therefore, the functions of hearing and cognition interact with each other. Here, we summarize the evidence that noise affects the hippocampus from aspects of behavior, neurogenesis, ultrastructure, neurotransmission, other biomarkers, and electrophysiology. We also address hippocampal alterations in auditory disorders, including hearing loss and tinnitus. Based on the current state of the field, we point out several aspects that need further investigation. This review is not only to provide a comprehensive summary of the current state of the field but to emphasize that hearing matters in cognition and pave the way for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2022.107589DOI Listing
March 2022

Research on quantum cognition in autonomous driving.

Sci Rep 2022 01 7;12(1):300. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, China.

Autonomous vehicles for the intention of human behavior of the estimated traffic participants and their interaction is the main problem in automatic driving system. Classical cognitive theory assumes that the behavior of human traffic participants is completely reasonable when studying estimation of intention and interaction. However, according to the quantum cognition and decision theory as well as practical traffic cases, human behavior including traffic behavior is often unreasonable, which violates classical cognition and decision theory. Based on the quantum cognitive theory, this paper studies the cognitive problem of pedestrian crossing. Through the case analysis, it is proved that the Quantum-like Bayesian (QLB) model can consider the reasonability of pedestrians when crossing the street compared with the classical probability model, being more consistent with the actual situation. The experiment of trajectory prediction proves that the QLB model can cover the edge events in interactive scenes compared with the data-driven Social-LSTM model, being more consistent with the real trajectory. This paper provides a new reference for the research on the cognitive problem of intention on bounded rational behavior of human traffic participants in autonomous driving.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-04239-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8741815PMC
January 2022

Effects of fallow tillage on winter wheat yield and predictions under different precipitation types.

PeerJ 2021 8;9:e12602. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Shanxi Agricultural University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; State Key Laboratory of Sustainable Dryland Agriculture (In preparation), Shanxi Agricultural University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

In northern China, precipitation that is primarily concentrated during the fallow period is insufficient for the growth stage, creates a moisture shortage, and leads to low, unstable yields. Yield prediction in the early growth stages significantly informs field management decisions for winter wheat ( L.). A 10-year field experiment carried out in the Loess Plateau area tested how three tillage practices (deep ploughing (DP), subsoiling (SS), and no tillage (NT)) influenced cultivation and yield across different fallow periods. The experiment used the random forest (RF) algorithm to construct a prediction model of yields and yield components. Our results revealed that tillage during the fallow period was more effective than NT in improving yield in dryland wheat. Under drought condition, DP during the fallow period achieved a higher yield than SS, especially in drought years; DP was 16% higher than SS. RF was deemed fit for yield prediction across different precipitation years. An RF model was developed using meteorological factors for fixed variables and soil water storage after tillage during a fallow period for a control variable. Small error values existed in the prediction yield, spike number, and grains number per spike. Additionally, the relative error of crop yield under fallow tillage (5.24%) was smaller than that of NT (6.49%). The prediction error of relative meteorological yield was minimum and optimal, indicating that the model is suitable to explain the influence of meteorological factors on yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.12602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8667742PMC
December 2021
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