Publications by authors named "Zhiqiang Chen"

455 Publications

The Meishan pig genome reveals structural variation mediated gene expression and phenotypic divergence underlying Asian pig domestication.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition; Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 100193, Beijing, China.

There are wide genomic and phenotypic differences between Asian and European pig breeds, yet the current reference genome is the European Duroc pig genome. A high-quality pig genome is lacking for genetic analysis of agricultural traits in Asian pigs. Here, using a hybrid approach, a high-quality reference genome (MSCAAS v1) for the Asian Meishan breed is assembled with a contig N50 size of 48.05 Mb. MSCAAS v1 outperforms the Duroc genome as a reference genome for Asian breeds. Genomic comparison reveals 49,103 structural variations (SVs) between Meishan and Duroc, 4.02% of which are Asian-specific SVs (AP-SVs). Notably, a 30 Mb-hotspot for AP-SVs on chromosome X enriched for genes associated with Asian-pig-specific phenotypes is present in Asian domestic pig breeds, but absent in Asian wild boars, suggesting that Asian domestic breeds share a common ancestor. Inter-breed transcriptomics reveals transcriptional suppression roles of AP-SVs in multiple tissues. At last, transcriptional regulation in the intron of IGF2R is reported, as genomic SV (274 bp deletion) in Tibetan pig limits its growth compared to domestic pig breeds. In summary, this study provides insights about the genetic changes underlying pig domestication and presents a benchmark-setting resource for the utilization of agricultural valuable locus in Asian pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13396DOI Listing
April 2021

CD46 splice variant enhances translation of specific mRNAs linked to an aggressive tumor cell phenotype in bladder cancer.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Jun 24;24:140-153. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, P.R. China.

CD46 is well known to be involved in diverse biological processes. Although several splice variants of CD46 have been identified, little is known about the contribution of alternative splicing to its tumorigenic functions. In this study, we found that exclusion of CD46 exon 13 is significantly increased in bladder cancer (BCa) samples. In BCa cell lines, enforced expression of CD46-CYT2 (exon 13-skipping isoform) promoted, and CD46-CYT1 (exon 13-containing isoform) attenuated, cell growth, migration, and tumorigenicity in a xenograft model. We also applied interaction proteomics to identify exhaustively the complexes containing the CYT1 or CYT2 domain in EJ-1 cells. 320 proteins were identified that interact with the CYT1 and/or CYT2 domain, and most of them are new interactors. Using an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent reporter system, we established that CD46 could regulate mRNA translation through an interaction with the translation machinery. We also identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)A1 as a novel CYT2 binding partner, and this interaction facilitates the interaction of hnRNPA1 with IRES RNA to promote IRES-dependent translation of HIF1a and c-Myc. Strikingly, the splicing factor SRSF1 is highly correlated with CD46 exon 13 exclusion in clinical BCa samples. Taken together, our findings contribute to understanding the role of CD46 in BCa development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.02.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7972933PMC
June 2021

Balancing Breeding for Growth and Fecundity in Radiata Pine ( D. Don) Breeding Programme.

Evol Appl 2021 Mar 2;14(3):834-846. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Tree Breeding Australia Mount Gambier SA Australia.

Tree breeding has focused on increasing stem volume growth with a cost to fecundity. However, fecundity is important in maintaining the fitness in natural stands and facilitating cross-pollination to advance breeding populations. Understanding the inheritance of fecundity and the genetic relationship between fecundity and growth is essential to understand the constraints of evolution in natural population and design an optimal selection strategy to balance breeding for growth and fecundity. Inheritance of female fecundity and the genetic relationship between fecundity and growth in radiata pine were investigated using a large Australia-wide progeny test, planted on eight sites involving 279 control-pollinated families. It was found that fecundity of female cones was highly heritable with an estimated heritability of 0.39-0.61, but genetically correlated with growth (-0.30 to -0.39). This indicates that improvement in tree growth alone could reduce the fecundity, thus to break the possible evolutionary constraint in natural population. To maintain fecundity for breeding purposes and minimize the interruption of the evolutionary constraint between fecundity and growth, use of a restraint selection index to impose no change of fecundity is developed in current breeding, while dissecting the genetic basis of adversely correlated traits at loci level is required for optimal long-term strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eva.13164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7980311PMC
March 2021

Orphan nuclear receptors as regulators of intratumoral androgen biosynthesis in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Oncogene 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) almost invariably occurs after androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for the advanced metastatic disease. It is generally believed that among multiple mechanisms and signaling pathways, CRPC is significantly driven by the reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in ADT-treated patients with castrate levels of androgen, partially at least mediated by the androgen biosynthesis within the tumor, also known as intratumoral or intraprostatic androgen biosynthesis. Steroidogenic enzymes, such as CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B1, AKR1C3 and SRD5A, are essential to catalyze the conversion of the initial substrate cholesterol into potent androgens that confers the CRPC progression. Accumulating evidences indicate that many steroidogenic enzymes are upregulated in the progression setting; however, little is known about the dysregulation of these enzymes in CRPC. Orphan nuclear receptors (ONRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, of which endogenous physiological ligands are unknown and which are constitutively active independent of any physiological ligands. Studies have validated that besides AR, ONRs could be the potential therapeutic targets for prostate cancer, particularly the lethal CRPC progression. Early studies reveal that ONRs play crucial roles in the transcriptional regulation of steroidogenic enzyme genes. Notably, we and others show that three distinct ONRs, including liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1, NR5A2), steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1, AD4BP, NR5A1) and estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα, NR3B1), can contribute to the CRPC progression by promotion of the intratumoral androgen synthesis via their direct transcriptional regulation on multiple steroidogenic enzymes. This review presents an overview of the current understanding on the intratumoral androgen biosynthesis in CRPC, with a special focus on the emerging roles of ONRs in this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01737-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Enhancing flotation separation of chalcopyrite and magnesium silicate minerals by surface synergism between PAAS and GA.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 18;11(1):6368. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010, Sichuan, China.

Separation effects of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) and gum Arabic (GA) on flotation of chalcopyrite and magnesium silicate minerals using potassium butyl xanthate (PBX) as collector were investigated by micro-flotation experiments, zeta potential, Infrared spectral (IR), SEM-EDS, XPS analysis and copper sulphide ore beneficiation test. The micro-flotation experiments and zeta potential measurements showed that combined depressant consisting of PAAS and GA could efficiently reduce the recoveries of mixed minerals of serpentine and talc more than 25%, while that of chalcopyrite remained above 70% at pH 9.2. Infrared spectral (IR), SEM-EDS and XPS analysis showed that PAAS chemically reacted with Mg on the surface of serpentine, while GA adsorbed on talc surface mainly via physical interaction and hydrogen bond may also play a role. Surface synergism between PAAS and GA was investigated by turbidity test and its depression mechanism was proposed. The technology feasibility of using PAAS and GA to improve the copper sulphide ore flotation performance was verified through artificial mixed ore flotation and laboratory closed-flotation operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85984-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7973509PMC
March 2021

Machine learning-assisted decision-support models to better predict patients with calculous pyonephrosis.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Feb;10(2):710-723

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background: To develop a machine learning (ML)-assisted model capable of accurately identifying patients with calculous pyonephrosis before making treatment decisions by integrating multiple clinical characteristics.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data from patients with obstructed hydronephrosis who underwent retrograde ureteral stent insertion, percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN), or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). The study cohort was divided into training and testing datasets in a 70:30 ratio for further analysis. We developed 5 ML-assisted models from 22 clinical features using logistic regression (LR), LR optimized by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) regularization (Lasso-LR), support vector machine (SVM), extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), and random forest (RF). The area under the curve (AUC) was applied to determine the model with the highest discrimination. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was used to investigate the clinical net benefit associated with using the predictive models.

Results: A total of 322 patients were included, with 225 patients in the training dataset, and 97 patients in the testing dataset. The XGBoost model showed good discrimination with the AUC, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.981, 0.991, 0.962, 1.000, 1.000, and 0.989, respectively, followed by SVM [AUC =0.985, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.970-1.000], Lasso-LR (AUC =0.977, 95% CI: 0.958-0.996), LR (AUC =0.936, 95% CI: 0.905-0.968), and RF (AUC =0.920, 95% CI: 0.870-0.970). Validation of the model showed that SVM yielded the highest AUC (0.977, 95% CI: 0.952-1.000), followed by Lasso-LR (AUC =0.959, 95% CI: 0.921-0.997), XGBoost (AUC =0.958, 95% CI: 0.902-1.000), LR (AUC =0.932, 95% CI: 0.878-0.987), and RF (AUC =0.868, 95% CI: 0.779-0.958) in the testing dataset.

Conclusions: Our ML-based models had good discrimination in predicting patients with obstructed hydronephrosis at high risk of harboring pyonephrosis, and the use of these models may be greatly beneficial to urologists in treatment planning, patient selection, and decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-1208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947454PMC
February 2021

Identification and candidate gene screening of qCIR9.1, a novel QTL associated with anther culturability in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

National Engineering Research Center of Plant Space Breeding, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, People's Republic of China.

Key Message: A novel QTL, qCIR9.1, that controls callus induction rate in anther culture was identified on chromosome 9 in rice, and based on RNA-seq data, Os09g0551600 was the most promising candidate gene. Anther culture, a doubled haploid (DH) technique, has become an important technology in many plant-breeding programmes. Although anther culturability is the key factor in this technique, its genetic mechanisms in rice remain poorly understood. In this study, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for anther culturability by using 192 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from YZX (Oryza sativa ssp. indica) × 02428 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) and a high-density bin map. A total of eight QTLs for anther culturability were detected in three environments. Among these QTLs, a novel major QTL for callus induction rate (CIR) named qCIR9.1 was repeatedly mapped to a ~ 100 kb genomic interval on chromosome 9 and explained 8.39-14.14% of the phenotypic variation. Additionally, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed for the parents (YZX and 02428), low- (L-Pool) and high-CIR RILs (H-Pool) after 16 and 26 days of culture. By using the RNA of the bulked RILs for background normalization, the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) both between the parents and between the bulked RILs after 26 days of culture was drastically reduced to only 78. Among these DEGs, only one gene, Os09g0551600, encoding a high-mobility group (HMG) protein, was located in the candidate region of qCIR9.1. qRT-PCR analysis of Os09g0551600 showed the same results as RNA-seq, and the expression of this gene was decreased in the low-callus-induction parent (YZX) and L-Pool. Our results provide a foundational step for further cloning of qCIR9.1 and will be very useful for improving anther culturability in rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03808-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Delta HU is a potential marker to predict chemotherapy response for unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Pancreatology 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Pancreatic Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Background: FOLFIRINOX and gemcitabine plus albumin-bound paclitaxel (AG) regimens are recommended as first-line therapy for both locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer. However, there were no specific markers to conduct personalized regimen choice. The research is to assess delta Housfield unit (delta HU), which is the difference in CT attenuation value (in HU) between enhanced and nonenhanced phase of region of interest, as a marker for predicting chemotherapy response of unresectable pancreatic cancer.

Methods: A total of 179 unresectable pancreatic cancer patients were enrolled in the study. Kaplan-Meier analysis and COX regression analysis were performed for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. The differences of clinical characteristics were analyzed by χ test. Microvessel density (MVD) was calculated by immunochemistry staining of CD34.

Results: Delta HU was an independent risk factor for unresectable pancreatic cancer (P = 0.017, HR 0.672, 95%CI 0.485-0.930). Patients with higher delta HU were associated with better PFS (P = 0.004). For modified FOLFIRINOX (mFOLFIRINOX) group, delta HU was an independent risk factor (P = 0.045, HR 0.571), but not for AG group (P = 0.473, HR 0.855). Delta HU was correlated with stroma MVD (P = 0.000, R = 0.483), not with parenchyma MVD (P = 0.074, R = 0.199).

Conclusions: Delta HU was a marker predicting chemotherapy response for unresectable pancreatic cancer. Higher delta HU was associated with better survival for patients receiving mFOLFIRINOX rather than AG. The delta HU was positively correlated with stroma MVD, explaining the relationship between delta HU and prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2021.02.016DOI Listing
February 2021

Hirudo Lyophilized Powder Ameliorates Renal Injury in Diabetic Rats by Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 22;2021:6657673. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050091, China.

As diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common and destructive microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus, the goal of this study, therefore, was to investigate the renal protective effect and latent mechanisms of Hirudo lyophilized powder on diabetic rats. In this study, all rats were randomly assigned into the control group and diabetic group. The rats of diabetic group were injected with low-dose STZ (35 mg/kg) intraperitoneal plus high-fat diet to induce diabetes. Then, the successful diabetic model rats were weighed and randomly assigned into four groups: (1) diabetic model group (DM group); (2) Hirudo lyophilized powder 0.3 g/kg treatment group (SL group); (3) Hirudo lyophilized powder 0.6 g/kg treatment group (SM group); (4) Hirudo lyophilized powder 1.2 g/kg treatment group (SH group). Their fasting blood glucoses (FBG) were measured every 4 weeks. After treatment with Hirudo lyophilized powder at a corresponding dose once a day for 16 weeks, their metabolic and biochemical as well as oxidative stress parameters were tested, and the kidney weight (KW)/body weight (BW) was calculated. The renal tissues were used for histological, mRNA, and protein expression analysis. The results showed that Hirudo lyophilized powder could protect against the structural damages and functional changes of diabetic renal tissue by inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, it was found in the further research that inhibiting the NOX4 expression and JAK2/STAT1/STAT3 pathway activation might be the underlying mechanisms. Collectively, Hirudo lyophilized powder might be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of DN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6657673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920712PMC
February 2021

An analysis of scatter characteristics in x-ray CT spectral correction.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Bejing, Beijing, CHINA.

X-ray scatter remains a major physics challenge in volumetric computed tomography (CT), whose physical and statistical behaviors have been commonly leveraged in order to eliminate its impact on CT image quality. In this work, we conduct an in-depth derivation of how the scatter distribution and scatter to primary ratio (SPR) will change during the spectral correction, leading to an interesting finding on the property of scatter. Such a characterization of scatter's behavior provides an analytic approach of compensating for the SPR as well as approximating the change of scatter distribution after spectral correction, even though both of them might be significantly distorted as the linearization mapping function in spectral correction could vary a lot from one detector pixel to another. We conduct an evaluation of SPR compensations on a Catphan phantom and an anthropomorphic chest phantom to validate the characteristics of scatter. In addition, this scatter property is also directly adopted into CT imaging using a spectral modulator with flying focal spot technology (SMFFS) as an example to demonstrate its potential in practical applications. For cone-beam CT scans at both 80 and 120 kVp, CT images with accurate CT numbers can be achieved after spectral correction followed by the appropriate SPR compensation based on our presented scatter property. In the case of the SMFFS based cone-beam CT scan of the Catphan phantom at 120 kVp, after a scatter correction using an analytic algorithm derived from the scatter property, CT image quality was significantly improved, with the averaged root mean square error reduced from 297.9 to 6.5 Hounsfield units (HU).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/abebabDOI Listing
March 2021

Comparison of contrast-enhanced ultrasound versus conventional ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with nondilated collecting system: a randomized controlled trial.

Eur Radiol 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Objective: To compare the safety, effectiveness, and feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) versus conventional ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with nondilated collecting system.

Methods: Between July 2018 and July 2020, 160 kidney stone patients with nondilated collecting system planned for PCNL were randomly assigned into two groups, CEUS with retrograde ureteral contrast injection and conventional ultrasound with retrograde ureteral normal saline injection. Patient's demographics, the success rate of puncture, success rate of a single-needle puncture, number of punctures, puncture time, perioperative outcomes, stone-free rate, and incidence of complications were compared.

Results: The success rate of a single-needle puncture for CEUS-guided PCNL was higher than that in the conventional ultrasound group (88.5% vs. 73.7%, p = 0.02). Patients performed with CEUS-guided PCNL required less needle passes (p = 0.02), shorter needle puncture time (p = 0.031), and shorter channel establishment time (p = 0.04) than those guided with conventional ultrasound. The postoperative hemoglobin decrease in the CEUS-guided PCNL group was less than that of the control group (p = 0.02). There was no significant difference in operating time, length of hospital stays, kidney function change, and complications between the two groups (p > 0.05). The 1-month stone-free rate was 94.9% in the CEUS group and 90.8% in the control group (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Compared with conventional ultrasound, CEUS-guided PCNL may facilitate ultrasound-guided PCNL for patients without hydronephrosis, and benefited with a higher success rate of a single-needle puncture, less needle passes, shorter puncture time, and lower postoperative Hb drop.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR1800016981 KEY POINTS: • Compared with conventional ultrasound, CEUS-guided PCNL is a safe and efficacious procedure for kidney stone patients with nondilated collecting system. • Compared with conventional ultrasound, CEUS-guided PCNL benefited with a higher success rate of a single-needle puncture, less needle passes, shorter puncture time, and lower postoperative Hb drop. • CEUS-guided PCNL associated with the more accurate needle puncture and acceptable complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07804-1DOI Listing
February 2021

Application of potassium ferrate combined with poly-aluminum chloride for mitigating ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling in secondary effluent: Comparison of oxidant dosing strategies.

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 8;274:129862. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin, 150090, China.

Coagulation has been widely applied as a pretreatment for ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in wastewater reclamation, however, it is unable to effectively ensure the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) and genotoxicity. To solve this problem, oxidant ferrate (VI) (FeO, Fe) was combined with coagulant poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) as the pretreatment of UF to treat secondary effluent, and three oxidant dosing strategies (namely oxidation followed by coagulation (O-Fe-PAC), simultaneous oxidation and coagulation (S-Fe-PAC), and coagulation followed by oxidation (C-PAC-Fe)) were compared at two oxidant doses. The results showed that C-PAC-Fe pretreatment exhibited the best performance for the removal of DOC (35.9%), UV (33.7%), protein (71.8%), and polysaccharide (22.1%). Molecular weight and fluorescence analysis revealed that the removed organics were mainly humic substances. Both the direct UF process and PAC pretreatment showed limited removal of OMPs and genotoxicity, however, the combined pretreatments of Fe and PAC dramatically removed them. The maximum removal efficiency of the fourteen selected OMPs and genotoxicity was obtained under S-Fe-PAC (59.6% on average) and C-PAC-Fe (84.1%), respectively. With respect to membrane fouling control, the normalized flux reduction showed an apparent regularity of C-PAC-Fe > O-Fe-PAC > S-Fe-PAC, however, Fe dose should be carefully determined. The addition of Fe delayed the transition of membrane fouling mechanism from pore blockage to cake filtration, especially in C-PAC-Fe pretreatment, which was confirmed by the fluorescence characterization of hydraulic reversible and hydraulic irreversible foulants. To sum up, C-PAC-Fe dosing strategy seems to have more potential in membrane fouling alleviation and effluent quality improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129862DOI Listing
February 2021

Junction plakoglobin regulates and destabilizes HIF2α to inhibit tumorigenesis of renal cell carcinoma.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030, P. R. China.

Background: Increased hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α) activation is a common event in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) progression. However, the function and underlying mechanism of HIF2α in ccRCC remains uninvestigated. We conducted this study to access the potential link between junction plakoglobin (JUP) and HIF2α in ccRCC.

Methods: Affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) screening, glutathione-s-transferase (GST) pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays were performed to detect the interacting proteins of HIF2α. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of JUP in human ccRCC samples. Luciferase reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), cycloheximide chase assays, and ubiquitination assays were conducted to explore the regulation of JUP on the activity of HIF2α. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, colony formation assays, transwell assays, and xenograft tumor assays were performed to investigate the effect of JUP knockdown or overexpression on the tumorigenicity of renal cancer cells.

Results: We identified JUP as a novel HIF2α-binding partner and revealed an important role of JUP in recruiting von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and histone deacetylases 1/2 (HDAC1/2) to HIF2α to regulate its stability and transactivation. JUP knockdown promoted and overexpression suppressed the tumorigenicity of renal cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, the low expression of JUP was found in clinical ccRCC samples and correlated with enhanced hypoxia scores and poor treatment outcomes.

Conclusion: Taken together, these data support a role of JUP in modulating HIF2α signaling during ccRCC progression and identify JUP as a potential therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12142DOI Listing
February 2021

Optimize the management of urological tube-related emergencies during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Jan;10(1):466-474

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: To introduce and determine the value of optimized strategies for the management of urological tube-related emergencies with increased incidence, complexity and operational risk during the global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: All emergent urological patients at Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, during the period of January 23 (the beginning of lockdown in Wuhan) to March 23, 2020, and the corresponding period in 2019 were recruited to form this study's COVID-19 group and control group, respectively. Tongji Hospital has the most concentrated and strongest Chinese medical teams to treat the largest number of severe COVID-19 patients. Patients in the control group were routinely treated, while patients in the COVID-19 group were managed following the optimized principles and strategies. The case incidence for each type of tube-related emergency was recorded. Baseline characteristics and management outcomes (surgery time, secondary complex operation rate, readmission rate, COVID-19 infection rate) were analyzed and compared across the control and COVID-19 periods.

Results: The total emergent urological patients during the COVID-19 period was 42, whereas during the control period, it was 124. The incidence of tube-related emergencies increased from 53% to 88% (P<0.001) during the COVID-19 period. In particular, the incidence of nephrostomy tube-related (31% 15%, P=0.027) and single-J stent-related problems (19% 6%, P=0.009) increased significantly. The mean surgery times across the two periods were comparable. The number of secondary complex operations increased from 12 (18%) to 14 (38%) (P=0.028) during the COVID 19-period. The number of 2-week postoperative readmission decreased from 10 (15%) to 1 (3%) (P=0.049). No participants contracted during the COVID-19 period.

Conclusions: Urological tube-related emergencies have been found to have a higher incidence and require more complicated and dangerous operations during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the optimized management strategies introduced in this study are efficient, and safe for both urologists and patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-1194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844486PMC
January 2021

Network pharmacology based research into the effect and mechanism of Yinchenhao Decoction against Cholangiocarcinoma.

Chin Med 2021 Jan 21;16(1):13. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, No. 16, Jichang Road, Baiyun District, 510405, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Cholangiocarcinoma refers to an epithelial cell malignancy with poor prognosis. Yinchenhao decoction (YCHD) showed positive effects on cancers, and associations between YCHD and cholangiocarcinoma remain unclear. This study aimed to screen out the effective active components of Yinchenhao decoction (YCHD) using network pharmacology, estimate their potential targets, screen out the pathways, as well as delve into the potential mechanisms on treating cholangiocarcinoma.

Methods: By the traditional Chinese medicine system pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) as well as literature review, the major active components and their corresponding targets were estimated and screened out. Using the software Cytoscape 3.6.0, a visual network was established using the active components of YCHD and the targets of cholangiocarcinoma. Based on STRING online database, the protein interaction network of vital targets was built and analyzed. With the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) server, the gene ontology (GO) biological processes and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) signaling pathways of the targets enrichment were performed. The AutoDock Vina was used to perform molecular docking and calculate the binding affinity. The PyMOL software was utilized to visualize the docking results of active compounds and protein targets. In vivo experiment, the IC values and apoptosis rate in PI-A cells were detected using CCK-8 kit and Cell Cycle Detection Kit. The predicted targets were verified by the real-time PCR and western blot methods.

Results: 32 effective active components with anti-tumor effects of YCHD were sifted in total, covering 209 targets, 96 of which were associated with cancer. Quercetin, kaempferol, beta-sitosterol, isorhamnetin, and stigmasterol were identified as the vital active compounds, and AKT1, IL6, MAPK1, TP53 as well as VEGFA were considered as the major targets. The molecular docking revealed that these active compounds and targets showed good binding interactions. These 96 putative targets exerted therapeutic effects on cancer by regulating signaling pathways (e.g., hepatitis B, the MAPK signaling pathway, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and MicroRNAs in cancer). Our in vivo experimental results confirmed that YCHD showed therapeutic effects on cholangiocarcinoma by decreasing IC values, down-regulating apoptosis rate of cholangiocarcinoma cells, and lowering protein expressions.

Conclusions: As predicted by network pharmacology strategy and validated by the experimental results, YCHD exerts anti-tumor effectsthrough multiple components, targets, and pathways, thereby providing novel ideas and clues for the development of preparations and the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-021-00423-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818939PMC
January 2021

Impacts of biochar on anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Methanogenesis and antibiotic resistance genes dissemination.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Mar 8;324:124679. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090, PR China; School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, PR China. Electronic address:

This work aimed to study the effects of biochar on methanogenesis and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) fate during anaerobic digestion (AD) of swine manure (SM) was investigated. Under the optimal biochar dosage of 5-10%, methane yield was significantly improved by 25%, ascribing to the enhancement of direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET). Biochar addition alleviated the need of cytochrome-c as interspecies electron connection components and enriched the microbes involved in DIET. Defluviitoga, Thermovirga and Cloacibacillus were dominant with biochar addition and might participate in DIET together with Methanothrix. The abundance of parC, tetX, bla, bla, aac(6')-Ib-cr, ermB and tetW were significantly reduced in biochar treatments and intI1 removal increased by 15% in B-5% than the control. Structural equation models demonstrated that intI1 (λ = 0.59, P < 0.001) had the most standardized direct effects on ARGs, while biochar indirectly affected ARGs by changing intI1 (λ = 0.41, P < 0.01) and microbial structure (λ = -0.24, P < 0.05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124679DOI Listing
March 2021

The use of acupuncture for advanced cancer care: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Adv Nurs 2021 Apr 10;77(4):2085-2091. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Department of Perioperative Research Center of Chinese Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Aim: To assess the up-to-date evidence of acupuncture for the management of cancer-related and cancer treatment-related outcomes among people with advanced cancer.

Design: Systematic review with meta-analyses involving multidimensional outcomes.

Methods: The protocol of this systematic review has been registered in PROSPERO with the registration number CRD42020212982. Six databases (including Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SinoMed, ClinicalTrials.gov and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry) will be searched from inception through November 2020 to identify relevant interventional trials examining acupuncture management on multidimensional outcomes in patients with advanced cancer. Main outcomes will include cancer and treatment-related symptoms, quality of life, sleep quality and adverse events. DerSimonian & Laird random-effects meta-analysis will be applied to calculate pooled relative risks for binary data and pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) for continuous data. Trial quality ratings and risk of bias will be evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach.

Discussion: The efficacy of acupuncture on advanced cancer care and outcomes has not yet been determined. Palliative care for patients with advanced cancer may involve multiple challenges that include physical and mental health care. This systematic review will offer updated and comprehensive evidence of acupuncture on specific outcomes induced by advanced cancer and cancer-related treatment, which can give high level clinical recommendations to improve patient care and clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.14748DOI Listing
April 2021

Dynamic genome-wide association analysis and identification of candidate genes involved in anaerobic germination tolerance in rice.

Rice (N Y) 2021 Jan 6;14(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

National Engineering Research Center of Plant Space Breeding, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

Background: In Asian rice production, an increasing number of countries now choose the direct seeding mode because of rising costs, labour shortages and water shortages. The ability of rice seeds to undergo anaerobic germination (AG) plays an important role in the success of direct seeding.

Results: In this study, we used 2,123,725 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers based on resequencing to conduct a dynamic genome-wide association study (GWAS) of coleoptile length (CL) and coleoptile diameter (CD) in 209 natural rice populations. A total of 26 SNP loci were detected in these two phenotypes, of which 5 overlapped with previously reported loci (S1_ 39674301, S6_ 20797781, S7_ 18722403, S8_ 9946213, S11_ 19165397), and two sites were detected repeatedly at different time points (S3_ 24689629 and S5_ 27918754). We suggest that these 7 loci (-log (P) value > 7.3271) are the key sites that affect AG tolerance. To screen the candidate genes more effectively, we sequenced the transcriptome of the flooding-tolerant variety R151 in six key stages, including anaerobic (AN) and the oxygen conversion point (AN-A), and obtained high-quality differential expression profiles. Four reliable candidate genes were identified: Os01g0911700 (OsVP1), Os05g0560900 (OsGA2ox8), Os05g0562200 (OsDi19-1) and Os06g0548200. Then qRT-PCR and LC-MS/ MS targeting metabolite detection technology were used to further verify that the up-regulated expression of these four candidate genes was closely related to AG.

Conclusion: The four novel candidate genes were associated with gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) regulation and cell wall metabolism under oxygen-deficiency conditions and promoted coleoptile elongation while avoiding adverse effects, allowing the coleoptile to obtain oxygen, escape the low-oxygen environment and germinate rapidly. The results of this study improve our understanding of the genetic basis of AG in rice seeds, which is conducive to the selection of flooding-tolerant varieties suitable for direct seeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12284-020-00444-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7788155PMC
January 2021

Expression profiles, biological functions and clinical significance of circRNAs in bladder cancer.

Mol Cancer 2021 01 4;20(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs), which are single-stranded closed-loop RNA molecules lacking terminal 5' caps and 3' poly(A) tails, are attracting increasing scientific attention for their crucial regulatory roles in the occurrence and development of various diseases. With the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, increasing numbers of differentially expressed circRNAs have been identified in bladder cancer (BCa) via exploration of the expression profiles of BCa and normal tissues and cell lines. CircRNAs are critically involved in BCa biological behaviours, including cell proliferation, tumour growth suppression, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, invasion, migration, metastasis, angiogenesis, and cisplatin chemoresistance. Most of the studied circRNAs in BCa regulate cancer biological behaviours via miRNA sponging regulatory mechanisms. CircRNAs have been reported to be significantly associated with many clinicopathologic characteristics of BCa, including tumour size, grade, differentiation, and stage; lymph node metastasis; tumour numbers; distant metastasis; invasion; and recurrence. Moreover, circRNA expression levels can be used to predict BCa patients' survival parameters, such as overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and progression-free survival (PFS). The abundance, conservation, stability, specificity and detectability of circRNAs render them potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for BCa. Additionally, circRNAs play crucial regulatory roles upstream of various signalling pathways related to BCa carcinogenesis and progression, reflecting their potential as therapeutic targets for BCa. Herein, we briefly summarize the expression profiles, biological functions and mechanisms of circRNAs and the potential clinical applications of these molecules for BCa diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-020-01300-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780637PMC
January 2021

Identification of candidate genes controlling chilling tolerance of rice in the cold region at the booting stage by BSA-Seq and RNA-Seq.

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Nov 18;7(11):201081. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Rice Research Institute of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jiamusi 154026, People's Republic of China.

Rice is sensitive to low temperatures, specifically at the booting stage. Chilling tolerance of rice is a quantitative trait loci that is governed by multiple genes, and thus, its precise identification through the conventional methods is an arduous task. In this study, we investigated the candidate genes related to chilling tolerance at the booting stage of rice. The F2 population was derived from Longjing25 (chilling-tolerant) and Longjing11 (chilling-sensitive) cross. Two bulked segregant analysis pools were constructed. A 0.82 Mb region containing 98 annotated genes on chromosomes 6 and 9 was recognized as the candidate region associated with chilling tolerance of rice at the booting stage. Transcriptomic analysis of Longjing25 and Longjing11 revealed 50 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) on the candidate intervals. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs was performed. Nine pathways were found to be enriched, which contained 10 DEGs. A total of four genes had different expression patterns or levels between Longjing25 and Longjing11. Four out of the 10 DEGs were considered as potential candidate genes for chilling tolerance. This study will assist in the cloning of the candidate genes responsible for chilling tolerance and molecular breeding of rice for the development of chilling-tolerant rice varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.201081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735347PMC
November 2020

Predicting Prostate Cancer Upgrading of Biopsy Gleason Grade Group at Radical Prostatectomy Using Machine Learning-Assisted Decision-Support Models.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 22;12:13099-13110. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Objective: This study aimed to develop a machine learning (ML)-assisted model capable of accurately predicting the probability of biopsy Gleason grade group upgrading before making treatment decisions.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data from prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Four ML-assisted models were developed from 16 clinical features using logistic regression (LR), logistic regression optimized by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) regularization (Lasso-LR), random forest (RF), and support vector machine (SVM). The area under the curve (AUC) was applied to determine the model with the highest discrimination. Calibration plots and decision curve analysis (DCA) were performed to evaluate the calibration and clinical usefulness of each model.

Results: A total of 530 PCa patients were included in this study. The Lasso-LR model showed good discrimination with an AUC, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.776, 0.712, 0.679, 0.745, 0.730, and 0.695, respectively, followed by SVM (AUC=0.740, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.690-0.790), LR (AUC=0.725, 95% CI=0.674-0.776) and RF (AUC=0.666, 95% CI=0.618-0.714). Validation of the model showed that the Lasso-LR model had the best discriminative power (AUC=0.735, 95% CI=0.656-0.813), followed by SVM (AUC=0.723, 95% CI=0.644-0.802), LR (AUC=0.697, 95% CI=0.615-0.778) and RF (AUC=0.607, 95% CI=0.531-0.684) in the testing dataset. Both the Lasso-LR and SVM models were well-calibrated. DCA plots demonstrated that the predictive models except RF were clinically useful.

Conclusion: The Lasso-LR model had good discrimination in the prediction of patients at high risk of harboring incorrect Gleason grade group assignment, and the use of this model may be greatly beneficial to urologists in treatment planning, patient selection, and the decision-making process for PCa patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S286167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765752PMC
December 2020

Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Female Urethra: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Onco Targets Ther 2020 21;13:13015-13022. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Surgery, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120, People's Republic of China.

Primary urethral non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is uncommon. This case study reports the case of a 52-year-old woman with a light red mass at the urethral orifice. Her clinical manifestations included frequent urination, urgency, dysuria, and occasionally blood in urine. The tumor was surgically removed, and the pathological and immunohistochemistry examination confirmed the presence of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Examination using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) revealed multiple hypermetabolic lymph nodes next to the external iliac vessels and bilateral inguinal regions, and focal hypermetabolic lesions in the vulvar nodules (consistent with the changes caused by lymphoma infiltration). Eight cycles of chemotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone (R-CHOP) were prescribed after surgery. Re-examination using PET/CT showed lack of hypermetabolic tumor recurrence signs, and the presence of multiple slightly large lymph nodes in the lateral iliac vessels and inguinal regions, but without significant lymph node metabolism increases. To date, only fifteen cases of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the urethra (including this one) have been reported in the literature. Therefore, we reviewed the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of DLBCL based on the existing literature to help characterize this rare disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S283704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762437PMC
December 2020

A Shared Susceptibility Locus in the Gene for both Gastric and Esophageal Cancers in a Northwestern Chinese Population.

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2020 Dec 7;24(12):804-811. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Key Laboratory of Fertility Preservation and Maintenance (Ministry of Education), The School of Basic Medicine and General Hospital, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People's Republic of China.

Upper gastrointestinal tract cancers are the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Northwest China and they share many similarities in terms of histological type, risk factors, and genetic variants. We hypothesized that shared common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pathway exist between patients with gastric and esophageal cancer (EC) patients. A case-control study to examine genetic variants in the pathway was conducted with subjects from a high-incidence area for upper gastrointestinal cancers of China. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association of genotypes with gastric cancer and EC risks. Median survival was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by using the log-rank test. Compared with the rs1042522 Pro allele, the rs1042522 Arg allele was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (1.810×) and an increased risk of EC (2.285×). The rs1042522 Arg allele carriers who also smoked or consumed alcohol had a further increased risk for gastric cancer odds ratios (OR = 2.422, OR = 5.152) and EC (OR = 5.310, OR = 8.359). No association was found between the rs1042522 genotypes and survival ( > 0.05). The rs1042522 arg allele together with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, was associated with an increased risk, for gastric cancer and EC, but not the survival among northwestern Chinese patients. These associations warrant confirmatory studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/gtmb.2020.0192DOI Listing
December 2020

A novel comprehensive predictive model for obstructive pyonephrosis patients with upper urinary tract stones.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2020 1;13(11):2758-2766. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan 430030, Hubei, China.

Background: Calculous pyonephrosis tended not to be accurately diagnosed before operations. It is mostly confirmed during percutaneous nephrolithotripsy or percutaneous nephrostomy. We aimed to evaluate the risk factors for predicting obstructive pyonephrosis patients with upper urinary tract stones.

Methods: Clinical data of 322 patients with upper urinary tract stones and obstructive hydronephrosis were retrospectively searched and analyzed in our study. The patients were divided into two groups; pyonephrosis and non-pyonephrosis groups. Both disease related factors and infection-associated indicators were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were performed on preoperative variables. Accordingly, ROC curves were drawn, and a novel comprehensive model was constructed to predict the pyonephrosis.

Outcomes: Compared to the non-pyonephrosis group, patients in the pyonephrosis group showed statistical differences in sex, urinary tract infection (UTI) within 3 months, stone density, computerized tomography (CT) value of hydronephrosis, serum creatinine, hydronephrosis, contralateral kidney severe hydronephrosis or atrophy, preoperative white blood cells, neutrophils, serum C-reactive protein, urine leukocyte, nitrite, and urine culture revealed statistical difference (<0.05). Univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences for sex, UTI history, degree of hydronephrosis, contralateral severe hydronephrosis or atrophy, serum creatinine, and CT value of hydronephrosis (<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated several independent risk factors for pyonephrosis, including degree of hydronephrosis (=0.02), CT value of hydronephrosis (=0.001), urine leukocyte (=0.002), urine culture (=0.001) and blood neutrophils (=0.009). Based on these risk factors, we constructed a novel comprehensive model and confirmed it was an effective method to predict pyonephrosis (AUC, 0.970). Bootstrapped calibration curves showed no untoward deviation in both training and validation dataset (mean absolute error of 0.027, 0.036).

Conclusions: Hydronephrosis, CT value of hydronephrosis, blood neutrophils, urine leukocyte, and urine culture were independent risk factors to predict pyonephrosis. The novel comprehensive model was found to be an effective method to predict pyonephrosis and needed to be further confirmed in prospective studies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716127PMC
November 2020

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Reduces Kynurenic Acid Production and Reverses Th17/Treg Balance by Modulating Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO) Molecules in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells.

Med Sci Monit 2020 Dec 2;26:e926763. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital (Southwest Hospital) of Army Medical University, Chongqing, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes a world-wide medical and economic burden. This study analyzed the effects of RSV infection on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and evaluated the immunopathogenesis of RSV infection by measuring relative numbers of FoxP3+ Treg cells and Th17 cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS pDCs were isolated from human blood samples, purified using magnetic microbeads, and treated with RSV, IFN-g, or vehicle. These cells were mixed with purified CD4+ T cells to yield preparations of pDCs+T cells+vehicle, pDCs+T cells+RSV, and pDCs+T cells+IFN-g. Preparations of pDCs+T cells+RSV were also incubated with an inducer or an inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Kynurenic acid concentration was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The differentiation of Foxp3+ Treg and Th17 cells from CD4+ T cells was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS pDCs were successfully isolated and purified using the magnetic microbeads. Compared with preparations of pDCs+T cells+vehicle, RSV infection (pDCs+T cells+RSV) significantly reduced and IFN-g treatment (pDC+T cells+IFN-g) increased kynurenic acid concentrations and the proportions of Foxp3+ Tregs (p<0.05 each). Conversely, RSV infection increased and IFN-g treatment decreased the proportions of Th17 cells (p<0.05 each). RSV infection reduced kynurenic acid concentrations and inhibited the transformation from Th17 to Foxp3+ Tregs by modulating IDO molecules. CONCLUSIONS RSV infection reduced the production of kynurenic acid and inhibited transformation from Th17 to Foxp3+ Tregs (Th17/Treg balance) by modulating IDO molecules in pDCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.926763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720431PMC
December 2020

Mechanism concerning the occurrence and removal of antibiotic resistance genes in composting product with ozone post-treatment.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Feb 20;321:124433. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China.

The soil application of composting product will probably cause the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to environment, thereby it is crucial to remove ARGs in composting product. Ozone was adopted for the first time as a post-treatment method to remove the ARGs in composting product in this study. Ozone treatment significantly removed the total ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) once ozonation process finished. After 10-day storage stage, although the amount of total intracellular ARGs and MGEs increased, the total extracellular ARGs and MGEs decreased in the ozone-treated compost product. Correlation analysis revealed that the reduction in intracellular 16S rRNA contributed to intracellular tetQ and tetW removal, while the variations of other ARGs after ozonation related to MGEs abundance. Network analysis suggested that the reduction of potential host bacteria, as well as the decline in NH-N and TOC after the ozonation, contributed to the intracellular ARGs removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124433DOI Listing
February 2021

Evaluation of a hybrid process of magnetic ion-exchange resin treatment followed by ozonation in secondary effluent organic matter removal.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 14;754:142361. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Municipal Sewage Resource Utilization Technology, Suzhou 215000, PR China.

The presence of effluent organic matter (EfOM) and organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) in secondary effluent is receiving increasing concern due to their potential impacts on the aquatic environment and human health. In this study, the removal characteristics of EfOM by magnetic ion-exchange resin (MIEX), ozonation, and the hybrid process of MIEX followed by ozonation (M + O) were compared by measuring the bulk organic indicators (BOIs), OMPs, bio-toxicity, and fluorescence. Furthermore, the desorption characteristics of MIEX were comprehensively studied. Ozonation could reduce the OMPs, total fluorescence (TF), genotoxicity, and oestrogenic activity more effectively than MIEX, with reductions of 80.3%, 97.8%, 98.9%, and 94.6%, respectively. The M + O process was capable of removing more EfOM than the individual MIEX or ozonation processes and could reduce the genotoxicity and oestrogenic activity to the detection limit. By implementing MIEX as a pre-treatment, the generation of ammonia-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen was effectively reduced in the subsequent ozonation process as MIEX adsorbed organic nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen. The different regenerants influenced the OMP desorption performance of MIEX by changing the desorption mechanisms, and NaCl + NaOH was the best regenerant due to its high total OMP desorption efficiency. Parallel factor analysis coupled with self-organising maps further explained the differences in fluorescence desorption due to the addition of NaOH to the regenerated solution. Pearson correlation analysis indicated the potential of using spectroscopic indicators, such as ultraviolet absorbance and TF, to assess the evolution of OMPs and bio-toxicity during the M + O and MIEX desorption processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142361DOI Listing
February 2021