Publications by authors named "Zhiliang Xie"

30 Publications

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Inhibition of androgen/AR signaling inhibits diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced tumour initiation and remodels liver immune cell networks.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 11;11(1):3646. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

A promotional role for androgen receptor (AR) signaling in hepatocellular carcinogenesis is emerging. In pre-clinical models, including diethylnitrosamine- (DEN-) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), anti-androgen therapies delay hepatocarcinogenesis. However, pharmacologic anti-androgen therapy in advanced HCC patients fails, suggesting that AR plays a role in HCC onset. This study aims to characterize AR expression and function throughout DEN-induced liver inflammation and carcinogenesis and evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic AR antagonism to prevent hepatocarcinogenesis. We demonstrate that pharmacologic AR antagonism with enzalutamide inhibits hepatocellular carcinogenesis. With enzalutamide treatment, we observe decreased CYP2E1 expression, reducing DEN-induced hepatocyte death and DNA ethyl-adducts. AR protein expression analyses show that DEN causes an initial upregulation of AR in portal fibroblasts and leukocytes, but not hepatocytes, suggesting that hepatocyte-autonomous AR signaling is not essential for DEN-induced carcinogenesis. Ablating androgen signaling by surgical castration reduced pre-carcinogen Kupffer cell populations but did not alter DEN-mediated immune cell recruitment nor AR expression. In this study, we identified that anti-androgen interventions modulate mutagenic DNA adducts, tumour initiation, and immune cell composition. Additionally, we find that AR expression in hepatocytes is not present during nor required for early DEN-mediated carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82252-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878907PMC
February 2021

Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of the Novel Non-immunosuppressive Fingolimod Derivative, OSU-2S, in Dogs and Comparisons with Data in Mice and Rats.

AAPS J 2020 07 16;22(4):92. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Division of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, 506 Riffe Building, 496 W. 12th Ave., Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA.

In this study, we characterized the pharmacokinetics of OSU-2S, a fingolimod-derived, non-immunosuppressive phosphatase activator, in mice, rats, and dogs, as well as tolerability and food effects in dogs. Across all species tested, plasma protein binding for OSU-2S was > 99.5%, and metabolic stability and hepatic intrinsic clearance were in the moderate range. OSU-2S did not significantly modulate CYP enzyme activity up until 50 μM, and Caco-2 data suggested low permeability with active efflux at 2 μM. Apparent oral bioavailability in mice was 16% and 69% at 10 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. In rats, bioavailability was 24%, 35%, and 28% at 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, respectively, while brain/plasma ratio was 36 at 6-h post-dose at 30 mg/kg. In dogs, OSU-2S was well tolerated with oral capsule bioavailability of 27.5%. Plasma OSU-2S exposures increased proportionally over a 2.5-20 mg/kg dose range. After 4 weeks of 3 times weekly, oral administration (20 mg/kg), plasma AUC (26.1 μM*h), and C (0.899 μM) were nearly 2-fold greater than those after 1 week of dosing, and no food effects were observed. The elimination half-life (29.7 h), clearance (22.9 mL/min/kg), and plasma concentrations of repeated oral doses support a 3-times weekly dosing schedule in dogs. No significant CBC, serum biochemical, or histopathological changes were observed. OSU-2S has favorable oral PK properties similar to fingolimod in rodents and dogs and is well tolerated in healthy animals. This work supports establishing trials of OSU-2S efficacy in dogs with spontaneous tumors to guide its clinical development as a cancer therapeutic for human patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-020-00474-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814188PMC
July 2020

ROR1-targeted delivery of miR-29b induces cell cycle arrest and therapeutic benefit in vivo in a CLL mouse model.

Blood 2019 08 31;134(5):432-444. Epub 2019 May 31.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) occurs in 2 major forms: aggressive and indolent. Low miR-29b expression in aggressive CLL is associated with poor prognosis. Indiscriminate miR-29b overexpression in the B-lineage of mice causes aberrance, thus warranting the need for selective introduction of miR-29b into B-CLL cells for therapeutic benefit. The oncofetal antigen receptor tyrosine kinase orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is expressed on malignant B-CLL cells, but not normal B cells, encouraging us with ROR1-targeted delivery for therapeutic miRs. Here, we describe targeted delivery of miR-29b to ROR1 CLL cells leading to downregulation of DNMT1 and DNMT3A, modulation of global DNA methylation, decreased SP1, and increased p21 expression in cell lines and primary CLL cells in vitro. Furthermore, using an Eμ-TCL1 mouse model expressing human ROR1, we report the therapeutic benefit of enhanced survival via cellular reprograming by downregulation of DNMT1 and DNMT3A in vivo. Gene expression profiling of engrafted murine leukemia identified reprogramming of cell cycle regulators with decreased SP1 and increased p21 expression after targeted miR-29b treatment. This finding was confirmed by protein modulation, leading to cell cycle arrest and survival benefit in vivo. Importantly, SP1 knockdown results in p21-dependent compensation of the miR-29b effect on cell cycle arrest. These studies form a basis for leukemic cell-targeted delivery of miR-29b as a promising therapeutic approach for CLL and other ROR1 B-cell malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2018882290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6676131PMC
August 2019

SUV39H1 Represses the Expression of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Effector Genes to Promote Colon Tumor Immune Evasion.

Cancer Immunol Res 2019 03 4;7(3):414-427. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia.

Despite the presence of CTLs in the tumor microenvironment, the majority of immunogenic human colon cancer does not respond to immune checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy, and microsatellite instable (MSI) tumors are not naturally eliminated. The molecular mechanism underlying the inactivity of tumor-infiltrating CTLs is unknown. We report here that CTLs were present in both MSI and microsatellite stable colon tumors. The expression of the H3K9me3-specific histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 was significantly elevated in human colon carcinoma compared with normal colon tissues. Using a mouse colon carcinoma model, we further determined that tumor-infiltrating CTLs in the colon tumor microenvironment have high expression of SUV39H1. To target SUV39H1 in the tumor microenvironment, a virtual chemical library was screened on the basis of the SET (suppressor of variegation 3-9, enhancer of zeste and trithorax) domain structure of the human SUV39H1 protein. Functional enzymatic activity assays identified a small molecule that inhibits SUV39H1 enzymatic activity. On the basis of the structure of this small molecule, we modified it and chemically synthesized a small molecule, termed F5446, which has an EC of 0.496 μmol/L for SUV39H1 enzymatic activity. H3K9me3 was enriched in the promoters of , and in quiescent T cells. F5446 inhibited H3K9me3, thereby upregulating expression of these effectors in tumor-infiltrating CTLs and suppressing colon carcinoma growth in a CD8 CTL-dependent manner Our data indicate that SUV39H1 represses CTL effector gene expression and, in doing so, confers colon cancer immune escape.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-18-0126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397681PMC
March 2019

Comprehensive toxicity and immunogenicity studies reveal minimal effects in mice following sustained dosing of extracellular vesicles derived from HEK293T cells.

J Extracell Vesicles 2017 6;6(1):1324730. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are under evaluation as therapeutics or as vehicles for drug delivery. Preclinical studies of EVs often use mice or other animal models to assess efficacy and disposition. However, as most EVs under evaluation are derived from human cells, they may elicit immune responses which may contribute to toxicities or enhanced EV clearance. Furthermore, EVs from different cell sources or EVs comprising various cargo may differ with respect to immunogenicity or toxicity. To assess EV-induced immune response and toxicity, we dosed C57BL/6 mice with EVs intravenously and intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. EVs were harvested from wild type or engineered HEK293T cells which were modified to produce EVs loaded with miR-199a-3p and chimeric proteins. Blood was collected to assess hematology, blood chemistry, and immune markers. Spleen cells were immunophenotyped, and tissues were harvested for gross necropsy and histopathological examination. No signs of toxicity were observed, and minimal evidence of changes in immune markers were noted in mice dosed with engineered, but not with wild type EVs. This study provides a framework for assessment of immunogenicity and toxicity that will be required as EVs from varying cell sources are tested within numerous animal models and eventually in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20013078.2017.1324730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5505007PMC
June 2017

Preclinical Pharmacokinetics Study of R- and S-Enantiomers of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, AR-42 (NSC 731438), in Rodents.

AAPS J 2016 05 4;18(3):737-45. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, 500 W. 12th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA.

AR-42, a new orally bioavailable, potent, hydroxamate-tethered phenylbutyrate class I/IIB histone deacetylase inhibitor currently is under evaluation in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials and has demonstrated activity in both hematologic and solid tumor malignancies. This report focuses on the preclinical characterization of the pharmacokinetics of AR-42 in mice and rats. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay has been developed and applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the more active stereoisomer, S-AR-42, when administered via intravenous and oral routes in rodents, including plasma, bone marrow, and spleen pharmacokinetics (PK) in CD2F1 mice and plasma PK in F344 rats. Oral bioavailability was estimated to be 26 and 100% in mice and rats, respectively. R-AR-42 was also evaluated intravenously in rats and was shown to display different pharmacokinetics with a much shorter terminal half-life compared to that of S-AR-42. Renal clearance was a minor elimination pathway for parental S-AR-42. Oral administration of S-AR-42 to tumor-bearing mice demonstrated high uptake and exposure of the parent drug in the lymphoid tissues, spleen, and bone marrow. This is the first report of the pharmacokinetics of this novel agent, which is now in early phase clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-016-9876-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5256597PMC
May 2016

A phase I pharmacodynamic study of GTI-2040, an antisense oligonucleotide against ribonuclotide reductase, in acute leukemias: a California Cancer Consortium study.

Leuk Lymphoma 2016 10 19;57(10):2307-14. Epub 2016 Feb 19.

a City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center , Duarte , CA , USA ;

We performed a phase I study of GTI-2040, an antisense oligonucleotide against ribonucleotide reductase mRNA, on a novel dosing schedule of days 1-4 and 15-18 by continuous infusion to examine efficacy and tolerability in patients with leukemia. A dose of 11 mg/kg/d was safely reached. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) at the higher levels included elevated troponin I and liver function enzymes. There were no objective responses to GTI-2040 in this study; 7/24 patients were able to complete the predetermined three infusion cycles. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies were performed, indicating a trend towards increasing intracellular drug levels and decreasing RRM2 gene expression with increasing doses. This dose schedule may be considered if appropriate combinations are identified in preclinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2016.1146947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4969190PMC
October 2016

Phase I study of GTI-2040, a ribonucleotide reductase antisense, with high dose cytarabine in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

Leuk Lymphoma 2014 Jun 1;55(6):1332-6. Epub 2013 Nov 1.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine.

We hypothesized that GTI-2040, a 20-mer oligonucleotide complementary to the R2 subunit mRNA of ribonucleotide reductase, combined with high dose cytarabine (HiDAC) would result in enhanced cytotoxicity by favoring Ara-CTP DNA incorporation. In a phase I dose escalation trial, adults (≥ 60 years) with refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) received daily HiDAC plus infusional GTI-2040. Using a novel assay, evidence of intracellular drug accumulation and target R2 down-regulation was observed. GTI-2040/HiDAC can be administered safely. However, with no complete remissions observed, alternative doses and schedules may need to be investigated to achieve clinical activity in older patients with AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2013.838764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4298748PMC
June 2014

Serum levels of intravitreal bevacizumab after vitrectomy, lensectomy and non-surgical controls.

Curr Eye Res 2013 Jul 2;38(7):761-6. Epub 2013 Apr 2.

Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Science, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA .

Purpose: To determine serum level differences of intravitreally-placed bevacizumab after vitrectomy and lensectomy-vitrectomy and to compare these with non-operated eyes in a rabbit model.

Methods: Five Dutch-belted rabbits underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), five rabbits underwent pars plana lensectomy (PPL) and five rabbits served as non-surgical controls. Twelve days following the surgical procedures, each operated eye underwent an intravitreal injection consisting of 1.25 mg/0.05 mL bevacizumab. Serum levels from each rabbit were drawn on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 and 35 and were measured with ELISA immunoassay.

Results: The average peak serum concentration (Cmax) was highest for the PPL group (11.33 μg ± 3.48 mL), and was similar between the PPV (5.35 μg ± 2.69 mL) and non-surgical control groups (5.35 μg ± 0.69 mL). The average time to maximal plasma concentration (Tmax) in days was earliest for the PPL group (2.8 ± 0.47), followed by the PPV (5.6 ± 0.84) and non-surgical control groups (6.4 ± 0.71). The PPL group had higher serum levels than the other two groups until day 7 that was significant only at day 2 (p < 0.0001). After day 4, there were no significant differences or trends between any of the three groups. The half-life (T1/2) was fastest for the PPL group (1.41 ± 0.21 d) followed by the PPV (2.80 ± 3.35 d) and non-surgical control groups (6.69 ± 10.4 d).

Conclusions: Serum bevacizumab levels were initially elevated following lensectomy and vitrectomy compared to non-surgical eyes following intravitreal injection. The half-life of bevacizumab was prolonged in non-surgical eyes presumably due to a slower release from the vitreous cavity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02713683.2013.763988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3886184PMC
July 2013

Curcumin down-regulates DNA methyltransferase 1 and plays an anti-leukemic role in acute myeloid leukemia.

PLoS One 2013 13;8(2):e55934. Epub 2013 Feb 13.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

Bioactive components from dietary supplements such as curcumin may represent attractive agents for cancer prevention or treatment. DNA methylation plays a critical role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) development, and presents an excellent target for treatment of this disease. However, it remains largely unknown how curcumin, a component of the popular Indian spice turmeric, plays a role in DNA hypomethylation to reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes and to present a potential treatment option for AML. Here we show that curcumin down-regulates DNMT1 expression in AML cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo, and in primary AML cells ex vivo. Mechanistically, curcumin reduced the expression of positive regulators of DNMT1, p65 and Sp1, which correlated with a reduction in binding of these transcription factors to the DNMT1 promoter in AML cell lines. This curcumin-mediated down-regulation of DNMT1 expression was concomitant with p15(INK4B) tumor suppressor gene reactivation, hypomethylation of the p15(INK4B) promoter, G1 cell cycle arrest, and induction of tumor cell apoptosis in vitro. In mice implanted with the human AML MV4-11 cell line, administration of curcumin resulted in remarkable suppression of AML tumor growth. Collectively, our data indicate that curcumin shows promise as a potential treatment for AML, and our findings provide a basis for future studies to test the clinical efficacy of curcumin - whether used as a single agent or as an adjuvant - for AML treatment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0055934PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3572185PMC
August 2013

Reactivation of RASSF1A in breast cancer cells by curcumin.

Nutr Cancer 2012 12;64(8):1228-35. Epub 2012 Nov 12.

College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

Reactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) involved in carcinogenesis by nontoxic bioactive food component represents a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention. Recently, curcumin has been demonstrated to inhibit a bacterial DNA methyltransferase (M. Sss I) activity, induce global DNA hypomethylation in leukemia cells, and reactivate several hypermethylation silenced genes in lung and prostate cancer cells. Herein, we demonstrated that curcumin can enhance the mRNA and protein levels of ras-association domain family protein 1A (RASSF1A), 1 hypermethylation-silenced TSG, and decrease its promoter methylation in breast cancer cells. Mechanistic study demonstrated that curcumin can decrease DNA methylation activity of nuclear extract and downregulate the mRNA and protein levels of DNMT1 in MCF-7 cells, which may be associated with curcumin-induced disruption of NF-κB/Sp1 complex bound to the promoter region of DNMT1. Altogether, this study reveals a novel molecular mechanism of curcumin as a chemo-preventive agent for breast cancer through hypomethylation reactivation of RASSF1A.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5082258PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2012.717682DOI Listing
May 2013

Determination of cellular uptake and intracellular levels of Cenersen (Aezea(®), EL625), a p53 antisense oligonucleotide in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2012 Dec 19;71:228-32. Epub 2012 Aug 19.

Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

TP53 encodes for tumor protein p53. The suppression of p53 protein results in interruption of DNA repair mechanisms in dividing malignant cells thereby increasing the DNA damage and activating p53-independent mechanisms of apoptosis. This ultimately may translate into enhanced cytotoxic effects of standard chemotherapy. Based on this rationale, Cenersen, a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide antisense to p53-mRNA was synthesized and tested in clinical trials for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). An important component of Cenersen clinical development is to develop a sensitive and specific method to quantify plasma and intracellular levels of Cenersen in different biologic matrices in order to determine tissue and intracellular distribution of the parent compound and its metabolites. Ultimately, this will allow us to determine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship for dose-effect correlation and design effective regimen to be rapidly translate into the clinic. An ELISA-based assay was adapted for assay development and validation of Cenersen in mouse plasma and cell lysate. Cellular uptake of Cenersen was studied in MV4-11 and KASUMI-1 AML cell lines. Real-time RT-PCR was used to measure P53-mRNA expression changes in treated cells. The assay had a limit of quantification of 35pmol/L in mouse plasma. Within-day and between-day precision of <15% and accuracy nearly 100% were observed in a linear range of 10-2000pmol/L (R(2)=0.99) in AML cell lysate. The selectivity of this assay examined as cross-reactivity with its 3'N-1, 3'N-2-metabolites, was 16.8% and 0.4%, respectively, and with its mismatch and the scramble oligonucleotides was 0.06% and 0.4%, respectively. Cenersen was stable in mouse plasma up to 8h at 37°C. When exposed to 0.1-1μmol/L Cenersen, MV4-11 and KASUMI-1 cells showed intracellular concentration in the range of 9.97-45.34nmol/mg protein and 0.1-2.1nmol/mg protein, respectively. Successful downregulation of p53-mRNA expression was observed in Cenersen treated cells. This ELISA-based assay was applicable to plasma and intracellular concentration measurement of Cenersen. Assessment of achievable concentration of Cenersen in different biologic matrices will be useful to elucidate the biological and clinical activity of this promising drug and define its recommended dose in future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2012.08.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201859PMC
December 2012

Triphala and its active constituent chebulinic acid are natural inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor-a mediated angiogenesis.

PLoS One 2012 24;7(8):e43934. Epub 2012 Aug 24.

Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

Triphala churna (THL) is a combination of three fruits that has been used for many years in India for the treatment of various diseases. There are now reports which indicate that THL can inhibit growth of malignant tumors in animals. However, the mechanisms by which THL mediates its anti-tumor actions are still being explored. Because vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) induced angiogenesis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cancer, we therefore investigated whether tumor inhibitory effects of THL or its active constituents are through suppression of VEGF actions. We herein report that THL and chebulinic (CI) present in THL can significantly and specifically inhibit VEGF induced angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) phosphorylation. These results are of clinical significance as these inexpensive and non-toxic natural products can be used for the prevention and treatment of diseases where VEGF induced angiogenesis has an important role.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0043934PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3427174PMC
February 2013

Synthetic microRNA cassette dosing: pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and bioactivity.

Mol Pharm 2012 Jun 23;9(6):1638-44. Epub 2012 May 23.

Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210,United States.

MicroRNAs (miRs) are deregulated in cancer and leukemia. Restoring aberrantly downregulated tumor suppressor miRs or antagonizing overexpressed oncogenic miRs in malignant cells by synthetic RNA oligonucleotides represents a potentially novel therapeutic approach in cancer and leukemia. However, given the complex networking and concurrent deregulation of miRs in malignant cells, an effective approach may require concurrent targeting of multiple miRs. Cassette dosing involves simultaneous administration of a mixture of oligonucleotides from the same or different structural classes. However, information on cassette dosing pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and bioactivity of synthetic miRs is lacking. In this study, three synthetic 2'-methoxyphosphorothioate-miRs (2'-MeOPSmiR16-1, 2'-MeOPSmiR29b and 2'-MeOPSantagomiR155) were administered iv to C57BL/6 mice as a mixture, each at 7.5 mg/kg. Analysis of concentrations of individual miR in plasma and major organ tissues (bone marrow, spleen, liver, brain, heart, kidney and lung) was performed. The mRNA and protein levels of miR's biotargets were monitored sequentially after dosing up to 24 h. Our results demonstrated that these synthetic miRs retain their different individual pharmacokinetic properties and all display three-compartmental pharmacokinetics. 2'-MeOPSmiR16-1 has the longest plasma gamma half-life of 2508 min and lowest total body clearance of 0.0054 L/min·kg, whereas 2'-MeOPSmiR29b has the shortest gamma half-life of 510.6 min and highest total body clearance of 0.042 L/min·kg. The tissue concentrations of all three 2'-MeOPS-modified miR(s)/antagomiR were measurable from 5 min to at least 24 h after dosing, indicating that these concurrently delivered oligonucleotides can reach organ tissues. Importantly, there were biological activities of the concurrently administered miRs which persisted, as shown by the downregulation of specific targets in tested tissues, albeit with variations. Brain was one of the most sensitive tissues with respect to downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of four measured biotargets (e.g., Bcl-2, Mcl-1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b) despite its relatively low miR/antagomiRs levels. We conclude that cassette dosing is applicable to 2'-MeOPS-modified synthetic miRs that are tissue-deliverable and biofunctional without any additional formulation requirement. This study supports future exploration of miR-involved combination therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mp2006483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3977775PMC
June 2012

RNA-dependent inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase is a major pathway for 5-azacytidine activity in acute myeloid leukemia.

Blood 2012 May 19;119(22):5229-38. Epub 2012 Apr 19.

Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

5-Azacytidine (5-azaC) is an azanucleoside approved for myelodysplastic syndrome. Approximately 80%-90% of 5-azaC is believed to be incorporated into RNA, which disrupts nucleic acid and protein metabolism leading to apoptosis. A smaller fraction (10%-20%) of 5-azaC inhibits DNA methylation and synthesis through conversion to decitabine triphosphate and subsequent DNA incorporation. However, its precise mechanism of action remains unclear. Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is a highly regulated enzyme comprising 2 subunits, RRM1 and RRM2, that provides the deoxyribonucleotides required for DNA synthesis/repair. In the present study, we found for the first time that 5-azaC is a potent inhibitor of RRM2 in leukemia cell lines, in a mouse model, and in BM mononuclear cells from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. 5-azaC-induced RRM2 gene expression inhibition involves its direct RNA incorporation and an attenuated RRM2 mRNA stability. Therefore, 5-azaC causes a major perturbation of deoxyribonucleotide pools. We also demonstrate herein that the initial RR-mediated 5-azaC conversion to decitabine is terminated through its own inhibition. In conclusion, we identify RRM2 as a novel molecular target of 5-azaC in AML. Our findings provide a basis for its more widespread clinical use either alone or in combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011-11-382226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3369613PMC
May 2012

Biochemical modulation of aracytidine (Ara-C) effects by GTI-2040, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, in K562 human leukemia cells.

AAPS J 2011 Mar 30;13(1):131-40. Epub 2010 Dec 30.

College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

GTI-2040 is a potent antisense to the M2 subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), an enzyme involved in the de novo synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates. We hypothesized that combination of GTI-2040 with the cytarabine (Ara-C) could result in an enhanced cytotoxic effect with perturbed intracellular deoxynucleotide/nucleotide (dNTP/NTP) pools including Ara-C triphosphate (Ara-CTP). This study aims to provide a direct experimental support of this hypothesis by monitoring the biochemical modulation effects, intracellular levels of Ara-CTP, dNTPs/NTPs following the combination treatment of Ara-C, and GTI-2040 in K562 human leukemia cells. GTI-2040 was introduced into cells via electroporation. A hybridization-ligation ELISA was used to quantify intracellular GTI-2040 concentrations. Real-time PCR and Western blot methods were used to measure the RNR M2 mRNA and protein levels, respectively. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt assay was used to measure the cytotoxicity following various drug treatments. A non-radioactive HPLC-UV method was used for measuring the intracellular Ara-CTP, while a LC-MS/MS method was used to quantify intracellular dNTP/NTP pools. GTI-2040 was found to downregulate M2 mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner and showed significant decrease in dNTP but not NTP pool. When combining GTI-2040 with Ara-C, a synergistic cytotoxicity was observed with no further change in dNTP/NTP pools. Importantly, pretreatment of K562 cells with GTI-2040 was found to increase Ara-CTP level for the first time, and this effect may be due to inhibition of RNR by GTI-2040. This finding provides a laboratory justification for the current phase I/II evaluation of GTI-2040 in combination with Ara-C in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-010-9246-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3032096PMC
March 2011

A novel ultrasensitive hybridization-based ELISA method for 2-methoxyphosphorothiolate microRNAs and its in vitro and in vivo application.

AAPS J 2010 Dec 13;12(4):556-68. Epub 2010 Jul 13.

The Ohio State University, Columbus, 43210, USA.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small non-coding RNAs that bind to target mRNAs and regulate their expression. Recent evidence has indicated the involvement of miRNAs in human malignancies. It has been suggested that aberrantly down-regulated or up-regulated miRNAs may be replaced with synthetic miRNAs or antagomiRNAs, respectively, and restore normal cell functions. As therapeutic development requires analytical support, we developed and validated an ultrasensitive and selective assay for quantification of synthetic 2'-methoxyphosphorothiolate-miRNA in mouse plasma and cell lysate for the first time. The method is based on a hybridization-ligation fluorescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and has provided a linear dynamic range of 10-1,000,000 pM for three synthetic miRNAs both singly and in a mixture. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were <20% and the accuracy values nearly 100%. Using this assay, we performed pharmacokinetic studies of three synthetic miRNAs in mice treated with a single i.v. bolus dose of 7.5 mg kg⁻¹. The 2-methoxyphosphorothiolate-miRNAs reached peak concentrations in the μM and nM ranges in plasma and bone marrow, respectively, and remained measurable at 24 h. These concentrations are in a range that shows biological activities. We conclude that this method provides a general and valuable tool for the pharmacologic study and clinical development of synthetic miRNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-010-9214-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2976995PMC
December 2010

Phase I trial of low dose decitabine targeting DNA hypermethylation in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: dose-limiting myelosuppression without evidence of DNA hypomethylation.

Br J Haematol 2010 Jul 29;150(2):189-95. Epub 2010 Apr 29.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Arthur G. James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Targeting aberrant DNA hypermethylation in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with decitabine may reverse epigenetic silencing in B-cell malignancies. Twenty patients were enrolled in two phase I trials to determine the minimum effective pharmacological dose of decitabine in patients with relapsed/refractory CLL (n = 16) and NHL (n = 4). Patients received 1-3 cycles of decitabine. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed in 2 of 4 CLL and 2 of 2 NHL patients receiving decitabine at 15 mg/m(2) per d days 1-10, consisting of grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia and hyperbilirubinaemia. Six patients with CLL received decitabine at 10 mg/m(2) per d days 1-10 without DLT; however, re-expression of methylated genes or changes in global DNA methylation were not observed. Therefore, a 5-day decitabine schedule was examined. With 15 mg/m(2) per d decitabine days 1-5, DLT occurred in 2 of 6 CLL and 2 of 2 NHL patients, consisting of grade 3-4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and febrile neutropenia. Eight patients had stable disease. In 17 patients, there were no significant changes in genome-wide methylation or in target gene re-expression. In conclusion, dose-limiting myelosuppression and infectious complications prevented dose escalation of decitabine to levels associated with changes in global methylation or gene re-expression in CLL and NHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2010.08213.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917115PMC
July 2010

Quantification of regional DNA methylation by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

Anal Biochem 2009 Aug 12;391(2):106-13. Epub 2009 May 12.

College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Promoter hypermethylation-associated tumor suppressor gene (TSG) silencing has been explored as a therapeutic target for hypomethylating agents. Promoter methylation change may serve as a pharmacodynamic endpoint for evaluation of the efficacy of these agents and predict the patient's clinical response. Here a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay has been developed for quantitative regional DNA methylation analysis using the molar ratio of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC) to 2'-deoxycytidine (2dC) in the enzymatic hydrolysate of fully methylated bisulfite-converted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons as the methylation indicator. The assay can differentiate 5% of promoter methylation level with an intraday precision ranging from 3 to 16% using two TSGs: HIN-1 and RASSF1A. This method was applied to characterize decitabine-induced promoter DNA methylation changes of these two TSGs in a breast cancer MCF-7 cell line. Promoter methylation of these TSGs was found to decrease in a dose-dependent manner. Correspondingly, the expression of these TSGs was enhanced. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the method make it a valuable tool for specific gene methylation analysis that could aid characterization of hypomethylating activity on specific genes by hypomethylating agents in a clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2009.05.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3939067PMC
August 2009

A LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of intracellular nucleoside triphosphate levels.

Pharm Res 2009 Jun 17;26(6):1504-15. Epub 2009 Mar 17.

College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, 500 W. 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Purpose: To simultaneously quantify intracellular nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) and deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools and to assess their changes produced by interfering with ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) expression in leukemia cells.

Methods: A HPLC-MS/MS system was used to quantify intracellular NTP and dNTP pools.

Results: The assay was linear between 50 nM, the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), and 10 muM in cell lysate. The within-day coefficients of variation (CVs, n = 5) were found to be 12.0-18.0% at the LLOQ and 3.0-9.0% between 500 and 5,000 nM for dNTPs and 8.0-15.0% and 2.0-6.0% for NTPs. The between-day CVs (n = 5) were 9.0-13.0% and 3.0-11.0% for dNTPs and 9.0-13.0% and 3.0-6.0% for NTPs. The within-day accuracy values were 93.0-119.0% for both NTPs and dNTPs. ATP overlapped with dGTP and they were analyzed as a composite. This method was applied to measure basal intracellular dNTPs/NTPs in five leukemia cell lines exposed to the RNR antisense GTI-2040. Following drug treatment, dCTP and dATP levels were found to decrease significantly in MV4-11 and K562 cells. Additionally, perturbation of dNTP/NTP levels in bone marrow sample of a patient treated with GTI-2040 was detected.

Conclusions: This method provides a practical tool to measure intracellular dNTP/NTP levels in cells and clinical samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-009-9863-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3071250PMC
June 2009

Modulation of DNA methylation by a sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2009 May 6;329(2):505-14. Epub 2009 Feb 6.

Division of Pharmaceutics, Colleges of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Hypermethylation of 5'-cytosine-guanosine islands of tumor suppressor genes resulting in their silencing has been proposed to be a hallmark of various tumors. Modulation of DNA methylation with DNA methylation inhibitors has been shown to result in cancer cell differentiation or apoptosis and represents a novel strategy for chemotherapy. Currently, effective DNA methylation inhibitors are mainly limited to decitabine and 5-azacytidine, which still show unfavorable toxicity profiles in the clinical setting. Thus, discovery and development of novel hypomethylating agents, with a more favorable toxicity profile, is essential to broaden the spectrum of epigenetic therapy. Parthenolide, the principal bioactive sesquiterpene lactone of feverfew, has been shown to alkylate Cys(38) of p65 to inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB activation and exhibit anti-tumor activity in human malignancies. In this article, we report that parthenolide 1) inhibits DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) with an IC(50) of 3.5 microM, possibly through alkylation of the proximal thiolate of Cys(1226) of the catalytic domain by its gamma-methylene lactone, and 2) down-regulates DNMT1 expression possibly associated with its SubG(1) cell-cycle arrest or the interruption of transcriptional factor Sp1 binding to the promoter of DNMT1. These dual functions of parthenolide result in the observed in vitro and in vivo global DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, parthenolide has been shown to reactivate tumor suppressor HIN-1 gene in vitro possibly associated with its promoter hypomethylation. Hence, our study established parthenolide as an effective DNA methylation inhibitor, representing a novel prototype for DNMT1 inhibitor discovery and development from natural structural-diversified sesquiterpene lactones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.108.147934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2672871PMC
May 2009

Curcumin is a potent DNA hypomethylation agent.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009 Feb 14;19(3):706-9. Epub 2008 Dec 14.

Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, 500 W. 12th St., Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Molecular docking of the interaction of curcumin and DNMT1 suggested that curcumin covalently blocks the catalytic thiolate of C1226 of DNMT1 to exert its inhibitory effect. This was validated by showing that curcumin inhibits the activity of M. SssI with an IC(50) of 30 nM, but no inhibitory activity of hexahydrocurcumin up to 100 microM. In addition, curcumin can induce global DNA hypomethylation in a leukemia cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.12.041DOI Listing
February 2009

Enzyme kinetics of GTI-2040, a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide targeting ribonucleotide reductase.

Drug Metab Dispos 2008 Nov 24;36(11):2227-33. Epub 2008 Jul 24.

Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Enzyme kinetics of GTI-2040 (5'-GGC TAA ATC GCT CCA CCA AG-3'), a phosphorothioate ribonucleotide reductase antisense, were investigated for the first time in 3' exonuclease solution and human liver microsomes (HLMs), using the ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatogram method for quantification of the parent drug and two major 3'N-1 and 3'N-2 metabolites. Enzyme kinetics of GTI-2040 in 3'-exonuclease solution were found to be well characterized by the Michaelis-Menten model, using the sum of formation rates of 3'N-1 and 3'N-2 (approximately total metabolism) because of sequential metabolism. In HLMs, a biphasic binding was observed for GTI-2040 with high- and low-affinity constants (K(d)s) of 0.03 and 3.8 microM, respectively. Enzyme kinetics of GTI-2040 in HLMs were found to deviate from Michaelis-Menten kinetics when the total GTI-2040 substrate was used. However, after correction for the unbound fractions, the formation rate of total metabolites could be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Using the free substrate fraction, the K(m) and V(max) of GTI-2040 were determined to be 6.33 +/- 3.2 microM and 16.5 +/- 8.4 nmol/mg/h, respectively. Using these values, in vitro hepatic intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) in HLM was estimated to be 2.61 +/- 0.56 ml/h. The CL(int) was then used to predict GTI-2040's in vivo intrinsic clearance in humans by a microsomal protein scaling factor, which gave a mean value of 182.7 l/h, representing 24.1% of the observed in vivo mean scaled hepatic intrinsic clearance of 758.7 l/h in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. We concluded that the saturable nonspecific binding of GTI-2040 in HLMs complicated the interpretation of its enzyme kinetics, and scaled intrinsic clearance from HLMs only partially predicted the in vivo intrinsic clearance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.108.021295DOI Listing
November 2008

Phase I study of GTI-2040, an antisense to ribonucleotide reductase, in combination with high-dose cytarabine in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Clin Cancer Res 2008 Jun;14(12):3889-95

Division of Hematology and Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Purpose: Inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase reduces the availability of the endogenous pool of deoxycytidine and may increase cytarabine (AraC) cytotoxicity. We performed a phase I dose escalation trial of AraC combined with GTI-2040, a 20-mer antisense oligonucleotide shown in preclinical studies to decrease levels of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, to determine the maximum tolerated dose in adults with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

Experimental Design: Twenty-three adults (ages 18-59 years) were enrolled in this dose escalation phase I trial, receiving high-dose AraC twice daily combined with infusional GTI-2040. An ELISA-based assay measured plasma and intracellular concentrations of GTI-2040. R2 protein changes were evaluated by immunoblotting in pretreatment and post-treatment bone marrow samples.

Results: The maximum tolerated dose was 5 mg/kg/d GTI-2040 (days 1-6) and 3 g/m2/dose AraC every 12 hours for 8 doses. Neurotoxicity was dose limiting. Eight patients (35%) achieved complete remission. Mean bone marrow intracellular concentration of GTI-2040 were higher at 120 hours than at 24 hours from the start of GTI-2040 (P = 0.002), suggesting intracellular drug accumulation over time. Reductions in bone marrow levels of R2 protein (>50%) were observed at 24 and 120 hours. Higher baseline R2 protein expression (P = 0.03) and reductions after 24 hours of GTI-2040 (P = 0.04) were associated with complete remission.

Conclusions: GTI-2040 and high-dose AraC were coadministered safely with successful reduction of the intended R2 target and encouraging clinical results. The clinical efficacy of this combination will be tested in an upcoming phase II study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-0109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2993318PMC
June 2008

Bortezomib induces DNA hypomethylation and silenced gene transcription by interfering with Sp1/NF-kappaB-dependent DNA methyltransferase activity in acute myeloid leukemia.

Blood 2008 Feb 14;111(4):2364-73. Epub 2007 Dec 14.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Bortezomib reversibly inhibits 26S proteasomal degradation, interferes with NF-kappaB, and exhibits antitumor activity in human malignancies. Zinc finger protein Sp1 transactivates DNMT1 gene in mice and is functionally regulated through protein abundance, posttranslational modifications (ie, ubiquitination), or interaction with other transcription factors (ie, NF-kappaB). We hypothesize that inhibition of proteasomal degradation and Sp1/NF-kappaB-mediated transactivation may impair aberrant DNA methyltransferase activity. We show here that, in addition to inducing accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and abolishment of NF-kappaB activities, bortezomib decreases Sp1 protein levels, disrupts the physical interaction of Sp1/NF-kappaB, and prevents binding of the Sp1/NF-kappaB complex to the DNMT1 gene promoter. Abrogation of Sp1/NF-kappaB complex by bortezomib causes transcriptional repression of DNMT1 gene and down-regulation of DNMT1 protein, which in turn induces global DNA hypomethylation in vitro and in vivo and re-expression of epigenetically silenced genes in human cancer cells. The involvement of Sp1/NF-kappaB in DNMT1 regulation is further demonstrated by the observation that Sp1 knockdown using mithramycin A or shRNA decreases DNMT1 protein levels, which instead are increased by Sp1 or NF-kappaB overexpression. Our results unveil the Sp1/NF-kappaB pathway as a modulator of DNA methyltransferase activity in human cancer and identify bortezomib as a novel epigenetic-targeting drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2007-08-110171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2234064PMC
February 2008

A liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry quantitation method for nevirapine and its two oxidative metabolites, 2-hydroxynevirapine and nevirapine 4-carboxylic acid, and pharmacokinetics in baboons.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2007 ;21(16):2734-42

College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

A rapid highly sensitive and specific electrospray ionization (ESI) liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for quantification of nevirapine (NVP) and its two metabolites, 2-hydroxynevirapine (2-OHNVP) and nevirapine 4-carboxylic acid (4-CANVP), in baboon serum was developed and validated. Nevirapine, 2-OHNVP, 4-CANVP, and the internal standard, hesperetin, were extracted from baboon serum with ethyl acetate. Components in the extract were separated on a 50 x 2.1 mm Aquasil C(18) 5 microm stainless steel column by isocratic elution with 40% acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The liquid flow was passed through a pre-source splitter and 5% of the eluant was introduced into the atmospheric pressure ionization (API) source. The components were analyzed in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode as the precursor/product ion pair of m/z 267.2/226.2 for NVP, 283.0/161.2 for 2-OHNVP, 297.2/279.2 for 4-CANVP, and 303.2/177.2 for hesperetin. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 1-1000 ng/mL for NVP and 2-OHNVP and 5-1000 ng/mL for 4-CANVP, using 0.2 mL baboon serum, respectively. The within-day and between-day precisions were <10% for NVP and 2-OHNVP, and <11.5% for 4-CANVP. Due to the similar structures and fragmentation patterns of 2-OHNVP and 3-OHNVP, it is not expected that the LC/MS/MS can differentiate 2-OHNVP and 3-OHNVP and they were assayed as a composite. The method was applied to a single-dose escalation study of NVP in non-pregnant baboons (Papio anubis) to characterize the pharmacokinetics of NVP, 2-OHNVP plus 3-OHNVP, and 4-CANVP, and to determine the appropriate dose necessary to achieve comparable peak serum concentration of NVP as reported in healthy human adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.3136DOI Listing
September 2007

Metabolism of GTI-2040, a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide antisense, using ion-pair reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry.

AAPS J 2006 ;8(4):E743-55

Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

GTI-2040 is a 20-mer phosphorothioate oligonucleotide, which is complementary to the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. This study characterized both the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of GTI-2040. A highly specific ion-pair reversed-phase electrospray ionization (IP-RP-ESI) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was used for the identification of GTI-2040 and metabolites from a variety of biological samples including exonuclease enzyme solutions, plasma, urine, mouse liver/kidney homogenates, and human liver microsomes. Progressively chain-shortened metabolites truncated from the 3' terminal of GTI-2040 were detected in all of the evaluated biological samples. GTI-2040 was found to be a good substrate for 3' but not 5' exonuclease. While the pattern of n-1 chain-shortened 3'-exonucleolytic degradation was similar in the mouse liver and kidney homogenates, the latter was found to contain a larger number of shortenmers, the kidneys appeared to possess higher enzymatic reactivity toward GTI-2040. Thus, metabolism of GTI-2040 was found to occur in a variety of biological samples, mainly mediated by the 3' exonuclease.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2751371PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/aapsj080484DOI Listing
March 2007

Characterization of in vitro and in vivo hypomethylating effects of decitabine in acute myeloid leukemia by a rapid, specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method.

Nucleic Acids Res 2007 30;35(5):e31. Epub 2007 Jan 30.

College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

DNA hypermethylation is a common finding in malignant cells and has been explored as a therapeutic target for hypomethylating agents (e.g., decitabine). Detection of changes in DNA methylation might serve as a pharmacodynamic endpoint to establish the biological activity of these agents and predict clinical response. We developed and validated a rapid, sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for determination of global DNA methylation (GDM) in vitro and in vivo. Ratios of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC) to the internal standard 2-deoxyguanosine (2dG) in mass signal were used to quantify GDM levels. The assay was validated in a linear range from 40 fmol to 200 pmol 5mdC. The intra-day precision values ranged from 2.8 to 9.9% and the inter-day values from 1.1 to 15.0%. The accuracy of the assay varied between 96.7 and 109.5%. This method was initially applied for characterization of decitabine-induced GDM changes in in-vitro-treated leukemia cells. Following exposure to 2.5 microM decitabine, GDM decreased to approximately 50% of the baseline value. The clinical applicability of this method was then demonstrated in bone marrow samples from patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with decitabine. Our data support the use of our LC-MS/MS method for clinical pharmacodynamic determination of changes in GDM in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkl1156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1865075PMC
April 2007

Chronic wasting disease of elk and deer and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: comparative analysis of the scrapie prion protein.

J Biol Chem 2006 Feb 7;281(7):4199-206. Epub 2005 Dec 7.

Institute of Pathology and National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible prion disease that affects elk and deer, poses new challenges to animal and human health. Although the transmission of CWD to humans has not been proven, it remains a possibility. If this were to occur, it is important to know whether the "acquired" human prion disease would show a phenotype including the scrapie prion protein (PrP(Sc)) features that differ from those associated with human sporadic prion disease. In this study, we have compared the pathological profiles and PrP(Sc) characteristics in brains of CWD-affected elk and deer with those in subjects with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), as well as CJD-affected subjects who might have been exposed to CWD, using histopathology, immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, conformation stability assay, and N-terminal protein sequencing. Spongiform changes and intense PrP(Sc) staining were present in several brain regions of CWD-affected animals. Immunoblotting revealed three proteinase K (PK)-resistant bands in CWD, representing different glycoforms of PrP(Sc). The unglycosylated PK-resistant PrP(Sc) of CWD migrated at 21 kDa with an electrophoretic mobility similar to that of type 1 human PrP(Sc) present in sporadic CJD affecting subjects homozygous for methionine at codon 129 (sCJDMM1). N-terminal sequencing showed that the PK cleavage site of PrP(Sc) in CWD occurred at residues 82 and 78, similar to that of PrP(Sc) in sCJDMM1. Conformation stability assay also showed no significant difference between elk CWD PrP(Sc) and the PrP(Sc) species associated with sCJDMM1. However, there was a major difference in glycoform ratio of PrP(Sc) between CWD and sCJDMM1 affecting both subjects potentially exposed to CWD and non-exposed subjects. Moreover, PrP(Sc) of CWD exhibited a distinct constellation of glycoforms distinguishable from that of sCJDMM1 in two-dimensional immunoblots. These findings underline the importance of detailed PrP(Sc) characterization in trying to detect novel forms of acquired prion disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M509052200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4484765PMC
February 2006

Sensitive detection of prion protein in human urine.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2005 May;230(5):343-9

BioTech Global, 22-40 Brentwood Avenue, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a group of infectious diseases typically associated with the accumulation of a protease-resistant and beta-sheet-rich prion protein, PrPSc, in affected brains. PrPSc is an altered isoform derived from the host-encoded glycoprotein, PrPC. The expression of PrPC is the highest in brain tissue, but it can also be detected at low levels in peripheral tissue. However, it is unclear whether a significant amount of PrPC is released into body fluid and excreted into urine. We have developed a simple, rapid method for the reliable detection of PrPC in urine from normal subjects by Western blotting. Our method can easily and reliably detect PrPC in apparently healthy individuals using less than 1 ml of urine in which the amount of urinary PrPC is estimated to be in the range of low micrograms/liter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/153537020523000508DOI Listing
May 2005