Publications by authors named "Zhihui Zhao"

251 Publications

Extreme Climate Shocks and Green Agricultural Development: Evidence from the 2008 Snow Disaster in China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 11 17;18(22). Epub 2021 Nov 17.

School of Economics and Management, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.

Extreme climate shocks cause agricultural yield reductions and increase long-term climate risk, altering farmers' long-term production decisions and affecting green agricultural development (GAD). We take the 2008 snow disaster in China as an extreme climate shock, calculate the GAD index by the entropy weighting method, and use the difference-in-difference method to study the extreme climate shock's impact on GAD. The results show that: (1) Extreme climate shocks are detrimental to GAD, with the snow disaster decreasing China's GAD level by 3.07%. (2) The impacts of extreme climate shocks are heterogeneous across climate and economic zones, with greater impact in humid and developed regions. (3) Extreme climate shocks affect GAD mainly by reducing farmers' willingness to cultivate, and increasing energy consumption, fertilizer, and pesticide input. (4) Extreme climate shocks do not reduce agricultural yields in the long run. Still, they reduce the total value of agricultural production and decrease the quality of agricultural products expressed in terms of unit value. The findings of this study have policy implications for developing countries in coping with extreme climate shocks and promoting GAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8621866PMC
November 2021

Comprehensive Analysis of miRNAs and Target mRNAs between Immature and Mature Testis Tissue in Chinese Red Steppes Cattle.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Oct 21;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 21.

College of Coastal Agricultural College, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China.

This study aims to screen potential regulators and regulate fecundity networks between microRNAs (miRNAs) and target genes. The bovine testes of immature and mature Chinese Red Steppes were performed by genome-wide analysis of mRNAs and miRNAs. Compared with testicular tissues of newborns, 6051 upregulated genes and 7104 downregulated genes in adult cattle were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The DEGs were significantly enriched in 808 GO terms ( < 0.05) including male gonad development, male genitalia development, spermatogenesis, and sperm motility. Moreover, DEGs were also significantly enriched in 105 KEGG pathways ( < 0.05), including cGMP-PKG signaling pathway and calcium signaling pathway. To explore the expression of miRNA-regulated gene expression, 896 differentially expressed target genes negatively regulated with the expression levels of 31 differentially expressed miRNAs (DERs) were predicted and analyzed, and a network-integrated analysis was constructed. Furthermore, real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression levels of DEGs and DERs. Our results identified novel candidate DEGs and DERs correlated with male reproduction and intricate regulating networks between miRNAs and genes, which will be valuable for future genetic and epigenetic studies of sperm development and maturity, as well as providing valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of male fertility and spermatogenesis in cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11113024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8614260PMC
October 2021

Assessment of Human Exposure to Five Mycotoxins in China by Biomonitoring Approach.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Oct 28;13(11). Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Key Laboratory of Protected Horticultural Technology, Institute for Agro-Food Standards and Testing Technology, Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201403, China.

This biomonitoring study was conducted to investigate the concentration levels of five mycotoxins in urine samples from 269 healthy volunteers living in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA) and tentoxin (TEN) were detected in 38.3%, 48.7%, 63.9% and 23.4% of urine samples with the concentrations ranging from 0.057 to 45.8 ng/mL, 0.020 to 0.802 ng/mL, 0.050 to 80.6 ng/mL and 0.021 to 0.939 ng/mL, respectively. Altenuene (ALT) was not detected in any urine sample. Based on the urinary concentrations, the probable daily intake (PDI) values of mycotoxins were calculated, and 100%, 99.2-100%, 0.372% and 1.12% of participants exceeded the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) values for AOH, AME, TeA and TEN, respectively. This study revealed high potential health risks related to the contaminations of major mycotoxins in China and highlighted the necessity for more toxicological studies to provide better basis for further comprehensive risk assessments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13110762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8625692PMC
October 2021

Impact of the revised hemodynamic definition on the diagnosis of precapillary pulmonary hypertension: a retrospective single-center study in China.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Oct;11(5):1047-1057

Center for Pulmonary Vascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: In the 6 World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension (PH), the hemodynamic definition of PH was reduced from a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥25 to >20 mmHg. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the revised hemodynamic definition on the diagnosis of precapillary PH.

Methods: We retrospectively enrolled patients who underwent right heart catheterization from January 2012 to December 2018. All included patients were reassessed according to the revised hemodynamic definition.

Results: A total of 1,251 patients were included for analysis, of whom 1,044 patients had precapillary PH and 182 patients had mPAP <25 mmHg. After applying the revised definition, 33 (18.1%) of 182 patients with mPAP <25 mmHg were reclassified as having PH. However, only 7 of these 33 patients had a pulmonary vascular resistance ≥3 wood units and could be considered to have precapillary PH, accounting for 0.7% of the existing precapillary PH population. More importantly, 12 patients with mPAP ≥25 mmHg were delisted from precapillary PH for pulmonary vascular resistance <3 wood units (5 patients from Group III, 4 patients from Group IV, 3 patients from Group V). Overall, there was a net 0.5% decrease [(12-7)/1044×100%] in the population with precapillary PH.

Conclusions: The revised hemodynamic definition had a minor impact on the diagnosis of precapillary PH. It should be noted that the revised definition would influence not only patients with mPAP =21-24 mmHg, but also patients with mPAP ≥25 mmHg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cdt-21-373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8569274PMC
October 2021

The clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary hypertension combined with obstructive sleep apnoea.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Nov 21;21(1):378. Epub 2021 Nov 21.

Center for Pulmonary Vascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 167 BeiLiShi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100037, China.

Objective: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is one cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and can also emerge along with PH. The clinical diagnosis and treatment of OSA in patients with PH are still controversial. The purpose of this clinical observation study was to observe and summarize the incidence and clinical characteristics of OSA in patients with PH and to explore possible predictors of PH combined with OSA.

Methods: Patients with PH diagnosed by right heart catheterization who underwent overnight cardiorespiratory monitoring from December 2018 to December 2020 were enrolled. OSA was defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index of ≥ 5/h with ≥ 50% of apnoeic events being obstructive. Baseline clinical characteristics and parameters were collected to compare PH patients with and without OSA. Logistic regression analysis was run to determine the risk factors for OSA in PH patients.

Results: A total of 35 (25%) of 140 patients had OSA. OSA is relatively frequent in patients with PH, especially in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and patients with lung disease- or hypoxia-associated PH. The patients who had OSA were mostly male and had a higher age and a lower daytime arterial oxygen pressure. Logistic regression analysis found that older age, male sex, and lower daytime arterial blood oxygen pressure correlated with OSA in PH patients.

Conclusion: OSA is common in patients with PH. Lower daytime arterial oxygen pressure is a risk factor for OSA in older male patients with PH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-021-01755-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8607599PMC
November 2021

The regulation of cell wall lignification and lignin biosynthesis during pigmentation of winter jujube.

Hortic Res 2021 Nov 1;8(1):238. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Shandong Institute of Pomology, Tai'an, Shandong, 271000, China.

Fruit lignification is due to lignin deposition in the cell wall during cell development. However, there are few studies on the regulation of cell wall lignification and lignin biosynthesis during fruit pigmentation. In this study, we investigated the regulation of cell wall lignification and lignin biosynthesis during pigmentation of winter jujube. The cellulose content decreased, while the lignin content increased in the winter jujube pericarp during pigmentation. Safranin O-fast green staining showed that the cellulose content was higher in the cell wall of winter jujube prior to pigmentation, whereas the lignin in the cell wall increased after pigmentation. The thickness of the epidermal cells decreased with pericarp pigmentation. A combined metabolomics and transcriptomics analysis showed that guaiacyl-syringyl (G-S) lignin was the main lignin type in the pericarp of winter jujube, and F5H (LOC107424406) and CCR (LOC107420974) were preliminarily identified as the key genes modulating lignin biosynthesis in winter jujube. Seventeen MYB and six NAC transcription factors (TFs) with potential regulation of lignin biosynthesis were screened out based on phylogenetic analysis. Three MYB and two NAC TFs were selected as candidate genes and further studied in detail. Arabidopsis ectopic expression and winter jujube pericarp injection of the candidate genes indicated that the MYB activator (LOC107425254) and the MYB repressor (LOC107415078) control lignin biosynthesis by regulating CCR and F5H, while the NAC (LOC107435239) TF promotes F5H expression and positively regulates lignin biosynthesis. These findings revealed the lignin biosynthetic pathway and associated genes during pigmentation of winter jujube pericarp and provide a basis for further research on lignin regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00670-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8558337PMC
November 2021

Bioinformatics and Transcriptome Analysis of CFEM Proteins in .

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Oct 16;7(10). Epub 2021 Oct 16.

College of Food Science & Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China.

Fusarium blight of wheat is usually caused by , and the pathogenic fungi will secrete effectors into the host plant tissue to affect its normal physiological process, so as to make it pathogenic. The CFEM (Common in Fungal Extracellular Membrane) protein domain is unique to fungi, but it is not found in all fungi. The CFEM protein contained in may be closely related to pathogenicity. In this study, 23 FgCFEM proteins were identified from the genome. Then, features of these proteins, such as signal peptide, subcellular localization, and transmembrane domains, etc., were analyzed and candidate effectors were screened out. Sequence alignment results revealed that each FgCFEM protein contains one CFEM domain. The amino acids of the CFEM domain are highly conserved and contain eight spaced cysteines, with the exception that FgCFEM8, 9, and 15 lack two cysteines and three cysteines were missed in FgCFEM18 and FgCFEM22. A recently identified CFEM_DR motif was detected in 11 FgCFEMs, and importantly we identified two new conserved motifs containing about 29 and 18 amino acids (CFEM_WR and CFEM_KF), respectively, in some of FgCFEM proteins. Transcriptome analysis of the genes encoding CFEM proteins indicated that all the CFEM-containing genes were expressed during wheat infection, with seven and six genes significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively, compared with in planta and in vitro. Based on the above analysis, FgCFEM11 and FgCFEM23 were predicted to be effectors. This study provides the basis for future functional analyses of CFEM proteins in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7100871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8540330PMC
October 2021

[Formins: the key regulators of plant cell morphology and development].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Sep;37(9):3005-3019

College of Ecology and Environment, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, Sichuan, China.

Formins are widely distributed in eukaryotes such as fungi, plants and animals. They play crucial roles in regulating the polymerization of actin, coordinating the synergistic interactions between actin and microtubules, and determining cell growth and morphology. Unlike formins from fungi and animals, plant formins have been evolved into two plant-specific types. Generally, type Ⅱ formins are believed to regulate the polarized growth of cells, and type Ⅰ formins may regulate the cell expansion and division processes. Recent studies on the function of plant formins suggest it is inappropriate to classify the function of formins purely based on their structures. This review summarizes the domain organization of formins and their corresponding functions, as well as the underpinning mechanisms. Furthermore, the unsolved or unexplored issues along with future perspectives on plant formins are proposed and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200662DOI Listing
September 2021

Production of Toxins in Yellow Peach () upon Artificial Inoculation with .

Toxins (Basel) 2021 09 15;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institute for Agro-Food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Protected Horticultural Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201403, China.

The yellow peach (), an important fruit in China, is highly susceptible to infection by sp., leading to potential health risks and economic losses. In the current study, firstly, yellow peaches were artificially inoculated with . Then, the fruits were stored at 4 °C and 28 °C to simulate the current storage conditions that consumers use, and the toxins (ATs) contents from different parts of the fruits were analyzed via ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that the growth of . and the ATs production were dramatically affected by the storage temperature. At 28 °C, the fungi grew rapidly and the lesion diameter reached about 4.0 cm within 15 days of inoculation, while, at 4 °C, the fungal growth was noticeably inhibited, with no significant change in the lesion diameter. To our surprise, high contents of ATs were produced under both storage conditions even though the fungal growth was suppressed. With an increase in the incubation time, the amounts of ATs showed a steady tendency to increase in most cases. Remarkably, alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), alternariol (AOH), and tenuazonic acid (TeA) were detected in the rotten tissue and also in the surrounding tissue, while a large amount of TeA could also be found in the healthy tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the production of ATs by the infection of sp. in yellow peach fruits via artificial inoculation under regulated conditions, and, based on the evidence herein, it is recommended that ATs be included in monitoring and control programs of yellow peach management and food safety administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473313PMC
September 2021

Transcriptomic Analysis of Short/Branched-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme a Dehydrogenase Knocked Out bMECs Revealed Its Regulatory Effect on Lipid Metabolism.

Front Vet Sci 2021 7;8:744287. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

College of Coastal Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, China.

The acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family of enzymes includes short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (), which catalyzes the dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA derivatives in fatty acid metabolism. Our previous findings suggested that was a critical candidate gene affecting milk fat synthesis by comparing the transcriptome in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) from Chinese Holstein dairy cows producing high-fat and low-fat milk as well as gene functional validation studies on the cellular level. In the present study, in bMECs was knocked out (KO) using a CRISPR/Cas9 system, and mRNA transcriptome was further sequenced to verify the function of the gene and analyze its correlation with lipid metabolism. The findings revealed that 15,693 genes were expressed, 1,548 genes were differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and 6,098 GO terms were enriched, of which 637 GO terms were greatly enhanced, such as phospholipid-translocation ATPase activity (GO:0004012), lipoprotein lipase activity (GO:0004465), acyl-CoA desaturase activity (GO:0016215), and so on. The analysis by KEGG showed that DEGs were distributed over 247 pathogens, of which 49 were significantly enriched, including the metabolism of fatty acids (PATH: 01212), metabolism of glycerolipid (PATH: 00561), and signaling of adipocytokines (PATH: 04920). The CHOL, TGs and FFA contents in bMECs were reduced when the gene was knocked out. The RT Profiler PCR array also revealed that the loss of the gene changed the expression levels of functional genes involved in lipid metabolism, including . In conclusion, the current findings show that is a key regulator of lipid metabolism in bMECs. The ACADSB bMECs could also be useful genetic material and tools for future research into gene functions related to lipid and fatty acid metabolism. It will be valuable for revealing the gene regulatory roles and molecular mechanisms in milk fat synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.744287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8453006PMC
September 2021

Carbonized polymer dots activated hierarchical tungsten oxide for efficient and stable triethylamine sensor.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 18;416:126161. Epub 2021 May 18.

State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Marine Biobased Materials, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, PR China.

Hierarchical metal oxide semiconductors present great potential in detecting toxic and hazardous gases with special emphasis on the regulation of their structures and compositions to advance sensor performance. Herein, marine polysaccharide derived carbonized polymer dots (CPDs) are presented to activate hierarchical tungsten oxide (WO) as efficient and stable triethylamine sensor. Owing to the promoted receptor and transducer function of the oxide/polymer/carbon heterostructure, the CPDs/WO sensor exhibits extraordinary sensing characteristics for triethylamine detection, including higher response (4.3 times), faster response/recovery (4.3 times/2.1 times), lower operating temperature (30 °C) and lower detection limit (2.4 times) as compared with hierarchical WO sensor, which are also superior to most of the previous reports related to triethylamine detection. Importantly, the adsorption-desorption kinetic of WO is found to be enhanced by 67 times after introducing CPDs, mainly derived from abundant slit-like channels for gas diffuse, desirable defect feature as reactive sites, and favorable 0D-2D interface for charge transfer and transport. This work not only establishes an alternative strategy for promoting metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors but also provides a fundamental understanding of CPDs in gas-sensing field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126161DOI Listing
August 2021

MiRNA-34c Regulates Bovine Sertoli Cell Proliferation, Gene Expression, and Apoptosis by Targeting the Gene.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Aug 13;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

College of Animal Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play significant roles in mammalian spermatogenesis. Sertoli cells can provide a stable microenvironment and nutritional factors for germ cells, thus playing a vital role in spermatogenesis. However, few studies elucidate the regulation of bovine testicular Sertoli cells by miRNAs. Here, we have reported that miRNA-34c (miR-34c) regulates proliferation, apoptosis, and relative transcripts abundance gene in bovine Sertoli cells. In bovine Sertoli cells, overexpression of miR-34c inhibited proliferation and relative abundance of gene transcripts while promoting apoptosis of Sertoli cells, and the effects were the opposite when miR-34c was knocked down. Receptor tyrosine kinase () was identified as a direct target gene of miR-34c in Sertoli cells, validated by analysis of the relative abundance of transcript and dual-luciferase reporter assay. The relative abundance of the transcript of genes related to male reproduction in Sertoli cells was changed after the gene was overexpressed, as demonstrated by the RT2 Profiler PCR Array results. In summary, miR-34c specifically regulated the gene by targeting a sequence in the 3'-UTR, which could influence proliferation, apoptosis, and relative abundance of the transcript of male reproduction-related genes. Therefore, miR-34c could be considered an essential regulator in the process of bull spermatogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11082393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8388803PMC
August 2021

Decorin regulates myostatin and enhances proliferation and differentiation of embryonic myoblasts in Leizhou black duck.

Gene 2021 Dec 5;804:145884. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Binhai Agricultural College of Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, PR China. Electronic address:

Skeletal muscle is one of the most important economic traits in the poultry industry whose development goes through several processes influenced by several candidate genes. This study explored the regulatory role of DCN on MSTN and the influence of these genes on the proliferation and differentiation of embryonic myoblasts in Leizhou black ducks. Embryonic myoblasts were transfected with over-expressing DCN, Si-DCN, and empty vector and cultured for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h of proliferation and the comparative expression of DCN and MSTN were measured. The results showed that cells transfected with the over-expression DCN had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher expression of DCN mRNA than the normal group and the expression of MSTN mRNA showed a downward trend during the proliferation of myoblasts. DCN mRNA expression was lower in cells transfected with Si-DCN than the normal group in all stages of proliferation. While the expression of MSTN in the Si-DCN transfected group was higher than the normal group with a significant (P < 0.05) difference at the 72 h stage. DCN mRNA increased at the early stage of differentiation but decreased (P > 0.05) from the 6th day to the 8th day of differentiation. The level of MSTN increased gradually during the differentiation process of myoblasts until it decreased significantly on the 8th day. These results show that DCN enhances the proliferation and differentiation of Leizhou black duck myoblasts and suppresses MSTN activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145884DOI Listing
December 2021

Carbohydrate Antigen 125 Is a Biomarker of the Severity and Prognosis of Pulmonary Hypertension.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 20;8:699904. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Center for Pulmonary Vascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Emerging evidence has showed that serum carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA 125) levels are associated with the severity and prognosis of heart failure. However, its role in pulmonary hypertension remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the clinical, echocardiographic, hemodynamic, and prognostic associations of CA 125 in pulmonary hypertension. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients receiving CA 125 measurement in Fuwai Hospital (January 1, 2014-December 31, 2018). The primary end-point was cumulative 1-year clinical worsening-free survival rate. Linear regression was performed to assess the association between CA 125 and clinical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic parameters. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between CA 125 and clinical worsening events. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the predictive performance of CA 125. A total of 231 patients were included. After adjustment, CA 125 still positively correlated with World Health Organization functional class, NT-proBNP, right ventricular end-diastolic diameter, pericardial effusion, mean right atrial pressure and pulmonary arterial wedge pressure; negatively correlated with 6-min walk distance, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, mixed venous oxygen saturation, and cardiac index. After adjustment, CA 125 > 35 U/ml was associated with over 2 folds increased risk of 1-year clinical worsening. Further, ROC analysis showed that CA 125 provided additional predictive value in addition to the established pulmonary hypertension biomarker NT-proBNP. CA 125 was associated with functional status, echocardiography, hemodynamics and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.699904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8330972PMC
July 2021

The historical and current research progress on jujube-a superfruit for the future.

Hortic Res 2020 Aug 1;7(1):119. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Propaganda Department, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, 071001, Hebei, China.

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), or Chinese date, is the most important species of Rhamnaceae, a large cosmopolitan family, and is one of the oldest cultivated fruit trees in the world. It originates from the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, the 'mother river' of the Chinese people. It is distributed in at least 48 countries on all continents except Antarctica and is becoming increasingly important, especially in arid and semiarid marginal lands. Based on a systematic analysis of the unique characteristics of jujube, we suggest that it deserves to be recognized as a superfruit. We summarized historical research achievements from the past 3000 years and reviewed recent research advances since 1949 in seven fields, including genome sequencing and application, germplasm resources and systematic taxonomy, breeding and genetics, cultivation theory and techniques, pest control, postharvest physiology and techniques, and nutrition and processing. Based on the challenges facing the jujube industry, we discuss eight research aspects to be focused on in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-00346-5DOI Listing
August 2020

BDE-47 induces nephrotoxicity through ROS-dependent pathways of mitochondrial dynamics in PK15 cells.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 26;222:112549. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Institute for Agri-Food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201403, China. Electronic address:

2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47)-induced nephrotoxicity is closely associated with oxidative stresses and mitochondrial abnormalities. Mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics are crucial for maintaining mitochondrial and cellular physiological homeostasis. However, the detailed mechanisms through which BDE-47 disrupts this dynamic and contributes to renal injuries are still not fully understood. The porcine kidney-15 (PK15) cell line, a well-defined in vitro animal renal toxicological model, was exposed to BDE-47 with concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 μM, respectively. Cell viability, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and the expression levels of key mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins were assessed. BDE-47 reduced cell viability and disrupted mitochondrial dynamics by inhibiting mitochondrial fusion and fission simultaneously, leading to MMP decreases, ROS overgeneration, ATP depletion, and cellular disintegration in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the mitochondrial division inhibitor (Mdivi-1) with the concentration of 20 μM observed to restore the downregulation of mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins, alleviate damages in mitochondrial morphology and functionality, correct ROS overproduction, and enable cell survival. The antioxidant N-acety-L-cysteine (NAC) with the concentration of 1 mM also simultaneously reversed the imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics, decreased ROS production, and restored mitochondrial morphology in PK15 cells exposed to BDE-47. Our data provide new insights indicating that BDE-47 disrupts mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics to induce mitochondrial abnormalities, triggering oxidative stresses and thus contributing to PK15 cell dysfunction. ROS-dependent pathways in mitochondrial dynamics may provide a new avenue for developing effective strategies to protect cells against BDE-47-induced nephrotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112549DOI Listing
October 2021

The benefit of exercise-based rehabilitation programs in patients with pulmonary hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Pulm Circ 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):20458940211007810. Epub 2021 May 27.

Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Several studies have suggested that exercise capacity and quality of life are reduced in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and exercise-based rehabilitation can improve exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of exercise-based rehabilitation in patients with pulmonary hypertension through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. We searched PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to November 2018. All randomized controlled trials comparing exercise capacity and quality of life between patients undergoing exercise-based rehabilitation and those undergoing non-exercise training were included. Data were extracted separately and independently by two investigators, and discrepancies were arbitrated by the third investigator. We used the random-effects model to analyze the results, the GRADE to assess the risk of bias in the included studies, and I statistic to estimate the degree of heterogeneity. Nine randomized controlled trials are included; however, only seven randomized controlled trials were able to extract data. Including inpatients and outpatients, the total number of participants was 234, most of whom were diagnosed as pulmonary artery hypertension. The study duration ranged from 3 to 15 weeks. The mean six-minute walking distance after exercise training was 51.94 m higher than control (27.65-76.23 m,  = 234, 7 randomized controlled trials, low quality evidence), the mean peak oxygen uptake was 2.96 ml/kg/min higher (2.49-3.43 ml/kg/min,  = 179, 4 randomized controlled trials, low-quality evidence) than in the control group. In conclusion, our finding suggests that an exercise-based training program positively influences exercise capacity in patients with pulmonary hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/20458940211007810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165522PMC
May 2021

Effects of polymorphism of the gene on milk quality traits and its relation to triglyceride metabolism in bovine mammary epithelial cells of dairy cattle.

Arch Anim Breed 2021 29;64(1):35-44. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

College of Animal Science, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130062, PR China.

Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase () catalyses the initial and rate-regulated first-stage pathway of glycerol lipid synthesis and helps to allocate acyl-CoA (acyl-coenzyme A) to triglyceride (TG) synthesis and away from degradation pathways in animal lipometabolism-related pathways. In this study, RNA interference (RNAi) and gene overexpression were used to examine the correlation between the expression of and adipogenesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs). Additionally, three novel polymorphisms were identified within the bovine key functional domain of with Sanger sequencing. The relationship between variants of the gene and milk quality traits of Chinese Holstein cows was then analysed using statistical methods. The results showed that knockdown of the gene significantly reduced the synthesis of triglycerides in the bMECs (    0.05), whereas the overexpression of the gene significantly increased the synthesis of TG (    0.05). In Chinese Holstein dairy cattle, the polymorphic locus of the gene E20-3386G   A was significantly correlated with fat, protein and somatic cell count (    0.05); I18-652A   G was significantly correlated with fat, total fat content, protein, dry matter and somatic cell count (    0.05); and I18-726A   G was significantly correlated with protein, milk yield, dry matter and somatic cell count (    0.05). Specifically, individuals with the AA genotype of the I18-652A   G and E20-3386G   A polymorphic loci had a higher milk fat percentage (    0.05). In summary, plays a pivotal role in the intracellular regulation of triglyceride, and its mutations could work as a competent molecular marker for selective breeding in dairy cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/aab-64-35-2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161264PMC
January 2021

Antidegradation Property of Alginate Materials by Riveting Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes on the Sugar Chain.

ACS Omega 2021 May 7;6(19):12813-12819. Epub 2021 May 7.

State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, Shandong Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Biobased Fibers and Ecological Textiles, Institute of Marine Biobased Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, P. R. China.

Alginate materials with the advantages of being renewable, inexpensive, and environment-friendly have been considered promising fiber materials. However, they are prone to degrade under UV light, limiting their large-scale application in the textile field. Herein, the fracture of glycosidic bonds during the degradation process is revealed clearly by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and H NMR. To effectively inhibit this process, functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are chosen as dopants and used to interact with the sugar chain via hydrogen bonds. The results demonstrate that alginate materials with functionalized MWCNTs exhibit slower degradation rates. The intermolecular energy transfer between functionalized MWCNTs and sodium alginate (SA) is proposed for the antidegradation effect of functionalized MWCNTs, which is supported by the experiments. Moreover, SA/MWCNT fibers also show enhanced mechanical properties compared with pure alginate fibers. The appealing effect of the degradation inhibition feature makes the composite alginate materials very promising candidates for their future use in textile material development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154228PMC
May 2021

Toxic effects of Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on thyroid of broiler chicks by transcriptome profile analysis.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Aug 21;219:112305. Epub 2021 May 21.

Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Science, Shanghai 201106, China. Electronic address:

The wide usage of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) results in its increasing occurrence in the environment and increasing attention in regard to human and animal health. BDE-209 is an endocrine disruptor for hypothyroidism, but the toxicity mechanism is unclear. Here, the histopathology and transcriptome sequencing of thyroid tissue from broiler chicks were investigated by supplemental feeding with different concentrations of BDE-209 for 42 days (0-4 g/kg in basal diet), followed by determining the levels of thyroid hormones in serum. The results showed ruptured and even hyperplastic follicular epithelial cells in the thyroid, and a total of 501 differentially expressed genes were screened out: 222 upregulated and 279 downregulated. Based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway was significantly enriched, and α1D-adrenergic receptor, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, thyroid stimulating hormone receptor, and somatostatin receptor type 2 were shown to be candidate biomarkers. Thyroxine was a possible biomarker due to clear reduction in serum and significant correlation with exposure concentrations. These results suggested that oral intake of BDE-209 can cause structural injuries and even hyperplasia, and affect gene transcription involved in the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway of thyroid, as well as thyroid hormones in serum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112305DOI Listing
August 2021

Comparative Genome-Wide Alternative Splicing Analysis of Longissimus Dorsi Muscles Between Japanese Black (Wagyu) and Chinese Red Steppes Cattle.

Front Vet Sci 2021 29;8:634577. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

College of Animal Science, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Alternative splicing is a ubiquitous regulatory mechanism in gene expression that allows a single gene generating multiple messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Significant differences in fat deposition ability and meat quality traits have been reported between Japanese black cattle (Wagyu) and Chinese Red Steppes, which presented a unique model for analyzing the effects of transcriptional level on marbling fat in livestock. In previous studies, the differentially expressed genes (DGEs) in () samples between Wagyu and other breeds of beef cattle have been reported. In this study, we further investigated the differences in alternative splicing in between Wagyu and Chinese Red Steppes cattle. We identified several alternative splicing types including cassette exon, mutually exclusive exons, alternative 5' splice site, alternative 3' splice site, alternative start exon, and intron retention. In total, 115 differentially expressed alternatively spliced genes were obtained, of which 17 genes were enriched in the metabolic pathway. Among the 17 genes, 5 genes, including , and , appeared to be the novel spliced candidates that affect the lipid metabolism in cattle. Additionally, another 17 genes were enriched in the Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to muscle development, such as , etc. Overall, altered splicing and expression levels of these novel candidates between Japanese black cattle and Chinese Red Steppes revealed by RNA-seq suggest their potential involvement in the muscle development and fat deposition of beef cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.634577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116494PMC
April 2021

Integrative analysis of miRNAs and mRNAs revealed regulation of lipid metabolism in dairy cattle.

Funct Integr Genomics 2021 Jul 7;21(3-4):393-404. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Animal Science, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, People's Republic of China.

Lipid metabolism in bovine mammary epithelial cells has been the primary focus of the research of milk fat percentage of dairy cattle. Functional microRNAs can affect lipid metabolism by regulating the expression of candidate genes. The purpose of the study was to screen and identify differentially expressed miRNAs, candidate genes, and co-regulatory pathways related to the metabolism of milk fat. To achieve this aim, we used miRNA and transcriptome data from the mammary epithelial cells of dairy cattle with high (H, 4.85%) and low milk fat percentages (L, 3.41%) during mid-lactation. One hundred ninety differentially expressed genes and 33 differentially expressed miRNAs were significantly enriched in related regulatory networks, of which 27 candidate genes regulated by 18 differentially expressed miRNAs significantly enriched in pathways related to lipid metabolism (p < 0.05). Target relationships between PDE4D and bta-miR-148a, PEG10 and bta-miR-877, SOD3 and bta-miR-2382-5p, and ADAMTS1 and bta-miR-2425-5p were verified using luciferase reporter assays and quantitative RT-PCR. The detection of triglyceride production in BMECs showed that bta-miR-21-3p and bta-miR-148a promote triglyceride synthesis, whereas bta-miR-124a, bta-miR-877, bta-miR-2382-5p, and bta-miR-2425-5p inhibit triglyceride synthesis. The conjoint analysis could identify functional miRNAs and regulatory candidate genes involved in lipid metabolism within the co-expression networks of the dairy cattle mammary system, which contributes to the understanding of potential regulatory mechanisms of genetic element and gene signaling networks involved in milk fat metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-021-00786-9DOI Listing
July 2021

MiR-485 targets the DTX4 gene to regulate milk fat synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

Sci Rep 2021 04 7;11(1):7623. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

College of Coastal Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, 524088, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are mRNA suppressors that regulate a variety of cellular and physiological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, triglyceride synthesis, fat formation, and lipolysis, by post-transcriptional processing. In previous studies, we isolated and sequenced miRNAs from mammary epithelial cells from Chinese Holstein cows with high and low milk fat percentages. MiR-485 was one of the significantly differentially expressed miRNAs that were identified. In the present study, the relationship between the candidate target gene DTX4 and miR-485 was validated by bioinformatics and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot (WB) analyses in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs). The results indicated that miR-485 negatively regulated the mRNA expression of the target gene DTX4. Furthermore, an shRNA interference vector for the target gene DTX4 was constructed successfully, and it increased the triglyceride content and reduced the cholesterol content of transfected cells. These results suggest that miR-485 may affect the contents of triglycerides (TGs) and cholesterol (CHOL) by targeting the DTX4 gene. This study indicates that miR-485 has a role in regulating milk fat synthesis and that miR-485 targets the DTX4 gene to regulate lipid metabolism in bMECs. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional significance of miR-485 in milk fat synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87139-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027660PMC
April 2021

The effect of CPT1B gene on lipid metabolism and its polymorphism analysis in Chinese Simmental cattle.

Anim Biotechnol 2021 Apr 7:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

College of Animal Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B) is a candidate gene that regulates livestock animal lipid metabolism and encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid β-oxidation. To explore the effect of this gene on lipid metabolism in cattle, this study examined CPT1B gene polymorphism in Chinese Simmental cattle and the effect of CPT1B on lipid metabolism. The results showed that the triglyceride content increased significantly with increasing CPT1B gene expression in bovine fetal fibroblasts (BFFs) ( < 0.05), while CPT1B knockout led to decreased CPT1B expression and a downward trend in triglyceride levels. Correlation analysis showed a significant association between the g.119896238 G > C locus and Chinese Simmental cattle backfat thickness ( < 0.05). Backfat thickness was significantly greater in individuals with the GC genotype (0.93 ± 0.67 cm) than in those with the CC genotype (0.84 ± 0.60 cm). The g.119889302 T > C locus was significantly correlated with arachidonic acid content in Chinese Simmental cattle ( < 0.05). The arachidonic acid content in the longissimus muscle was significantly higher in CC genotype beef cattle (0.054 g/100 g) than in those with the other two genotypes (0.046 g/100 g, 0.049 g/100 g). These molecular markers can be effectively used for marker-assisted selection in cattle breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2021.1904966DOI Listing
April 2021

The study on the clinical effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine acupoint catgut embedding guided by musculoskeletal ultrasound in the treatment of nerve root sciatica: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(13):e25387

Department of Ultrasound.

Background: Nerve root sciatica (NRS) is a common orthopedic disease, which usually occurs between 20 and 40 years of age, and the incidence rate is increasing year by year and is being younger. The disease has no special effect of treatment, clinically generally taking the symptomatic treatment, such as taking short-term glucocorticoids, sedatives, analgesics, and so on. Long-term use of drugs will adversely affect the patient's gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidney function. The surgical treatment has a high risk of surgery, high cost, side effects, and other problems, so the choice of treatment method has always been a difficult problem in clinical and scientific research. The study shows that 90% of patients with sciatica can be cured by non-surgical treatment, so conservative therapy is often used in the treatment of sciatica, traditional Chinese medicine treatment methods in the treatment of NRS has been widely used, which has achieved good results, but there is no evidence of evidence-based medicine. Therefore, this study uses systematic evaluation to conduct the scientific evaluation of the clinical effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine acupoint catgut embedding guided by musculoskeletal ultrasound in the treatment of NRS, and provide evidence-based medical evidence support for the treatment of NRS.

Methods: Using the computer to retrieve the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP, WANFANG Database, and CBM. Using the subject words and terminology words to retrieve the Chinese-English database and retrieve a randomized controlled study on the clinical effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine acupoint catgut embedding guided by musculoskeletal ultrasound in the treatment of NRS, and the range of search time is January 1990 to January 2021. The searched literature is screened and evaluated by two researchers respectively according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. If there is disagreement, discussing it with the third researcher to determine the final inclusion of the literature. Using the RevMan 5.3 software to conduct the meta-analysis.

Results: This study will compare the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine acupoint catgut embedding guided by musculoskeletal ultrasound in the treatment of NRS.

Conclusion: The results of this study will be published in internationally influential academic journals to provide evidence-based medical evidence for the clinical effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine acupoint catgut embedding in the treatment of NRS.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study does not involve specific patients, and all research data comes from publicly available professional literature, so an ethics committee is not required to conduct an ethical review and approval of the study.

Osf Registration Number: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/Q492E.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021314PMC
April 2021

High-throughput sequencing reveals the spatial distribution variability of microbial community in coastal waters in Shenzhen.

Ecotoxicology 2021 Sep 23;30(7):1429-1436. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Shenzhen R&D Key Laboratory of Alien Pest Detection Technology, The Shenzhen Academy of Science and Technology for Inspection and Quarantine, Technology Center for Animal and Plant Inspection and Quarantine, Shenzhen Customs, Shenzhen, 518045, Guangdong, PR China.

Seashore habitats are located between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, which are a hotspot for anthropogenic impacts. Shenzhen is one of the most developed cities in south China, but the microbial functions of its coastal ecosystems remain poorly understood. The study applied 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods to identify the bacterial community from twenty sites of Shenzhen inshore waters. The microbial structure of the samples between eastern Shenzhen and western Shenzhen seashores is notably different, suggesting the spatial variability. Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were dominant phyla in the community, and the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was significantly higher in eastern seashores. Specifically, samples from western Shenzhen contained much more Prochlorococcus, while Synechococcus was more abundant in eastern samples. Moreover, the metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides, and transport and catabolism were significantly more abundant in eastern samples, while antibiotic-resistant pathways were enriched in western samples. The results have important significance to understand bacterial ecosystem of coastal water and promote water quality management and protection activity in Shenzhen. This study can also help developing an optimal strategy for the green economy development and the policy planning of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-021-02391-9DOI Listing
September 2021

Integrated mRNA and microRNA Transcriptome Sequencing Characterizes Sequence Variants and mRNA-microRNA Regulatory Networks in Grass Carp Fibroblasts Infected with Virulent and Attenuated GCRV.

Mar Biotechnol (NY) 2021 Apr 22;23(2):342-355. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

College of Coastal Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Grass carp hemorrhagic disease is a fatal disease caused by the grass carp reovirus (GCRV). The aberrant regulation of transcripts has been implicated in many types of diseases. In the present study, we characterized mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes of different virulent GCRVs using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). One hundred eighteen miRNAs were identified as being differentially expressed between different virulent viruses in grass carp fibroblasts. Eight miRNAs were selected to verify the RNA-Seq results using RT-PCR and mRNA methods. In total, 996 differentially expressed mRNA genes were identified in grass carp fibroblasts, while 901 miRNA-mRNA target pairs were observed to be inversely regulated in grass carp fibroblasts. Integrated mRNA/miRNA expression profiling analysis results showed that the most influenced processes were the immune response and cell death. Three miRNAs were shown to exhibit the same expression patterns when two different methods were used and had important functions during viral infection. These results provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulation of mRNA and valuable resources on transcript variation and regulation during GCRV infection, which are potentially useful for mechanistic and drug studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10126-021-10029-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Supplementation with Iron in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Two Randomized Crossover Trials.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 06;18(6):981-988

National Heart and Lung Institute and.

Iron deficiency, in the absence of anemia, is common in patients with idiopathic and heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is associated with a worse clinical outcome. Oral iron absorption may be impeded by elevated circulating hepcidin concentrations. The safety and benefit of parenteral iron replacement in this patient population is unclear. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of parenteral iron replacement in PAH. In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week crossover studies, 39 patients in Europe received a single infusion of ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject) (1,000 mg or 15 mg/kg if weight <66.7 kg) or saline as placebo, and 17 patients in China received iron dextran (Cosmofer) (20 mg iron/kg body weight) or saline placebo. All patients had idiopathic or heritable PAH and iron deficiency at entry as defined by a serum ferritin <37 μg/L or iron <10.3 μmol/L or transferrin saturations <16.4%. Both iron treatments were well tolerated and improved iron status. Analyzed separately and combined, there was no effect on any measure of exercise capacity (using cardiopulmonary exercise testing or 6-minute walk test) or cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, as assessed by right heart catheterization, cardiac magnetic resonance, or plasma NT-proBNP (N-terminal-pro hormone brain natriuretic peptide) at 12 weeks. Iron repletion by administration of a slow-release iron preparation as a single infusion to patients with PAH with iron deficiency without overt anemia was well tolerated but provided no significant clinical benefit at 12 weeks. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01447628).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.202009-1131OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8456720PMC
June 2021

Effects of Decabrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure on Growth, Meat Characteristics and Blood Profiles in Broilers.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 22;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Institute for Agro-Food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201403, China.

Decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) is widely used as a flame retardant and is detected at high levels in the environment. Its toxicities have been reported and have attracted attention. In the present study, broilers were used to determine the response in growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, blood profiles and antioxidant system to BDE-209 exposure at doses of 0, 0.02, 0.4 and 4 mg/kg. The results showed that BDE-209 exposure at levels of 0.02 or 0.4 mg/kg increased feed intake and decreased feed efficiency. BDE-209 altered the blood profiles, such as reducing the numbers of white blood cells, lymphocytes and neutrophilic granulocytes. As compared with the control, BDE-209 exposure significantly increased abdominal fat percentages of broilers at 64.9-159.5% and adversely affected the selected biochemical indicators, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine (CRE), which indicated its toxicity to liver and kidney functions. Moreover, BDE-209 exposure significantly increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and decreased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which implied aggravating oxidant stress and decline of antioxidant capacity in broilers. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that the environmental pollutant BDE-209 adversely influenced growth performance, increased the deposition of abdominal fat, impaired antioxidant capacity and the immune system and had potential toxicity to the liver and kidney of broilers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926798PMC
February 2021

The value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Jan;13(1):178-188

Center for Pulmonary Vascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) continuously analyzes the gas exchange of patients during rest, exercise, recovery, and simultaneously records the response of the cardiopulmonary system. This study aimed to observe the characteristics of CPET in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to explore the cutoff value of CPET variables in detecting PH. The diagnostic value of CPET was also investigated in a subgroup of patients who had an incorrect or missed diagnosis of PH by echocardiography.

Methods: Treatment-naïve patients with suspected PH who were admitted to Fuwai Hospital from January 2017 to August 2018 were consecutively enrolled. The gold standard criterion for PH was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥25 mmHg at rest, measured by right heart catheterization. General clinical materials, echocardiography, hemodynamics, and CPET data of the patients were collected and compared between groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the CPET variables that were independently associated with PH. To further validate the value of CPET for diagnosing PH, the CPET cutoff values obtained from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used in patients who had an incorrect or missed diagnosis by echocardiography.

Results: Five hundred and fifty-nine patients were included in the study. Among them, patients with PH had significantly poorer CPET variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that peak work rate (WR), peak oxygen uptake (VO), and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO) at the anaerobic threshold (AT) were independently associated with PH after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. The above three CPET variables were all negatively correlated with mPAP. The combined CPET variable including peak WR, peak VO and PetCO at AT had the largest area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of PH (0.890, 95% CI: 0.852-0.927, P<0.001). The cutoff value was 0.86, and the sensitivity and specificity were 81.8% and 86.5%, respectively. Using this cutoff value, 83.7% of patients who were misdiagnosed and 67.9% of patients who had a missed diagnosis by echocardiography were identified.

Conclusions: PH patients have decreased cardiopulmonary reserve, lower exercise tolerance, and increased ineffective ventilation. The combination of peak WR, peakVO, and PetCO at AT had increased sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of PH, and increased the specificity for identifying patients who had been misdiagnosed as PH by echocardiography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-1061bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867820PMC
January 2021
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