Publications by authors named "Zhigang Song"

110 Publications

Pre-optimized phage therapy on secondary infection in four critical COVID-19 patients.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Dec;10(1):612-618

Shanghai Institute of Phage, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Phage therapy is recognized as a promising alternative to antibiotics in treating pulmonary bacterial infections, however, its use has not been reported for treating secondary bacterial infections during virus pandemics such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We enrolled 4 patients hospitalized with critical COVID-19 and pulmonary carbapenem-resistant (CRAB) infections to compassionate phage therapy (at 2 successive doses of 10 plaque-forming unit phages). All patients in our COVID-19-specific intensive care unit (ICU) with CRAB positive in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or sputum samples were eligible for study inclusion if antibiotic treatment failed to eradicate their CRAB infections. While phage susceptibility testing revealed an identical profile of CRAB strains from these patients, treatment with a pre-optimized 2-phage cocktail was associated with reduced CRAB burdens. Our results suggest the potential of phages on rapid responses to secondary CRAB outbreak in COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2021.1902754DOI Listing
December 2021

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the ocular surface in different phases of COVID-19 patients in Shanghai, China.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jan;9(2):100

Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Eye and ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; NHC Key Laboratory of Myopia (Fudan University), Shanghai, China; Shanghai Research Center of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Shanghai, China.

Background: To investigate the temporal pattern of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presence on ocular surfaces using conjunctival swabs in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.

Methods: This study included 59 patients (32 newly admitted and 27 hospitalized for ≥2 weeks) with a COVID-19-confirmed diagnosis at the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from March 3, 2020, to March 21, 2020. Conjunctival swab samples were collected from both eyes of all the 59 patients and were tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The range of sampling time lies widely between 1 and 50 days since symptom onset.

Results: Among the 32 newly admitted patients, positive RT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 in conjunctival swab samples were reported in 2 patients (one eye for each) without ocular discomfort, but 1 positive case had conjunctival congestion. The positive results were detected on Day 5 for 1 patient and Day 7 for the other, but repeated tests after 1 week were negative for both patients. All 27 patients who had been hospitalized for ≥2 weeks had negative test results. The mean time from symptom onset to sampling of 2 positive cases was significantly less than that of 57 negative cases (P<0.001).

Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 on the ocular surface can be detected in the early phase of COVID-19. The risk of ocular transmission remains and might be higher in the early phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-6026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867919PMC
January 2021

The mixed application of organic and inorganic selenium shows better effects on incubation and progeny parameters.

Poult Sci 2021 Feb 2;100(2):1132-1141. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018, China. Electronic address:

This experiment aims to study the effects of dietary selenium (Se) sources on the production performance, reproductive performance, and maternal effect of breeder laying hens. A total of 2,112 Hyline brown breeder laying hens of 42 wk of age were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups, with 8 repeats in each group and 88 chickens per repeat. The sources of dietary Se were sodium selenite (SS, added at 0.3 mg/kg), L-selenomethionine (L-SM, added at 0.2 mg/kg), and combination of SS and L-SM (SS 0.15 mg/kg + L-SM 0.15 mg/kg). The pretest period was 7 d, and the breeding period was 49 d. Compared with 0.3 mg/kg SS, the addition of 0.2 mg/kg L-SM in the diet significantly increased the hatchability (P < 0.05) and the Se content (P < 0.05) in egg yolk and chicken embryo tissues and improved the activity of yolk glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) effectively (P < 0.05). Treatment with 0.2 mg/kg L-SM also reduced the content of yolk malondialdehyde (P < 0.05) and significantly improved the antioxidant performance of 1-day-old chicks, as manifested by increased activity of antioxidant enzymes (GSH-px, total antioxidant capacity and the ability to inhibit hydroxyl radicals) in serum, pectoral, heart, and liver (P < 0.05). This treatment decreased the malondialdehyde content (P < 0.05) and increased the expression of liver glutathione peroxidase 4 and deiodinase 1 mRNA (P < 0.05). Adding L-SM to the diets of chickens increased the hatchability of breeder eggs as well as the amount of Se deposited and antioxidant enzyme activity in breeder eggs and embryos. Compared with SS, L-SM was more effectively transferred from the mother to the embryo and offspring, showing efficient maternal nutrition. For breeder diets, the combination of organic and inorganic Se (0.15 mg/kg SS + 0.15 mg/kg L-SM) is an effective nutrient supplementation technology program for effectively improving the breeding performance of breeders and the antioxidant performance and health level of offspring chicks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.10.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858146PMC
February 2021

Correlation Between Early Plasma Interleukin 37 Responses With Low Inflammatory Cytokine Levels and Benign Clinical Outcomes in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection.

J Infect Dis 2021 02;223(4):568-580

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center & Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The immune protective mechanisms during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection remain to be deciphered for the development of an effective intervention approach.

Methods: We examined early responses of interleukin 37 (IL-37), a powerful anti-inflammatory cytokine, in 254 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients before any clinical intervention and determined its correlation with clinical prognosis.

Results: Our results demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes elevation of plasma IL-37. Higher early IL-37 responses were correlated with earlier viral RNA negative conversion, chest computed tomographic improvement, and cough relief, consequently resulted in earlier hospital discharge. Further assays showed that higher IL-37 was associated with lower interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 (IL-8) and higher interferon α responses and facilitated biochemical homeostasis. Low IL-37 responses predicted severe clinical prognosis in combination with IL-8 and C-reactive protein. In addition, we observed that IL-37 administration was able to attenuate lung inflammation and alleviate respiratory tissue damage in human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Conclusions: Overall, we found that IL-37 plays a protective role by antagonizing inflammatory responses while retaining type I interferon, thereby maintaining the functionalities of vital organs. IL-37, IL-8, and C-reactive protein might be formulated as a precise prediction model for screening severe clinical cases and have good value in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717271PMC
February 2021

Hypoxic targeting and activating TH-302 loaded transcatheter arterial embolization microsphere.

Drug Deliv 2020 Dec;27(1):1412-1424

Department of Interventional Radiology, The First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

The tumor-derived and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) induced hypoxia microenvironment is closely related to the poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based TACE microspheres were prepared to treat HCC through localized and sustained drug delivery. TH-302 microspheres with three different sizes were fabricated by an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectra (IR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and drug release profiles. The antitumor potential was firstly evaluated in an HepG2 cell model under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Then, a VX-2 tumor-bearing rabbit model was established and performed TACE to investigate the drug tissue distribution and antitumor efficiency of TH-302 microspheres. Blood routine examination and histopathological examinations were also conducted to evaluate the safety of TH-302 microspheres. TH-302 microspheres with particle size 75-100 μm, 100-200 μm, and 200-300 μm were prepared and characterized by sphere morphology and sustained drug release up to 360 h. Compared with TH-302, the microspheres exhibited higher cytotoxicity, cell apoptosis, and cell cycle S phase retardation in HepG2 cells under hypoxic conditions. The microspheres also displayed continuous drug release in the liver tissue and better anti-tumor efficiency compared with TH-302 injection and lipiodol. Meanwhile, no serious toxicity appeared in the duration of treatment. Therefore, TH-302 microspheres showed to be feasible and effective for TACE and hold promise in the clinical for HCC chemoembolization therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2020.1831102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594845PMC
December 2020

Switchable Asymmetric Moiré Patterns with Strongly Localized States.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Nov 16;11(21):9224-9229. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Most moiré pattern structures are constructed by twisting the angle of two similar 2D materials. The corresponding electronic structures are fixed in device applications. Here we study moiré patterns constructed with monolayers of InSe and ferroelectric InSe. The ferroelectricity of InSe induces deep electron trap states and allows the switch of moiré pattern by an applied electric field. Using a unique linear scaling computational method, we systematically studied the electronic structures, localized state sizes, and strong correlation effects of switchable moiré patterns of systems containing close to 10 000 atoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c02400DOI Listing
November 2020

All-Trans Retinoic Acid Prevented Vein Grafts Stenosis by Inhibiting Rb-E2F Mediated Cell Cycle Progression and KLF5-RARα Interaction in Human Vein Smooth Muscle Cells.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2021 Feb 12;35(1):103-111. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Institute of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Naval Medical University, 168 Changhai Road, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Purpose: Vein graft failure (VGF) is an important limitation for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Inhibition of the excessive proliferation and migration of venous smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is an effective strategy to alleviate VGF during the CABG perioperative period. In the present study, we aimed to explore the role and potential mechanism of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on preventing vein grafts stenosis.

Methods: The autogenous vein grafts model was established in the right jugular artery of rabbits. Immunohistochemistry staining and western blot assays were used to detected the protein expression, while real-time PCR assay was applied for mRNAs expression detection. The interaction between proteins was identified by co-immunoprecipitation assay. The Cell Counting Kit-8 and wound-healing assays were used to investigate the role of ATRA on human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMCs) function. Cell cycle progression was identified by flow cytometry assay.

Results: Vein graft stenosis and SMCs hyperproliferation were confirmed in vein grafts by histological and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry assays. Treatment of ATRA (10 mg/kg/day) significantly mitigated the stenosis extent of vein grafts, demonstrated by the decreased thickness of intima-media, and decreased Ki-67 expression. ATRA could repress the PDGF-bb-induced excessive proliferation and migration of HUVSMCs, which was mediated by Rb-E2F dependent cell cycle inhibition. Meanwhile, ATRA could reduce the interaction between KLF5 and RARα, thereby inhibiting the function of cis-elements of KLF5. KLF5-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression activation could be significantly inhibited by ATRA.

Conclusions: These results suggested that ATRA treatment may represent an effective prevention and therapy avenue for VGF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10557-020-07089-4DOI Listing
February 2021

An open-label, randomized trial of the combination of IFN-κ plus TFF2 with standard care in the treatment of patients with moderate COVID-19.

EClinicalMedicine 2020 Oct 20;27:100547. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center & Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 2901 Caolang Road, Jin Shan District, Shanghai 201508, PR China.

Background: Epidemic outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV-2 are worsening around the world, and there are no target drugs to treat COVID-19. IFN-κ inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2; and TFF2 is a small secreted polypeptide that promotes the repair of mucosal injury and reduces the inflammatory responses. We used the synergistic effect of both proteins to treat COVID-19.

Methods: We conducted an open-label, randomized, clinical trial involving patients with moderate COVID-19. Patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either aerosol inhalation treatment with IFN-κ and TFF2 every 24 h for six consecutive dosages in addition to standard care (experimental group) or standard care alone (control group). The primary endpoint was the time until a viral RNA negative conversion for SARS-CoV-2 in all clinical samples. The secondary clinical endpoint was the time of CT imaging improvement. Data analysis was performed per protocol. This study was registered with chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000030262.

Findings: Between March 23 and May 23 of 2020, 86 COVID-19 patients with symptoms of moderate illness were recruited, and 6 patients were excluded due to not matching the inclusion criteria (patients with pneumonia through chest radiography). Among the remaining 80 patients, 40 patients were assigned to experimental group, and the others were assigned to control group to only receive standard care. Efficacy and safety were evaluated for both groups. The time of viral RNA negative conversion in experimental group (Mean, 3·80 days, 95% CI 2·07-5·53), was significantly shorter than that in control group (7·40 days, 95% CI 4·57 to 10·23) ( = 0.031), and difference between means was 3·60 days. The percentage of patients in experimental group with reversion to negative viral RNA was significantly increased compared with control group on all sampling days (every day during the 12-day observation period) ( = 0·037). For the secondary endpoint, the experimental group had a significantly shorter time until improvement was seen by CT (Mean 6·21 days,  = 38/40, 95% CI 5·11-7·31) than that in control group (8·76 days,  = 34/40, 95% CI 7·57-9·96) ( = 0.002), and difference between means was 2·55 days. No discomfort or complications during aerosol inhalation were reported to the nurses by any experimental patients.

Interpretation: In conclusion, we found that aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2 in combination with standard care is safe and superior to standard care alone in shortening the time up to viral RNA negative conversion in all clinical samples. In addition, the patients in experimental group had a significantly shortened CT imaging improvement time than those in control group. This study suggested that this combination treatment is able to facilitate clinical improvement (negative for virus, improvement by CT, reduced hospitalization stay) and thereby result in an early release from the hospital. These data support the need for exploration with a large-scale trial of IFN-κ plus TFF2 to treat COVID-19.

Funding: Funding was provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Shanghai Municipal Health Commission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7502282PMC
October 2020

The Course of Mild and Moderate COVID-19 Infections-The Unexpected Long-Lasting Challenge.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Sep 23;7(9):ofaa286. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Shanghai, China.

Background: The course of disease in mild and moderate COVID-19 has many implications for mobile patients, such as the risk of spread of the infection, precautions taken, and investigations targeted at preventing transmission.

Methods: Three hundred thirty-one adults were hospitalized from January 21 to February 22, 2020, and classified as severe (10%) or critical (4.8%) cases; 1.5% died. Two hundred eighty-two (85.2%) mild or moderate cases were admitted to regular wards. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, chest computed tomography (CT) scan, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data from patient records were analyzed retrospectively.

Results: Patients were symptomatic for 9.82±5.75 (1-37) days. Pulmonary involvement was demonstrated on a chest CT scan in 97.9% of cases. It took 16.81±8.54 (3-49) days from the appearance of the first symptom until 274 patients tested virus-negative in naso- and oropharyngeal (NP) swabs, blood, urine, and stool, and 234 (83%) patients were asymptomatic for 9.09±7.82 (1-44) days. Subsequently, 131 patients were discharged. One hundred sixty-nine remained in the hospital; these patients tested virus-free and were clinically asymptomatic because of widespread persisting or increasing pulmonary infiltrates. Hospitalization took 16.24±7.57 (2-47) days; the time interval from the first symptom to discharge was 21.37±7.85 (3-52) days.

Conclusions: With an asymptomatic phase, disease courses are unexpectedly long until the stage of virus negativity. NP swabs are not reliable in the later stages of COVID-19. Pneumonia outlasts virus-positive tests if sputum is not acquired. Imminent pulmonary fibrosis in high-risk groups demands follow-up examinations. Investigation of promising antiviral agents should heed the specific needs of mild and moderate COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7454824PMC
September 2020

Self-Assembly M2e-Based Peptide Nanovaccine Confers Broad Protection Against Influenza Viruses.

Front Microbiol 2020 14;11:1961. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The extracellular domain of influenza M2 protein (M2e) is highly conserved and is a promising target for development of universal influenza vaccines. Here, we synthesized a peptide vaccine consisting of M2e epitope linked to a fibrillizing peptide, which could self-assemble into nanoparticle in physiological salt solutions. When administrated into mice without additional adjuvant, the influenza A M2e epitope-bearing nanoparticles induced antibodies against M2e of different influenza subtypes. Comparing with other M2e-based vaccine, these M2e nanoparticles did not induce immune response against the fibrillizing peptide, demonstrating minimal immunogenicity of vaccine carrier. Furthermore, vaccination with M2e-based nanoparticles did not only protect mice against homologous challenge of influenza PR8 H1N1 virus, but also provide protection against heterologous challenge of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 virus. These results indicated that M2e-based self-assembled nanoparticle vaccine is safe and can elicit cross-protection, therefore is a promising candidate of universal influenza vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457018PMC
August 2020

Automatic deep learning-based colorectal adenoma detection system and its similarities with pathologists.

BMJ Open 2020 09 10;10(9):e036423. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Pathology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China

Objectives: The microscopic evaluation of slides has been gradually moving towards all digital in recent years, leading to the possibility for computer-aided diagnosis. It is worthwhile to know the similarities between deep learning models and pathologists before we put them into practical scenarios. The simple criteria of colorectal adenoma diagnosis make it to be a perfect testbed for this study.

Design: The deep learning model was trained by 177 accurately labelled training slides (156 with adenoma). The detailed labelling was performed on a self-developed annotation system based on iPad. We built the model based on DeepLab v2 with ResNet-34. The model performance was tested on 194 test slides and compared with five pathologists. Furthermore, the generalisation ability of the learning model was tested by extra 168 slides (111 with adenoma) collected from two other hospitals.

Results: The deep learning model achieved an area under the curve of 0.92 and obtained a slide-level accuracy of over 90% on slides from two other hospitals. The performance was on par with the performance of experienced pathologists, exceeding the average pathologist. By investigating the feature maps and cases misdiagnosed by the model, we found the concordance of thinking process in diagnosis between the deep learning model and pathologists.

Conclusions: The deep learning model for colorectal adenoma diagnosis is quite similar to pathologists. It is on-par with pathologists' performance, makes similar mistakes and learns rational reasoning logics. Meanwhile, it obtains high accuracy on slides collected from different hospitals with significant staining configuration variations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485250PMC
September 2020

Clinically applicable histopathological diagnosis system for gastric cancer detection using deep learning.

Nat Commun 2020 08 27;11(1):4294. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Pathology, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 100853, Beijing, China.

The early detection and accurate histopathological diagnosis of gastric cancer increase the chances of successful treatment. The worldwide shortage of pathologists offers a unique opportunity for the use of artificial intelligence assistance systems to alleviate the workload and increase diagnostic accuracy. Here, we report a clinically applicable system developed at the Chinese PLA General Hospital, China, using a deep convolutional neural network trained with 2,123 pixel-level annotated H&E-stained whole slide images. The model achieves a sensitivity near 100% and an average specificity of 80.6% on a real-world test dataset with 3,212 whole slide images digitalized by three scanners. We show that the system could aid pathologists in improving diagnostic accuracy and preventing misdiagnoses. Moreover, we demonstrate that our system performs robustly with 1,582 whole slide images from two other medical centres. Our study suggests the feasibility and benefits of using histopathological artificial intelligence assistance systems in routine practice scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18147-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7453200PMC
August 2020

A clinical pilot study on the safety and efficacy of aerosol inhalation treatment of IFN-κ plus TFF2 in patients with moderate COVID-19.

EClinicalMedicine 2020 Aug 29;25:100478. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center & Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 201508, PR China.

Background: The outbreak of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) poses a great challenge to global public health. New and effective intervention strategies are urgently needed to combat the disease.

Methods: We conducted an open-label, non-randomized, clinical trial involving moderate COVID-19 patients according to study protocol. Patients were assigned in a 1:2 ratio to receive either aerosol inhalation treatment with IFN-κ and TFF2, every 48 h for three consecutive dosages, in addition to standard treatment (experimental group), or standard treatment alone (control group). The end point was the time to discharge from the hospital. This study is registered with chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000030262.

Findings: A total of thirty-three eligible COVID-19 patients were enrolled from February 1, 2020 to April 6, 2020, eleven were assigned to the IFN-κ plus TFF2 group, and twenty-two to the control group. Safety and efficacy were evaluated for both groups. No treatment-associated severe adverse effects (SAE) were observed in the group treated with aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2, and no significant differences in the safety evaluations were observed between experimental and control groups. CT imaging was performed in all patients with the median improvement time of 50 days (IQR 30-90) in the experimental group versus 85 days (IQR 30-170) in the control group (<005). In addition, the experimental group had a significant shorten median time in cough relief (45 days [IQR 20-70]) than the control group did (100 days [IQR 60-210])(<0005), in viral RNA reversion of 60 days (IQR 20-130) in the experimental group vs 9.5 days (IQR 30-230) in the control group ( < 005), and in the median hospitalization stays of 120 days (IQR 7.0-20.0) in the experimental group vs 150 days (IQR 10.0-25.0) in the control group (<0001), respectively.

Interpretation: Aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2 is a safe treatment and is likely to significantly facilitate clinical improvement, including cough relief, CT imaging improvement, and viral RNA reversion, thereby achieves an early release from hospitalization. These data support to explore a scale-up trial with IFN-κ plus TFF2.

Funding: National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Shanghai Municipal Health Commission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7388798PMC
August 2020

Vapor Deposition of Magnetic Van der Waals NiI Crystals.

ACS Nano 2020 Aug 7;14(8):10544-10551. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Standardization and Measurement for Nanotechnology, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China.

The recent discovery of van der Waals magnetic materials has attracted great attention in materials science and spintronics. The preparation of ultrathin magnetic layers down to atomic thickness is challenging and is mostly by mechanical exfoliation. Here, we report vapor deposition of magnetic van der Waals NiI crystals. Two-dimensional (2D) NiI flakes are grown on SiO/Si substrates with a thickness of 5-40 nm and on hexagonal boron nitride (-BN) down to monolayer thickness. Temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy reveals robust magnetic phase transitions in the as-grown 2D NiI crystals down to trilayer. Electrical measurements show a semiconducting transport behavior with a high on/off ratio of 10 for the NiI flakes. Lastly, density functional theory calculation shows an intralayer ferromagnetic and interlayer antiferromagnetic ordering in 2D NiI. This work provides a feasible approach to epitaxy 2D magnetic transition metal halides and also offers atomically thin materials for spintronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c04499DOI Listing
August 2020

A radial force-independent bioprosthesis for transcatheter tricuspid valve implantation in a preclinical model.

Int J Cardiol 2020 11 4;319:120-126. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Changhai Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Interventional treatments of tricuspid regurgitation have been emerging as minimally invasive alternatives. Among those reported transcatheter tricuspid devices, the radial force between the device and native tricuspid annulus is the common principle to be employed for device immobilization. However, this immobilization mechanism may potentially lead to adverse consequences. We developed a radial force-independent stent valve device for implantation at native tricuspid annular site without inducing stress on either myocardial tissue or the bioprosthesis.

Methods: We designed a radial force-independent LuX-Valve as a transcatheter bioprosthesis, comprising a stent valve and a delivery system. The device employs a combination of a right ventricle anchoring component, two leaflet-grasping clips, and an atrial disc as a mechanical integrity to immobilize the stent valve device in secure at the native tricuspid annulus. We evaluated the feasibility and safety of implantation of this device in a goat model.

Results: We successfully implanted LuX-Valves at the tricuspid position through the right atrium in 17 goats. Procedures in 16 cases were safe. Time for the operator to implant the device until immobilization in secure ranged from 3.5 to 10 min. No significant paravalvular leakage was detected by echocardiography during follow-up, up to 180 days. Histopathology showed no evidence of stent fracture and myocardial injury.

Conclusion: The results indicated that radial force-independent LuX-Valve was safe and practicable for tricuspid valve implantation with satisfactory prosthetic function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.06.070DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of in ovo feeding of N-acetyl-L-glutamate on early intestinal development and growth performance in broiler chickens.

Poult Sci 2020 Jul 24;99(7):3583-3593. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Animal Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018, P. R. China. Electronic address:

The present study determined the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of N-acetyl-L-glutamate (NAG) on early intestinal development and growth performance of broilers. A total of 702 fertile broiler eggs were randomly divided into 3 treatments: 1) non-punctured control group, 2) saline-injected control group, and 3) NAG solution-injected group (1.5 mg/egg). At 17.5 D of incubation, 300 μL of each solution was injected into each egg of injected groups. Results indicated that the hatchability and healthy chicken rate were not affected by NAG injection (P > 0.05). Chicks from NAG solution-injected group had significantly decreased average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio during 1-14 D than those in the non-punctured control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the non-punctured control group, IOF of NAG significantly increased the density of goblet cells in jejunum at hatch, duodenum at 7 D, and ileum at 14 D; decreased crypt depth in jejunum at hatch; and increased villus height in duodenum and jejunum and villus height:crypt depth ratio in duodenum at 7 D (P < 0.05). The intestinal mRNA expression of Na-dependent neutral amino acid transporter, peptide transporter, and excitatory amino acid transporter 3 did not differ between groups at 7 or 14 D. However, the mRNA expression level of rBAT in jejunum significantly increased in the NAG solution-injected group than in the non-punctured control group at 7 D (P < 0.05). In conclusion, IOF of NAG (1.5 mg/egg) accelerated the early intestinal development by enhancing intestinal immune and absorption function, thereby positively affecting the feed efficiency for the first 2 wk post-hatch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597834PMC
July 2020

Effects of dietary corticosterone on the central adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway in broiler chickens.

J Anim Sci 2020 Jul;98(7)

Department of Biosystems, Division of Animal and Human Health Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Glucocorticoids (GCs) induce the activation of the central adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway in birds. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of corticosterone (CORT) supplemented in diet on the central AMPK signaling pathway in broilers. The average daily gain was reduced by CORT treatment, and the average daily feed intake remained unchanged. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and CORT contents were increased by CORT administration. In addition, CORT treatment decreased the relative weights of heart, spleen, and bursa and increased the relative weights of liver and abdominal fat. The glycogen contents in the liver and breast muscle were higher in the chicks treated with CORT. CORT treatment upregulated the gene expression of mammalian target of rapamycin, glucocorticoid receptor, AMPKα2, neuropeptide Y(NPY), liver kinase B1 (LKB1), AMPKα1, and fatty acid synthase in the hypothalamus. Moreover, CORT treatment increased the protein levels of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation and total AMPK and phosphorylated AMPK in the hypothalamus. Hence, CORT administration in the diet activated the LKB1-AMPK-NPY/ACC signaling pathway in the hypothalamus of broiler.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373321PMC
July 2020

Epidemiology and clinical course of COVID-19 in Shanghai, China.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):1537-1545

Department of Infection and Immunity, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is prevalent around the world. We aimed to describe epidemiological features and clinical course in Shanghai. We retrospectively analysed 325 cases admitted at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, between January 20 and February 29, 2020. 47.4% (154/325) had visited Wuhan within 2 weeks of illness onset. 57.2% occurred in 67 clusters; 40% were situated within 53 family clusters. 83.7% developed fever during the disease course. Median times from onset to first medical care, hospitalization and negative detection of nucleic acid by nasopharyngeal swab were 1, 4 and 8 days. Patients with mild disease using glucocorticoid tended to have longer viral shedding in blood and feces. At admission, 69.8% presented with lymphopenia and 38.8% had elevated D-dimers. Pneumonia was identified in 97.5% (314/322) of cases by chest CT scan. Severe-critical patients were 8% with a median time from onset to critical disease of 10.5 days. Half required oxygen therapy and 7.1% high-flow nasal oxygen. The case fatality rate was 0.92% with median time from onset to death of 16 days. COVID-19 cases in Shanghai were imported. Rapid identification, and effective control measures helped to contain the outbreak and prevent community transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1787103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7473125PMC
December 2020

Clinical progression of patients with COVID-19 in Shanghai, China.

J Infect 2020 05 19;80(5):e1-e6. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, 2901 Caolang Road, Shanghai 201508, China. Electronic address:

Background: Studies on the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have generally been limited to the description of the epidemiology and initial clinical characteristics. We investigated the temporal progression in patients with COVID-19.

Methods: In this retrospective, single-center study, we included confirmed cases of COVID-19 from Jan 20 to Feb 6, 2020 in Shanghai. Final date of follow-up was February 25, 2020.

Results: Of the 249 patients enrolled, the median age was 51 years old, and 126 (50.6%) were male. The duration from onset of symptoms to hospitalization was 4(2-7) days in symptomatic patients. Fever was occurred in 235(94.3%) patients. A total of 215 (86.3%) patients had been discharged after 16(12-20) days hospitalization. The estimated median duration of fever in all the patients with fever was 10 days (95 confidential intervals [CIs]: 8-11 days) after onset of symptoms. Patients who were transferred to intensive care units (ICU) had significantly longer duration of fever as compared to those not in ICU (31 days v.s. 9 days after onset of symptoms, respectively, P <0.0001). Radiological aggravation of initial image was observed in 163 (65.7%) patients on day 7 after onset of symptoms. 154(94.5%) of these patients showed radiological improvement on day 14. The median duration to negative reverse-transcriptase PCR tests of upper respiratory tract samples was 11 days (95 CIs: 10-12 days). Viral clearance was more likely to be delayed in patients in ICU than those not in ICU (P <0.0001). In multivariate logistical analysis, age (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.06) and CD4 T cell count (OR = 0.55 per 100 cells/ul increase) were independently associated with ICU admission.

Conclusions: The majority of COVID-19 cases are mild. The clinical progression pattern suggests that early control of viral replication and application of host-directed therapy in later stage is essential to improve the prognosis of CVOID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102530PMC
May 2020

Astragaloside IV attenuates IL-1β secretion by enhancing autophagy in H1N1 infection.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2020 02;367(4)

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Fifth People's Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Excessive secretion of inflammatory factors (cytokine storm) plays a significant role in H1N1-induced acute pneumonia, and autophagy acts as a cell-intrinsic mechanism to regulate inflammation. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), originating from the astragalus root, possesses multiple pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammation. However, the influences of AS-IV on H1N1-induced autophagy and inflammation have remained elusive. It has been reported that H1N1 infection leads to the accumulation of autophagosomes but obstructs autophagosomes incorporating into lysosomes, whereas the present study showed that AS-IV enhanced autophagy activation in H1N1 infection. Furthermore, we found that AS-IV promoted H1N1-triggered formation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes. Additionally, it was noted that AS-IV did not affect viral replication, mRNA level of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and pro-IL-1β protein level, but significantly decreased secretion of IL-1β, and chloroquine (CQ, as an inhibitor of autophagy) increased secretion of IL-1β in H1N1 infection. In conclusion, AS-IV stimulates the formation of autophagosomes and the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes in H1N1 infection and may lead to decreased IL-1β secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnaa007DOI Listing
February 2020

An infectious clone of enterovirus 71(EV71) that is capable of infecting neonatal immune competent mice without adaptive mutations.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 21;9(1):427-438. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Pathogen Diagnosis and Biosafety, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen that causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which is a life threatening disease in certain children. The pathogenesis of EV71-caused HFMD is poorly defined due to the lack of simple and robust animal models with severe phenotypes that recapitulate symptoms observed in humans. Here, we generated the infectious clone of a clinical isolate from a severe HFMD patient. Virus rescued from the cDNA clone was infectious in cell lines. When administrated intraperitoneally to neonatal ICR, BALB/c and C57 immune competent mice at a dosage of1.4 × 10 pfu per mouse, the virus caused weight loss, paralysis and death in the infected mice after 4-5 days of infection. In the infected mice, detectable viral replication was detected in various tissues such as heart, liver, brain, lung, kidney, small intestine, leg skeletal muscle and medulla oblongata. The histology of the infected mice included massive myolysis, glomerular atrophy, villous blunting in small intestine, widened alveolar septum, diminished alveolar spaces and lymphocytes infiltration into the lung. By using the UV-inactivated virus as a control, we elucidated that the virus first amplified in the leg skeletal muscle tissue and the muscle tissue served as a primary viral replication site. In summary, we generated a stable EV71 infectious clone that is capable of infecting neonatal immune competent mice without adaptive mutations and provide a simple, valuable animal model for the studies of EV71pathogenesis and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1729665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048218PMC
March 2020

Risk Factors for Postoperative Prolonged Ventilation Time in Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Patients Received Modified Aortic Root Procedure.

Heart Surg Forum 2019 12 17;22(6):E476-E480. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Background: Postoperative prolonged ventilation time (PPVT) is associated with increased mortality in acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD). The aim of this study is to investigate risk factors for PPVT in ATAAD patients.

Methods: We retrospectively collected ATAAD patient data for those who received modified aortic root procedure and extensive arch repair between June 2017 and June 2018 at our institution. Patients were included in PPVT (N = 30) and No-PPVT (N = 72) groups, according to whether postoperative ventilation time > 72 hours. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were adopted to determine the independent risk factors for PPVT.

Results: More female in the PPVT Group (56.67% versus 23.61%, P < .05). Max diameter (MD) of ascending aorta was wider in the PPVT Group (4.71 ± 1.02 versus 4.30 ± 0.61, P < .05). Postoperative data showed a higher in-hospital mortality in the PPVT Group (26.67% versus 5.56%, P < .05). There were more patients in the PPVT Group who experienced postoperative acute renal failure (ARF) (36.67% versus 5.56%, P < .05). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed female gender, MD of ascending aorta > 4.05 cm, and postoperative ARF were independent risk factors for PPVT with the OR of 3.55 (1.13 - 11.20, P < .05), 2.89 (1.02 - 8.22, P < .05), and 4.31 (1.03 - 18.02, P < .05), respectively.

Conclusions: In the present study, we determined female gender, MD of ascending aorta > 4.05 cm, and postoperative ARF within 72 hours were independent risk factors for PPVT in ATAAD patients received modified root procedure and extensive arch repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1532/hsf.2553DOI Listing
December 2019

Effects of dietary energy level on appetite and central adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in broilers.

J Anim Sci 2019 Nov;97(11):4488-4495

Department of Animal Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong, China.

Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a sensor of cellular energy changes and is involved in the control of food intake. A total of 216 1-d-old broilers were randomly allotted into 3 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 12 broilers in each cage. The dietary treatments included 1) high-energy (HE) diet (3,500 kcal/kg), 2) normal-energy (NE) diet (3,200 kcal/kg), and 3) low-energy (LE) diet (2,900 kcal/kg). The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on appetite and the central AMPK signal pathway. The results showed that a HE diet increased average daily gain (ADG), whereas a LE diet had the opposite effect (P < 0.05, N = 6). The average daily feed intake (ADFI) of the chickens fed the LE diet was significantly higher than that of the control (P < 0.05, N = 6). Overall, the feed conversion rate gradually decreased with increasing dietary energy level (P < 0.05, N = 6). Moreover, the chickens fed the LE and HE diets demonstrated markedly improved urea content compared with the control group (P < 0.0001, N = 8). The triglyceride (TG) content in the LE group was obviously higher than that in the HE group but showed no change compared with the control (P = 0.0678, N = 8). The abdominal fat rate gradually increased with increased dietary energy level (P = 0.0927, N = 8). The HE group showed downregulated gene expression levels of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cholecystokinin (CCK), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hypothalamus compared with the control group (P < 0.05, N = 8). However, LE treatment significantly increased the mRNA level of AMP-activated protein kinase α2 (AMPKα2) compared with other groups (P = 0.0110, N = 8). In conclusion, a HE diet inhibited appetite and central AMPK signaling. In contrast, a LE diet activated central AMPK and appetite. Overall, the central AMPK signal pathway and appetite were modulated in accordance with the energy level in the diet to regulate nutritional status and maintain energy homeostasis in birds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skz312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6827410PMC
November 2019

Sharp selective scattering of red, green, and blue light achieved via gain material's loss compensation.

Opt Express 2019 Mar;27(6):9189-9204

Frequency-selective scattering of light can be achieved by metallic nanoparticle's localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). And this property may find an application in a transparent projection screen: ideally, specially designed metallic nanoparticles dispersed in a transparent matrix only selectively scatter red, green and blue light and transmit the visible light of other colors. However, optical absorption and surface dispersion of a metallic nanoparticle, whose size is comparable or smaller than mean free path of electrons in the constituent material, degenerate the desired performance by broadening the resonance peak width (i.e., decreasing frequency-selectivity) and decreasing light scattering intensity. In this work, it is shown that the problem can be solved by introducing gain material. Numerical simulations are performed on nanostructures based on silver (Ag), gold (Au) or aluminum (Al) with or without gain material, to examine the effect of gain material and to search for suitable structures for sharp selective scattering of red, green and blue light. And it is found that introducing gain material greatly improves performance of the structures based on Ag or Au except the structures based on Al. The most suitable structures for sharp selective scattering of red, green and blue light are, respectively, found to be the core-shell structures of silica/Au (core/shell), silica/Ag and Ag/silica, all with gain material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.009189DOI Listing
March 2019

Two-dimensional ferromagnetism and driven ferroelectricity in van der Waals CuCrPS.

Nanoscale 2019 Mar;11(12):5163-5170

State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, P. R. China.

Multiferroic materials have the potential to be applied in novel magnetoelectric devices, for example, high-density non-volatile storage devices. During the last decades, research on multiferroic materials was focused on three-dimensional (3D) materials. However, 3D materials suffer from dangling bonds and quantum tunneling in nano-scale thin films. Two-dimensional (2D) materials might provide an elegant solution to these problems, and thus are highly in demand. Using first-principles calculations, we predicted ferromagnetism and electric-field-driving ferroelectricity in the monolayer and even in the few-layers of CuCrP2S6. Although the total energy of the ferroelectric phase of the monolayer is higher than that of the antiferroelectric phase, the ferroelectric phases can be realized by applying a large electric field. Besides the degrees of freedom in the common multiferroic materials, the valley degree of freedom is also polarized, according to our calculations. The spins, electric dipoles and valleys are coupled with each other as shown in the computational results. In our experiment, we observed the out-of-plane ferroelectricity in few-layer CuCrP2S6 (approximately 13 nm thick) at room temperature. 2D ferromagnetism of few-layers is inferred from the magnetic hysteresis loops of the massively stacked nanosheets at 10 K. The experimental observations support our calculations very well. Our findings may provide a series of 2D materials for further device applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr00738eDOI Listing
March 2019

Effects of glucocorticoids on lipid metabolism and AMPK in broiler chickens' liver.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Jun 19;232:23-30. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Animal Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018, China. Electronic address:

Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism in animals. In this study, we examined whether any cross talk exists between glucocorticoids and AMPK in the regulation of the liver bile acid biosynthesis pathway. Dexamethasone treatment decreased the growth performance of broiler chickens. The liver mRNA levels of fatty acid transport protein (FATP-1), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), AMPK alpha 1 subunit (AMPKα1), and glucocorticoid receptor were significantly upregulated in DEX-treated broilers; the gene expression of liver cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) was significantly downregulated. The protein level of liver CYP7A1 was significantly decreased by DEX treatment at both 24 and 72 h, while the protein level of p-AMPK/ t-AMPK stayed unchanged. In the in vitro cultured hepatocytes, compound C pretreatment blocked the increase in CYP7A1 protein level by DEX and significantly suppressed FATP-1, SREBP-1c, FXR, and CYP7A1 gene expression stimulated by DEX. Compound C treatment significantly reduces the protein level of p-AMPK, and the combination of compound C and DEX significantly reduces the protein level of t-AMPK. Thus, glucocorticoids affected liver AMPK and the bile acid synthesis signal pathway, and AMPK might be involved in the glucocorticoid effect of liver bile acid synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2019.02.001DOI Listing
June 2019

Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Tissue Acquisition Using Fork-Tip Needle Improves Histological Yield, Reduces Needle Passes, Without On-Site Cytopathological Evaluation.

J Pancreat Cancer 2018 31;4(1):75-80. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center, Fontana, California.

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle biopsy (FNB) and fine needle aspiration (FNA) are established methods in tissue acquisition. A new fork-tip FNB needle has been used to obtain core tissue samples. We compared the performance of the FNB using fork-tip needles with that of the FNA using conventional needles in patients who had solid neoplastic lesions within and around the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In this retrospective single-center study, patients who underwent EUS examinations for solid neoplastic lesions between October 2013 and February 2017 were included. The procedures were performed in the absence of an on-site cytologist. The main objectives were to compare the diagnostic yield and average number of passes of FNB using fork-tip needles versus those of FNA using conventional needles. EUS/FNA and EUS/FNB were performed on 181 solid neoplastic lesions primarily in the pancreas and GI tract walls. There was no significant difference in patient's age, gender, tumor location, or tumor size. The mean number of needle passes was significantly lower in the fork-tip needle group than in the conventional needle group (3.8 vs. 5.9;  < 0.0001). There was a trend toward higher sensitivity (89.9% vs. 81%) using the fork-tip needles than when using the conventional needles ( = 0.119). No significant difference in rates of adverse events between two groups was found. Our study demonstrates that, compared with FNA using conventional needles, FNB using fork-tip needles required significantly fewer needle passes while achieving a relatively higher diagnostic yield due to its superior capacity in tissue acquisition from solid neoplastic lesions in and around GI tract walls without on-site cytological assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/pancan.2018.0018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371597PMC
October 2018

Effect of xanthan gum on the prevention of intra-abdominal adhesion in rats.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Apr 26;126:531-538. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Shandong Academy of Pharmaceutical Science, Key Laboratory of Biopharmaceuticals, Engineering Laboratory of Polysaccharide Drugs, National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Polysaccharide Drugs, New Drug Evaluation Center, Jinan 250101, China. Electronic address:

Postoperative adhesions remain a significant concern following abdominal surgery. Polymer barriers are widely used to prevent adhesions, although none have been able to completely prevent adhesions in all situations. Therefore, it is still crucial to develop new products that are effective in a variety of surgical applications. In this study, XG with different concentrations (0.5%-2%, w/v) and molecular weight (M) (2.5 × 10 Da-6.9 × 10 Da) were prepared to estimate their potential application as an injectable tissue adhesion barrier. The results showed that XG exerts an anti-adhesion effect in the rat abdominal cavity. For XG with M of 5.5 × 10 Da, a 1% or greater concentration was needed to form a gel with required effect as an anti-adhesion agent. The 1% XG gel with high M (6.9 × 10 Da) was more effective for the prevention of adhesions compared to a commercially available gel (1.2% sodium hyaluronate). Histological and cytotoxic evaluation demonstrated that XG gel showed no side effect during wound healing, and had no in vitro cytotoxicity to L929 cells. Moreover, rheological analysis was conducted to correlate the anti-adhesion effect with the rheological behavior of XG gels. This investigation suggests that XG has good potential value in intra-abdominal adhesion prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.12.233DOI Listing
April 2019

Potential 2D Materials with Phase Transitions: Structure, Synthesis, and Device Applications.

Adv Mater 2019 Nov 4;31(45):e1804682. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

CAS Key Laboratory of Standardization and Measurement for Nanotechnology, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, 100190, P. R. China.

Layered materials with phase transitions, such as charge density wave (CDW) and magnetic and dipole ordering, have potential to be exfoliated into monolayers and few-layers and then become a large and important subfamily of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Benefitting from enriched physical properties from the collective interactions, long-range ordering, and related phase transitions, as well as the atomic thickness yet having nondangling bonds on the surface, 2D phase-transition materials have vast potential for use in new-concept and functional devices. Here, potential 2D phase-transition materials with CDWs and magnetic and dipole ordering, including transition metal dichalcogenides, transition metal halides, metal thio/selenophosphates, chromium silicon/germanium tellurides, and more, are introduced. The structures and experimental phase-transition properties are summarized for the bulk materials and some of the obtained monolayers. In addition, recent experimental progress on the synthesis and measurement of monolayers, such as 1T-TaS , CrI , and Cr Ge Te , is reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201804682DOI Listing
November 2019

Spontaneous valley splitting and valley pseudospin field effect transistors of monolayer VAgPSe.

Nanoscale 2018 Aug 11;10(29):13986-13993. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, P. R. China. and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871, P. R. China.

Valleytronics has attracted much attention due to its potential applications in the information processing industry. Creation of permanent valley polarization (PVP), i.e. unbalanced occupation at different valleys, is a vital requirement for practical devices in valleytronics. However, the development of an appropriate material with PVP remains a main challenge. Here we used first-principles calculations to predict that the spin-orbit coupling and magnetic ordering allow spontaneous valley Zeeman-type splitting in the pristine monolayer of VAgPSe. After suitable doping of VAgPSe, the Zeeman-type valley splitting results in a PVP, similar to the effect of spin polarization in spintronics. The VAgPSe monolayer has nonequivalent valleys which can emit or absorb circularly polarized photons with opposite chirality. It thus shows great potential to be used as a photonic chirality filter and a circularly polarized light source. We then designed a valley pseudospin field effect transistor (VPFET) based on the monolayer VAgPSe, akin to the spin field effect transistors. In contrast to the current common transistors, VPFETs carry information of not only the electrons but also the valley pseudospins, far beyond common transistors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8nr04253eDOI Listing
August 2018