Publications by authors named "Zhigang Cao"

54 Publications

UPLC-MS/MS assay for the simultaneous determination of pyrotinib and its oxidative metabolite in rat plasma: Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Jul 31:e5221. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Laboratory, Xiangyang City Central Blood Station, Xiangyang, Hubei Province, China.

Pyrotinib is an irreversible EGFR/HER2 inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of breast cancer. The aim of this work was to establish a quantification method for the simultaneous determination of pyrotinib and its metabolite pyrotinib-lactam in rat plasma using UPLC-MS/MS. After simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile, the analytes and internal standard (neratinib) were separated on an ACQUITY BEH C column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) using a mobile phase of water containing 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. The detection was performed using selected reaction monitoring mode with precursor-to-product ion transitions at m/z 583.2 > 138.1 for pyrotinib, m/z 597.2 > 152.1 for pyrotinib-lactam, and m/z 557.2 > 112.1 for internal standard. The assay exhibited excellent linearity in the concentration range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL for pyrotinib and pyrotinib-lactam. The assay met the criteria of the United States Food and Drug Administration-validated bioanalytical methods and was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of pyrotinib and its metabolite for the first time. Our results demonstrated that pyrotinib rapidly converted into pyrotinib-lactam, whose in vivo exposure was 21% that of pyrotinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5221DOI Listing
July 2021

Optical feedback interferometry with 40  km transmission distance based on a distributed feedback fiber laser.

Opt Lett 2021 Aug;46(15):3805-3808

This Letter proposes an all-fiber self-mixing interferometric method based on laser feedback technology with long transmission distance, which has advantages of high sensitivity and compact structure. We theoretically and experimentally verify that the measurement distance of the self-mixing sensor is not limited to the coherence length of the solitary laser used. In the experiment, the velocity of a non-cooperative target was successfully measured with 40 km transmission distance. Therefore, the all-fiber self-mixing Doppler velocimeter has a great application prospect in the field of remote sensing measurement. Its unique flexibility can be applied to a variety of complex environments of non-cooperative target measurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.433658DOI Listing
August 2021

Method for controlling temperature sensitivity of the fiber intermodal sensor and its application in the torsion sensor.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(5):6756-6767

Temperature crosstalk has always been a critical problem for fiber intermodal sensors. In this work, we have proposed a novel method based on the special temperature response of photosensitive fiber to control the temperature sensitivity of the fiber intermodal sensor. The control of temperature sensitivity has been realized via adjusting the proportion of photosensitive fiber to single-mode fiber in the sensing part. The temperature sensitivity as high as -192 pm/°C, and as low as -2.6 pm/°C can be obtained, satisfying the demand in both research and application. The torsion sensor is taken as an example to illustrate feasibility of this method, showing no evident interference in the measurement of torsion parameters. The proposed method outstrips the conventional one by simple structure, facile manufacture, multiple use and low cost, which brings great promise for further employment in laboratory and industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.415206DOI Listing
March 2021

Optimized remote sensing estimation of the lake algal biomass by considering the vertically heterogeneous chlorophyll distribution: Study case in Lake Chaohu of China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 27;771:144811. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Due to the difference of vertical distribution of algae in lakes, it is necessary to carry out remote sensing estimation of algal biomass based on the vertically heterogeneous distribution of chlorophyll in order to improve the accuracy of biomass inversion. A new algorithm is proposed and validated to measure algal biomass in Lake Chaohu based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) images. The algal biomass index (ABI) is defined as the difference in remote-sensing reflectance (R, sr) at 555 nm normalized against two baselines with one formed linearly between R(859) and R(469) and another formed linearly between R(645) and R(469). Both theory and model simulations show that ABI has a good relation with the algal biomass in the euphotic zone (R = 0.88, p < 0.01, N = 50). Field data were further used to estimate the biomass outside the euphotic layer through an empirical algorithm. The ABI algorithm was applied to MODIS Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (R) data after testing the sensitivity to sun glint and thickness of aerosols, which showed an acceptable precision (root mean square error < 21.31 mg and mean relative error < 16.08%). Spectral analyses showed that ABI algorithm was immune to concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) but relatively sensitive to suspended particulate inorganic matter (SPIM), which can be solved by using Turbid Water Index (TWI) though in such a challenging environment. A long-term (2012-2017) estimation of algal biomass was further calculated based on the robust algorithm, which shows both seasonal and spatial variations in Lake Chaohu. Tests of ABI algorithm on Sentinel-3 OLCI demonstrates the potential for application in other remote sensors, which meets the need of observation using multi-sensor remote sensing in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144811DOI Listing
June 2021

Multifactor Prognostic Evaluation of Postoperative Craniopharyngiomas.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jan-Feb 01;32(1):228-232

Department of Neurosurgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Purpose: To evaluate various factors that could be associated with the postoperative prognosis of patients with craniopharyngiomas and provide evidence for the proper surgical course and optimal outcome assessments of craniopharyngiomas.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study and reviewed 68 patients with craniopharyngiomas who received surgery from May 2013 to October 2018. The relationships between the disease prognosis and age, gender, onset symptoms, size of tumor, degree of calcification, consistency, QST classification, adhesion strength, and pathological types were analyzed.

Results: There were no significant associations between the prognosis and age, gender, number of onset symptoms, and pathological types (P > 0.05). The severity of onset symptoms, tumor diameter, and degree of calcification was significantly associated with the prognosis (P < 0.05). There were significant different prognoses between patients with cystic and solid, mixed tumors (P < 0.05). The prognosis of patients with T type tumors was different from that of patients with either Q or S type tumors (P < 0.05). The prognoses of patients with either loose or tight type tumors were significantly different from those of patients with either invasive or fusion type tumors (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Clinical and pathological variables, such as onset symptoms, size of tumor, degree of calcification, consistency, QST classification, and the degree of adhesion strength, were important factors in evaluating the prognosis of patients with craniopharyngiomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006910DOI Listing
April 2021

Satellite Estimation of Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in China's Lake Taihu.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 11 20;54(21):13709-13718. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China.

Lakes play an important role in the global carbon cycle; however, there are still large uncertainties in the estimation of global lake carbon emission due to the limitations in conducting field surveys at large geographic scales. Using long-term Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and field observation data in eutrophic Lake Taihu, we developed a novel approach to estimate the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO) in lakes. Based on the MODIS-derived chlorophyll- concentration, lake surface temperature, diffuse attenuation coefficient of photosynthetically active radiation, and photosynthetically active radiation, a spatially explicit CO model was developed using multivariate quadratic polynomial regression (coefficient of determination () = 0.84, root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 11.81 μmol L, unbiased percent difference (UPD) = 22.46%). Monte Carlo simulations indicated that the model is stable with relatively small deviations in CO estimates caused by input variables (UPD = 26.14%). MODIS data from 2003 to 2018 showed a significant declining trend (0.42 μmol L yr, < 0.05) in the annual mean CO. This was associated with a complex balance between the increasing algae biomass and decreasing external inputs of inorganic carbon, nutrients, and organic matter. The high spatiotemporal variabilities in CO were attributed to river inputs and seasonal changes in temperature and algae biomass. The study shows that satellite remote sensing can play an important role in the field of inland water carbon cycling, providing timely much-needed insights into the drivers of the spatial and temporal changes in dissolved CO concentrations in inland waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c04044DOI Listing
November 2020

DLX6-AS1 accelerates cell proliferation through regulating miR-497-5p/SNCG pathway in prostate cancer.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Mar 9;36(3):308-319. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Urology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Prostate cancer (PCa) has become the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in males worldwide. Although the long noncoding RNA DLX6-AS1 has been recognized to be an oncogene in multiple cancers, the biological function and regulatory mechanism of DLX6-AS1 in prostate cancer are still obscure. In the present study, we observed that DLX6-AS1 was significantly upregulated in PCa tissues and cells. Knockdown of DLX6-AS1 inhibited PCa progression by suppressing cell proliferation and accelerating cell apoptosis. Molecular mechanism exploration indicated that DLX6-AS1 acted as a sponge for miR-497-5p and synuclein gamma (SNCG) was a downstream target gene of miR-497-5p. In addition, there was a negative correlation between DLX6-AS1 and miR-497-5p in PCa tissues. Rescue assays showed that SNCG overexpression could partially recover DLX6-AS1 knockdown-mediated inhibition of progression in PCa. Furthermore, xenograft tumor model was established to determine the role of DLX6-AS1 in PCa tumor growth and the results suggested that DLX6-AS1 could facilitate tumor growth by regulating SNCG in vivo. In conclusion, our study investigated the biological function and underlying mechanism of DLX6-AS1 in PCa and validated that DLX6-AS1 functioned as an oncogene through miR-497-5p/SNCG axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.23036DOI Listing
March 2021

Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian mink disease virus from fecal swab of mink in northeast China.

BMC Microbiol 2020 08 1;20(1):234. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 4899 Juye Street, Changchun, 130122, Jilin Province, P. R. China.

Background: Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV) causes Aleutian mink disease (AMD), which is a serious infectious disease of mink. The aim of this study was to get a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in northeast China to control and prevent AMD from further spreading. This study for the first time isolated AMDV from fecal swab samples of mink in China.

Results: A total of 157/291 (54.0%) of the fecal swab samples were positive for AMDV. Of these, 23 AMDV positive samples were randomly selected for sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis based on the acquired partial fragments of VP2 gene with the hypervariable region. Comparative DNA sequence analysis of 23 AMDV isolates with a reference nonpathogenic (AMDV-G) strain revealed 8.3% difference in partial VP2 nucleotide sequences. Amino acid alignment indicated the presence of several genetic variants, as well as one single amino acid residue deletion. The most concentrated area of variation was located in the hypervariable region of VP2 protein. According to phylogenetic analysis, the Chinese AMDV strains and the other reference AMDV strains from different countries clustered into three groups (clades A, B and C). Most of the newly sequenced strains were found to form a Chinese-specific group, which solely consisted of Chinese AMDV strains.

Conclusion: These findings indicated that a high genetic diversity was found in Chinese AMDV strains and the virus distribution were not dependent on geographical origin. Both local and imported AMDV positive species were prevalent in the Chinese mink farming population. The genetic evidence of AMDV variety and epidemic isolates have importance in mink farming practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-020-01910-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7395569PMC
August 2020

IL-17F facilitates prostate cancer cell malignant phenotypes via activation of the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway.

Andrologia 2020 Nov 15;52(10):e13750. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Urology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is known as one of the most common cancers in men all over the world. Previous studies have identified that the pro-inflammatory mediator interleukin-17F (IL-17F) aggravates the progression of several diseases. However, whether IL-17F plays a role in PCa is still lack of enough exploration. In this study, IL-17F expression was strikingly upregulated in PCa tissues. Treatment of IL-17F promoted cell viability at a dose-dependent manner. Further, functional assays were implemented by treatment of 100 ng/ml of IL-17F. Cell viability, proliferation, migration, invasion and stemness were promoted by 100 ng/ml of IL-17F. IL-17F increased the expression of p-PI3K and p-AKT in PCa cells, indicating that IL-17F might activate the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway in PCa cells. LY294002 (the inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway) could reverse the facilitating effects of IL-17F treatment on PCa cell viability, proliferation, migration, invasion and stemness. Taken together, current study revealed that IL-17F facilitated PCa cell malignant phenotypes via activation of the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway, offering a potential therapeutic target for PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.13750DOI Listing
November 2020

Identification of Linear B-Cell Epitopes on Hemagglutinin Protein of Canine Distemper Virus Using Two Monoclonal Antibodies.

Front Vet Sci 2020 28;7:47. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Institute of Special Economic Animal and Plant Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, China.

Canine distemper virus (CDV) belongs to the genus of the Paramyxoviridae family, which causes a threat to the domestic dog and fur-animal industry. Hemagglutinin protein is a major membrane protein of the vital molecular factor in CDV tropism, also known to induce hosts to produce neutralizing antibodies. In the current study, we prepared two monoclonal antibodies, 1A5 and 2B8, against the H protein of the CDV-PS strain. A series of partially overlapping synthetic peptides covering the hemagglutinin protein (amino acids 50-204) were screened to define the linear epitope identified by 1A5 and 2B8 mAbs. QKTNFFNPNREFDFR (F8) and ARGDIFPPY (F14-1) are minimal linear epitopes recognized by 1A5 and 2B8 mAbs, respectively. Further investigations revealed that F8 is conserved in different CDV strains; however, F14-1 contains mutant residues 178, 179, and 180. The epitopes F8 and F14-1 localized at the surface of hemagglutinin protein in a three-dimensional (3D) structure. CDV-infected dog serum can also recognize the identified B-cell epitopes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058631PMC
February 2020

Variations of suspended particulate concentration and composition in Chinese lakes observed from Sentinel-3A OLCI images.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 7;721:137774. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

The concentration and composition of suspended particulate matter provide important information for evaluating water quality and understanding the variability in the underwater light field in lakes. In this study, inherent optical property (IOP)-centered algorithms were developed to estimate the concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chla, [mg/m]) and suspended particulate matter (SPM, [g/m]) and the Chla/SPM ratio (an indicator of the suspended particulate composition) of 118 lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze and Huai Rivers (MLYHR) of China using Sentinel-3A/OLCI (Ocean and Land Colour Instrument) data collected from August 2016 to July 2018. The mean Chla concentration and Chla/SPM ratio were high in summer and low in winter, while the mean SPM peaked in winter and decreased in summer. The 94 lakes in the Yangtze River basin had a higher mean Chla concentration (30.94 ± 14.84) and Chla/SPM ratio (0.97 × 10 ± 0.60 × 10), but a lower mean SPM (44.87 ± 12.61) than the 24 lakes in the Huai River basin (Chla: 27.35 ± 12.18, Chla/SPM: 0.79 × 10 ± 0.48 × 10, SPM: 47.31 ± 13.40). Regarding the mean values of each lake, Chla and Chla/SPM ratio correlated well with temperature, whereas the wind speed and precipitation had little effect on the variations of suspended particulate matter. Moreover, shipping transportation and sand dredging activities affected the spatial distribution of Chla, SPM, and Chla/SPM in several large lakes (e.g., Lake Poyang and Lake Dongting). Chla/SPM related well with other proxies that express the suspended particulate composition, and had a significant correlation with the Chla-specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton at 443 nm (a(443)). The remotely sensed concentration and composition of suspended particulate matter can provide a comprehensive reference for water quality monitoring and expand our knowledge of the trophic status of the lakes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137774DOI Listing
June 2020

ABCB1 polymorphism predicts the toxicity and clinical outcome of lung cancer patients with taxane-based chemotherapy.

Thorac Cancer 2019 11 30;10(11):2088-2095. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Thoracic Medical Oncology-I, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China.

Background: Taxane-based chemotherapy is widely used in lung cancer. ABCB1 have a role in the prediction of treatment response and toxicity of chemotherapy in solid tumors. In this retrospective study, we investigated ABCB1 polymorphism on response and toxicity in taxane-based chemotherapy in lung cancer patients.

Methods: A total of 122 lung cancer patients who received taxane-based chemotherapy were included in this study. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for ABCB1 polymorphism detection. Turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay was used for pharmacokinetic analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0.

Results: The frequency of the ABCB1 2677 site TT/TG/GG genotype was 32.8%, 43.4% and 23.8%, respectively and the frequency of the 3435 sites the TT/TC/CC genotype was 13.9%, 44.3% and 41.8%, respectively. The occurrence of neurotoxicity was higher in patients who had ABCB1 3435 site mutation (TT 88.2%, TC 22.2%, CC 21.6% P = 0.004). There was no significant difference between ABCB1 genotypes with regard to other chemotherapy-induced toxicity. For non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, those harboring ABCB1 2677 and 3435 site wild-type patients had longer median progression-free survival (PFS) in the paclitaxel subgroup (3435 site: TT 3.87 vs. TC 9.50 vs. CC 14.13 months; P < 0.001; 2677 site: TT 4.37 vs. TG 9.73 vs. GG 12.1 months; P = 0.013). The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 20 patients treated with docetaxel increased for ABCB1 mutation subgroups.

Conclusion: ABCB1 mutation is associated with higher neurotoxicity of taxane-based chemotherapy. It also predicts shorter PFS for NSCLC in paclitaxel-based treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825927PMC
November 2019

Protective Effect of Diphenhydramine against Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats via Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.

Pharmacology 2020 25;105(1-2):47-53. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China,

Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered a major burden across the globe affecting both individuals and their families. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the protective effect of diphenhydramine (DPM) against TBI in experimental rats.

Methods: The effect of DPM was evaluated on the cerebral edema (CE) and neuronal degeneration after the induction of experimental brain injury in rats. The effect of DPM was also investigated on the inflammatory cytokines, for example, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 1β and oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Western blot analysis was used to investigate the effect of DPM on B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and cleaved caspase-3.

Results: Results of the study suggest that DPM causes reduction in CE and prevents neuronal degeneration. It also causes reduction in inflammation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The level of Bax was found to be elevated, together with reduction in the Bcl-2 level in the DPM-treated group.

Conclusion: DPM exerts a neuroprotective effect after TBI via the attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial apoptosis pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000502767DOI Listing
October 2020

Viral Nonstructural Protein 1 Induces Mitochondrion-Mediated Apoptosis in Mink Enteritis Virus Infection.

J Virol 2019 11 29;93(22). Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Key Laboratory of Special Animal Epidemic Disease, Institute of Special Animal and Plant Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, China

Mink enteritis virus (MEV), an autonomous parvovirus, causes acute hemorrhagic enteritis in minks. The molecular pathogenesis of MEV infection has not been fully understood. In this study, we observed significantly increased apoptosis in the esophagus, small intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, and kidney in minks experimentally infected with strain MEVB. infection of feline F81 cells with MEVB decreased cell viability and induced cell cycle arrest at G phase and apoptosis. By screening MEV nonstructural proteins (NS1 and NS2) and structural proteins (VP1 and VP2), we demonstrated that the MEV NS1 induced apoptosis in both F81 and human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells, similar to that induced during MEV infection in minks. We found that the NS1 protein-induced apoptosis in HEK293T cells was mediated not by the death receptor but by the mitochondrial pathway, as demonstrated by mitochondrial depolarization, opening of mitochondrial transition pore, release of cytochrome , and activation of caspase-9 and -3. Moreover, in -transfected cells, we observed an increase of Bax expression and its translocation to the mitochondria, as well as an increased ratio of the Bax/Bcl-2, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p53. Taken together, our results demonstrated that MEV induces apoptosis through activation of p38 MAPK and the p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway induced by NS1 protein, which sheds light on the molecular pathogenesis of MEV infection. MEV causes fatal hemorrhagic enteritis in minks. Apoptosis is a cellular mechanism that effectively sacrifices virus-infected cells to maintain homeostasis between the virus and host. In this study, we demonstrated that MEV induces apoptosis both and Mechanistically, the viral large nonstructural protein NS1 activates p38 MAPK, which leads p53 phosphorylation to mediate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway but not the death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway. This is the first report to uncover the mechanism underlying MEV-induced apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01249-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819940PMC
November 2019

Catastrophic effects of sand mining on macroinvertebrates in a large shallow lake with implications for management.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Dec 31;695:133706. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, PR China. Electronic address:

Sand mining is a human activity that is increasing in inland waters and has profound effects on entire aquatic ecosystems. However, current knowledge of the effects of sand mining on freshwater lake ecosystems remains limited, especially for biotic communities. Here, we investigated the responses of macroinvertebrates to indiscriminate sand mining in a large shallow lake of China. Our results indicated that sand mining significantly increased the content of suspended particulate matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll a in the water column both in the sand mining area and the area adjacent to the dredging activities. While there was significantly lower total nitrogen and the total phosphorus content of the sediment were observed in the sand mining area. In terms of benthic animals, there were reductions of the macroinvertebrate density and biomass of 89.80% and 99.54%, respectively, and there was a considerable decline of the majority of macroinvertebrate taxonomic taxa as well as biological traits observed in the sand mining area due to direct dredging-induced substrate deterioration and high turbidity water. Moreover, in the area adjacent to the dredging activities, dredging-induced high turbidity water also resulted in 28% and 79% decreases in macroinvertebrate density and biomass, respectively, with a significant decrease in the densities of Bivalvia and Polychaeta but an increase in the density of Crustacea. In terms of biological traits, species (e.g., Grandidierella sp. and Sphaerium lacustre) characterized by a small body size, short life cycle and dietary sources mainly from sediment were typically associated with the ecological condition of the indirect effects of the dredging activities. Taxa (e.g., Corbicula fluminea) with a larger body size and longer life cycle that are filter feeders should be favored by the ecological conditions of the reference sites. For biomonitoring of sand mining perturbations, a number of taxonomic and biological trait indicators were proposed in our study based on indicator value analysis, and the general applicability of trait-based indicators was highlighted. We also suggest that the biodiversity indices may be less suitable indicators of sand mining effects. Given the limited understanding of the responses of macroinvertebrates to sand mining in inland freshwaters, we believe that our results may provide important information for biomonitoring of sand mining activities and provide scientific management support to governments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133706DOI Listing
December 2019

The functions of microRNA-124 on bladder cancer.

Onco Targets Ther 2019 7;12:3429-3439. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Urology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

To detect the expression of miR-124 in bladder cancer (BC) cell lines and tissue specimens and to analyze its association with the growth of the BC cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was applied to examine the expression of miR-124 in BC cell lines and tissues. The function of miR-124 in modulating cell proliferation was assessed in BC cells with miRNA-124 overexpression; the cell viability was identified by Cell Count Kit-8; flow cytometry was employed to detect the cell cycle; the expressions of E2F3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), Ki-67 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were tested by qPCR and Western blot; angiogenesis experiment was performed to analysis changes in angiogenesis rate; and bioinformatics prediction and dual luciferase reporter system were employed to identify the target of miR-124. Survival curve data showed that the expression of MicroRNA-124 was positively correlated with survival. MicroRNA-124 expression was significantly decreased in BC cell lines and tissues. Bioinformatics prediction and dual luciferase reporter system verified CDK4 as a direct target of miR-124, which regulated the proliferation of BC cells by directly inhibiting CDK4. BC cells over-expressing miR-124 showed significantly inhibited cell viability, decreased angiogenesis rate, prevented cell proliferation and diminished the expression of E2F3, CDK4, Ki-67 and VEGF. All of these changes were reversed by over-expressing CDK4. MicroRNA-124 suppressed the proliferation of CRC cells by directly targeting CDK4, which provides a target for improving the therapeutic effect of BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S193661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6511623PMC
May 2019

Exosome-derived miR-27a produced by PSC-27 cells contributes to prostate cancer chemoresistance through p53.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 07 29;515(2):345-351. Epub 2019 May 29.

Department of Urology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major malignancy in men. Hitherto that date, surgical or chemical castration is the standard treatment to PCa. Nevertheless, there are still many patients with initial treatment progress to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). There are many effective chemotherapeutic drugs for mCRPC, but the tumors will be resistant to these chemotherapeutic drugs, which is an urgent problem to be solved. Specifically, tumor therapy resistance driven by the pathologically active host stroma has gradually becoming the spotlight of oncotherapy in recent years. The exosome-derived miR-27a plays an important role in PCa cell chemoresistance. However, the functions of miR-27a on PCa developing chemoresistance remain unknown. In the present study, we aimed to construct potential regulatory networks of exosomal miR-27a in PCa chemoresistance. The expression of miR-27a was significantly increased by treatment with cisplatin, doxorubicin (DOX) and docetaxel in PCa tissues. We next co-cultured PCa cells (PC3 cells) with primary prostate fibroblasts (PSC27 cells) to explore the mechanisms of tumor therapy resistance. Further studies delineate that exosome-derived miR-27a produced by PSC-27 cells improved chemoresistance by restraining the expression of P53 gene. Our studies provide a new direction for exploring the effects of PCa tumor microenvironment of chemoresistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.05.120DOI Listing
July 2019

Simultaneous detection and differentiation of canine parvovirus and feline parvovirus by high resolution melting analysis.

BMC Vet Res 2019 May 10;15(1):141. Epub 2019 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Special Animal Epidemic Disease, Ministry of Agriculture, No. 4899, Juye Street, Jingyue District, Changchun, 130112, People's Republic of China.

Background: Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline parvovirus (FPV) are causative agents of diarrhea in dogs and cats, which manifests as depression, vomiting, fever, loss of appetite, leucopenia, and diarrhea in young animals. CPV and FPV can single or mixed infect cats and cause disease. To diagnose sick animals effectively, an effective virus diagnostic and genome typing method with high sensitivity and specificity is required.

Results: In this study, a conserved segment containing one SNP A4408C of parvovirus was used for real-time PCR amplification. Subsequently, data were auto-analyzed and plotted using Applied Biosystems® High Resolution Melt Software v3.1. Results showed that CPV and FPV can be detected simultaneously in a single PCR reaction. No cross-reactions were observed with canine adenovirus, canine coronavirus, and canine distemper virus. The assay had a detection limit of 4.2 genome copies of CPV and FPV. A total of 80 clinical samples were subjected to this assay, as well as to conventional PCR-sequence assay and virus isolation. Results showed that the percentage of agreement of the assay and other methods are high.

Conclusions: In short, we have developed a diagnostic test for the accurate detection and differentiation of CPV and FPV in fecal samples, which is also cost effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1898-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6511188PMC
May 2019

[Association of inflammatory indices with the severity of urinary sepsis: analysis of 70 cases].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2019 Jan;39(1):93-99

Department of Urology, The 940th Hospital of Joint Logistics Support Force of Chinese People's Liberation Army, Lanzhou 730050, China.

Objective: To analyze the association of the clinical inflammatory indices with the severity of urinary sepsis.

Methods: We reviewed the clinical data of 70 patients with urinary sepsis treated in our hospital between January, 2013 and April, 2018. All the patients were diagnosed in line with the Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Urological Diseases in China (2014 edition), including 22 patients with sepsis, 12 with hypotension and severe sepsis, 17 with septic shock, and 19 with critical septic shock. White blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil percentage (N%), platelets (PLT), fibrinogen (FIB), Ddimer, interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were examined in all the cases and compared among the 4 groups. The correlations of these inflammatory markers with the severity of sepsis were analyzed using logistic regression analysis.

Results: The 4 groups of patients showed significant differences in N%, PLT, D-dimer, and PCT ( < 0.05) but not in CRP (>0.05). Kruskal-Wallis Pairwise comparisons showed that the N% and PCT in patients with sepsis differed significantly from those in the other 3 groups; platelets in patients with sepsis differed significantly from those in patients with septic shock and critical septic shock; D-dimer differed significantly between patients with sepsis and those with septic shock. Among the 4 groups, the median levels of PLT decreased and PCT and N% increased with the worsening of sepsis. Logistic regression analysis indicated that PCT (=0.186, =0.000), N% (=0.047, =0.035) and PLT (=-0.012, =0.003) were significantly correlated with the severity of sepsis in these patients.

Conclusions: PCT, PLT and N% are all significantly correlated with the severity of sepsis, and their combined detection can be informative for assessing the severity of sepsis to facilitate clinical decisions on treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2019.01.15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6765581PMC
January 2019

Welcome to the .

Authors:
Zhigang Cao

AME Case Rep 2017 13;1. Epub 2017 Sep 13.

Editor-in-Chief, AME Case Reports, AME Publishing Company, Hong Kong, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/acr.2017.09.01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6155719PMC
September 2017

Identification of linear B-cell epitopes on the phosphoprotein of canine distemper virus using four monoclonal antibodies.

Virus Res 2018 09 10;257:52-56. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Institude of Special Animal and Plant Sciences of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,4899 Juye Street, Changchun, Jilin Province 130122, PR China. Electronic address:

The highly contagious canine distemper virus (CDV) is a non-segmented single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus, which belongs to the Morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family. The phosphoprotein (P) of CDV plays the important role in the virus replication and pathogenesis. In this study, we characterized four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated as Pc7, Pc8, Pc11 and Pc25 MAbs against the P protein of CDV-PS strain. A series of overlapping P protein-derived peptides representing the CDV-PS phosphoprotein (aa232-507) were screened to identify linear peptide epitopes recognized by each MAb. Finally, four epitopes, SHGMGIVAGSTN (E2-9), GPSVSAENVRQ (E6-2), INPELRPIIGR (E27-2) and TQSALKSTG (E4-9), are minimal linear epitopes recognized by the Pc7, Pc8, Pc11 and Pc25 MAbs, respectively. Each identified B-cell epitope was able to be recognized by CDV positive dog serum. Alignment analysis of the amino acid sequences indicated that the linear B-cell epitope of the Pc11 MAb is relatively conserved among different CDV strains, but the linear B-cell epitopes recognized by Pc7, Pc8 and Pc25 MAbs are not conserved among CDV strains. Our results revealed that the E27-2 peptide might be a common B-cell binding epitope of CDV antibodies. These findings may provide a useful basis for the development of new diagnostic assays for CDV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2018.08.021DOI Listing
September 2018

A New Participant in the Pathogenesis of Alcoholic Gastritis: Pyroptosis.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 23;49(1):406-418. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Department of General Surgery, Harbin, China.

Background/aims: Alcohol abuse exerts deleterious effects on the internal organs of the body, and alcohol-related gastritis is a common disease for which prompt treatment is essential to prevent the condition from growing worse. However, the therapeutic methods have some adverse effects. Determining the pathogenic mechanisms of alcoholic gastritis is therefore essential.

Methods: The MTT assay was developed in order to determine the optimal concentration of alcohol needed to treat gastric mucosal cells. The effects of alcohol on the gastric mucosal cells were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot. The release of IL-1β and IL-18 were determined by ELISA assay. The immunofluorescence assay was used to detect caspase-1 activation levels, while immunohistochemical assay and HE staining were performed to identify the effectiveness of the caspase-1 inhibitor on alcoholic gastritis. The TUNEL assay was used to determine DNA fragmentation.

Results: Here, we clarified that ethanol treatment could cause cell DNA damage, activate caspase-1, and promote the generation and release of IL-1β and IL-18. In other words, ethanol could induce pyroptosis. Interestingly, a caspase-1 inhibitor could significantly suppress pyroptosis, decrease the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by ethanol, and cause no side effects in vivo and in vitro.

Conclusion: Collectively, our results showed that pyroptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced gastritis and that caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-yvad-cmk could effectively decrease the damage caused by alcohol, making it a potentially promising agent for the treatment of alcoholic gastritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000492902DOI Listing
September 2018

Detection of illicit sand mining and the associated environmental effects in China's fourth largest freshwater lake using daytime and nighttime satellite images.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jan 26;647:606-618. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.

Illegal sand mining activities are rampant in coastal and inland water around the world and result in increased water turbidity, reduced water transparency, damage to fish spawning sites and adverse effects on the health of aquatic ecosystems. However, many sand dredging vessels hide during the day and work at night, rendering conventional monitoring measures ineffective. In this study, illegal sand dredging activities and the associated aquatic environmental effects were investigated in Lake Hongze (the fourth largest freshwater lake in China) using both conventional daytime satellite data, including MODIS/Aqua and Landsat TM/ETM data as well as VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB) nighttime light (NTL) data, the following results were obtained. (1) The Landsat data revealed that sand dredging vessels first appeared in February 2012 and their number (monthly average: 658) peaked in 2016, and sand dredging stopped after March 2017. (2) The VIIRS NTL data were satisfactory for monitoring nighttime illegal dredging activities, and they more accurately reflected the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of dredging vessels due to their high frequency. (3) Observations from the MODIS data acquired since 2002 showed three distinct stages of changes in the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations of Lake Hongze that were consistent with the temporal distributions of sand dredging vessels. (4) The contribution of dredging vessels to the increases in SPM concentration was quantitatively determined, and nighttime sand dredging activities were found to have disturbed the waters more significantly. (5) The effectiveness of government measures implemented at various stages to control illegal sand dredging activities were scientifically evaluated. This study provides technological support for government monitoring and the control of illegal sand dredging activities and can serve as a valuable reference for water bodies similar to Lake Hongze worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.359DOI Listing
January 2019

Characterization of a uronate dehydrogenase from Thermobispora bispora for production of glucaric acid from hemicellulose substrate.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Jun 23;34(7):102. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, GinLing College, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210097, People's Republic of China.

A thermostable uronate dehydrogenase Tb-UDH from Thermobispora bispora was over-expressed in Escherichia coli using the T7 polymerase expression system. The Tb-UDH was purified by metal affinity chromatography, and gave a single band on SDS-PAGE. The maximum activity on glucuronic acid was found at 60 °C and pH 7.0. The purified enzyme retained over 58% of its activity after holding a pH ranging from 7.0 to 7.5 for 1 h at 60 °C. The K and V values of the purified Tb-UDH for Glucuronic acid (GluUA) were 0.165 mM and 117.7 U mg, respectively, those for galacturonic acid (GalUA) were 0.115 mM and 104.2 U mg, respectively, and those for NAD were 0.120 mM and 133.3 U mg, respectively; the turnover number (k) with GluUA as a substrate was higher than that with GalUA; however, the Michaelis constant (K) for GalUA was lower than that for GluUA. After 60 min of incubation at 50 °C, Tb-UDH exhibited a conversion ratio for glucuronic acid to the glucaric acid of 84% on chemical reagent and 81.3% on hydrolysates from breech xylans formed by xylanase and α-glucuronidase. This work shows that biocatalytic routes have great potential for the conversion of hemicellulose substrate into value-added products derived from renewable biomass. TOC GRAPHIC: (A) The structure of the xylan is described and the site of action of the xylan degrading enzyme is indicated. (B) The effect of substrate concentration on recombinant Tb-UDH activity when galacturonic acid was used as substrate. (C) SDS-PAGE analysis of E. coli BL21 (DE3) harboring pET-20b(+) and pET-20b-Tb-UDH. (D) Oxidative conversion of glucuronic acid from a beechwood xylan to glucaric acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-018-2486-8DOI Listing
June 2018

Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification-Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis for Detection and Differentiation of Wild-type and Vaccine Strains of Mink Enteritis Virus.

Sci Rep 2018 05 30;8(1):8393. Epub 2018 May 30.

Key Laboratory of Special Animal Epidemic Disease, Ministry of Agriculture, Changchun, 130112, People's Republic of China.

Broad coverage of mink enteritis virus (MEV) vaccination program in northeast of China has provided effective protection from mink viral enteritis. Nevertheless, MEV vaccine failures were reported due to continually evolving and changing virulence of field variants or wild-type MEV. In this study, a combined loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) method, named LAMP-SNP assay, was developed for detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of MEV. Four primers in MEV-VP2-LAMP were used to detect both wild-type and vaccine strains of MEV in our previous publication, and other four primers in LAMP-SNP were designed to amplify the NS1 gene in wild-type MEV and only used to detect wild-type viruses. The LAMP-SNP assay was performed in a water bath held at a constant temperature of 65 °C for 60 min. LAMP-SNP amplification can be judged by both electrophoresis and visual assessment with the unaided eyes. In comparison with virus isolation as the gold standard in testing 171 mink samples, the percentage of agreement and relative sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP-SNP assay were 97.1, 100%, and 94.0%, respectively. There were no cross-reactions with other mink viruses. The LAMP-SNP assay was found to be a rapid, reliable and low-cost method to differentiate MEV vaccine and field variant strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26717-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5976767PMC
May 2018

MicroRNA-493 is a prognostic factor in triple-negative breast cancer.

Cancer Sci 2018 Jul 27;109(7):2294-2301. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer in Shanghai, Department of Breast Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases in women. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) shows higher aggressiveness and recurrence rates than other subtypes, and there are no effective targets or tailored treatments for TNBC patients. Thus, finding effective prognostic markers for TNBC could help clinicians in their ability to care for their patients. We used tissue microarrays (TMAs) to detect microRNA-493 (miR-493) expression in breast cancer samples. A miRCURY LNA detection probe specific for miR-493 was used in in situ hybridization assays. Staining results were reviewed by two independent pathologists and classified as high or low expression of miR-493. Kaplan-Meier survival plots and multivariate Cox analysis were carried out to clarify the relationship between miR-493 and survival. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with high miR-493 expression had better disease-free survival than patients with low miR-493 expression. After adjusting for common clinicopathological factors in breast cancer, the expression level of miR-493 was still a significant prognostic factor in breast cancer. Further subtype analysis revealed that miR-493 expression levels were only significantly prognostic in TNBC patients. These results were validated in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium database for overall survival. We proved the prognostic role of miR-493 in TNBC by using one of the largest breast cancer TMAs available and validated it in a large public RNA sequencing database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.13644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6029816PMC
July 2018

A multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR for detection and differentiation of four antigenic types of canine parvovirus in China.

Mol Cell Probes 2018 04 27;38:7-12. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Key Laboratory of Special Animal Epidemic Disease, Ministry of Agriculture, PR China, Institute of Special Animal and Plant Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun 130112, China. Electronic address:

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important pathogen in domestic dogs, and the original antigenic types CPV-2 and its variants, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c, are prevalent worldwide. A multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR method was developed for the detection and differentiation of four antigenic types of CPV. A set of primers and probes, CPV-305F/CPV-305R and CPV-2-305P (for CPV-2)/CPV-2a-305P (for CPV-2a, 2b and 2c), was able to differentiate CPV-2 and its variants (CPV-2a, 2b and 2c). Another set of primers and probes, CPV-426F/CPV-426R and CPV-2-426P (for CPV-2 and 2a)/CPV-2b-426P (for CPV-2b)/CPV-2c-426P (for CPV-2c), was able to differentiate CPV-2a (2), CPV-2b, and CPV-2c. With these primers and probes, the multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR assay detected effectively and differentiated CPV-2, 2a, 2b and 2c by two separate real-time PCRs. No cross reactivity was observed with canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus, and canine coronavirus. The detection limit of the assay is 10 genome copies/μL for CPV-2, CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and 10 copies/μL for CPV-2c. The multiplex real-time PCR has 100% agreement with DNA sequencing. We provide a sensitive assay that simultaneously detects and differentiate four antigenic types of CPV and the method was also used for quantification of CPVs viral genome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2018.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7126752PMC
April 2018

Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Proteome Alterations in CDV-Infected Mink Lung Epithelial Cells.

Front Microbiol 2017 22;8:2564. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

State Key Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Special Economic Animals, Institute of Special Economic Animal and Plant Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, China.

Canine distemper virus (CDV), a paramyxovirus, causes a severe highly contagious lethal disease in carnivores, such as mink. Mink lung epithelial cells (Mv.1.Lu cells) are sensitive to CDV infection and are homologous to the natural host system of mink. The current study analyzed the response of Mv.1.Lu cells to CDV infection by iTRAQ combined with LC-MS/MS. In total, 151 and 369 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were markedly up-regulated or down-regulated, respectively. Thirteen DEPs were validated via real-time RT-PCR or western blot analysis. Network and KEGG pathway analyses revealed several regulated proteins associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway. Further validation was performed by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay, which demonstrated that different CDV strains induced NF-κB P65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Moreover, the results provided interesting information that some identified DEPs possibly associated with the pathogenesis and the immune response upon CDV infection. This study is the first overview of the responses to CDV infection in Mv.1.Lu cells, and the findings will help to analyze further aspects of the molecular mechanisms involved in viral pathogenesis and the immune responses upon CDV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5743685PMC
December 2017

Identification of a novel linear B-cell epitope using a monoclonal antibody against the carboxy terminus of the canine distemper virus nucleoprotein and sequence analysis of the identified epitope in different CDV isolates.

Virol J 2017 09 29;14(1):187. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, China.

Background: The Nucleoprotein (NP) is the most abundant and highly immunogenic protein in canine distemper virus (CDV), playing an important role in CDV viral replication and assembly.

Results: In this study, a specific monoclonal antibody, named C8, was produced against the NP protein C terminal (amino acids 401-523). A linear N protein epitope was identified by subjecting a series of partially overlapping synthesized peptides to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis.The results indicated that GDKYPIHFNDER was the minimal linear epitope that could be recognized by mAb C8. Sequence alignments demonstrated that this linear epitope is less conserved among three CDV genotypes. We next analyzed the level of conservation of the defined epitope in19 Chinese CDV clinical isolates, and it has one site variation in amino acid among these CDV isolations. 2 isolates have the amino acid mutations F451L, while one has P448Ssubstitution.Phylogenetic analysis showed the two isolates with F451Lsubstitution had a closer relationship in a virulent strain ZJ-7, so the epitope may be a significant tag associated with virus virulence.

Conclusion: This collection of mAb along with defined linear epitope may provide useful reagents for investigations of NP protein function and the development of CDV specific diagnostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-017-0858-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622507PMC
September 2017

Preparation and evaluation of a novel N-benzyl-phenethylamino-β-cyclodextrin-bonded chiral stationary phase for HPLC.

Talanta 2017 Nov 3;174:179-191. Epub 2017 Jun 3.

College of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China. Electronic address:

A novel N-benzyl-phenethylamino-β-cyclodextrin-bonded ordered mesoporous SBA-15 chiral stationary phase (BZCDP) for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was prepared. The structure and morphology of the ligand and the stationary phase were characterized by mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The enantiomers of chiral compounds including nine common β-adrenergic blocker drugs (β-blockers), eight dansyl amino acids (DNS-AA) and six flavanones were successfully separated by polar organic solvent and reversed-phase chromatography, respectively. The results showed that BZCDP was a kind of multimode chiral separation materials with an excellent chromatographic performance for the above compounds. In polar organic solvent mode, BZCDP can effectively separate β-blockers, in which the enantioselectivity factors and resolutions of β-blockers were up to 1.30 and 1.97 within 20min, respectively. Under the reversed-phase mode, BZCDP exhibited high enantioselectivities for DNS-AA, among them the resolution of dansyl-tyrosine was 3.29 with 20min. BZCDP was also successfully used to separate the flavanone compounds with methanol or acetonitrile as mobile phase. The resolution of 4'-hydroxy flavanone enantiomers reached to 3.65 about 15min. Compared with the native β-cyclodextrin and γ-cyclodextrin-bonded stationary phases in the literature, the separation speed of BZCDP containing mono-N-benzyl-phenethylamino-β-cyclodextrin ligand was faster and the separation selectivity was better, which indicated that the N-benzyl-phenethylamino group could also take part in the chiral recognition. After further study, we found that in polar organic solvent mode, the inclusion and hydrogen bonding were the main forces of chiral separations, and in reversed-phase mode, the inclusion and hydrophobic interaction are the main driving forces for chiral separations. Besides excellent chromatographic performance, the home-made cyclodextrin column with mesoporous SBA-15 as the matrix was much cheaper than commercial columns, and good permeability, which can reduce the cost of test and provide fast separation. BZCDP has a good prospect in chiral drug analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2017.06.009DOI Listing
November 2017
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