Publications by authors named "Zhifang Yang"

57 Publications

Tuning the electrochemical performance of TiC and HfC monolayer by functional groups for metal-ion battery applications.

Nanoscale 2021 Jul;13(26):11534-11543

Faculty of Chemistry, National & Local United Engineering Laboratory for Power Batteries, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China.

It is extremely important to design and explore high-efficiency anode materials in metal-ion batteries with strong stability, good electronic conductivity, and high storage capacity. Mxenes are susceptible to functionalization due to the presence of dangling bonds on the surface; thus, their chemical properties can be tuned accordingly by functional groups, which provide an opportunity to design novel materials with good electrochemical performance. The geometry and stability of Ti3C2X2 and Hf3C2X2 (X = Si, P, S, and Cl) monolayers are explored with the aid of density functional theory and the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. Ti3C2X2 and Hf3C2X2 (X = S, Cl) exhibit high thermodynamic stability than Ti3C2X2 and Hf3C2X2 (X = Si, P) as found from formation energy and AIMD simulations. Then, the electrochemical performance of S- and Cl-functionalized Ti3C2 and Hf3C2 monolayers was further explored for use as anode materials in metal-ion batteries (including Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, and Al). The high structural stability, metallic nature, low diffusion energy barrier, and proper open circuit voltage make Ti3C2 and Hf3C2 monolayer-functionalized with S and Cl as rechargeable metal-ion anode materials. More importantly, the stable multilayer adsorption of Li and Na (Li and Na: up to two layers) ensures high capacities for the Ti3C2S2 monolayer in Li- and Na-ion batteries (462.86 and 462.86 mA h g-1, respectively). In particular, compared with other 2D materials, Ti3C2S2 monolayer exhibits a higher capacity when used as an anode electrode material for Mg-ion batteries, mainly due to the perfect matching of the diameter of Mg and the lattice constant of Ti3C2S2. The results show that S- and Cl-functionalized Mxenes are promising metal-ion anode materials and provide valuable insights into the next generation of energy storage and conversion devices. This discovery is of positive significance for the design of new MXenes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr07899aDOI Listing
July 2021

MiR-27a-3p enhances the cisplatin sensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway.

Biosci Rep 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Xinjiang Medical University Affiliated First Hospital, Urumqi, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in drug-resistance, and it's reported that MiR-27a-3p regulated the sensitivity of cisplatin in breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer. However, the relationship between miR-27a-3p and chemosensitivity of cisplatin in HCC was unclear, especially the underlying mechanism was unknown. In present study, we analyzed miR-27a-3p expression levels in 372 tumor tissues and 49 adjacent tissues in HCC samples from TCGA database, and found that the miR-27a-3p was downregulated in HCC tissues. The level of miR-27a-3p was associated with metastasis, Child-Pugh grade and race. MiR-27a-3p was regarded as a favorable prognosis indicator for HCC patients. Then, miR-27a-3p was overexpressed in HepG2 cell, and was knockdown in PLC cell. Next, we conducted a series of vitro assays, including MTT, apoptosis and cell cycle assays to observe the biological changes. Further, inhibitor rate and apoptosis rate were detected with pre- and post-cisplatin treatment in HCC. The results showed that overexpression of miR-27a-3p repressed the cell viability, promoted apoptosis and increased the percentage of cells in phase G0/G1 phase. Importantly, overexpression of miR-27a-3p significantly increased the inhibitor rate and apoptosis rate with cisplatin intervention. Besides, we found that miR-27a-3p added cisplatin sensitivity potentially through regulating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, MiR-27a-3p acted as a tumor suppressor gene in HCC cells, and it could be useful for modulating cisplatin sensitivity in chemotherapy therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20192007DOI Listing
June 2021

The analgesic evaluation of gabapentin for arthroscopy: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(20):e25740

Department of Orthopedics, Affiliated Yueqing Hospital,Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China.

Introduction: The efficacy of gabapentin for pain management of arthroscopy remains controversial. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the influence of gabapentin versus placebo on the postoperative pain intensity of arthroscopy.

Methods: We search PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases through April 2020 for randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of gabapentin versus placebo on pain control of arthroscopy. This meta-analysis is performed using the random-effect model.

Results: Five randomized controlled trials are included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control group for arthroscopy, gabapentin remarkably decreases pain scores at 24 hour (standard mean difference [SMD]=-0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]=-1.15 to -0.02; P = .21), analgesic consumption (SMD = -18.24; 95% CI=-24.61 to -11.88; P < .00001), nausea and vomiting (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.84; P = .01), but has no obvious influence on pain scores at 6 h (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI = -2.92 to 0.31; P = .11) or dizziness (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.56 to 2.24; P = .75).

Conclusions: Gabapentin is effective for pain control after arthroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137103PMC
May 2021

A Rapid Intraoperative Parathyroid Hormone Assay Based on the Immune Colloidal Gold Technique for Parathyroid Identification in Thyroid Surgery.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 22;11:594745. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Objective: A novel immunochromatographic test strip method was developed to detect tissue parathyroid hormone (PTH) using the immune colloidal gold technique (ICGT). The accuracy and application value of this method for intraoperative parathyroid identification were evaluated.

Methods: Serum samples were collected to measure PTH by both ICGT and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Patients who underwent unilateral and total thyroidectomy were enrolled to evaluate the feasibility and clinical efficacy of rapid intraoperative identification of parathyroid glands PTH determination using ICGT. Two sample preparation methods, fine needle aspiration (FNA) and tissue block homogenate (TBH), were used for PTH-ICGT analysis.

Results: Bablok analysis showed a linear relationship between the serum PTH measurements obtained by ICGT and ECLIA. Non-parathyroid tissues had much lower PTH concentrations (14.8 ± 2.1 pg/ml, n = 97) detected by ICGT, compared to the parathyroid gland tissues (955.3 ± 16.1 pg/ml, n = 79; P < 0.0001), With biopsy results as the standard, ICGT showed higher diagnosis rates as compared with direct visual inspection, for identifying both parathyroid glands (97.4 vs. 78.2%) and non-parathyroid tissues (100 vs. 68.9%). The cut-off values for parathyroid identification by FNA and TBH methods were 63.99 and 136.30 pg/ml, respectively. The detection time was 2 min by TBH method for tissue detection and 6 min by FNA method for tissue detection, both of which were faster than traditional intraoperative cryopathological examination (usually >30 min). Intraoperative application of ICGT method was associated with higher postoperative serum calcium and blood PTH levels at 1 and 3 months as well as a lower incidence of postoperative transient hypocalcemia, as compared with direct visual inspection.

Conclusion: PTH-ICGT assay shows high potential as a rapid, novel alternative for intraoperative parathyroid identification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.594745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101177PMC
May 2021

3D integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a square-core fiber and dual-layer arrayed waveguide gratings.

Opt Express 2021 Jan;29(2):2090-2098

We present a 3D integrated wavelength demultiplexer using a square-core fiber (SCF) and matched dual-layer arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs). The SCF works as a 3D fiber multimode interference device, which splits the input light into symmetric four spots. The spots are then coupled to a pitch-matched 4-waveguide network, each connecting an AWG. Interface waveguides are designed to improve the coupling efficiency between the SCF and the dual-layer chip. The four AWGs are designed with different central wavelengths and a large free spectral range (FSR) of 120 nm. To reach a small and uniform insertion loss among different channels, only the central channels of each AWG are used for demultiplexing. The device is fabricated on a polymer platform. The upper and lower layers of the chip are fabricated using the same photolithography mask but rotated 180° so that 4 different AWG designs can be mapped to a single chip. The measured transmission spectra of the four AWGs cover a bandwidth of 112 nm. The insertion loss variation is smaller than 1.4 dB. The designed device can find applications in fiber optic sensing, communication, and astronomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.414827DOI Listing
January 2021

Judicious design functionalized 3D-COF to enhance CO adsorption and separation.

J Comput Chem 2021 May 13;42(13):888-896. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

The effects of functional groups (including OH, OCH , NH , CH NH , COOH, SO H, OCO(CH ) COOH(E-COOH), and (CH ) COOH(c-COOH)) in 3D covalent organic frameworks (3D-COFs) on CO adsorption and separation are investigated by grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations and density functional theory calculations. The results indicate that interaction between CO and the framework is the main factor for determining CO uptakes at low pressure, while pore size becomes the decisive factor at high pressure. The binding energy of CO with functionalized linker is correlated to CO uptake at 0.3 bar and 298 K on 3D-COF-1, suggesting functional groups play a key role in CO capture in microporous 3D-COFs. Moreover, CO selectivity over CH , N , and H can be significantly enhanced by functionalization, where CH NH , COOH, SO H, and E-COOH enhance CO adsorption more effectively at 1 bar. Among them, SO H is the most promising functional group in 3D-COFs for CO separation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcc.26510DOI Listing
May 2021

Exploring the trade-offs between electric heating policy and carbon mitigation in China.

Nat Commun 2020 11 27;11(1):6054. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

State Key Laboratory of Control and Simulation of Power Systems and Generation Equipment, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing, China.

China has enacted a series of policies since 2015 to substitute electricity for in-home combustion for rural residential heating. The Electric Heating Policy (EHP) has contributed to significant improvements in air quality, benefiting hundreds of millions of people. This shift, however, has resulted in a sharp increase in electric loads and associated carbon emissions. Here, we show that China's EHP will greatly increase carbon emissions. We develop a theoretical model to quantify the carbon emissions from power generation and rural residential heating sectors. We found that in 2015, an additional 101.69-162.89 megatons of CO could potentially be emitted if EHP was implemented in 45-55% of rural residents in Northern China. In 2020, the incremental carbon emission is expected to reach 130.03-197.87 megatons. Fortunately, the growth of carbon emission will slow down due to China's urbanization progress. In 2030, the carbon emission increase induced by EHP will drop to 119.19-177.47 megatons. Finally, we conclude two kinds of practical pathways toward low-carbon electric heating, and provide techno-economic analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19854-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695859PMC
November 2020

In silico identification of strong binders of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jan 29;890:173701. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

College of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai, 201318, China. Electronic address:

The world is currently witnessing the spread of the deadly severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In less than three months since the first cases were reported, the World Health Organization declared it a pandemic disease. Although several treatment and prevention strategies are currently under investigation, a continuous effort to investigate and develop effective cures is urgently needed. Thus, we performed molecular docking and structure-based virtual screening of libraries of approved drugs, antivirals, inhibitors of protein-protein interactions, and one million other small molecules to identify strong binders of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) that might interfere with the receptor recognition process, so as to inhibit the viral cellular entry. According to our screening and selection criteria, three approved antivirals (elbasvir, grazoprevir, and sovaprevir) and 4 other drugs (hesperidin, pamaqueside, diosmin, and sitogluside) were identified as potent binders of the RBD. The binding of these molecules involved several RBD residues required for the interaction of the virus with its cellular receptor. Furthermore, this study also discussed the pharmacological action of the 4 non-antiviral drugs on hematological and neurological disorders that, in addition to inhibiting the viral entry, could be beneficial against the neurological disorders identified in COVID-19 patients. Besides, six other small-molecules were identified, with no pharmacological description so far, exhibiting strong binding affinities to the RBD that we believe worth being investigated as inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2-receptor interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598446PMC
January 2021

Model-Driven Architecture of Extreme Learning Machine to Extract Power Flow Features.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2020 Oct 9;PP. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Probabilistic power flow (PPF) calculation is an important power system analysis tool considering the increasing uncertainties. However, existing calculation methods cannot simultaneously achieve high precision and fast calculation, which limits the practical application of the PPF. This article designs a specific architecture of the extreme learning machine (ELM) in a model-driven pattern to extract the power flow features and therefore accelerate the calculation of PPF. ELM is selected because of the unique characteristics of fast training and less intervention. The key challenge is that the learning capability of the ELM for extracting complex features is limited compared with deep neural networks. In this article, we use the physical properties of the power flow model to assist the learning process. To reduce the learning complexity of the power flow features, the feature decomposition and nonlinearity reduction method is proposed to extract the features of the power flow model. An enhanced ELM network architecture is designed. An optimization model for the hidden node parameters is established to improve the learning performance. Based on the proposed model-driven ELM architecture, a fast and accurate PPF calculation method is proposed. The simulations on the IEEE 57-bus and Polish 2383-bus systems demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3025905DOI Listing
October 2020

Thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) for ultrasound features of nodules: multicentric retrospective study in China.

Endocrine 2021 04 27;72(1):157-170. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, The Affiliated Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital of Electronic Science and Technology University of China, Chengdu, 610071, China.

Purpose: To establish a practical and simplified Chinese thyroid imaging reporting and data system (C-TIRADS) based on the Chinese patient database.

Methods: A total of 2141 thyroid nodules that were neither cystic nor spongy were used in the current study. These specimens were derived from 2141 patients in 131 alliance hospitals of the Chinese Artificial Intelligence Alliance for Thyroid and Breast Ultrasound. The ultrasound features, including location, orientation, margin, halo, composition, echogenicity, echotexture, echogenic foci and posterior features were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the association between ultrasound features and malignancy. The regression equation, the weighting, and the counting methods were used to determine the malignant risk of the thyroid nodules. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az values) were calculated.

Results: Of the 2141 thyroid nodules, 1572 were benign, 565 were malignant, and 4 were borderline. Vertical orientation, ill-defined, or irregular margin (including extrathyroidal extension), microcalcifications, solid, and markedly hypoechoic were positively associated with malignancy, while comet-tail artifacts were negatively associated with malignancy. The logistic regression equation yielded the highest Az value of 0.913, which was significantly higher than that obtained using the weighting method (0.893) and the counting method (0.890); however, no significant difference was found between the latter two. The C-TIRADS, based on the counting method, was designed following the principle of balancing the diagnostic performance and sensitivity of the risk stratification with the ease of use.

Conclusions: A relatively simple C-TIRADS was established using the counting value of positive and negative ultrasound features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-020-02442-xDOI Listing
April 2021

Roles of vacuolar H-ATPase in mice treated with norepinephrine and acetylcholine.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2020 1;13(6):1300-1312. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, Murray State University Murray, KY, USA.

Norepinephrine (NE) is widely used to treat cardiac arrest and profound hypotension. A prolonged vasoconstriction of blood vessel could cause ischemia and hypoxia which results in a decrease in intracellular pH. V-ATPases pump protons across the plasma membranes of numerous cell types. V-ATPases-mediated intracellular regulation in the ischemic kidney is incompletely studied; we sought to determine the roles of V-ATPases in mice treated with NE causing vasoconstriction or acetylcholine causing vasodilatation to enable comparison of its relative contributions to the affected mice. Mice were divided into 5 groups. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine pathologic changes in nephron segments. The expression of V-ATPases B1, B2 subunits were examined by Q-PCR and western blotting correlated with the transcription and translation of V-ATPase. All NE treated mice exhibited pronounced renal tubular degradation. However, the tubular pathologies were reversed by ACh. In immunohistochemical studies, NE treated mice showed a higher density of staining in the collecting ducts. These changes were gradually diminished by the treatment with Ach after NE. In Q-PCR, V-ATPase B1 subunit showed a fair expression in all subsets. Western blotting analysis has shown V-ATPase B1 statistical significance in multiple groups treated by NE alone or ACh post to NE. The overdosage of norepinephrine in clinical treatment is harmful to the kidney by vasoconstriction caused hypoxia and acidosis. Our data demonstrated that acetylcholine as a vasodilating agent could aid the cells recovery from hypoxic condition. V-ATPase plays a role by removing H allowing cells to recover from cellular acidosis. These findings also help us understand the pathophysiology of renal tubular disorders.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344003PMC
June 2020

Increased expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor is associated with diabetic gastroparesis.

BMC Gastroenterol 2020 Jul 10;20(1):216. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences, 279 Zhouzhu Road, Pudong New District, Shanghai, China.

Background: Gastroparesis is a recognized complication of diabetes but its pathogenic mechanism incompletely understood. Our aim was to determine whether HIF-1α and VEGF are secreted from gastric tissue is a fundamental factor that drives diabetic gastroparesis.

Methods: Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley by a single intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin. After 4 and 12 weeks, rats were euthanized for assaying body weight, blood glucose, gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying. Morphologic changes in gastric mucosa were observed by the light microscope. Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF were assessed using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot analyses.

Results: Compared with control group, blood glucose were significantly increased and body weight were markedly decreased in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Gastric emptying was significantly decreased in diabetic rats compared to the control group at different times. The number of parietal cells was obviously decreased, and vacuolated degeneration in diabetic rats. Gastric acid secretion in diabetic group was significantly decreased, and expression of HIF-1α and VEGF were significantly increased in the diabetic group.

Conclusion: These results indicated that overexpression of HIF-1α and VEGF in the gastric mucosa and played a pivotal role in the progression of diabetic gastroparesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01368-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7350597PMC
July 2020

DGKζ Plays Crucial Roles in the Proliferation and Tumorigenicity of Human glioblastoma.

Int J Biol Sci 2019 20;15(9):1872-1881. Epub 2019 Jul 20.

Collaborative Research Center, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences, Shanghai, PR China.

Glioblastoma is one of the most malignant brain cancers in adults, and it is a fatal disease because of its untimely pathogenetic location detection, infiltrative growth, and unfavorable prognosis. Unfortunately, multimodal treatment with maximal safe resection, chemotherapy and radiation has not increased the survival rate of patients with glioblastoma. Gene- and molecular-targeted therapy is considered to be a promising anticancer strategy for glioblastoma. The identification of novel potential targets in glioblastoma is of high importance. In this study, we found that both the mRNA and protein levels of diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ) were significantly higher in glioblastoma tissues than in precancerous lesions. The silencing of DGKζ by lentivirus-delivered shRNA reduced glioblastoma cell proliferation and induced G0/G1 phase arrest. Moreover, knockdown of DGKζ expression in U251 cells markedly reduced colony formation and tumorigenic capability. Further study showed that DGKζ inhibition resulted in decreases in cyclin D1, p-AKT and p-mTOR. Moreover, the rescue or overexpression of DGKζ in glioblastoma cells demonstrated the oncogenic function of DGKζ. In conclusion, these studies suggest that the suppression of DGKζ may inhibit the tumor growth of glioblastoma cells with high DGKζ expression. Thus, DGKζ might be a potential therapeutic target in malignant glioblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.35193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6743304PMC
April 2020

Improved Stability and Enhanced Anti-Tumor Activity of Hyaluronic Acid Modified ES2-AF Nanoparticle-Like Conjugate.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2019 Aug;15(8):1781-1791

The growth, migration and spread of malignant tumors requires a large number of new blood vessels to supply nutrients. In our previous study, it was found that the hyaluronic acid (HA) modified novel antiangiogenic peptide ES2-AF has better solubility, longer half-life, stronger targeting than non-modified ES2-AF, and it significantly inhibited the formation of new blood vessels. In the current work, we studied the stability of ES2-AF after HA modification, including heat stability, longterm stability, and pH stability. After treatment with HA-ES2-AF, cell apoptosis and the cell cycle were analyzed using flow cytometry. The inhibitory effect of HA-ES2-AF on tumors was investigated in HepG2 tumor-bearing nude mice. All the above results showed that HA-ES2-AF significantly improved stability, effectively induced apoptosis of endothelial cells, caused G1 phase arrest of endothelial cells, and decreased the percentage of cells in G2 and S phases. , HA-ES2-AF exhibited an inhibitory effect on tumors growth. In addition, the results provide a reliable basis for studying the inhibition of neovascularization and anti-tumor drugs in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2019.2808DOI Listing
August 2019

Characterization and bioactivity of self-assembled anti-angiogenic chondroitin sulfate-ES2-AF nanoparticle conjugate.

Int J Nanomedicine 2019 10;14:2573-2589. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

National Glycoengineering Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong, People's Republic of China,

Background: In the past few years, significant progress has been made in inhibiting neovascularization at the tumor site, cutting off the nutrient supply of the tumor, and inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis. However, many proteins/peptides have the disadvantage of poor stability, short half-life, and uncertain targeting ability. Chemical modification can be used to overcome these disadvantages; many polyethylene glycol-modified proteins/peptides have been approved by US FDA. The purpose of this study was to obtain a novel anti-angiogenic chondroitin sulfate (CS)-peptide nanoparticle conjugate with efficient anti-neovascularization and tumor targeting ability and an acceptable half-life.

Materials And Methods: The CS-ES2-AF nanoparticle conjugate was synthesized and characterized using H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size and zeta potential analyzer. The anti-angiogenic ability was studied using MTT, migration, tube formation, and chick chorioallantoic membrane assays. The targeting ability of CS-ES2-AF was studied by ELISA, surface plasmon resonance, and bioimaging. The pharmacokinetics was also studied.

Results: The CS-ES2-AF could self-assemble into stable nanoparticles in aqueous solution, which significantly enhances its anti-neovascularization activity, tumor targeting more explicit, and prolongs its half-life.

Conclusion: CS is an effective protein/peptide modifier, and CS-ES2-AF displayed good potential in tumor targeting therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S195934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462165PMC
May 2019

[The mechanism underlying Gingko biloba extract alleviating acrylamide-induced inflammatory response of mouse microglia].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jan;35(1):6-12

College of Fundamental Medicine, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences, Shanghai 201318, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To investigate the effect of Gingko biloba extract (GBE) on microglial inflammatory response due to long-term low-dose arylamide (ACR) exposure and its underlying mechanism. Methods Primary microglial cells were extracted from neonatal mouse brain cortex. Using CCK-8 assay to detect cell proliferation and immunofluorescence cytochemistry to detect cleaved-caspase 3, the optimal concentration of ACR (0.1 mmol/L) treatment was determined in order to minimize the apoptotic toxicity of ACR (0.01~10 mmol/L, for 48 hours). GBE (100 mg/L) pre-treatment was given 2 hours before ACR treatment. After 48 hours of ACR treatment, immunocytochemistry was used to detect the expression of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (IBA-1) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) for observing the morphological alteration of microglia and NF-κB nuclear translocation, respectively. The concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and three inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α) in the culture media were examined with Griess reaction and ELISA kits. Real-time PCR was applied to measure mRNA expression levels of IBA-1 and other inflammatory cytokine genes. Recruitments of p65, Nurr1 and CoREST onto the promoter regions of those inflammatory cytokine genes were examined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Protein interaction between Nurr1 and CoREST was determined by protein immunoprecipitation. Results Long-term low-dose treatment of ACR transformed resting microglia towards activated morpholgy, activated the expression of inflammatory cytokine genes through NF-κB pathway, and resulted in extracellular release of those cytokines. Pre-treatment of GBE greatly prevented microglial activation and its adverse consequences. GBE decreased the recruitment of p65 on the promoter regions of inflammatory cytokine genes, while increased the recruitment of Nurr1-CoREST complex. Conclusion GBE can alleviate microglial inflammatory response induced by long-term low-dose ACR exposure by transrepression of inflammatory cytokine genes, which involves the expelling of p65 and the recruitment of Nurr1-CoREST complex onto NF-κB binding site in their promoters.
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January 2019

Investigation of two-dimensional hf-based MXenes as the anode materials for li/na-ion batteries: A DFT study.

J Comput Chem 2019 May 18;40(13):1352-1359. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Renmin Street 5268, Changchun 130024, China.

Density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate electronic properties and Li/Na storage capability of Hf C and its derivatives (uniform passivated: Hf C T [T = F, O, OH] and hybrid passivated: Hf C F O and Hf C O (OH) [x = 1.0, 1.5]). For Hf C monolayer, it has excellent performance, such as good conductivity, low diffusion energy barrier, low open circuit voltage, and high storage capacities (Li(1034.70 mAh g ), Na(444.90 mAh g )), providing the most prospective as anode material. However, due to the unsaturated dangling bonds of surface Hf, so it is easily passivated. For the uniform passivated ones, Hf C T , show higher diffusion barriers and lower storage capacities than bare monolayer Hf C . Nevertheless, compared with uniform passivated ones, the hybrid passivated derivative, Hf C F O and Hf C OOH possess a lower energy barrier and a better storage capacity. Therefore, Hf C F O and Hf C OOH are deemed to be a suitable candidate as anode electrode material for Li-ion batteries. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcc.25789DOI Listing
May 2019

Higher Anti-angiogenesis Activity, Better Cellular Uptake and Longer Half-life of a Novel Glyco-modified Endostatin by Polysulfated Heparin.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2018 ;19(12):996-1004

National Glycoengineering Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China.

Background: Endostatin (ES) is a promising anti-angiogenesis protein and has been approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, but short half-life, poor stability and nonspecific delivery caused great pain to patients and produced unsatisfactory treatment effectiveness.

Objective: In this work, in order to overcome these disadvantages, ES was covalently modified by polysulfated heparin (PSH) with the expectancy of longer half-life, higher anti-angiogenesis activity and better cellular uptake.

Methods: To characterize the cellular uptake, flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study the intracellular localization of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled ES and PSH-ES in EAhy926 endothelial cells. Zebrafish model was used to study the anti-angiogenesis activities of ES and its derivatives in vivo. The 125I-radiolabeled ES and PSH-ES were administered to healthy BALC/c mice for the pharmacokinetics study.

Results: Compared with ES, better cellular uptake effects were detected in PSH-ES group. Both ES and PSH-ES showed inhibition on the intersegmental vessels formation, while PSH-ES displayed a higher one. The half-life of PSH-ES was lengthened and area under the curve (AUC) was increased. At the same time, ES and PSH-ES were both widely and rapidly distributed in the lungs, livers, kidneys and hearts with little difference.

Conclusion: The results indicated that PSH displayed good properties as a novel glyco-modifier for protein and peptide. The results also showed that PSH-ES displayed better cellular uptake, higher antiangiogenesis activity and prolonged half-life, which would lead to better anti-tumour effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201020666181120164753DOI Listing
March 2019

Effects of the anti-angiogenic carbohydrate-peptide conjugate, chitooligosaccharide-ES2 on endothelial cells and tumor-bearing mice.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Mar 28;208:302-313. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong, PR China; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shanong, PR China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong, PR China. Electronic address:

Most solid tumors require neovascularization during their growth. In our previous study, ES2 (IVRRADRAAVP) was covalently conjugated to soluble chitooligosaccharide chloride (HTCOSC) to form one novel HTCOSC-ES2 conjugate, which displayed better anti-angiogenic activity. In this work, the intracellular distribution and endocytosis of the conjugate in endothelial cells, as well effects on endothelial cell cycle and apoptosis were investigated. In addition, pharmacokinetic and antitumor studies were conducted. HTCOSC-ES2 entered the cell via clathrin and lipid valve pathway and was transported to the nucleus via lysosomal transport mechanism. Unlike ES2, HTCOSC-ES2 effectively inhibited the growth of endothelial cells and promoted apoptosis; thus, it could inhibit tumor angiogenesis, resulting in strong anti-tumor activity in vivo. The half-life of HTCOSC-ES2 was also prolonged, and its clearance was delayed. Immunohistochemistry assays showed that HTCOSC-ES2 obviously reduced the microvessel density, decreased the expression of VEGF, and increased the expression of caspase-3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.12.089DOI Listing
March 2019

Characterization, bioactivity and pharmacokinetic study of a novel carbohydrate-peptide polymer: Glycol-split heparin-endostatin2 (GSHP-ES2).

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Mar 22;207:79-90. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, PR China; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, PR China. Electronic address:

Endostatin (ES) has attracted considerable attention for the treatment of anti-angiogenesis-related disorders. An 11-amino-acid peptide (ES2, IVRRADRAAVP) from the amino terminal of ES is of interest because it is the main active fragment of ES. However, both ES and ES2 have a poor stability and a short half-life, and other disadvantages need to be further resolved. Thus, we conjugated ES2 to glycol-split heparin derivatives (GSHPs) to yield the polymer-peptide conjugate, GSHP-ES2. This study showed that GSHP-ES2 exhibited increased stability, a wider pH activity range, better inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro, better anti-angiogenic activity and a longer half-life in vivo compared with ES2. These results also indicate that GSHP-ES2 has good potential for the treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases, either alone or in combination with other chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.11.043DOI Listing
March 2019

Fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2018 12;14:1701-1709. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China,

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different fluids on critically ill patients who need fluid resuscitation through a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA).

Data Sources: Electronic databases were searched up to March 2018 for randomized controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of different fluids in critically ill patients. The primary outcome was mortality, and the secondary outcomes were the incident of acute kidney injury (AKI) and risk of receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT). A Bayesian NMA was conducted, and the quality of evidence contributing to each network estimate was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria.

Results: We deemed 49 trials eligible, including 40,910 participants. The quality of evidence was rated as moderate in most comparisons. There was no significant difference among resuscitation fluids in mortality. NMA at the 9-node level showed the most effective fluid was balanced crystalloid (BC) (80.79%, the ranking of resuscitation fluid based on cumulative probability plots and surface under the cumulative ranking curves [SUCRAs]). NMA at the 10-node level showed that the most effective fluid was Plasma-Lyte (77.52%). Results of sensitivity analyses in mortality did not reveal any significant changes in the findings for primary outcomes. High-molecular-weight hetastarch (H-HES) was associated with an increased incidence of AKI when compared with gelatin (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% credibility interval [CrI], 0.19-0.94), low-molecular-weight hetastarch (L-HES; OR, 0.50; 95% CrI, 0.30-0.87), BC (OR, 0.55; 95% CrI, 0.34-0.88), and normal saline (OR, 0.56; 95% CrI, 0.34-0.93). Meanwhile, H-HES was also associated with an increased risk of receiving RRT when compared with BC (OR, 0.51; 95% CrI, 0.27-0.93) and normal saline (OR, 0.52; 95% CrI, 0.24-0.96).

Conclusion: BCs, especially the Plasma-Lyte, are presumably the best choice for most critically ill patients who need fluid resuscitation. Meanwhile, the use of H-HES was associated with an increased incidence of AKI and risk of receiving RRT.

Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42017072728).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S175080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143126PMC
September 2018

Hyaluronic acid-endostatin2-alft1 (HA-ES2-AF) nanoparticle-like conjugate for the target treatment of diseases.

J Control Release 2018 10 29;288:1-13. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

National Glycoengineering Research Centre, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong, PR China; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate chemistry and Glycobiology, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, PR China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, PR China. Electronic address:

Anti-flt1 peptide (GNQWFI, AF) specifically binds to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1 (VEGFR1), thereby inhibiting the interaction of VEGFR1 with a series of ligands. ES2 (IVRRADRAAVP) can effectively inhibit the proliferation and invasion of endothelial cells and play a key role in anti-angiogenesis. AF and ES2 peptides differ in their activity. To better exploit the advantages of both, we designed a new peptide called ES2-AF (IVRRADRAAVPGGGGGGNQWFI). Hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry because of its biodegradable and high load performance. The HA-specific cell surface receptor CD44 was highly expressed in the tumour site during the anti-tumour study. Therefore, we used HA as a modifier to chemically modify ES2-AF; it was expected that the modified compound would have preferable solubility, stronger targeting, longer half-life, and better anti-angiogenesis effects in vivo. In this study, the anti-proliferative, anti-migration and targeting activities of HA-ES2-AF in vitro were studied by MTT, ELISA, transwell and SPR assays. Meanwhile, the anti-neovascularization activity of HA-ES2-AF in vivo was studied by CAM assay, and the targeting of HA-ES2-AF to tumour tissue was studied by bioimaging techniques. Finally, we also studied the half-life of HA-ES2-AF in vivo. In short, the bioactivity of the new peptide ES2-AF was enhanced to a certain extent, and ES2-AF modified by HA had higher anti-neovascularization activity in vitro and in vivo, had stronger targeting to tumour tissue, and had a significantly prolonged half-life in vivo. These results laid the foundation for its further development into targeting anti-tumour drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.08.038DOI Listing
October 2018

Bifunctional Separator Coated with Hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene/Reduced Graphene Oxide for Enhanced Performance of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

Chemistry 2018 Sep 17;24(51):13582-13588. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Faculty of Chemistry, National & Local United, Engineering Laboratory for Power Batteries, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin, 130024, P.R. China.

Although extensive research has been performed in the field of Li-S rechargeable batteries, commercial applications are still hindered by the dissolution of the reaction intermediates of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs). Through the combination of experimental and theoretical results, a bifunctional separator has been designed by coating hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP)-decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO), which provides effective anchor sites for immobilizing the LiPSs. LiPSs can be adsorbed on the HCCP/rGO surface with moderate binding strength, and their structures and the electrical conductivity of HCCP/rGO are well maintained. The synergetic effect of the effective barrier and good electrical conductivity within the HCCP/rGO sheets efficiently anchors LiPSs and achieves enhanced electrochemical performance. More importantly, different substituents can be used to tune the immobilization of LiPSs by HCCP derivatives. Therefore, it is expected that HCCP and its derivatives can be utilized as a promising anchoring material for high-performance Li-S batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201802386DOI Listing
September 2018

Breast strain elastography: Observer variability in data acquisition and interpretation.

Eur J Radiol 2018 Apr 23;101:157-161. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Department of Ultrasound, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025, China.

Objective: To analyze the observer reproducibility of breast strain elastography in elasticity image acquisition and elasticity image interpretation.

Methods: This was an institutional ethics committee approved prospective study. One hundred twenty-four breast lesions in 118 women (mean age 45.39 ± 12.97 years old, range 21-77 years old) were examined with strain elastography by two blinded radiologists in turn. Three blinded observers separately reviewed and recorded the elasticity score of each lesion obtained by the two performers. The interobserver reproducibility of elasticity image acquisition between the two performers, the interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility of elasticity image interpretation among observers were evaluated. The diagnostic performance of strain elastography was compared between the two performers.

Results: Fifty-three lesions were malignant and 71 were benign. The interobserver kappa value was 0.438 for the elasticity score between the two performers. Between the three observers, the overall interobserver and intraobserver kappa value was 0.365 and 0.655, respectively. There was no significant difference of the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (Az) value for the elasticity score between performer 1 and 2 (P = 0.143).

Conclusions: Our results suggested moderate interobserver reproducibility in breast strain elasticity image acquisition, poor interobserver and good intraobserver agreement in image interpretation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2018.02.025DOI Listing
April 2018

GP73 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion partly by activating TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Carcinogenesis 2018 07;39(7):900-910

Department of Cancer Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

The transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathways contribute to cell metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Golgi protein 73 (GP73), a type II transmembrane protein in the Golgi apparatus, was initially regarded as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, it was reported that GP73 acts as a key oncogene by promoting HCC growth and metastasis. However, the role of GP73 in metastasis, especially when involving signaling pathways, is uncertain. Here, we report that GP73, which is upregulated in HCC tissues and cell lines, is associated with tumor size, tumor node metastasis stage, distant metastasis and vascular invasion. The ectopic overexpression of GP73 increased HCC cell invasion, EMT and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, GP73 knockdown inhibited invasion and EMT. Moreover, GP73 enhanced p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 levels by mediating TGF-β1, thus leading to the promotion of EMT and invasion in HCC cells. In contrast, we used SB431542 (SB) to repress p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 expression, which resulted in a reversion of EMT. Furthermore, when the TGF-β1/Smad pathway was blocked, upregulation of GP73 still caused an enhanced EMT and invasion, and downregulation of GP73 resulted in a decreased in EMT and invasion. In clinical HCC samples, GP73 positively correlated with TGF-β1/Smad2, which was upregulated in HCC. Taken together, our findings highlight the important role of GP73 in regulating EMT and metastasis in HCC partly by targeting TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling, suggesting that GP73 may represent a novel potential therapeutic target and prognostic marker for the treatment and diagnosis of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgy010DOI Listing
July 2018

Monetary incentives for provision of syphilis screening, Yunnan, China.

Bull World Health Organ 2017 Sep 1;95(9):657-662. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

National Center for Sexually Transmitted Disease Control, China Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China.

Problem: Early detection of syphilis-infected people followed by effective treatment is essential for syphilis prevention and control.

Approach: Starting in 2010 the local health authority in Yunnan province, China, developed a network of 670 service sites for syphilis testing, diagnosis and treatment or for testing-only with referral for further diagnosis and treatment. Point-of-care tests for syphilis and syphilis interventions were integrated into the existing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control programme. To improve the syphilis services, a pay-for-performance scheme was introduced in which providers were paid for testing and treating patients.

Local Setting: Yunnan province is the region hardest hit by HIV infection and disproportionately burdened with syphilis cases in China.

Relevant Changes: The proportion of attendees at voluntary counselling and testing clinics who were tested for syphilis increased from 46.2% (32 877/71 162) in 2010 to 98.2% (68 012/69 259) in 2015. Syphilis-infected cases treated with the recommended therapy increased from 26.6% (264/993) in 2010 to 82.5% (453/549) in 2015 at designated testing, diagnosis and treatment sites.

Lessons Learnt: The strategy greatly increased the uptake of syphilis testing and treatment among people at risk. Introduction of point-of-care tests for syphilis increased coverage of the testing services. Introduction of a pay-for-performance scheme seemed to motivate health-care providers to undertake syphilis intervention services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.17.191635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5578386PMC
September 2017

Comprehensive analysis of long noncoding RNA-mRNA co-expression patterns in thyroid cancer.

Mol Biosyst 2017 Sep;13(10):2107-2115

Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, P. R. China.

Novel molecular-targeted treatments show great prospects for radioiodine-refractory and surgically inoperable thyroid carcinomas. While aberrations in protein-coding genes are a focus in molecular thyroid cancer medicine, the impact of oncogenes on the expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been largely uncharacterized. We aimed to identify the expression patterns of lncRNAs and mRNAs in high-throughput molecular profiles of 18 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients. We identified 452 mRNAs and 240 unannotated lncRNAs that were differentially expressed in PTC. Significantly enriched GO terms and pathways were identified, many of which were linked to cancer. By integrating the predicted lncRNA target genes with differentially expressed mRNAs, we identified 20 candidate lncRNAs in 45 PTC patients. Five lncRNAs (CTD-3193O13.11, RP5-1024C24.1, AC007255.8, HOXD-AS1, and RP11-402L6.1) were verified to be differentially expressed in PTC and to exhibit specific topological characteristics in the lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network. LncRNA CTD-3193O13.11 was determined to comprise a node of co-regulation with the other lncRNAs in PTC tumorigenesis. LncRNA RP5-1024C24.1, AC007255.8, and HOXD-AS1 expression was significantly related to clinical stage, lncRNA RP11-402L6.1 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis, lncRNA CTD-3193O13.11 expression was proportional to tumor size, and lncRNA AC007255.8 expression was proportional to patient age. Therefore, our study provides a genome-wide screening and analysis of lncRNA expression in PTC, which brings novel insights into the roles of lncRNAs in PTC progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7mb00375gDOI Listing
September 2017

[Purification of human goose-type lysozyme 2 (HLysG2) from human seminal plasma and analysis of its enzymatic properties].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Mar;33(3):320-325

College of Arts and Sciences, New York University, Shanghai 200122, China. *Corresponding authors, E-mail:

Objective To purify human goose-type lysozyme 2 (HLysG2) from human seminal plasma by chromatography and analyze its enzymatic properties. Methods The distribution of HLysG2 in semen was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Seminal plasma was subjected to the separation of target protein using cation-exchange chromatography, chitin affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified product was identified by Western blot analysis and mass spectrometry (MS).The purity was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Then, the optimum pH, ion concentration and temperature of HLysG2 and its standard activity were determined by the turbidimetric assay. The bactericidal activity of HLysG2 was assessed by the colony-forming assay. Results The existence of HLysG2 in seminal plasma was confirmed by Western blot analysis. A protein of about 21.5 kDa was purified from seminal plasma by the three kinds of chromatography and identified as HLysG2 by Western blot analysis and MS. The final purity of the purified product was above 99.0% and the peak enzymatic activity reached 13 800 U/mg under the condition of pH 6.4, 0.09 mol/L Na, 30DegreesCelsius. In vitro assay indicated that HLysG2 had a significant killing effect on Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, but not on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Conclusion Native HLysG2 can be obtained from seminal plasma by chromatography. It has in vitro bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria, suggesting that it might play a role in innate immunity of the male reproductive system.
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March 2017

LYZL6, an acidic, bacteriolytic, human sperm-related protein, plays a role in fertilization.

PLoS One 2017 9;12(2):e0171452. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

Lysozyme-like proteins (LYZLs) belong to the c-type lysozyme/α-lactalbumin family and are selectively expressed in the mammalian male reproductive tract. Two members, human sperm lysozyme-like protein (SLLP) -1 and mouse LYZL4, have been reported to contribute to fertilization but show no bacteriolytic activity. Here, we focused on the possible contribution of LYZL6 to immunity and fertilization. In humans, LYZL6 was selectively expressed by the testis and epididymis and became concentrated on spermatozoa. Native LYZL6 isolated from sperm extracts exhibited bacteriolytic activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Recombinant LYZL6 (rLYZL6) reached its peak activity at pH 5.6 and 15 mM of Na+, and could inhibit the growth of Gram-positive, but not Gram-negative bacteria. Nevertheless, the bacteriolytic activity of rLYZL6 proved to be much lower than that of human lysozyme under physiological conditions. Immunodetection with a specific antiserum localized the LYZL6 protein on the postacrosomal membrane of mature spermatozoa. Immunoneutralization of LYZL6 significantly decreased the numbers of human spermatozoa fused with zona-free hamster eggs in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Thus, we report here for the first time that LYZL6, an acidic, bacteriolytic and human sperm-related protein, is likely important for fertilization but not for the innate immunity of the male reproductive tract.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0171452PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5300149PMC
September 2017

Anisotropic Properties of Breast Tissue Measured by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Quantification.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2016 10 26;42(10):2372-82. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Department of Ultrasound, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The goal of our study was to investigate the anisotropy of normal breast glandular and fatty tissue with acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) quantification. A total of 137 breasts in 137 women were enrolled. These breasts were divided into the duct-apparent group and the duct-inapparent group, divided into the ligament-apparent group and the ligament-inapparent group. Shear wave velocity (SWV) in the radial (SWV(r)) and anti-radial (SWV(a-r)) directions was measured. The elastic anisotropy of glandular tissue and fatty tissue was evaluated as the ratio between SWV(r) and SWV(a-r). The SWV ratio was 1.30 ± 0.45 for glandular tissue and 1.27 ± 0.53 for fatty tissue in the total group. In glandular tissue, the SWV ratio of the duct-apparent group was higher than that of the duct-inapparent group (p = 0.011). In both glandular and fatty tissue, the SWV ratio was higher in the ligament-apparent group than in the ligament-inapparent group (p < 0.05 for both). SWV(r) was higher than SWV(a-r) in both glandular tissue and fatty tissue in all groups (p < 0.05 for all) except in breast fatty tissue in the ligament-inapparent group (p = 0.913). It is concluded that both breast glandular tissue and fatty tissue exhibited anisotropy of elastic behavior. To improve the diagnostic power of elastography in breast lesions, the elastic anisotropy of glandular tissue and fatty tissue should be taken into account in calculating strain ratio or elasticity ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2016.06.012DOI Listing
October 2016
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