Publications by authors named "Zhi-Rong Lin"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impaired decision-making and functional neuronal network activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2018 12 14;48(6):1508-1517. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China.

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with cognitive deficit but the exact neural mechanisms remain unclear.

Purpose: To explore sequential brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the performance of a decision-making task, and to determine whether serum or clinical markers can reflect the involvement of the brain in SLE.

Subjects: Sixteen female SLE patients without overt clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms and 16 healthy controls were included.

Field Strength/sequence: 1.5T, T -weighted anatomic images, gradient-echo echo-planar imaging sequence, and 3D images.

Assessment: The computer-based Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) for assessing decision-making was performed by SLE patients and 16 matched controls; brain activity was recorded via blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI. The amplitudes of the average BOLD responses were calculated for each individual subject, and activation data from fMRI experiments were compared between the two groups.

Statistical Tests: Two-sample t-test; repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA); linear regression analyses.

Results: Imaging revealed activity in a distributed network of brain regions in both groups, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and the striatum, as well as the insular, parietal, and occipital cortices. Compared to controls, SLE patients showed lower activation in a convergence zone and the limbic system, namely, the OFC, vmPFC, ACC, and PCC, but greater activation in memory, emotion, and behavior systems involving the dlPFC, the insular cortex and the striatum. Furthermore, brain activation in the vmPFC was positively correlated with IGT scores (r = 0.63, P < 0.001), but inversely related to disease activity (r = -0.57, P < 0.01).

Data Conclusion: The dynamics among the aforementioned neural systems (some hyperfunctioning, others hypofunctioning) may shed some light on the pathologic mechanisms underlying SLE without overt clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms. In addition, disease activity may potentially be used as an effective biomarker reflecting cerebral involvement in SLE.

Level Of Evidence: 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;48:1508-1517.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.26006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282848PMC
December 2018

Decision-making in primary onset middle-age type 2 diabetes mellitus: a BOLD-fMRI study.

Sci Rep 2017 08 31;7(1):10246. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong Province, 515041, China.

Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a well-recognized risk factor for dementia, the neural mechanisms that underlying cognitive impairment in T2DM remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task to investigate the neural basis of decision making at the initial onset stage of T2DM. Eighteen newly diagnosed middle-aged T2DM patients, with no previous diabetic treatment history, and 18 matched controls were recruited. Results indicated that T2DM patients made more disadvantageous decisions than controls. Compared to healthy subjects, T2DM patients showed decreased activation in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and anterior cingulate cortex, and increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, insula and occipital lobes. IGT performance positively correlated with changes in brain activation in the VMPFC and OFC in both groups. Moreover, poor glycemic control was associated with decision-making function both in behavioral and brain activity in the VMPFC and OFC in patients. Conclusively, T2DM patients may suffer from weaknesses in their prefrontal cortex functions that lead to poorer decision-making under ambiguity, at least as assessed by the IGT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-10228-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579021PMC
August 2017

Spatial Working Memory Impairment in Patients with Non-neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Blood-oxygen-level Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

J Rheumatol 2017 02 15;44(2):201-208. Epub 2017 Jan 15.

From the Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Shantou University; Guangdong Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging, Shantou, Guangdong; Graduate School of Beijing Normal University, Zhuhai, China.

Objective: Using ethology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore mild cognitive dysfunction and spatial working memory (WM) impairment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without overt neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE) and to study whether any clinical biomarkers could serve as predictors of brain dysfunction in this disease.

Methods: Eighteen non-NPSLE patients and 18 matched subjects were all tested using the Montreal cognitive assessment scale test and scanned using blood-oxygen-level dependent fMRI while performing the n-back task to investigate the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas.

Results: Ethology results showed that non-NPSLE patients had mild cognitive dysfunction and memory dysfunction (p < 0.05). The fMRI scan confirmed a neural network consisting of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), premotor area, parietal lobe, and supplementary motor area (SMA)/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) that was activated during the n-back task, with right hemisphere dominance. However, only the right SMA/ACC showed a load effect in the non-NPSLE group; the activation intensity of most WM-related brain areas for the non-NPSLE group was lower than for the control group under 3 memory loads. Further, we found that the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas, including the bilateral caudate nucleus/insula and hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus were lower than the control group under the memory loads. An inverse correlation existed between individual activation intensity and disease duration.

Conclusion: Non-NPSLE-related brain damage with right DLPFC-posterior parietal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus default network causes impairment of spatial WM and mild cognitive dysfunction. Patients with longer disease duration would be expected to exhibit increased central nervous system damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.160290DOI Listing
February 2017

Confocal Microscopy Evaluation of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Dry Eye Patients with Different Symptoms.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2016 11;129(21):2617-2622

Eye Institute of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005; Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Medical College of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005; Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Xiamen, Fujian 361005; Department of Corneal & Ocular Surface Diseases, Xiamen University Affiliated Xiamen Eye Center, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, China.

Background: Dry eye patients suffer from all kinds of symptoms. Sometimes, the clinical signs evaluation does not disclose any obvious difference in routine examination; in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is a powerful tool for ocular surface disease. This study aimed to clarify meibomian gland (MG) alterations in dry eye patients with different symptoms and to compare the findings using IVCM.

Methods: A total of sixty patients were recruited, all subjected to Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ), and questionnaires for the assessment of dry eye symptoms before clinical sign examinations were given to the patients. Finally, IVCM was applied to observe MG's structure. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman correlation analysis. The differences were statistically significant when P< 0.05.

Results: In the severe symptom group, OSDI and SEEQ scores were significantly higher (P< 0.05) compared with the mild symptoms group. All other clinical sign examinations had no statistical difference in the two groups (P> 0.05). However, all the IVCM-observed data showed that patients with severe symptoms had more significant fibrosis in MG (acinar unit area 691.87 ± 182.01 μm2 for the severe, 992.17 ± 170.84 μm2 for the mild; P< 0.05) and severer decrease in the size of MG acinar units than those observed in patients with mild symptoms (MG acinar unit density [MGAUD] 70.08 ± 18.78 glands/mm2, MG acinar unit longest diameter [MGALD] 51.50 ± 15.51 μm, MG acinar unit shortest diameter [MGASD] 20.30 ± 11.85 μm for the severe, MGAUD 89.53 ± 39.88 glands/mm2, MGALD 81.57 ± 21.14 μm, MGASD 42.37 ± 14.55 μm for the mild;P< 0.05). Dry eye symptoms were negatively correlated with MG confocal microscopic parameters and positively correlated with conjunctival inflammatory cells and Langerhans cells (P< 0.05).

Conclusions: IVCM application provides a strong support to differentiate dry eye patients with different symptoms: meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) plays a pivotal role in dry eye aggravation, and using IVCM to observe MG fibrosis, changes in size and density of MG as well as status of inflammation cells can help not only correctly diagnose the type and severity of dry eye, but also possibly prognosticate in routine eye examination in the occurrence of MGD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.192782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5125342PMC
November 2016

[Effect of salvianolic acid A on anesthetized canine experimental myocardial infarction].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2016 Mar;41(5):910-916

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences of Xiyuan hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100091, China.

Salvianolic acid A (SAA), one of the major active water-soluble salvianolic acids of traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been reported to be effective on anti-myocardial ischemia, anti-oxidation and anti-thrombus. This study aimed to investigate appropriate administration route on dogs with acute myocardial ischemia(AMI). Twenty-four dogs were randomized into four groups (n=6), model, oral administration of SAA (8 mg•kg⁻¹), intravenous administration of SAA (4 mg•kg⁻¹), intravenous administration of Herbesser(0.5 mg•kg⁻¹) as positive drug group. AMI model was established by ligating left anterior descending coronary arteries(LAD) of dogs. Changes of ST segment were determined by epicardial electrocardiogram(ECG), coronary blood flow (CBF) and myocardial oxygen consumption were measured by ultrasonic Doppler flow meter, serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were observed by fully automatic biochemical analyser. Myocardial infarct size was assessed by nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining. Both oral and intravenous administration of SAA reduced the myocardial infarct area/left ventricle area significantly [(16.73±6.52)% and (13.19±2.38)%, compared with (24.35±4.89)% in model group, P<0.01). Oral administration of SAA improved the ECG performance of Σ-ST from 30-190 min after ischemia (P<0.05-0.01), while intravenous SAA had a rapid onset (10-190 min after ischemia, P<0.05-0.01). Compared with model group, oral and intravenous SAA both decreased serum CK and LDH significantly (P<0.05-0.01), while the difference of intravenous administration is more significant. SAA protects myocardium in canine experimental myocardial infarction models. Intravenous administration of SAA alleviates myocardial infarction with greater significance than oral route.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4268/cjcmm20160525DOI Listing
March 2016

Soil washing in combination with homogeneous Fenton-like oxidation for the removal of 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl from soil contaminated with capacitor oil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Apr 14;23(8):7890-8. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, People's Republic of China.

Detoxification by chemical oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated soils is very difficult and inefficient because PCBs typically associate with the solid phase or exist as non-aqueous-phase liquids due to their low solubility and slow desorption rates, and thus, they are difficult to remove from soils by using traditional, water-based elution techniques. Surfactant can enhance washing efficiency of PCBs from contaminated soils. This study used Brij 58, Brij 30, Tween 80, and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) to solubilize 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl (PCB28) from soil contaminated with capacitor oil into solution. The feasibility of PCB28 oxidation in soil washing wastewater through a Fe(3+)-catalyzed Fenton-like reaction was subsequently examined. Washing with 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution showed the highest extraction efficiency (up to 61.5 %) compared with that of the three other surfactants. The total concentration of PCB28 in contaminated soil at 25 °C after 48-h extraction was 286 mg L(-1). In contrast to conditions in which no washing agent was added, addition of the four washing agents decreased the efficiency of PCB28 degradation by the Fenton-like reaction, with the decrease due to addition of 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution being the smallest. The optimal concentration of H2O2 for preventing its useless decomposition was found to be 50 mM. The efficiency of PCB28 removal was lower when the initial concentration of PCB28 treated in the Fenton-like reaction was higher. The degradation efficiencies of PCB28 at initial concentrations of 0.1, 10, and 176 mg L(-1) in 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution at 25 °C and pH 3.0 and 9 h of reaction using 50 mM H2O2 were 64.1, 42.0, and 34.6 %, respectively. This result indicates that soil washing combined with Fenton-like oxidation may be a practical approach for the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6037-2DOI Listing
April 2016

Quantitative characterization of hydroxyl radical generation in a goethite-catalyzed Fenton-like reaction.

Chemosphere 2015 Dec 9;141:7-12. Epub 2015 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

In order to find out the truth of influence of solution chemistry on the oxidation efficiency of a goethite-catalyzed Fenton-like reaction, the amount of hydroxyl radicals (OH) was quantified by using coumarin as its trapping agent to produce the only fluorescent derivative 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC), because OH was the reactive species responsible for the oxidation activity of Fenton reactions. The concentration of OH achieved maximum at solution pH of 3 and decreased with an increase of solution pH value. However, considerable amount of OH can also generate at near neutral pH (i.e. pH 6 and 7). The concentration of OH was increased both with increasing of goethite and H2O2 dosages, but H2O2 could compete with coumarin to scavenge OH to reduce the formation of 7-HC when the concentration of H2O2 was too high. Anions inhibited OH generation followed an order of H2PO4(-)>SO4(2-)>Cl(-)>NO3(-)>ClO4(-). Higher concentrations of Cl(-) and SO4(2-) resulted in greater inhibition of OH generation. Results of this study demonstrated that the influence of solution chemistry on the oxidation efficiency of the goethite-catalyzed Fenton-like reaction was greatly attributed to the effect of solution chemistry on the amount of OH formed in the process of reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.05.066DOI Listing
December 2015

Kinetics and products of PCB28 degradation through a goethite-catalyzed Fenton-like reaction.

Chemosphere 2014 Apr 25;101:15-20. Epub 2013 Dec 25.

Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Efficiencies of 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB28) degradation in a goethite-catalyzed Fenton-like system under various conditions were investigated. Up to 99% of PCB28 was degraded in the Fenton-like system after 48 h. The hydroxyl radical was responsible for the degradation of PCB28 at pH 3-7. Degradation of PCB28 and H2O2 followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The rate of PCB28 degradation decreased when the pH increased from 3 to 7, but increased with increasing concentration of goethite and H2O2. The rate of H2O2 decomposition increased at higher pH and goethite concentration, and decreased at lower H2O2 concentration. The half-lives of 4-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl, 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl, and 2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl were 1.8, 3.5, 4.1, and 11h, respectively; therefore, the number of chlorine atoms in the biphenyl molecule determined the chemical reactivity of PCBs. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, one monochlorobiphenyl, three dichlorobiphenyl, and two hydroxytrichlorobiphenyl derivatives were identified as major products of PCB28 degradation. The decrease in pH of the reaction mixture after 48h reaction revealed that acidic products might be formed during degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.11.063DOI Listing
April 2014

Sorption of cyromazine on humic acid: Effects of pH, ionic strength and foreign ions.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2014 Feb;21(4):2688-96

Cyromazine (CY) is a triazine pesticide used as an insect growth inhibitor for fly control in cattle manure, field crops, vegetables, and fruits. Sorption of CY onto humic acid (HA) may affect its environmental fate. In this study, HA was used to investigate the sorption of CY at different solution chemistry conditions (pH, ionic strength) and in the presence of foreign ions and norfloxacin. All sorption isotherms fitted well with the Freundlich and Langmuir models. The sorption reached a maximum at initial pH 4.0 over the initial pH range of 3.0-7.0, implying that the primary sorption mechanism was cation exchange interaction between CY+ species and the negatively charged functional groups of HA. Increasing Ca2+ concentration resulted in a considerable reduction in the Kd values of CY, hinting that Ca2+ had probably competed with CY+ for the cation exchange sites on the surfaces of HA. The sorption of CY on HA in different ionic media followed the order of NH4Cl ≈ KCl > K2SO4 > ZnCl2 ≈ CaCl2 at pH 5.0. Spectroscopic evidence demonstrated that the amino groups and triazine ring of CY was responsible for sorption onto HA, while the carboxyl group and the O-alkyl structure of HA participated in adsorbing CY.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2212-xDOI Listing
February 2014

Application of microwave-irradiated manganese dioxide in the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls from soil contaminated by capacitor oil.

Environ Technol 2013 Mar-Apr;34(5-8):637-44

Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.

The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil contaminated with capacitor oil, using microwave (MW)-irradiated manganese dioxide (MnO2), was examined under different conditions. The effects of different types of MnO2 added as oxidant, as well as the initial amount of water, MnO2, and sulphuric acid solution, were also investigated. The removal efficiencies for dichlorobiphenyls, trichlorobiphenyls, tetrachlorobiphenyls, pentachlorobiphenyls, hexachloro-biphenyls, heptachlorobiphenyls, and octachlorobiphenyls were approximately 95.9%, 82.5%, 52.0%, 71.6%, 62.5%, 28.6%, and 16.1%, respectively, by 800 W MW irradiation for 45 min with the assistance of 0.1 g delta-MnO2 and 0.2 mL water in 1.0 g severely PCB-contaminated soil (sigma PCB = 1560.82 mg/kg); meanwhile, the concentrations of Mn2+ ions detected were from 10.6 +/- 1.9 mg/kg at 0 min to 108.2 +/- 7.8 mg/kg after 45 min MW irradiation, indicating that MnO2 acted as not only a MW absorber but also an oxidizer. Removal efficiencies of PCBs from contaminated soil increased with increasing the amounts of water and MnO2 added. The type of MnO2 also affected the removal of PCBs, following an order of delta-MnO2 > alpha-MnO2 > beta-MnO2. The addition of low concentration of sulphuric acid (such as 1.0 mol/L) solution was favourable for the removal of low chloro-substituted PCBs, but the addition of more than 1.0 mol/L sulphuric acid reduced the removal of all PCBs. The pronounced removal of PCBs from contaminated soil in a short treatment time indicates that MW irradiation with the assistance of MnO2 is an efficient and promising technology for the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2012.710405DOI Listing
August 2013

[Therapeutic effects of Pyranoprofen on the mouse dry eye induced by topical medication of Benzalkonium Chloride].

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2012 Jan;48(1):33-40

Eye Institute and Affiliated Xiamen Eye Center of Xiamen University, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Xiamen 361005, China; Department of Ophthalmology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanhua University, Hengyang 421001, China.

Objective: Randomized controlled experimental study to investigate the therapeutic effect and the possible mechanism of Pranoprofen on the recovery of dry eye induced by topical medication of Benzalkonium Chloride (BAC) in mouse.

Methods: It was an experimental study. Seventy BALB/c mice were treated with topical administration of 0.25% BAC to establish the dry eye condition. Based on the consistency of break-up time of tear-film (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining scores and inflammation index, the eyes were re-selected and randomly divided into four groups on day (D) 21 after the BAC treatment. Group A was set up as blank control, while group B, C and D were treated respectively with 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops, 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops plus 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops, 0.1% pyranoprofen eye drops plus 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops. BUTs, tear volumes, corneal fluorescein staining scores and inflammation index were evaluated in each group on D0, 1, 3 and 5 after the therapeutic treatment. Global specimens were collected on D6. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) or by periodic acid-schiff (PAS) assay, and labeled with cytokeratin 10 (K10) antibody. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the cornea and conjunctiva was quantified by western blot.

Results: 72 eyes were included in the sequential experiment, 18 eyes for each group. On D0, 1 and 3, no clinical differences were observed among the groups. On D5, the BUT was (2.933 ± 0.320), (2.900 ± 0.280), (3.464 ± 0.498) and (3.643 ± 0.413) s in group A, B, C and D respectively; the BUTs in group C and D were significant longer than those of group A and B (F = 13.774, P = 0.000). The corneal fluorescein staining score was (11.640 ± 1.008), (11.790 ± 1.188), (10.330 ± 1.371) and (10.270 ± 1.104)s in group A, B, C and D respectively; the scores in group C and D were significant lower than those of group A and B (F = 6.145, P = 0.001). The corneal inflammatory index was (0.232 ± 0.059), (0.229 ± 0.078), (0.151 ± 0.055) and (0.154 ± 0.056) in group A, B, C and D respectively; the index in group C and D were significant lower than those of group A and B (F = 6.703, P = 0.001). No significant difference was found in tear volume among groups. No significant difference was found between Pyranoprofen and Fluorometholone treatment in BUT, corneal fluorescein score or inflammatory index. Corneal morphology showed the feature of thicker corneal epithelial layer in group A and uniformity in group C and D. PAS assay revealed similar goblet cell numbers in group C and D, but less goblet cells in group A and B. Cytokeratin 10 was almost negatively expressed in Pranoprofen or Fluorometholone treated groups, and remained positive in the corneal epithelium with other treatments. The level of TNF-α in the cornea was down-regulated in Pranoprofen or Fluorometholone treated groups.

Conclusions: Pranoprofen or Fluorometholone combined with sodium hyaluronate treatment presented similar therapeutic effects on BAC-induced mouse dry eye, with the more stable tear film, the better regularity of epithelium recovery, the down-regulation of inflammatory TNF-α, the increased number of goblet cells, and the elimination of squamous metaplasia, when compared with the treatment of sodium hyaluronate eye drops only. Our results showed the great potentialities of Pranoprofen in the clinical treatment of ocular surface inflammation in the mild and severity dry eye.
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January 2012

Generation of quantum-dot cluster States with a superconducting transmission line resonator.

Phys Rev Lett 2008 Dec 1;101(23):230501. Epub 2008 Dec 1.

Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026, People's Republic of China.

We propose an efficient method to generate cluster states in spatially separated double quantum dots with a superconducting transmission line resonator. When the detuning between the double-dot qubit transition frequency and the frequency of the full wave mode in the transmission line resonator satisfies some conditions, an Ising-like operator between an arbitrary two separated qubits can be achieved. Even including the main noise sources, it is shown that the high fidelity cluster states could be generated in this solid system in just one step.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.230501DOI Listing
December 2008

[Studies on therapeutic effects of zhenzhu qishi wan on stroke and hypertension of SHRsp].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2003 Jun;28(6):557-9

Department of Pharmacology, School of Huaxi Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China.

Objective: To study the effect of Zhenzhu Qishi Wan on blood pressure(BP), body weight(BW), stroke and survival rate of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertension rats(SHRsp).

Method: 8-week-old SHRsp was randomly divided into three groups: control group, Zhenzhu Qishi Wan prevention group and therapy group (n = 10). SHRsp of prevention group were treated with Zhenzhu Qishi Wan by ig 150 mg.kg-1 per day for 6 weeks, and therapy group were given the same treatment two weeks later. Behavior and stroke were observed everyday; BW were weighted every week; BP were estimated every 2 weeks. Time of the first cerebral seizure of SHRsp was recorded.

Result: Zhenzhu Qishi Wan had obvious preventive and therapeutic effect on genetic hypertension. The BP of prevention and therapy groups were significantly lower than that of control group (P < 0.05 [symbol: see text] P < 0.01). The drug ameliorated general behavior of SHRsp, BW of prevention group increased faster than that of control group(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and BW of therapy group were also heavier than that of control group at the age of 14 weeks(P < 0.05). When the experiment ended, 60% SHRsp of control group showed stroke and 20% of them were dead, while only 20% SHRsp in each of Zhenzhu Qishi Wan-treated groups showed stroke and none of them died.

Conclusion: Zhenzhu Qishi Wan had significant hypotensive effect, and some protective effect on the stroke caused by hypertension.
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June 2003
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