Publications by authors named "Zhi-Min Xu"

70 Publications

Biomineralization of Cd and inhibition on rhizobacterial Cd mobilization function by Bacillus Cereus to improve safety of maize grains.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 10;283:131095. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China. Electronic address:

Reducing cadmium (Cd) bioavailability and rhizobacterial Cd mobilization functions in the rhizosphere via the inoculation of screened microbial inoculum is an environmental-friendly strategy to improve safety of crop grains. In this study, Bacillus Cereus, a model Cd resistant strain, was selected to explore its effects on Cd bioavailability and uptake, bacterial metabolic functions related to Cd mobilization. Results indicated that inoculation of Bacillus Cereus in maize roots of sand pot with water-soluble Cd (0.06-0.15 mg/kg) and soil pot with high Cd-contaminated soil (total Cd: 2.33 mg/kg; Cd extracted by NHNO: 38.6 μg/kg) could decrease water-soluble Cd ion concentration by 7.7-30.1% and Cd extracted with NHNO solution by 7.8-22.5%, inducing Cd concentrations in maize grains reduced by 10.6-39.9% and 17.4-38.6%, respectively. Even for a single inoculation in soil, Cd concentration in maize grains still satisfy food safety requirements (Cd content: 0.1 mg/kg dry weight) due to its successful colonization on root surface of maize. Bacillus Cereus could enrich more plant growth promotion bacteria (PGPB) and down-regulate the expression of genes related to bacterial motility, membrane transports, carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the rhizosphere soil, decreasing Cd bioavailability in soil. Approximately 80% Cd in media was transferred into intracellular, meanwhile Cd salts (sulfide and/or phosphate) were produced in Bacillus Cereus through biomineralization process. Overall, this study could provide a feasible method for improving safety of maize grains via the inoculation of Bacillus Cereus under Cd pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131095DOI Listing
June 2021

Nitrogen fertilizer affects rhizosphere Cd re-mobilization by mediating gene AmALM2 and AmALMT7 expression in edible amaranth roots.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 6;418:126310. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health of Guangdong Province, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Electronic address:

In-situ stabilization of Cd-contaminated farmland is a commonly used remediation technology. Yet, rhizosphere metabolites (e.g., organic acids) during crop cultivation may cause Cd re-mobilization and over-accumulation. Here, we identified four pivotal cytomembrane-localized genes underlying Cd accumulation difference between two contrasting edible amaranth cultivars based on root gene expression profile, studied their subcellular localization and functional characteristics, and then investigated effects of nitrogen fertilizer on their expression and rhizosphere Cd re-mobilization. Results showed that more Cd accumulated by edible amaranth was due to rhizosphere Cd mobilization by mediating high expression of AmALMT2 and AmALMT7 genes, not Cd transporters in roots. This was confirmed by heterologous expression of AmALMT2 and AmALMT7 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, since they mediated malic, fumaric, succinic, and aspartic acids efflux. Furthermore, nitrogen influencing rhizosphere acidification might be closely associated with organic acids efflux genes. Compared with N-NO application, N-NH was massively assimilated into glutamates and oxaloacetates through up-regulating glutamine synthetase and alanine-aspartate-glutamate metabolic pathways, thereby enhancing TCA cycle and organic acids efflux dominated by binary carboxylic acids via up-regulating AmALMT2 and AmALMT7 genes, which finally caused Cd re-mobilization. Therefore, N-NO-dominated nitrogen retarded rhizosphere Cd re-mobilization via inhibiting organic acids efflux function of AmALMT2 and AmALMT7 proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126310DOI Listing
June 2021

Mandibular Reconstruction Using Free Fibular Flap Graft Following Excision of Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar-Apr 01;32(2):e167-e171

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hospital of Stomatology, Jilin University.

Abstract: The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic tumor, which usually presents with distension of affected tissues. Radiologically, the lesions are often associated with an unerupted tooth and may have spot calcification shadows. The authors report a case of a CEOT in a 48-year-old male involving the right mandibular jaw bone and mentum soft tissues. The authors performed hemimandibulectomy and enucleation followed by reconstruction of the mandible using a vascularized free fibular flap through a digital surgical technique in order to restore the patient's facial symmetry and prepare the area for functional restorations. The case illustrates who the free fibular flap graft can be used for satisfactory mandibular reconstruction and restoration of the morphology and functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006955DOI Listing
June 2021

Nitrogen fertilizer management affects remobilization of the immobilized cadmium in soil and its accumulation in crop tissues.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 20;28(24):31640-31652. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

College of Resources and Environment, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, 510225, China.

Immobilization of soil cadmium (Cd) has been the strategy mostly used in remediation of Cd-contaminated arable soil. However, Cd might be remobilized after the immobilization process through the acid-soluble and complexation effects. Development of agronomic management technologies to prevent soil Cd remobilization after the immobilization process was an important pathway to control the food safety of agricultural products in soils with the immobilized Cd. In this study, the ammonia (NH-N) and nitrate (NO-N) forms with concentrations of 60, 90, and 150 mg-N kg soil were performed for evaluating their effects on Cd remobilization with planted or unplanted treatments and Cd accumulation in tissues of edible amaranth (Liuye). With an initial soil palygorskite-bound fraction Cd concentration of 0.6 mg kg, bioavailable Cd in rhizosphere soils and Cd in crop shoots respectively increased from 11.4 to 20.6 μg kg (dry soil weight) and 6.92 to 14.92 mg kg (dry plant weight) in planted NH-N treatments, while significantly lower concentrations of bioavailable Cd in rhizosphere soils and Cd in crop tissues were observed with planted NO-N treatments. Compared with that of planted NO-N treatments, decreasing pH value (i.e., 7.64 to 7.18) induced by root proton efflux during the absorption of NH-N, enhancive organic/amino acid (oxalic acid, lactic acid, L-proline, and so on) secretion from roots, and increasing abundance of bacteria distributed in phyla Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes with Cd mobilization ability in rhizosphere soils were the main reasons found in this study for the higher Cd remobilization in soils and Cd accumulation in crop under NH-N treatments. Moreover, the direct effect of NH-N on remobilization of immobilized Cd by upregulating the expression abundances of genes associated with pyruvate metabolism and amino acids metabolism was more significant than that of NO-N. In summary, the use of NO-N as preferred N fertilizer was more efficient to ensure the food safety of agricultural products than that of NH-N in Cd-contaminated arable soil after immobilization process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12868-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Biological mechanisms of cadmium accumulation in edible Amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) cultivars promoted by salinity: A transcriptome analysis.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jul 4;262:114304. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China; Research Center of Low Carbon Economy for Guangzhou Region, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

Strategies to prevent cadmium (Cd) mobilization by crops under salinity conditions differs among distinct genotypes, but the biological mechanisms of Cd accumulation in different genotype crops promoted by salinity have remained scarce. In this study, we investigated the biological mechanisms of Cd accumulation in two quite different amaranth cultivars of low-Cd accumulator Quanhong (QH) and high-Cd accumulator Liuye (LY) in response to salt stress. Transcriptomes analysis was carried out on leaves and roots tissues of LY and QH grown with exchangeable Cd 0.27 mg kg and salinity 3.0 g kg treatment or control conditions, respectively. A total of 3224 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in LY (1119 in roots, 2105 in leaves) and 848 in QH (207 in roots, 641 in leaves) were identified. Almost in each fold change category (2-2, 2-2, >2), the numbers of DEGs induced by salinity in LY treatments were much more than those in QH treatments, indicating that LY is more salt sensitive. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that salinity stress promoted soil acidification and Cd mobilization in LY treatments through the enhancive expression of genes related to adenine metabolism (84-fold enrichment) and proton pumping ATPase (50-fold enrichment) in roots, and carbohydrate hydrolysis (2.5-fold enrichment) in leaves compared with that of whole genome, respectively. The genes expression of organic acid transporter (ALMT) was promoted by 2.71- to 3.94-fold in roots, facilitating the secretion of organic acids. Salt stress also inhibited the expression of key enzymes related to cell wall biosynthesis in roots, reducing the physical barriers for Cd uptake. All these processes altered in LY were more substantially compared with that of QH, suggesting that salt sensitive cultivars might accumulate more Cd and pose a higher health risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114304DOI Listing
July 2020

Interactive effects between cadmium stabilized by palygorskite and mobilized by siderophores from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Oct 12;181:265-273. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

School of Environment, Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China. Electronic address:

The application of palygorskite (PAL) for potentially toxic trace elements (Cd, Ni, etc.) remediation in polluted soil can substantially reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of these hazard materials. However, the secretion of organic acids and siderophores by microorganisms might result in the re-mobilization of cadmium (Cd) in PAL-bound forms (PAL-Cd). In this study, the interactive effects between Cd stabilized by PAL and mobilized by siderophores from Pseudomonas fluorescens were performed with four flask-shaking experimental treatments, namely, strain with or without an ability of siderophores production respectively associated with or without PAL-Cd. The GC-MS and UHPLC-MS test methods were used to analyze the concentrations of metabolites. Results showed that the Cd mobilized by strain with siderophores production was 22.1% higher than that of strain without the ability of siderophores production (p < 0.05). The mobilization of Cd in PAL in turn significantly reduced the siderophores production of Pseudomonas fluorescens by 25.1% (p < 0.05). The numbers of metabolites significantly up-regulated and down-regulated were 9 and 22 in strain groups with PAL-Cd addition compared with the groups without PAL-Cd, respectively. Metabolomics analysis revealed that the mobilized Cd affects the signal transduction pathway and primary metabolic processes, reduces the metabolic capacity of pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathway. These changes inhibit the ability of strain to biosynthesize amino acids during the mobilization processes, further reducing the capacity of Pseudomonas fluorescens to produce siderophores. This study provides a useful information on how to select soil Cd-stabilizing materials in a targeted manner and how to avoid Cd re-mobilization by siderophores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.06.012DOI Listing
October 2019

[Analysis of schistosomiasis cases report in National Notifiable Disease Report System in China, 2015-2017].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2019 Apr;31(2):121-125

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, National Health Commission, Shanghai 200025, China.

Objective: To understand the reporting situation of schistosomiasis cases in National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS) in China from 2015 to 2017, and to seek current deficiencies on case reporting as well as to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of schistosomiasis cases.

Methods: The data of schistosomiasis cases in China from 2015 to 2017 were collected from NNDRS, and the reporting situation and epidemiological characteristics of schistosomiasis cases were analyzed.

Results: From 2015 to 2017, totally 59 981 schistosomiasis cases were reported in China, among which, 1 460 cases were deleted, and 58 521 were censored cases. The statistics and analysis showed that a part of the case reporting had been carried out in nonstandard ways, mainly involving the random deletion of cases, reporting time not compliance with regulations, incorrect classification, and severe omission of cases. Among the 58 521 censored cases, the sex ratio of the male to the female was 1.83∶1, the average age of the cases was (51.91 ± 11.30) years, and farmers and fishermen accounted for 93.26% (54 577 cases) and 3.46% (2 022 cases), respectively. The reported cases mainly concentrated in Anhui, Hunan, Hubei and Jiangxi provinces, accounting for 99.73% of the total number in China. During this period, Beijing, Zhejiang and other provinces (cities and regions) reported 11 imported schistosomiasis cases, all of them were schistosomiasis mansoni cases or schistosomiasis haematobia cases.

Conclusions: From 2015 to 2017, the reported cases of schistosomiasis are mainly clinically diagnosed cases. Compared with the annual report of the national schistosomiasis control, the number of confirmed cases in NNDRS is seriously missed. Therefore, the endemic provinces should strengthen the supervision on confirmed cases and reporting quality of schistosomiasis cases in accordance with the relevant law and regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2018185DOI Listing
April 2019

Influence of irrigation with microalgae-treated biogas slurry on agronomic trait, nutritional quality, oxidation resistance, and nitrate and heavy metal residues in Chinese cabbage.

J Environ Manage 2019 Aug 30;244:453-461. Epub 2019 May 30.

Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou, 510632, China. Electronic address:

Biogas slurry (BS) is a main byproduct of biogas production that is commonly used for agricultural irrigation because of its abundant nutrients and microelements. However, direct application of BS may cause quality decline and nitrate and heavy metal accumulation in crops. To address this issue, a microalgae culture experiment and an irrigation experiment were performed to evaluate the removal efficiencies of nutrients and heavy metals from diluted BS by microalgae Scenedesmus sp. and to investigate the effects of irrigation with microalgae-treated BS (MBS-25, MBS-50, MBS-75, and MBS-100) on nutritional quality, oxidation resistance, and nitrate and heavy metal residues in Chinese cabbage. After 8 days of continuous culture, a ratio of 1/1 for BS/tap water mixture (BS-50) was the optimal proportion for microalgal growth (3.73 g dry cell L) and efficient removal of total nitrogen (86.1%), total phosphorus (94.3%), COD (87.5%), Cr (50%), Pb (60.7%), and Cd (59.7%). The pH in MBS-50 medium recovered to the highest level in a shorter period of time and accelerated the gas stripping of ammonia nitrogen and the formation of insoluble phosphate and metals, which partly contributed to the high removal efficiencies. MBS irrigation significantly promoted crop growth; improved nutritional quality, edible taste, and oxidation resistance; and reduced nitrate and heavy metal residues in Chinese cabbage at a large scale. Therefore, microalgae culture was beneficial to reduce negative impacts of BS irrigation in crop growth and agricultural product safety. This study may provide a theoretical basis for the safe utilization of BS waste in agricultural irrigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.04.058DOI Listing
August 2019

[Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People's Republic of China in 2017].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Oct;30(5):481-488

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology; National Health Commission, Shanghai 200025, China.

This report presents the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at national level in 2017, and analyzes the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) being endemic of schistosomiasis japonica in P. R. China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), i.e., Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the status of elimination of schistosomiasis. Sichuan Province achieved the transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan kept the transmission control by the end of 2017. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 259 million people, specifically including 28 544 endemic villages of 70 324.5 thousand people at risk. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 47.78% (215/450), 34.00% (153/450) and 18.22% (82/450) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2017, a total of 8 401 113 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 14 individuals were parasitologically diagnosed, decreased by 97.67% compared with 600 cases in 2016. It was estimated of 37 601 cases of schistosome infection, decreased by 30.95% compared with 54 454 cases in 2016. One acute schistosomiasis case was reported in 2017. There were 29 407 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2017. snail surveys were performed in 19 784 endemic villages and snails were found in 7 310 villages, accounting for 36.95% of total villages, with 19 newly detected villages with snails.The snail survey covered an area of 622454.49 hm and snails were found in an area of 172501.56 hm, including a newly detected area of 208.54 hm. No schistosome-infected snails were found in 2017. A total of 737 016 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas. Of them, 454 830 bovines received the examinations for schistosome infection, and 1 bovine was stool examination positive. There were 119 326 schistosomiasis cases receiving chemotherapy in 2017, with 1 973 968 individuals undergoing expanded chemotherapy; one bovine with schistosomiasis receiving chemotherapy, with 418 925 bovines undergoing expanded chemotherapy. A total of 144 605.31 hm area with snail was controlled by using molluscicides, with actual molluscicide-treated area of 73 755.37 hm; and 5 002.92 hm area with snail was treated by environmental modification. Based on the data from the 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites, the mean infection rate was 0.001 6% and 0 in humans and bovines, respectively. No schistosome-infected snails were found by microscopic examinations in all the surveillance sites, and 7 snail samples with schistosome nucleic acid positive were detected by loopmediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) among 6 surveillance sites. The results demonstrate a continuous decline trend on the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in P. R. China. However, the risk of epidemic rebound still exists in some regions and it is still a challenge to achieve the target set by the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2018219DOI Listing
October 2018

Low root/shoot (R/S) biomass ratio can be an indicator of low cadmium accumulation in the shoot of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) cultivars.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 27;25(36):36328-36340. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

School of Environment, Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

Chinese flowering cabbage is a commonly consumed vegetable that accumulates Cd easily from Cd-contaminated soils. Cultivations of low-Cd cultivars are promising strategies for food safety, but low-Cd-accumulating mechanisms are not fully elucidated. To address this issue, 37 cultivars were screened to identify high- and low-Cd cultivars upon exposure to sewage-irrigated garden soil pretreated with different Cd concentrations (1.81, 2.90, and 3.70 mg kgdry soil). The results showed that shoot Cd concentrations differed among the cultivars by maximum degrees of 2.67-, 3.71-, and 3.00-fold under control and treatments, respectively. Soil-pot trial and hydroponic trial found no significant difference in Cd and Ca mobilization, uptake, and transport ability by root per weight between high- and low-Cd cultivars. Interestingly, a stable R/S ratio difference among cultivars (p < 0.01) was observed, and the cultivar variation of Cd accumulation in shoots was mainly dependent on their R/S ratios. R/S ratio was also statistically positively associated with Cd and Ca accumulation in high- and low-Cd cultivars (p < 0.05), both in soil and hydroponics culture. This was mainly due to the lower root biomass of low-Cd cultivars resulted in lower total release of root exudates, lower total Cd and Ca mobilization in rhizosphere soil, and lower total Cd and Ca uptake and transport. The higher shoot biomass of low-Cd cultivars also has dilution effects on Cd concentration in shoot. Overall, low R/S ratio may be regarded as a direct and efficient indicator of low Cd accumulation in the shoot of Chinese flowering cabbage. These findings provided the possibilities to screening low-Cd cultivars using their R/S ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3566-xDOI Listing
December 2018

Exogenous Glycinebetaine Promotes Soil Cadmium Uptake by Edible Amaranth Grown during Subtropical Hot Season.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 08 21;15(9). Epub 2018 Aug 21.

School of Environment, Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511443, China.

Exogenous glycinebetaine treatment is an effective measure for preventing crops from being exposed to drought and high temperature; however, the effects of this approach on the soil Cd uptake and accumulation by crops remain unclear. Pot experiments were conducted in this study to analyze the effect of glycinebetaine on the soil Cd uptake and accumulation by edible amaranth cultivated in Cd-contaminated soil. Results revealed that after exogenous glycinebetaine treatment on amaranth leaves during the vigorous growth period, the plant biomass, the Cd concentrations in the roots and shoots, and the Cd translocation factor (TF) were significantly higher than those of the control group. The highest Cd concentrations in the roots and shoots and the TF were higher by 91%, 96% and 23.8%, respectively, than the corresponding values in the control group. In addition, exogenous glycinebetaine treatment significantly increased leaf chlorophyll content and promoted the photosynthesis of edible amaranth. Consequently, the contents of soluble sugar, dissolved organic carbon, and low-molecular-weight organic acids significantly increased in the rhizosphere, resulting in Cd mobilization. Significant positive correlations were observed among the contents of leaf chlorophyll, Mg, Fe, pectin and Ca. Given that Cd shares absorption and translocation channels with these elements, we speculated that the increased leaf chlorophyll and pectin contents promoted the absorption and accumulation of Mg, Fe and Ca, which further promoted the absorption and translocation of Cd. These results indicated that exogenous glycinebetaine treatment during hot season would aggravate the health risks of crops grown in Cd-contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6164276PMC
August 2018

Low-Cd tomato cultivars (Solanum lycopersicum L.) screened in non-saline soils also accumulated low Cd, Zn, and Cu in heavy metal-polluted saline soils.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Sep 24;25(27):27439-27450. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

School of Environment, Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

Many reclaimed tidal flat soils feature high salinity and heavy metal (HM) accumulation. Consumption of vegetables cultivated in this type of cropland may cause health risks. Low-Cd tomato cultivars (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were identified in non-saline soil in our previous studies (Tan et al. 2014). However, further research should determine whether these low-Cd cultivars will maintain in the repeatability and stability in saline soil and whether they have low accumulation abilities for accompanying metals (such as Zn and Cu). A soil-pot trial was implemented to measure Cd, Zn, and Cu concentrations in low- and high-Cd cultivars of both common and cherry-type tomatoes grown on HM-polluted reclaimed tidal flat saline soil. Then, cultivar differences in dissolution of Cd, Zn, and Cu in soil and their uptake and redistribution in plants were analyzed. Results showed that the cherry type accumulated more Cd, Zn, and Cu than the common type. Low-Cd cultivars of both types in saline soil accumulated low concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Cu in fruits. Low HM accumulation in fruits is partly attributed to a low root/shoot (R/S) biomass ratio. Low amounts of soil HMs were dissolved because of the low level of rhizosphere organic compounds, which possibly decreased HM uptake by the roots. Low-Cd cultivars of both tomato types had a higher ability to retain HMs in the roots than their high-Cd cultivars. These findings may provide a scientific guidance for the safe cultivation of HM-polluted saline soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2776-6DOI Listing
September 2018

Response of edible amaranth cultivar to salt stress led to Cd mobilization in rhizosphere soil: A metabolomic analysis.

Environ Pollut 2018 Oct 31;241:422-431. Epub 2018 May 31.

School of Environment, Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic response of edible amaranth cultivars to salt stress and the induced rhizosphere effects on Cd mobilization in soil. Two edible amaranth cultivars (Amaranthus mangostanus L.), Quanhong (low-Cd accumulator; LC) and Liuye (high-Cd accumulator; HC), were subject to salinity treatment in both soil and hydroponic cultures. The total amount of mobilized Cd in rhizosphere soil under salinity treatment increased by 2.78-fold in LC cultivar and 4.36-fold in HC cultivar compared with controls, with 51.2% in LC cultivar and 80.5% in HC cultivar being attributed to biological mobilization of salinity. Multivariate statistical analysis generated from metabolite profiles in both rhizosphere soil and root revealed clear discrimination between control and salt treated samples. Tricarboxylic acid cycle in root was up-regulated to cope with salinity treatment, which promoted release of organic acids from root. The increased accumulation of organic acids in rhizosphere under salt stress obviously promoted soil Cd mobility. These results suggested that salinity promoted release of organic acids from root and enhanced soil Cd mobilization and accumulation in edible amaranth cultivar in soil culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.05.018DOI Listing
October 2018

[Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People's Republic of China in 2016].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2017 Dec;29(6):669-677

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases, Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Shanghai 200025, China.

This report presents the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at national level in 2016, and analyzes the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 454 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) of endemic of schistosomiasis japonica in P. R. China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), i.e., Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, had achieved elimination, and 7 provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan had achieved transmission control by the end of 2016. There are 451 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 257 million people, specifically including 29 692 endemic villages of 69.39 million people at risk. Among the 451 endemic counties (cities, districts), 35.25 % (159/451), 42.35% (191/451) and 22.39% (101/451) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively in 2016. By the end of 2016, it was estimated of 54 454 infections of schistosome, decreased by 29.46% compared with 77 194 in 2015. No acute schistosomiasis case was reported in 2016. There were 30 573 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2016. A total of 8 500 710 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 600 individuals were parasitologically diagnosed, decreased by 83.36% compared with 3 606 in 2015. The snail survey was performed in 22 140 endemic villages and snails were found in 7 106 villages, accounting for 32.109% of the total villages, with 20 newly detected villages with snails. The snail survey covered area of 813 963.91 hm and snails were found in an area of 235 096.04 hm, including a newly detected area of 1 346.48 hm. No schistosome-infected snails were found in 2016. A total of 881 050 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic area. Of them, 510 468 bovines received examinations, resulting in 8 schistosome-infected bovines. There were 147 642 schistosomiasis cases receiving drug treatment in 2016, with 2 303 555 individuals undergoing expanded chemotherapy; there were 9 bovines with schistosomiasis receiving drug treatment, with 439 857 bovines undergoing expanded chemotherapy; a total of 139 483.84 hm area with snail control by using molluscicides, with actual molluscicide-treated area of 73 941.75 hm; and 3 101.52 hm snail habitants were treated by environmental modification. Based on the data from the 454 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites, the mean infection rate was 0.02% and 0.0078% in humans and bovines, respectively. No schistosome-infected snails were found in all the surveillance sites. The results demonstrate a decline in the endemicity of schistosomiasis in P. R. China compared with the level of 2015. However, the distribution area of snails in China is still large and the infection source of schistosomiasis still exists to some extent in some endemic areas; in some regions, the task to reach the standard of transmission interruption is still arduous. There are still objective factors of epidemic and transmission and risk factors of endemic reversal and rebound for schistosomiasis. So, further control and effective surveillance as well as accurate prevention and control should be implemented to promote the elimination process on schistosomiasis in P. R. China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2017204DOI Listing
December 2017

Impact of capsule endoscopy on prevention of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease.

Gastrointest Endosc 2018 Jun 3;87(6):1489-1498. Epub 2018 Mar 3.

Institute of Gastroenterology of Guangdong Province, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background And Aims: Capsule endoscopy (CE) can detect lesions outside the scope of ileocolonoscopy in postoperative patients with Crohn's disease (CD). However, the impact of such findings on patient outcomes remains unknown. This study is intended to evaluate the impact of CE findings on clinical management and outcomes in asymptomatic patients with CD without pharmacologic prophylaxis after ileocolonic resection.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 37 patients (group 1) received ileocolonoscopy together with CE within 1 year after surgery, whereas 46 patients (group 2) only received ileocolonoscopy. Patients with endoscopic recurrence detected by either ileocolonoscopy or CE received pharmacologic therapy with azathioprine or infliximab. One year later, disease activity was re-evaluated.

Results: In group 1, all patients with ileocolonoscopy-identified recurrence also had CE-identified recurrence. In addition, CE detected endoscopic recurrence in 11 patients missed by ileocolonoscopy. Endoscopic remission identified by ileocolonoscopy was confirmed by CE in 13 patients. One year later, endoscopic remission identified by ileocolonoscopy was maintained in all 24 patients, and none had clinical recurrence. Conversely, in group 2, of those with ileocolonoscopy-identified remission, both ileocolonoscopy-identified recurrence and clinical recurrence occurred in 9 of 31 patients 1 year later. The total clinical recurrence rate was 2.7% (1/37) in group 1 versus 21.7% (10/46) in group 2 (P = .019).

Conclusions: If endoscopic remission identified by ileocolonoscopy was confirmed by CE, patients could remain free of pharmacologic prophylaxis. If recurrence outside the scope of ileocolonoscopy was detected by CE, initiation of active pharmacologic therapy would be needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2018.01.017DOI Listing
June 2018

Impact of osmoregulation on the differences in Cd accumulation between two contrasting edible amaranth cultivars grown on Cd-polluted saline soils.

Environ Pollut 2017 May 3;224:89-97. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Exposure and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

This study aimed to investigate the difference of osmoregulation between two edible amaranth cultivars, Liuye (high Cd accumulator) and Quanhong (low Cd accumulator), under salinity stress and determine the effects of such difference on Cd accumulation. A pot experiment was conducted to expose the plants to sewage-irrigated garden soil (mean 2.28 mg kg Cd) pretreated at three salinity levels. Under salinity stress, the concentrations of Cd in the two cultivars were significantly elevated compared with those in the controls, and the Cd concentration in Liuye was statistically higher than that in Quanhong (p < 0.05). Salinity-induced osmoregulation triggered different biogeochemical processes involved in Cd mobilization in the rhizosphere soil, Cd absorption, and translocation by the two cultivars. Rhizosphere acidification induced by an imbalance of cation over anion uptake was more serious in Liuye than in Quanhong, which obviously increased soil Cd bioavailability. Salinity-induced injuries in the cell wall pectin and membrane structure were worse in Liuye than in Quanhong, increasing the risk of Cd entering the protoplasts. The chelation of more cytoplasmic Cd with Cl ions in the roots of Liuye promoted Cd translocation into the shoots. Furthermore, the less organic solutes in the root sap of Liuye than in that of Quanhong also favored Cd translocation into the shoots. Hence, osmoregulation processes can be regarded as important factors in reducing Cd accumulation in crop cultivars grown on saline soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.12.067DOI Listing
May 2017

[Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People's Republic of China in 2015].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2016 Dec;28(6):611-617

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases, Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, Shanghai 200025, China.

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at a national level in 2015, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality, autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis japonica in P. R. China, 5 provinces (municipality, autonomous region), i.e., Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, had achieved transmission interruption, and 7 provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan had achieved transmission control by the end of 2015. There were 453 endemic counties (city, district) covering 252 million people, specifically including 29 980 endemic villages of 68.61 million people at risk of infection. Among the 453 endemic counties (city, district), 75.72% (343/453) and 24.28% (110/453) reached the criteria of transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2015, it was estimated of 77 194 cases of schistosomiasis, which were decreased by 33.23% compared with 115 614 cases in 2014. No acute schistosomiasis cases were reported in 2015. There were 30 843 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2015. A total of 8 736 036 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 3 606 individuals were parasitologically diagnosed, which were decreased by 56.40% compared with 8 270 cases in 2014. An snail survey was performed in 19 965 endemic villages and the snails were found in 5 609 villages, accounting for 28.09% of total villages, with 31 newly detected villages with snails. The snail survey covered an area of 593 572.66 hm and snails were found in an area of 173 462.50 hm, including a newly detected area of 666.04 hm. No infected snails were found in 2015. A total of 879 373 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic regions. Of them, 526 062 bovines received stool examinations, resulting in 315 infected bovines. There were 170 438 schistosomiasis cases receiving drug treatment in 2015, with 2 449 696 individuals undergoing expanded chemotherapy. There were 318 bovines with schistosomiasis receiving drug treatment, with 483 213 bovines undergoing expanded chemotherapy. A total of 144 305.52 hm area was subject to snail control by using molluscicides, with an actual molluscicide-treated area of 69 221.57 hm, and 4 572.06 hm snail habitats were treated by environmental modification. Based on the data from the 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites, the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rate was 0.05% and 0.04% in humans and bovines, respectively. No infected snails were found in all the surveillance sites. The results demonstrate a decline in the endemicity of schistosomiasis in P. R. China and the country reached the criteria of transmission control at the national level. However, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis is unstable in some regions with newly-reached transmission control, and further control and effective surveillance should be strengthened to consolidate the achievements and reduce the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in P. R. China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2016246DOI Listing
December 2016

Transplantation of Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Functional Recovery in a Rat Model of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury.

Neurochem Res 2016 Oct 28;41(10):2708-2718. Epub 2016 Jun 28.

Affiliated Bayi Brain Hospital, Bayi Clinical College, Southern Medical University, Beijing, China.

Human amniotic membrane mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) are considered ideal candidate stem cells for cell-based therapy. In this study, we assessed whether hAMSCs transplantation promotes neurological functional recovery in rats after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). In addition, the potential mechanisms underlying the possible benefits of this therapy were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to SCI using a weight drop device and then hAMSCs, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were immediately injected into the contused dorsal spinal cord at 2 mm rostral and 2 mm caudal to the injury site. Our results indicated that transplanted hAMSCs migrated in the host spinal cord without differentiating into neuronal or glial cells. Compared with the control group, hAMSCs transplantation significantly decreased the numbers of ED1 macrophages/microglia and caspase-3 cells. In addition, hAMSCs transplantation significantly increased the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the injured spinal cord, and promoted both angiogenesis and axonal regeneration. These effects were associated with significantly improved neurobehavioral recovery in the hAMSCs transplantation group. These results show that transplantation of hAMSCs provides neuroprotective effects in rats after SCI, and could be candidate stem cells for the treatment of SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-016-1987-9DOI Listing
October 2016

The Lombard effect in male ultrasonic frogs: Regulating antiphonal signal frequency and amplitude in noise.

Sci Rep 2016 06 27;6:27103. Epub 2016 Jun 27.

State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Acoustic communication in noisy environments presents a significant challenge for vocal animals because noise can interfere with animal acoustic signals by decreasing signal-to-noise ratios and masking signals. Birds and mammals increase call intensity or frequency as noise levels increase, but it is unclear to what extend this behavior is shared by frogs. Concave-eared torrent frogs (Odorrana tormota) have evolved the capacity to produce various calls containing ultrasonic harmonics and to communicate beside noisy streams. However, it is largely unclear how frogs regulate vocalization in response to increasing noise levels. We exposed male frogs to various levels of noise with playback of conspecific female courtship calls and recorded antiphonal signals and spontaneous short calls. Males were capable of rapidly adjusting fundamental frequency and amplitude of antiphonal signals as noise levels increased. The increment in fundamental frequency and amplitude was approximately 0.5 kHz and 3 dB with every 10 dB increase in noise level, indicating the presence of noise-dependent signal characteristics. Males showed the noise-tolerant adaption in response to female calls in noise level from 40 to 90 dB SPL. The results suggest that the noise-dependent signal characteristics in O. tormota have evolved as a strategy to cope with varying torrent noise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep27103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4921866PMC
June 2016

Leaching heavy metals from the surface soil of reclaimed tidal flat by alternating seawater inundation and air drying.

Chemosphere 2016 Aug 27;157:262-70. Epub 2016 May 27.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Exposure and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

Leaching experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to simulate seawater leaching combined with alternating seawater inundation and air drying. We investigated the heavy metal release of soils caused by changes associated with seawater inundation/air drying cycles in the reclaimed soils. After the treatment, the contents of all heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, and Cu), except Zn, in surface soil significantly decreased (P < 0.05), with removal rates ranging from 10% to 51%. The amounts of the exchangeable, carbonate, reducible, and oxidizable fractions also significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Moreover, prolonged seawater inundation enhanced the release of heavy metals. Measurement of diffusive gradients in thin films indicated that seawater inundation significantly increased the re-mobility of heavy metals. During seawater inundation, iron oxide reduction induced the release of heavy metals in the reducible fraction. Decomposition of organic matter, and complexation with dissolved organic carbon decreased the amount of heavy metals in the oxidizable fraction. Furthermore, complexation of chloride ions and competition of cations during seawater inundation and/or leaching decreased the levels of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction. By contrast, air drying significantly enhanced the concentration of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction. Therefore, the removal of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction can be enhanced during subsequent leaching with seawater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.05.019DOI Listing
August 2016

[Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People's Republic of China in 2014].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2015 Dec;27(6):563-9

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at national level in 2014, and analyzed the data captured from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 81 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis japonica in China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) of Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi had achieved transmission interruption, 4 provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Jiangsu and Hubei had achieved transmission control, and Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces were still at infection control until 2014. There were 453 counties (city, district) endemic for schistosomiasis, with 251 million residents, and 30,048 villages endemic for schistosomiasis, with 68 million 507 thousand and 3 hundred residents. Among the 453 endemic counties (city, district), 69.09% (313/453) and 29.80% (135/ 453) endemic counties (city, district) reached the transmission interruption and transmission control respectively while the number of counties (city, district) at the stage of infection control reduced from 34 in 2013 to 5 in 2014 (accounted for 1.10% of the total number of endemic counties, 5/53). Till 2014, 115,614 people were estimated to have schistosomiasis and only 2 acute schistosomiasis cases were reported. In addition, there were 30,880 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2014. In 2014, a total of 9,461,348 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 8,270 persons were found stool positives with the reduction rate of 50.96% as compared to that (16,865 cases) in 2013. The Oncomelania hupensis snail survey was performed in 20 123 endemic villages in 2014, and the snails were detected in 5,653 villages, which accounted for 28.09% of total villages, with 13 newly detected villages with snails. The snail survey covered an area of 576,506.37 hm² and snails were found in an area of 364 324.42 hm², including an area of 531.13 hm² detected snails for the first time. No schistosome infected snails were found in 2014. A total of 919,579 head of cattle were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China. In 2014, 494,620 head of cattle received examinations and only 666 were determined as stool positives. Based on the data from the 81 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China, the mean Schistosomajaponicum infection rate was 0.11% and 0.05% in humans and cattle respectively, and no infected snails were detected in 2014. There were 280,855 schistosomiasis cases receiving treatments, with 2,565,555 cases undergoing expanded chemotherapy; there were 798 head of cattle with schistosomiasis receiving treatments, with 408,690 head of cattle undergoing expanded chemotherapy; there was a total 138,923.90 hm² area with snail control by using molluscicides , with actual mollusciciding of 74,538.17 hm²; and there was an environmental modification of 5,331.42 hm². These data demonstrate a decline in the endemic city of schistosomiasis in China in 2014. However, the risk of schistosomiasis transmission remains high in some regions. Further control and effective surveillance should be strengthened to consolidate the achievements and reduce the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in China.
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December 2015

Use of flue gas desulfurization gypsum for leaching Cd and Pb in reclaimed tidal flat soil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Apr 13;23(8):7840-8. Epub 2016 Jan 13.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Exposure and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

A soil column leaching experiment was conducted to eliminate heavy metals from reclaimed tidal flat soil. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum was used for leaching. The highest removal rates of Cd and Pb in the upper soil layers (0-30 cm) were 52.7 and 30.5 %, respectively. Most of the exchangeable and carbonate-bound Cd and Pb were removed. The optimum FGD gypsum application rate was 7.05 kg·m(-2), and the optimum leaching water amount for the application was 217.74 L·m(-2). The application of FGD gypsum (two times) and the extension of the leaching interval time to 20 days increased the heavy metal removal rate in the upper soil layers. The heavy metals desorbed from the upper soil layers were re-adsorbed and fixed in the 30-70 cm soil layers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6058-xDOI Listing
April 2016

RANKL, OPG and CTR mRNA expression in the temporomandibular joint in rheumatoid arthritis.

Exp Ther Med 2015 Sep 8;10(3):895-900. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, P.R. China.

The calcitonin receptor (CTR) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) have been found to be involved in the differentiation of osteoclasts. The association between the RANKL:osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression ratio and the pathogenesis of bone-destructive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been described in several joints, but the available data for the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of osteoclasts at sites of bone erosion by determining the CTR expression and the RANKL:OPG expression ratio in the TMJ in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: Control group, injected with saline solution for 6 weeks; and CIA group, injected with emulsion. The RANKL and OPG mRNA expression was significantly increased in immunized rats compared with that in non-immunized rats. The RANKL:OPG expression ratio on the trabecular bone surface was 9.0 and 6.4 in the CIA group at weeks 4 and 6, respectively, while the RANKL:OPG expression ratio in the controls was 1.0:2. CTR mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in immunized rats compared with that in non-immunized rats; the level of CTR mRNA in the CTR-positive osteoclasts on the trabecular bone surface was 10.9- and 7.8-fold higher in the CIA rats than that in the control rats at weeks 4 and 6, respectively. In conclusion, focal bone destruction in an experimental model of arthritis in the TMJ can be attributed to cells expressing CTR, a defining feature of osteoclasts. The expression of RANKL and OPG mRNA within the inflamed synovium provides an insight into the mechanism of osteoclast differentiation and function at the border of bone erosion in arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2015.2629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4533182PMC
September 2015

Little effect of natural noise on high-frequency hearing in frogs, Odorrana tormota.

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2015 Oct 11;201(10):1029-34. Epub 2015 Aug 11.

State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Ambient noise influences acoustic communication in animals. The concave-eared frogs (Odorrana tormota) produce high-frequency sound signals to avoid potential masking from noise. However, whether environmental noise has effect on the high-frequency hearing of frogs is largely unclear. By measuring the auditory evoked near-field potentials (AENFPs) from the torus semicircularis of the midbrain at frequencies 1-23 kHz in the presence of three noise levels, we found no significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude, threshold and latency of AENFP between low-level (35 dB SPL) background noise and mid-level (65 dB SPL) broadcast natural noise. For a natural noise level of 85 dB SPL, AENFP amplitude decreased and threshold and latency increased at frequencies 3-13 kHz. Spike counts evoked by stimuli at the best excitatory frequency under 85 dB SPL natural noise exposure were lower in 7-kHz CF neurons than in exposures to 35 and 65 dB SPL noise. However spike counts were similar for 14- and 20-kHz CF neurons at the three exposure levels. These findings indicate that environmental noise does not mask the responses of high-frequency tuned auditory neurons, and suggest that the acoustic communication system of O. tormota is efficiently adapted to noisy habitats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00359-015-1035-2DOI Listing
October 2015

Sedation With Propofol Has No Effect on Capsule Endoscopy Completion Rates: A Prospective Single-Center Study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2015 Jul;94(27):e1140

From the Department of Gastroenterology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China (H-YG, Y-JW, W-GQ, Z-YC, Z-MX, YB, WG, T-MW, D-SP, F-CZ); Department of Anesthesiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China (Y-SS, A-JQ); and Department of Gastroenterology, Qingyuan City People's Hospital of Jinan University, Guangdong, China (H-YG).

Patients who need both capsule endoscopy (CE) and colonoscopy often undergo both examinations on the same day to avoid repeated bowel preparation and fasting. Sedation can relieve pain and is commonly used for colonoscopies but may influence the CE completion rate.To determine whether sedation with propofol influences the completion rate and small-bowel transit time (SBTT) of CE.From July 2014 to December 2014, patients (18-65 years old) who needed both CE and colonoscopy were assessed consecutively for enrollment in our study. Colonoscopies were performed with or without sedation based on patient preferences on the day of capsule ingestion. The completion rate, SBTT, and diagnostic yield of CEs were recorded. Patients' satisfaction and pain scores were also recorded.Sedation with propofol had no significant effect on CE completion rates (83.3% sedation group vs 81.8% nonsedation group, P = 0.86) but was associated with increased SBTT (403.6 ± 160.3 sedation group vs 334.5 ± 134.4 nonsedation group, P = 0.006). The diagnostic yields in the sedation and nonsedation groups were 69.4% and 65.9%, respectively (P = 0.74). The median satisfaction scores were 8.6 in the sedation group and 3.5 in the nonsedation group (P < 0.001). Median pain scores were 1.4 in the sedation group and 6.7 in the nonsedation group (P < 0.001).Sedation with propofol increased SBTT but had no effect on CE completion rates, suggesting that CE and colonoscopy with propofol can be performed on the same day (clinical trial registration number: ChiCTR-ONRC-14004866).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000001140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4504626PMC
July 2015

[Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People's Republic of China in 2013].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2014 Dec;26(6):591-7

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at national level in 2013. By the end of 2013, there are 184 943 schistosomiasis japonica cases. Meanwhile, nine acute cases were reported, and 4 cases reduced compared with that of 2012. A total of 29 796 advanced cases were reported; while 911 cases were determined as advanced cases and 1 700 cases were dead in 2013. Nationally, there were around 365 467.99 hm2 Oncomelania snail infested areas in total and 9.25 hm2 of them habituated infected snails in 2013. There were 287.28 hm2 of snail infested areas found in non-endemic areas historically. Moreover, 962 065 cattle were estimated to be raised in endemic regions and 633 cattle were determined as positive by stool examinations. The data showed that the endemicity of schistosomiasis in China decreased further. However, challenges exist to reach the aims of the medium and long-term national program. Further control and effective surveillance need to be strengthened as the endemicity of schistosomiasis is unstable in the areas after schistosomiasis transmission under control or interruption.
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December 2014

Effects of freshwater leaching on potential bioavailability of heavy metals in tidal flat soils.

Environ Geochem Health 2016 Feb 7;38(1):99-110. Epub 2015 Mar 7.

School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

Leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of desalination levels and sediment depths on potential bioavailability of heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in tidal flat soils. The data showed that both the desalination levels (p < 0.001) and soil depths (p < 0.001) had significant effects on the concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS). AVS concentrations generally exhibited increasing trends with an increase in depth and decreasing trends with enhanced desalination levels. The desalination levels had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the concentrations of simultaneously extracted metal (SEM; Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn). Moreover, the concentrations of SEM (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) generally tended to decrease with an increase in the desalination level. The desalination treatment significantly reduced the ratios of SEM/AVS compared with control. However, the ratios of SEM/AVS increased with enhanced desalination levels in treatments. Results reveal that low desalination treatment is better for reducing toxicity to benthic organisms than high desalination treatment. Since these reclaimed tidal flats with low desalinisation are suitable for saline water aquaculture, transforming the present land use of reclaimed tidal flats from fresh water aquaculture into saline water aquaculture may reduce health risk of heavy metals remained in sediments. These results will also contribute to our understanding of the dynamic behavior of heavy metals in the reclamation of tidal flats during leaching and the role of the ratio of SEM/AVS predictions on assessing the ecological risks of reclaimed tidal flats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-015-9688-xDOI Listing
February 2016

[Space-time clustering analysis of acute schistosome infections in marshland and lake areas in five provinces].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2014 Jun;26(3):245-9

Objective: To analyze the time and space aggregation of acute schistosome infections in marshland and lake areas in five provinces (Jiangsu, Anhui, Jiangxi, Hubei and Hunan province) from 2005 to 2012, so as to provide the evidence for establishing control strategies and taking effective control measures.

Methods: The data of patients with acute schistosome infection in marshland and lake areas in five provinces from 2005 to 2012 were collected and analyzed with the concentration ratio and circular distribution methods for the epidemic season features and time aggregation of the infection, and with the spatial autocorrelation analysis for the space aggregation of the infected cases.

Results: According to the concentration ratio, the occurrence of acute schistosome infection had strong seasonality, and the concentration ratio was 0.758; according to the circular distribution method, the peak day of acute schistosome infections was 10th, August. The spatial analysis suggested that the infected cases highly gathered around Poyang Lake, Dongting Lake and Yangtze River Basin in 23 counties of the five provinces, and the result of spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the spatial autocorrelation index I was 0.16 (P = 0.01).

Conclusion: The occurrence of acute schistosome infections in lake regions of the 5 provinces shows strong seasonality and space aggregation, therefore we can bring the control mark forward, and take targeted prevention and control measures in high aggregation areas of acute schistosomiasis.
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June 2014

Clinical characteristics and prognosis of 60 patients with midventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2015 Nov;16(11):751-60

aKey Laboratory of Clinical Trial Research in Cardiovascular Drugs, Ministry of Health, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Diseases bDepartment of Radiology cDepartment of Pathology and Physiology dDepartment of Echocardiography, FuWai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Midventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (MVOHCM) is a rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Knowledge regarding the diagnosis, morbidity and cardiovascular mortality is limited. In this study, we aimed to describe the long-term outcomes of patients with MVOHCM followed in a tertiary referral centre.Methods A retrospective study of 60 patients with MVOHCM diagnosed at FuWai Hospital was performed. Clinical features, mortality and cardiovascular morbidity were analysed.

Results: The 60 patients with MVOHCM represented 2.9% of all the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy cases (n = 2068). At diagnosis, the mean age was 40.2 ± 15.0 years. During 7.1 ± 6.3 years of follow-up after diagnosis, the cardiovascular mortality was 15.0%. The probability of survival at 10 years was 77.0 ± 8.0%. The following two predictors of cardiovascular mortality were identified: severe ventricular septal hypertrophy at least 30  mm (hazard ratio, 3.19; P = 0.031) and unexplained syncope (hazard ratio, 4.59; P = 0.002) at baseline. Thirty patients (50.0%) had one or more morbid events, and the most frequent was nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. Apical aneurysm formation was identified in 20% of patients, and the patients with apical aneurysms were more inclined to experience nonsustained ventricular tachycardia than patients without apical aneurysm (58.3 vs. 16.7%; P = 0.003). Peak pressure gradient at least 70  mm Hg (hazard ratio, 3.00; P = 0.01) at baseline was identified as the only predictor of apical aneurysm.

Conclusion: In Chinese patients, MVOHCM is associated with an unfavourable prognosis of cardiovascular mortality. One-half of these patients experience major cardiovascular events, and 20% develop an apical aneurysm, which significantly increases arrhythmia events. These data warrant measures to ensure the early recognition of MVOHCM followed by appropriate therapeutic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0000000000000163DOI Listing
November 2015

Reduction patterns of acute schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014 May 8;8(5):e2849. Epub 2014 May 8.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health; WHO Collaborating Center for Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Filariasis, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Background: Despite significant, steady progress in schistosomiasis control in the People's Republic of China over the past 50 years, available data suggest that the disease has re-emerged with several outbreaks of acute infections in the early new century. In response, a new integrated strategy was introduced.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted between Jan 2005 and Dec 2012, to explore the effectiveness of a new integrated control strategy that was implemented by the national control program since 2004.

Results: A total of 1,047 acute cases were recorded between 2005 and 2012, with an annual reduction in prevalence of 97.7%. The proportion of imported cases of schistosomiasis was higher in 2011 and 2012. Nine clusters of acute infections were detected by spatio-temporal analysis between June and November, indicating that the high risk areas located in the lake and marshland regions.

Conclusion: This study shows that the new integrated strategy has played a key role in reducing the morbidity of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4014431PMC
May 2014
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