Publications by authors named "Zhi-Dong Hu"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

High rate of completion for weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid treatment in Chinese children with latent tuberculosis infection-A single center study.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0253159. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Three months of weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid (3HP) is a short course regimen for latent tuberculosis infection treatment with satisfied safety and efficacy. However, research on its use in children is limited. In this study, we evaluated the completion rate and safety of the 3HP regimen among children in China. Participants aged 1-14 years receiving 3HP for TB prevention at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center were followed from December 2019 to November 2020 to evaluate the safety and completion rate of the treatment. Thirty-one children were eligible for inclusion, but five were excluded from the analysis (three were treated with a lower than recommended dose, and two were lost to follow-up). Of the 26 children included in the analysis, the treatment completion rate was 100%. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were reported in 38.5% (10/26) of the patients. The most common ADRs were gastrointestinal symptoms (19.2%,5/26), and all ADRs were rated as Grade 1. The 3HP regimen has a high completion rate, and it seems well tolerated in our study population. However, further randomized controlled clinical trial with larger sample size are warranted.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253159PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8195436PMC
June 2021

Increased Th17 activation and gut microbiota diversity are associated with pembrolizumab-triggered tuberculosis.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2020 Dec 6;69(12):2665-2671. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Pulmonary Disease, PLA 905 Hospital, 9585 Humin Road, Shanghai, 200235, China.

Introduction: A hypersensitivity response akin to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) has been proposed as a mechanism responsible for anti-PD-1 therapy-induced tuberculosis. IRIS is associated with enhanced activation of IL-17A-expressing CD4 + T cells (Th17). Gut microbiota is thought to be linked to pulmonary inflammation through the gut-lung axis.

Materials And Methods: We used ImmuCellAI to investigate the T cell population in lung cancer and tuberculosis samples. Then, we applied flow cytometry to monitor the expression levels of the Th17 cell activation marker CD38 in the peripheral blood of a patient experiencing adverse events, including tuberculosis, in response to pembrolizumab. The gut microbiome was examined by 16S rRNA sequencing to examine the alterations caused by pembrolizumab.

Results: The percentage of Th17 cells was increased in both lung cancer and tuberculosis. FACS analysis showed that pembrolizumab induced substantial CD38 expression in Th17 cells. The patient's fecal samples showed that the diversity of the gut microbiota was significantly increased in response to the pembrolizumab cycle. One enriched genus was Prevotella, which has previously been linked to lung inflammation and Th17 immune activation.

Discussion: The observed Th17 activation in our patient was consistent with a role of Th17-mediated IRIS in pembrolizumab-triggered tuberculosis. Pembrolizumab might trigger airway inflammation with a Th17 phenotype through microbiota interactions in the gut-lung axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-020-02687-5DOI Listing
December 2020

Molecular Epidemiology and Antifungal Susceptibility of in China (August 2009 to July 2014): A Multi-Center Study.

Front Microbiol 2017 23;8:880. Epub 2017 May 23.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical SciencesBeijing, China.

is an increasingly important cause of invasive candidiasis. In China, relatively little is known of the molecular epidemiology of and of its antifungal susceptibility patterns. Here we studied 411 non-duplicate isolates from 411 patients at 11 hospitals participating in the National China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net program (CHIF-NET; 2010-2014). Genotyping was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) employing six genetic loci and by microsatellite analysis. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed using Sensititre YeastOne™ YO10 methodology. Of 411 isolates, 35 sequence types (ST) were identified by MLST and 79 different genotypes by microsatellite typing; the latter had higher discriminatory power than MLST in the molecular typing of . Using MLST, ST7 and ST3 were the most common STs (66.4 and 9.5% of all isolates, respectively) with 24 novel STs identified; the most common microsatellite types were T25 (30.4% of all isolates) and T31 (12.4%). Resistance to fluconazole (MIC > 32 μg/mL) was seen in 16.5% (68/411) of isolates whilst MICs of >0.5 μg/mL for voriconazole, >2 μg/mL for itraconazole and >2 μg/mL for posaconazole were seen for 28.7, 6.8, and 7.3% of isolates, respectively; 14.8% of all isolates cross-resistant/non-wide-type to fluconazole and voriconazole. Fluconazole resistant rates increased 3-fold over the 5-year period whilst that of isolates with non-WT MICs to voriconazole, 7-fold. All echinocandins exhibited >99% susceptibility rates against all isolates but notably one isolate exhibited multi-drug resistance to the azoles and echinocandins. The study has provided a global picture of the molecular epidemiology and drug resistance rates of in China during the period of the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5440528PMC
May 2017

Evaluation of a New IFN-γ Release Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis in a High-Incidence Setting.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 11;7:117. Epub 2017 Apr 11.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of MOE/MOH, Fudan UniversityShanghai, China.

Blood-based interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) have been proven to be useful in the diagnosis of () infection. However, IGRAs have not been recommended for clinical practice in most low-income settings due to cost-intensive limitations and shortage of clinical data available. The established T-SPOT. assay containing -specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP10 are widely used for immunodiagonsis of infection, but the high cost is one of the restricting factors against its clinical application in the developing countries. More recently, a cost-saving IGRA assay, TS-SPOT, was approved in China. This new assay contains an additional antigen Rv3615c. Rv3615c contains broadly recognized CD4 and CD8 epitopes, and T-cell responses to Rv3615c are as specific for infection as the responses to ESAT-6 and CFP10 in both -infected humans and -infected cattle. Therefore, we assessed the likely effect of inclusion of Rv3615c as stimulus besides ESAT-6 and CFP10 in an IGRA assay and evaluated the performance of TS-SPOT for diagnosis of infection and active TB compared with T-SPOT.. We tested 155 active TB patients, 90 non-TB lung disease patients, and 55 healthy individuals. The results presented an improved positive rate for diagnosis of active TB and infection, that could be attributable to inclusion of Rv3615c in the mixture of stimulatory antigens. The diagnostic efficiency of TS-SPOT assay for active TB was as follows: sensitivity 80.00%, specificity 83.45%, positive predictive value (PPV) 83.78%, negative predictive value (NPV) 83.45%, positive likelihood ratio (LR+) 4.83, and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) 0.24. The results were similar to those of T-SPOT., with an excellent agreement (κ = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85-0.95) being observed between these two assays. The sensitivities of the TS-SPOT assay varied for patients with different forms of active TB, with the highest sensitivity for patients with culture-positive pulmonary TB (92.16%) and the lowest for those with tuberculosis meningitis (50.00%). Taken together, the current evidence indicates that this new TS-SPOT assay is a useful adjunct to the current tests for rapid diagnosis of active TB and infection in low-income and high-incidence settings due to its characteristics of cost-effectiveness and high-quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2017.00117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5386965PMC
September 2017

Boosting BCG-primed mice with chimeric DNA vaccine HG856A induces potent multifunctional T cell responses and enhanced protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Immunol Res 2016 Feb;64(1):64-72

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of MOE/MOH, Fudan University, Shanghai, 201508, China.

The tuberculosis pandemic continues to rampage despite widespread use of the current Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. Because DNA vaccines can elicit effective antigen-specific immune responses, including potent T cell-mediated immunity, they are promising vehicles for antigen delivery. In a prime-boost approach, they can supplement the inadequate anti-TB immunological memory induced by BCG. Based on this, a chimeric DNA vaccine HG856A encoding Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) immunodominant antigen Ag85A plus two copies of ESAT-6 was constructed. Potent humoral immune responses, as well as therapeutic effects induced by this DNA vaccine, were observed previously in M. tuberculosis-infected mice. In this study, we further evaluated the antigen-specific T cell immune responses and showed that repeated immunization with HG856A gave modest protection against M. tuberculosis challenge infection and significantly boosted the immune protection primed by BCG vaccination. Enhanced protection was accompanied by increased multifunctional Th1 CD4(+) T cell responses, most notably by an elevated frequency of M. tuberculosis antigen-specific IL-2-producing CD4(+) T cells post-vaccination. These data confirm the potential of chimeric DNA vaccine HG856A as an anti-TB vaccine candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12026-015-8674-9DOI Listing
February 2016

Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida glabrata species complex, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis species complex and Candida tropicalis causing invasive candidiasis in China: 3 year national surveillance.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2015 Mar 3;70(3):802-10. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China

Objectives: To define the antifungal susceptibility patterns of the most common non-albicans Candida spp. in China.

Methods: We evaluated the susceptibilities to nine antifungal drugs of Candida parapsilosis species complex, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata species complex and Candida krusei isolates from patients with invasive candidiasis at 11 hospitals over 3 years. Isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS supplemented by DNA sequencing. MICs were determined by Sensititre YeastOne(TM) using current clinical breakpoints/epidemiological cut-off values to assign susceptibility (or WT), and by CLSI M44-A2 disc diffusion for fluconazole and voriconazole.

Results: Of 1072 isolates, 392 (36.6%) were C. parapsilosis species complex. C. tropicalis, C. glabrata species complex and C. krusei comprised 35.4%, 24.3% and 3.7% of the isolates, respectively. Over 99.3% of the isolates were of WT phenotype to amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine. Susceptibility/WT rates to azoles among C. parapsilosis species complex were ≥97.5%. However, 11.6% and 9.5% of C. tropicalis isolates were non-susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively (7.1% were resistant to both). Approximately 14.3% of C. glabrata sensu stricto isolates (n = 258) were fluconazole resistant, and 11.6% of C. glabrata sensu stricto isolates were cross-resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole. All C. krusei isolates were susceptible/WT to voriconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole. Overall, 97.7%-100% of isolates were susceptible to caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin, but 2.3% of C. glabrata were non-susceptible to anidulafungin. There was no azole/echinocandin co-resistance. Disc diffusion and Sensititre YeastOne(TM) methods showed >95% categorical agreement for fluconazole and voriconazole.

Conclusions: In summary, reduced azole susceptibility was seen among C. tropicalis. Resistance to echinocandins was uncommon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dku460DOI Listing
March 2015

Enhanced protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis afforded by BCG prime-DNA boost regimen in an early challenge mouse model is associated with increased splenic interleukin-2-producing CD4 T-cell frequency post-vaccination.

Immunology 2014 Dec;143(4):661-9

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Centre, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of MOE/MOH, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The development of improved vaccines and vaccination strategies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been hindered by a limited understanding of the immune correlates of anti-tuberculosis protective immunity. Simple measurement of interferon-γ frequency or production per se does not provide adequate prediction of immune protection. In this study, we examined the relationship between T-cell immune responses and protective efficacy conferred by the heterologous vaccination strategy, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prime-Ag85A DNA boost (B/D), in an early challenge mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. The results demonstrated that mice vaccinated with the B/D regimen had a significantly reduced bacillary load compared with BCG-vaccinated mice, and the reduction in colony-forming units was associated with decreased pathology and lower levels of inflammatory cytokines in the infected lungs. Further analysis of immunogenicity showed that the superior protection afforded by the B/D regimen was associated with significantly increased frequency of splenic interleukin-2 (IL-2) -producing CD4 T cells and increased IL-2 production when measured as integrated mean fluorescence intensity post-vaccination as well. These data suggest that measurement of elevated frequency of IL-2-producing CD4 T cells or IL-2 production in the spleens of vaccinated mice can predict vaccine efficacy, at least in the B/D strategy, and add to the accumulating body of evidence suggesting that BCG prime-boost strategies may be a useful approach to the control of M. tuberculosis infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.12348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4253514PMC
December 2014

[Analysis of resistance tendency of bloodstream-infecting pathogens in China].

Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2013 Jun;36(6):411-9

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100191, China (Email:

Objective: To investigate the resistance profiles and the trend of bloodstream-infecting pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients during 2004-2010.

Methods: The bloodstream isolates were collected from 18 hospitals in 17 cities. Minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) were determined using the agar dilution method recommended by CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute), and susceptibility results were analyzed according to the 2011 CLSI guideline.

Results: Among the 2004-2005, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 periods, the proportions of clinical isolates were similar; 43.1% (149 isolates), 34.0% (151 isolates) and 47.5% (776 isolates) for Gram positive strains, 56.9% (197 isolates), 66.0% (293 isolates) and 52.5% (858 isolates) for Gram negative strains, respectively. The isolating rate of MRSA was 54.1% (20/37) in 2007-2008, which was the highest among the 3 periods during 2004 to 2010, while it decreased in 2009-2010 (36.5%, 62/170). The MRCNS proportions were similar across the 3 periods. One (1.8%) vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and 1 linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis were found. Although the isolating rates of penicillin non-sensitive strains (oral) were similar between 2009-2010 and 2007-2008 [54.5% (6/11) and 53.9% (7/13), respectively], the resistant rates increased from 0% in 2007-2008 to 30.8% (4/13) in 2009-2010. The results were similar according to the non-meningitis criterion (IV), and the susceptibility rates decreased from 100.0% (11 isolates) in 2007-2008 to 84.6% (11/13) in 2009-2010. ESBL-harboring strains in E. coli were similar among the 3 periods during 2004 to 2010 [66.7% (30/45), 73.2% (71/97) and 67.9% (233/343), respectively]. ESBL-producing strains in Klebsilla pnuemoniae decreased year after year, 72.4% (21/29), 50.0% (18/36) and 41.1% (65/158) in 2004-2005, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010, respectively. Except that the sensitive rate of Enterobacter cloacae to ertapenem was 80% (32/40), the sensitive rates of other strains to carbapenems were still above 90% and the resistance rates were less than 5%. Acinetobacter baumannii had the highest multi-drug resistance rate (81.8%, 81/99). One strain (1.0%, 1/99) of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated in 2009-2010 was reported to be pan-resistant.

Conclusions: We are facing a more serious situation of bacterial resistance. Acinetobacter baumannii resistance was most serious, usually with the characteristics of multiple drug resistance, and even pan-resistance. Carbapenems remain to be the most effective against enterobacteriaceae. Strains resistant to novel antibiotics (linezolid and tigecycline) have emerged.
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June 2013

[Antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from 13 teaching hospitals across China].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 May;93(18):1388-96

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To explore the antimicrobial resistance of nosocomial Gram-negative bacilli across China.

Methods: A total of 1247 consecutive and non-repetitive Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from 13 Chinese teaching hospitals from March to August 2012. All isolates were sent to a central laboratory for reidentification and susceptibility testing. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) of meropenem and other antibacterial agents were determined by agar dilution method. And the data were analyzed with WHONET-5.6 software.

Results: The activity of antimicrobial agents against Enterobacteriaceae was in the following descending order of susceptibility rate: meropenem (97.5%, 849/871) , amikacin (94.5%, 823/871) , imipenem (93.6%, 815/871) , ertapenem (92.9%, 809/871) , piperacillin/tazobactam (89.9%, 783/871) , cefoperazone/sulbactam (83.5%, 727/871) , cefepime (78.1%, 680/871) , polymyxin B (77.0%, 670/871) , cefiazidime (69.6%, 606/871) , levofloxacin (69.2%, 603/871) , ciprofloxacin (63.6%, 554/871) , minocyline (63.1%, 550/871) , ceftriaxone (55.7%, 485/871) , cefotaxime (54.2%, 472/871) and cefoxitin (51.4%, 448/871) . The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) was 64.3% (117/182) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and 32.1% (60/187) in Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumoniae) . The sensitivities of E. coli to meropenem and imipenem were 100%. And over 90% of E. coli was sensitive to ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin/tazobactam and polymyxin B. However, over 60% of E. coli was resistant to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. The susceptibility of K. pneumoniae to meropenem, imipenem, amikacin and polymyxin B maintained at over 90%. The activities of antimicrobial agents against E. cloacae, E. aerogenes and Citrobacter freundii were in the following descending order of susceptibility rate: meropenem (96.0%-100%) , imipenem (96.0%-100%) , polymyxin B (95.8%-100%) , amikacin (92.2%-100%) , ertapenem (85.6%-93.3%) , cefepime (77.8%-93.3%) , cefoperazone/sulbactam (78.4%-90.0%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (65.0%-89.8%) . The most susceptible agent against Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) was polymyxin B (100%) . The susceptibilities of A.baumannii to imipenem, meropenem and minocyline were 37.8% (65/172) , 36.0% (62/172) and 62.8% (108/172) respectively. The most active agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were polymyxin B (97.2%, 173/178) , followed by amikacin (89.3%, 159/178) and cefiazidime (83.7%, 149/178) . Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute revised P.aeruginosa susceptibility standard in 2012. The sensitivity of piperacillin/tazobactam changed from 83.7% (149/178) to 77.5% (138/178) . The sensitivity of meropenem decreased from 78.1% ( 139/178 ) to 71.3% ( 127/178 ) while that of imipenem declined from 69.7% (124/178) to 59.6% (106/178) . The prevalence of multi-drug resistant A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa were 65.7% (113/172) and 9.0% (16/178) respectively.

Conclusions: Carbapenems remain highly active against Enterobacteriaceae. Increasing resistance of A. baumannii to all antimicrobial agents is noted. New breakpoint to P.aeruginosa has obvious effects on antimicrobial sensitivity.
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May 2013

[An analysis of resistance of nosocomial infection pathogens isolated from 13 teaching hospitals in 2011].

Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2013 Mar;52(3):203-12

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044, China.

Objective: To investigate the pathogen profile of nosocomial infection in China, and to survey the susceptibility rates of these pathogens to the clinical common antibiotics.

Methods: The non-repetitive nosocomial pathogens isolated from bloodstream infection (BSI), hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) and intra-abdominal infection (IAI) and the case data were collected from 13 teaching hospitals in different areas of China and sent to a central laboratory for re-identification and susceptibility testing. The levels of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the common antibiotics were determined by agar dilution method. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5.6 software.

Results: A total of 2103 clinical isolates were collected from January to December 2011, of which gram positive cocci and gram negative organisms accounted for 23.2% and 76.8% respectively. The top three pathogens of BSI were E. coli (31.0%, 243/784), K. pneumoniae (14.8%, 116/784) and S. aureus (10.6%, 83/784). The top three pathogens of HAP were A. baumannii (24.2%, 158/652), P. aeruginosa (23.0%, 150/652) and K. pneumoniae (16.4%, 107/652). The top three pathogens of IAI were E. coli (34.3%, 229/667), E. faecium (13.3%, 89/667) and K. pneumoniae (9.6%, 64/667). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS) accounted for 64.4% and 78.1% respectively. The susceptibility rates of Staphylococcus species to tigecycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid were all 100%. The prevalence of MRSA in HAP was significantly higher than that in BSI or IAI. The susceptibility rates of Enterococcus species to tigecycline, teicoplanin and linezolid were all 100%. The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) was 64.3% in E. coli and 38.3% in K. pneumonia. Against Enterobacteriaceae, the most active agents were as following in order: tigecycline (92.3% - 100%) [except P.mirabilis], meropenem (87.5% - 100%), imipenem (87.5% - 100%) [except M. morganii], amikacin (87.5% - 100%), polymyxin B (75% - 100%) [except S. marcescens, P. mirabilis and M morganii], cefepime (67.8% - 100%), cefoperazone-sulbactam (66.6% - 100%), piperacillin-tazobactam (61.5% - 100%). Carbapenem-resistance Enterobacteriaceae strains emerged. The susceptibility rates of P. aeruginosa to imipenem and meropenem were 66.2% and 72.2%, respectively. The susceptibility rates of A. baumannii to imipenem and meropenem were 27.7% and 25.9%, respectively. The most active agents against A. baumannii were polymyxin B (100%), followed by tigecycline (79.8%) and minocycline (50.4%). The susceptibility rates of P.aeruginosa to antibiotics in BSI were higher than those in HAP and IAI. Susceptibility rates of S. maltophilia to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, minocycline and levofloxacin were about 90% or above. Susceptibility rates of B. cepacia to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime and meropenem were all 100%. Several P.aeruginosa and A. baumannii strains were resistant to all tested antibiotics except polymyxin B.

Conclusions: The pathogen profile is different in different types of infection. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant A. baumannii is high, which is still a key problem of nosocomial infection. Tigecycline remains relatively high activity against gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacteria (except P. aeruginosa and P. mirabilis) in vitro.
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March 2013

[A preliminary study on the measurement of (1,3)-β-D-glucan in bronchoalveolar lavage for the diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections].

Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2012 Dec;35(12):897-900

Department of Respiratory Diseases, General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300052, China.

Objective: To explore the measurement of (1,3)-β-D-glucan bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for the diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections.

Methods: A total of 135 patients in the General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from February 2010 to February 2011 were enrolled. There were 34 cases of confirmed or clinically diagnosed pulmonary fungal infections, 53 cases of bacterial pneumonia, and 48 cases of non-infection diseases. All patients underwent BAL and the BALF samples were obtained. (1,3)-β-D-glucan content (G test), in BALF and plasma were tested and the data were analyzed statistically by Mann-Whitney while the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was established, from which the best threshold of the 2 G tests was derived.

Results: The median of BALF G test in the fungal infection group, pneumonia group and non-infection group was 281, 28 and 10 ng/L, respectively; the level in the fungal infection group being significantly higher than those of the other 2 groups (P < 0.001), but no significant difference being observed between the pneumonia group and the non-infection group (P > 0.05). The median of plasma G tests in the fungal infection group, the pneumonia group and the non-infection group was 27, 10, and 5 ng/L, respectively; the level in the fungal infection group being significantly higher than those in the other 2 groups (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference between the pneumonia group and the non-infection group (P > 0.05). The best threshold of BALF G test was 67 ng/L, while the best threshold of G test of plasma was 17 ng/L.

Conclusion: As compared to G test of plasma, G test of BALF may be more accurate, and have a higher clinical value for the earlier diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections.
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December 2012

In vitro susceptibilities of yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole as determined by the 2010 National China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net (CHIF-NET) study.

J Clin Microbiol 2012 Dec 3;50(12):3952-9. Epub 2012 Oct 3.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

We conducted active, laboratory-based surveillance for isolates from patients with invasive infections across China from August 2009 to July 2010. DNA sequencing methods were used to define species, and susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole was determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M44-A2 disk diffusion method but using up-to-date clinical breakpoints or epidemiological cutoff values. Candida spp. made up 90.5% of the 814 yeast strains isolated, followed by Cryptococcus neoformans (7.7%) and other non-Candida yeast strains (1.7%). Bloodstream isolates made up 42.9% of the strains, isolates from ascitic fluid made up 22.1%, but pus/tissue specimens yielded yeast strains in <5% of the cases. Among the Candida isolates, Candida albicans was the most common species from specimens other than blood (50.1%) but made up only 23% of the bloodstream isolates (P < 0.001). C. parapsilosis complex species were the most common Candida isolates from blood (33.2%). Uncommon bloodstream yeast strains included Trichosporon spp., C. pelliculosa, and the novel species C. quercitrusa, reported for the first time as a cause of candidemia. Most (>94%) of the isolates of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and the C. parapsilosis complex were susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole, as were all of the Trichosporon strains; however, 12.2% of the C. glabrata sensu stricto isolates were fluconazole resistant and 17.8% had non-wild-type susceptibility to voriconazole. Seven C. tropicalis strains were cross-resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole; six were from patients in the same institution. Resistance to fluconazole and voriconazole was seen in 31.9% and 13.3% of the uncommon Candida and non-Candida yeast strains, respectively. Causative species and azole susceptibility varied with the geographic region. This study provided clinically useful data on yeast strains and their antifungal susceptibilities in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01130-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3502960PMC
December 2012

[Immunogenicities and comparison of DNA vaccines encoding pol genes derived from B`/C and A/E recombinant HIV-1 strains].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2012 Jun;46(6):551-5

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai 201508, China.

Objective: To construct and compare the immunogenicities of DNA vaccines expressing pol genes derived from B`/C and A/E recombinant subtypes of HIV-1 in China.

Methods: Two DNA vaccines were constructed by inserting the codon optimized pol genes derived from B'/C and A/E subtypes of HIV-1 into mammalian expression vector pSV1.0. In vitro expression efficiencies of the two DNA vaccines were determined by Western blotting and their immunogenicities were compared by i.m. immunizing female BALB/c mice. After immunization, mice splenocytes were isolated sterilely and IFN-γ based enzyme linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) was employed to read out the specific T cell immunity.

Results: The constructed DNA vaccines were validated by restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. Western blotting result showed both of the two DNA vaccines could be expressed at appreciable levels in vitro. Under the stimulation of Consensus B Pol peptide pools, specific T cell frequency elicited by pSVAE-Pol was (636±178) SFCs/10(6) splenocytes; specific T cell frequency elicited by pSVCN-Pol was (468±265)SFCs/10(6) splenocytes (P=0.412). Under the stimulation of HIV-1 AE2f Pol peptide pools, specific T cell frequency elicited by pSVAE-Pol was (1378±611) SFCs/10(6) splenocytes; specific T cell frequency elicited by pSVCN-Pol was (713±61) SFCs/10(6) splenocytes (P=0.134). Further analysis suggested pSVAE-Pol induced specific T cell responses mainly focused on Pol 1 peptide pool, while, in addition to induce Pol 1 specific T cell responses, pSVCN-Pol could also elicit T cell responses against consensus B Pol 2 peptide pool.

Conclusion: Although pSVAE-Pol was more immunogenic, pSVCN-Pol could induce T cell responses against broader epitope spectrum. Rational vaccine design may need combine them together.
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June 2012

[Mitochondria and innate immunity].

Bing Du Xue Bao 2011 Jul;27(4):395-401

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July 2011

[An antimicrobial resistance surveillance of gram-positive cocci isolated from 12 teaching hospitals in China in 2009].

Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2010 Sep;49(9):735-40

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.

Objective: To investigate antimicrobial resistance among gram-positive cocci in China in 2009.

Methods: From June to December 2009, 1169 consecutive and non-repetitive gram-positive cocci were collected from 12 teaching hospitals at 9 cities. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibacterial agents was determined by agar dilution method.

Results: The prevalences of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCoNS) were 45.3% (211/466) and 89.5% (214/239), respectively. The isolation rate of MRSA was 33.3% - 68.1% from different samples. All Staphylococci isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. Five point five percent (7/128) E.faecium strains were resistant to vancomycin. All E. faecalis strains were susceptible to vancomycin. About 99.1% (108/109) of E.faecalis and E.faecium were susceptible to linezolid. The prevalence of penicillin-intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae (PISP) was 21.6% (48/222). Only 1 (0.5%, 1/222) Streptococcus pneumoniae strain was resistant to penicillin. Teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline were the most active agents against Streptococcus pneumoniae (susceptible rate 100%).

Conclusions: The high prevalence of methicillin-resistance is among Staphylococcus strains. Different samples show a different MRSA prevalence. Teicoplanin, vancomycin and linezolid show very high activity to Staphylococci, E. faecalis, E. faecium and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
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September 2010

[The Test kit for biochemical identification and drug sensitivity of bacteria].

Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2005 Feb;23(1):70-2

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February 2005
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