Publications by authors named "Zhi Chen"

1,785 Publications

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Animal unit hygienic conditions influence mouse intestinal microbiota and contribute to T-cell-mediated colitis.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2022 Aug 10:15353702221113826. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu, 90220 Oulu, Finland.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with worldwide increasing incidence. Recent studies indicate that certain species of intestinal bacteria are strongly associated with IBD. Helper T lymphocytes are not only the key players in mediating host defense against a wide variety of pathogens but also contribute to pathogenesis of many immune-related diseases. Here, using the T cell transfer model of colitis, we observed that the mice maintained in a specific-pathogen free (SPF) unit after receiving naïve CD4 T cells developed mild disease. The same mice developed different degrees of disease when they were maintained in a conventional animal facility (non-SPF), where some pathogens were detected during routine health monitoring. Consistently, increased circulating inflammatory cytokines as well as Th1 and Th17 cells were detected in mice housed in non-SPF units. 16S rRNA sequencing of feces samples enabled us to identify changes in the microbiota composition of mice kept in different facilities. Our data indicate that environmental factors influence gut microbiota composition of mice, leading to development of colitis in a T-cell-dependent manner. In conclusion, changes in environmental conditions and microbial status of experimental animals appear to contribute to progression of colitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15353702221113826DOI Listing
August 2022

Effect of Iodine Supplementation on Iodine Nutrition and Thyroid Function in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Biomed Environ Sci 2022 Jul;35(7):641-647

Center for Endemic Disease Control; Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, Heilongjiang, China;Key lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Heilongjiang Province & Ministry of Health, Microelement and human health lab of Heilongjiang Province, Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, Heilongjiang, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2022.083DOI Listing
July 2022

A carbon price hybrid forecasting model based on data multi-scale decomposition and machine learning.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Faculty of Management and Economics, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093, People's Republic of China.

Accurate carbon price forecasting is of great significance to the operation of carbon financial markets. However, limited by the non-linearity and non-stationarity of the carbon price, the accurate and reliable predictions are difficult. To address the issue of applicability and accuracy, a novel carbon price hybrid model based on decomposition, entropy, and machine learning methods is proposed, named as CEEMDAN-PE-LSTM-RVM. Adopting the advanced structure (i.e., the prediction under classification), the proposed model owns reliable performance in face of the cases with different complexity. Furthermore, the relationship between the data feature and prediction accuracy is discussed to provide a benchmark for judging the reliability of the prediction, in which the chaos degree is introduced as a feature to characterize carbon price quantitatively. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated through historical data of four representative carbon prices. The results show that the average MAPE and RMSE of the proposed model achieve 1.7027 and 0.7993, respectively, which is significantly greater than others; the proposed model owns great robustness, which is less affected by the complexity of predicted objects. Thus, the proposed model provides a reliable tool for carbon financial markets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-22286-4DOI Listing
August 2022

Comparison of the cumulative live birth rates after 1 in vitro fertilization cycle in women using gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol vs. progestin-primed ovarian stimulation: a propensity score-matched study.

Fertil Steril 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Center of Assisted Reproduction, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine whether gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol can improve cumulative live birth rates (CLBRs) and shorten the time to live birth (TTLB) in unselected patients compared with progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS).

Design: A propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study design.

Setting: Tertiary-care academic medical center.

Patient(s): A total of 6,520 women with infertility aged 20-50 years were included.

Intervention(s): Patients underwent either the GnRH antagonist protocol (n = 5,004) or PPOS (n = 1,516) on the basis of the assessment of the attending physicians. One-to-one propensity score matching was performed with a caliper of 0.02. Women who were not matched were excluded from the analyses.

Main Outcome Measure(s): The CLBR of which the ongoing status had to be achieved within 22 months from the day of ovarian stimulation and TTLB.

Result(s): Each group comprised 1,424 couples after propensity score matching, and the baseline demographic characteristics of the couples after matching were comparable between the 2 groups. The cycle cancellation rate was significantly lower in the GnRH antagonist group than in the PPOS group (12.9% vs. 19.6%). The implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, and live birth rate per transfer were comparable between the 2 groups. However, CLBRs after 1 complete IVF cycle were significantly higher in the GnRH antagonist group than in the PPOS group (36.0% vs. 32.2%; Risk ratio = 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.24). The average TTLB was significantly shorter in the GnRH antagonist group than in the PPOS group (9.3 months vs. 12.4 months). Using the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the cumulative incidence of ongoing pregnancy leading to live birth was significantly higher in the GnRH antagonist group than in the PPOS group (85.1% vs. 66.1%, Log-rank test). A Cox proportional hazard model revealed that women who underwent the antagonist protocol were 2.32 times more likely to achieve a live birth than those who used PPOS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.91-2.83). Subgroup analysis revealed that women who used the antagonist protocol were more likely to achieve a live birth than women who used PPOS across the 3 antral follicle count (AFC) strata (AFC ≤ 5, AFC 6-15, and AFC > 15), 2 age strata (<35 and ≥35 years), and first cycle or repeated cycle. The difference was greatest among women whose AFC was ≤5 and who were aged ≥35 years, effectively becoming smaller in the group with high ovarian reserve and younger age.

Conclusion(s): In unselected women undergoing IVF, the GnRH antagonist protocol was associated with a higher CLBR and a shorter TTLB compared with PPOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2022.06.012DOI Listing
August 2022

A novel MPIG6B gene mutation in an adolescent girl with congenital thrombocytopenia and myelofibrosis.

Curr Res Transl Med 2022 Aug 5;70(4):103355. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Wuhan Children's Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430016, Hubei Province, PR China. Electronic address:

The MPIG6B gene, which encodes G6b-B, regulates platelet production, aggregation, and activation. Loss-of-function of G6b-B can cause thrombocytopenia, myelofibrosis, and anemia in both humans and mice. Several pathogenic MPIG6B mutations have been reported, such as c.324C>A (p.C108*), c.61_61+1dup (p.Ala21GlyfsX159), c.149dup (p.Ala52GlyfsX128), G6b c.469G>A (p.Gly157Arg) c.392delC (p.P134Lfs*10), and c523C>T(p.Arg175Ter). We have added to this database by reporting a new homozygous nonsense mutation (c.420T>A(p.Tyr140Ter)) of MPIG6B in a 14-year-old girl who presented with pallor, scattered cutaneous petechia of the limb, thrombocytopenia, anemia and myelofibrosis. This novel MPIG6B gene mutation encodes a shorter mutated G6b-B that does contain the transmembrane region immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. The patient was effectively treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with peripheral stem cells from a matched unrelated donor. Her symptoms and the MPIG6B mutation disappeared after treatment, and she was healthy and had returned to school at the last follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.retram.2022.103355DOI Listing
August 2022

Photosynthetic capacity dominates the interannual variation of annual gross primary productivity in the Northern Hemisphere.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Aug 5;849:157856. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Department of Environmental Systems Science, Zurich, Switzerland.

Annual gross primary productivity (AGPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is the largest carbon flux component in ecosystems; however, it's unclear whether photosynthetic capacity or phenology dominates interannual variation of AGPP, and a better understanding of this could contribute to estimation of carbon sinks and their interactions with climate change. In this study, observed GPP data of 494 site-years from 39 eddy covariance sites in Northern Hemisphere were used to investigate mechanisms of interannual variation of AGPP. This study first decomposed AGPP into three seasonal dynamic attribute parameters (growing season length (CUP), maximum daily GPP (GPP), and the ratio of mean daily GPP to GPP (α)), and then decomposed AGPP into mean leaf area index (LAI) and annual photosynthetic capacity per leaf area (AGPP). Furthermore, GPP was decomposed into leaf area index of DOY (the day when GPP appeared) (LAI) and photosynthesis per leaf area of DOY (GPP). Relative contributions of parameters to AGPP and GPP were then calculated. Finally, environmental variables of DOY were extracted to analyze factors influencing interannual variation of GPP. Trends of AGPP in 39 ecosystems varied from -65.23 to 53.05 g C m yr, with the mean value of 6.32 g C m yr. Photosynthetic capacity (GPP and AGPP), not CUP or LAI, was the main factor dominating interannual variation of AGPP. GPP determined the interannual variation of GPP, and temperature, water, and radiation conditions of DOY affected the interannual variation of GPP. This study used the cascade relationship of "environmental variables-GPP-GPP-AGPP" to explain the mechanism of interannual variation of AGPP, which can provide new ideas for the AGPP estimation based on seasonal dynamic of GPP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157856DOI Listing
August 2022

CRISPR-Cas12a-Empowered Electrochemical Biosensor for Rapid and Ultrasensitive Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant.

Nanomicro Lett 2022 Aug 4;14(1):159. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D, Materials for Optoelectronics Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Microscale Optoelectronics, College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, People's Republic of China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The gold standard method for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 depends on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction till now, which is time-consuming and requires expensive instrumentation, and the confirmation of variants relies on further sequencing techniques. Herein, we first proposed a robust technique-methodology of electrochemical CRISPR sensing with the advantages of rapid, highly sensitivity and specificity for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 variant. To enhance the sensing capability, gold electrodes are uniformly decorated with electro-deposited gold nanoparticles. Using DNA template identical to SARS-CoV-2 Delta spike gene sequence as model, our biosensor exhibits excellent analytical detection limit (50 fM) and high linearity (R = 0.987) over six orders of magnitude dynamic range from 100 fM to 10 nM without any nucleic-acid-amplification assays. The detection can be completed within 1 h with high stability and specificity which benefits from the CRISPR-Cas system. Furthermore, based on the wireless micro-electrochemical platform, the proposed biosensor reveals promising application ability in point-of-care testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-022-00888-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9352833PMC
August 2022

Efficiency evaluation of surgical nursing wards based on data envelopment analysis.

J Nurs Manag 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency and influencing factors of surgical ward nursing.

Background: High-quality development of public hospitals and implementation of nursing fine management require improvements to promote nursing efficiency.

Method: This study examined input data, such as number of beds, nurses, and nursing hours, and output data on discharged person-times, surgical output, and case mix index of released patients, in 40 surgical wards in China between September 2020 and August 2021. Nursing efficiency was assessed and analyzed using data envelopment analysis, and changes in efficiency were dynamically evaluated using Malmquist index analysis.

Results: The average total technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency, and scale efficiency were 78%, 94%, and 82%, respectively. In addition, 81% and 67% of surgical wards had input redundancy and output insufficiency, respectively. The monthly average total factor productivity was 118%, and the overall efficiency increased month after month.

Conclusion: Overall, nursing service efficiency was low, which was limited by scale efficiency, pure technical efficiency, or both.

Implications For Nursing Management: Data envelopment analysis could help nursing managers optimize nursing human resource allocation and nursing performance allocation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13747DOI Listing
August 2022

A Transparent Electrode Based on Solution-Processed ZnO for Organic Optoelectronic Devices.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 28;13(1):4387. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Center for Advanced Low-dimension Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, 201620, P. R. China.

Achieving high-efficiency indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic optoelectronic devices requires the development of high-conductivity and high-transparency materials for being used as the front electrode. Herein, sol-gel-grown zinc oxide (ZnO) films with high conductivity (460 S cm) and low optical absorption losses in both visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions are realized utilizing the persistent photoinduced doping effect. The origin of the increased conductivity after photo-doping is ascribed to selective trapping of photogenerated holes by oxygen vacancies at the surface of the ZnO film. Then, the conductivity of the sol-gel-grown ZnO is further increased by stacking the ZnO using a newly developed sequential deposition strategy. Finally, the stacked ZnO is used as the cathode to construct ITO-free organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light emitting diodes: The devices based on ZnO outperform those based on ITO, owing to the reduced surface recombination losses at the cathode/active layer interface, and the reduced parasitic absorption losses in the electrodes of the ZnO based devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32010-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334612PMC
July 2022

Association Between Serum Iron Status and Muscle Mass in Adults: Results From NHANES 2015-2018.

Front Nutr 2022 11;9:941093. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Iron deficiency or overload may contribute to complications associated with diseases, but the link between iron status and skeletal muscle disorder is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum iron status, reflected by serum ferritin concentration, and muscle mass in U.S. adults.

Methods: We utilized data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2015-2018 for analysis. Data on serum ferritin, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), body mass index (BMI) and confounding factors were extracted and analyzed. Multivariate linear regression analyses and smooth curve fittings were employed to investigate the association between serum ferritin and muscle mass. Subgroup analysis based on iron status, age, gender and race were performed.

Results: A total of 2,078 participants were included, and divided into iron deficiency ( = 225), normal iron status ( = 1,366), and iron overload ( = 487) groups. Participants with iron overload had significantly lower ASM and appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI) (ASM: 19.329 ± 4.879, ASMI: 0.709 ± 0.138) compared to those with iron deficiency (ASM: 22.660 ± 6.789, ASMI: 0.803 ± 0.206) and normal iron status (ASM: 22.235 ± 6.167, ASMI: 0.807 ± 0.201). The serum ferritin was negatively linked with muscle mass after adjusting for potential confounders (β = -0.0001, 95% CI: -0.0001, -0.0000). When stratified by iron status, the trend test between them remained significant (P for trend: 0.008). Furthermore, subgroup analysis identified a stronger association in men (β = -0.0001, 95% CI: -0.0002, -0.0001), age ≥ 40 years (β = -0.0001, 95% CI: -0.0002, -0.0000), non-Hispanic black (β = -0.0002, 95% CI: -0.0003, -0.0001) and other races (β = -0.0002, 95% CI: -0.0003, -0.0000).

Conclusions: Our study revealed an inverse relationship between serum iron status and muscle mass in adults. This finding improves our understanding of the impact of serum iron status on muscle mass, and sheds new light on the prevention and treatment of muscle loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.941093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9309789PMC
July 2022

Improved YOLOv4 for Pedestrian Detection and Counting in UAV Images.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 14;2022:6106853. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

School of Computer, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China.

UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) captured images have small pedestrian targets and loss of key information after multiple down sampling, which are difficult to overcome by existing methods. We propose an improved YOLOv4 model for pedestrian detection and counting in UAV images, named YOLO-CC. We used the lightweight YOLOv4 for pedestrian detection, which replaces the backbone with CSPDarknet-34, and two feature layers are fused by FPN (Feature Pyramid Networks). We expanded the perception field using multiscale convolution based on the high-level feature map and generated the population density map by feature dimension reduction. By embedding the density map generation method into the network for end-to-end training, our model can effectively improve the accuracy of detection and counting and make feature extraction more focused on small targets. Our experiments demonstrate that YOLO-CC achieves 21.76 points AP higher than that of the original YOLOv4 on the VisDrone2021-counting data set while running faster than the original YOLOv4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6106853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9303083PMC
July 2022

Wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM2.5) induces pyroptosis through both Caspase-1/IL-1β/IL-18 and ATP/P2Y-dependent mechanisms in human bronchial epithelial cells.

Chemosphere 2022 Jul 15;307(Pt 2):135726. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Center for Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Emerging evidences have linked the air pollution particulate matters, especially the fine particulate matter PM2.5, to the disease development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our previous studies reported that biofuel PM2.5 can induce devastated damage of human bronchial epithelial cells, this study aims to further investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms how biofuel PM2.5 induces bronchial epithelial cell death and dysfunction. In this study, biofuel PM2.5 extracted from wood smoke (WSPM2.5) was used according to our previous publication. A 16-HBE cell line was used as the cell model. Results showed that: Firstly, WSPM2.5 induced significant pyroptosis in 16-HBE cells, reflected by the typical changes including elevated release of lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH) and activated activity and expression of Caspase-1/IL-1β/IL-18 signaling pathway. Then, specific inhibitors for both Caspases (Z-VAD-FMK) and Caspase-1 (VX-765), as well as specific siRNA knockdown of IL-1β all effectively attenuated the WSPM2.5-induced upregulation of downstream inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, IL-8, CXCL-1, CXCL-2, etc), respectively. Notably, WSPM2.5 caused a novel increase of intracellular-to-extracellular ATP secretion, which could also contribute to the WSPM2.5-induced pyroptosis and inflammation by activating the Caspase-1/IL-1β/IL-18 signaling pathway through possible autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms. Antagonism of ATP (Apyrase) or specific siRNA knockdown against ATP receptors (P2Y2 and P2Y7) both significantly inhibited the WSPM2.5-induced pyroptosis and inflammation. These results add up to the current knowledge and bring up novel insights that WSPM2.5 could induce significant pyroptosis and inflammation of human bronchial epithelial cells, through both a classic NLRP3/Caspase-1/IL-1β-dependent and a novel ATP/P2Y-dependent mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135726DOI Listing
July 2022

Cognitive-Behavioral Differences Between Officials and Folks in China's Targeted Poverty Alleviation: An Evolutionary Game Theory Perspective.

Authors:
Zhi Chen Chao Yang

Front Psychol 2022 29;13:916030. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Institute of Economic Research, Hubei Academy of Social Sciences, Wuhan, China.

China has historically eliminated absolute poverty and built a comprehensive well-off society through targeted poverty alleviation, at the end of which, however, many issues are worthy of scholars' attention kept emerging. A significant one was cognitive-behavioral differences between officials and folks regarding the procedure, standards, and methods of removing the poverty hats, which formed a new social dilemma called the official-folk game. Officials did not carry out targeted poverty alleviation work in strict accordance with the criteria specified by the government. In comparison, folks who have reached poverty elimination standards were unwilling to take off their poverty hats after targeted assistance due to the fear of returning to poverty. To fully explain this social dilemma, this study analyzes the causes of cognitive-behavioral differences between officials and folks in China's targeted poverty alleviation from the perspective of evolutionary game theory. The results show that bounded rational officials and folks will eventually get caught up in the prisoner's dilemma without exogenous factors' intervention. Furthermore, the study proposes that the government establish reasonable punishment, incentives, and supervision mechanisms to guide officials and folks and eliminate their cognitive-behavioral differences by investigating the influence of exogenous policy factors on the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) of the official-folk game. This finding not only reveals the formation mechanism of the cognitive-behavioral differences between officials and folks and presents an effective solution at the individual level but also provides a reference for other developing countries to overcome similar social dilemmas in the process of eliminating absolute poverty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.916030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9278326PMC
June 2022

Development and testing of a SOSM approach to examine the natural attenuation of oil spillage on shorelines.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Jul 15;439:129579. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Building, Civil, and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Understanding the fate and behavior of spilled oil on the shoreline is crucial for helping decision-makers make trade-offs between natural attenuation and shoreline treatments. In this study, primary processes of oil attenuation and translocation on the shoreline, including penetration, washout, and biodegradation, have been considered to develop a numerical model, Shoreline Oil Spill Model (SOSM), for predicting the fate of spilled oil in various shoreline geological compartments. A holistic system design is employed to develop a user-friendly graphical interface system for SOSM. Global and local sensitivity analyses are used to examine the importance of the input factors on different outputs in SOSM. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the input of oil spill mass correlates positively with the oil retention and surface and subsurface oil mass, while the oil concentration and penetration depth are sensitive to the grain size of the beach sediment. Subsequently, the SOSM is tested to hindcast the fate of stranded oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Reasonable validation results have been obtained for the study site. It confirms the utility of the SOSM to examine and predict the level of shoreline oil contamination in the field following accidental spill events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129579DOI Listing
July 2022

Sputum Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Metabolic Pathways and Signatures Associated With Inflammatory Phenotypes in Patients With Asthma.

Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2022 Jul;14(4):393-411

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, PR China.

Purpose: The molecular links between metabolism and inflammation that drive different inflammatory phenotypes in asthma are poorly understood. We aimed to identify the metabolic signatures and underlying molecular pathways of different inflammatory asthma phenotypes.

Methods: In the discovery set (n = 119), untargeted ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) was applied to characterize the induced sputum metabolic profiles of asthmatic patients with different inflammatory phenotypes using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), and pathway topology enrichment analysis. In the validation set (n = 114), differential metabolites were selected to perform targeted quantification. Correlations between targeted metabolites and clinical indices in asthmatic patients were analyzed. Logistic and negative binomial regression models were established to assess the association between metabolites and severe asthma exacerbations.

Results: Seventy-seven differential metabolites were identified in the discovery set. Pathway topology analysis uncovered that histidine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism as well as phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis were involved in the pathogenesis of different asthma phenotypes. In the validation set, 24 targeted quantification metabolites were significantly expressed between asthma inflammatory phenotypes. Finally, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (adjusted relative risk [adj RR] = 1.000; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.000-1.000; = 0.050), allantoin (adj RR = 1.000; 95% CI = 1.000-1.000; = 0.043) and nicotinamide (adj RR = 1.001; 95% CI = 1.000-1.002; = 0.021) were demonstrated to predict severe asthma exacerbation rates.

Conclusions: Different inflammatory asthma phenotypes have specific metabolic profiles in induced sputum. The potential metabolic signatures may identify therapeutic targets in different inflammatory asthma phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4168/aair.2022.14.4.393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9293602PMC
July 2022

Progress of Pathogenesis in Pediatric Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia.

Front Pediatr 2022 22;10:922464. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Academy of Pediatrics, University of South China, Changsha, China.

Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT) is defined as irregular P-P, R-R, and P-R intervals, isoelectric baseline between P waves, and ventricular rate over 100 beats/min. Although the prognosis of pediatric MAT in most patients is favorable, adverse outcomes of MAT have been reported, such as cardiogenic death (3%), respiratory failure (6%), or persistent arrhythmia (7%), due to delayed diagnosis and poorly controlled MAT. Previous studies demonstrated that pediatric MAT is associated with multiple enhanced automatic lesions located in the atrium or abnormal automaticity of a single lesion located in the pulmonary veins multiple pathways to trigger electrical activity. Recent studies indicated that pediatric MAT is associated with the formation of a re-entry loop, abnormal automaticity, and triggering activity. The occurrence of pediatric MAT is affected by gestational disease, congenital heart disease, post-cardiac surgery, pulmonary hypertension, and infectious diseases, which promote MAT inflammation, redistribution of the autonomic nervous system, and abnormal ion channels. However, the pathogenesis of MAT needs to be explored. This review is aimed to summarize and analyze the pathogenesis in pediatric MAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.922464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9256911PMC
June 2022

Delayed diagnosis of arytenoid cartilage dislocation after tracheal intubation in the intensive care unit: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2022 May;10(15):5119-5123

Department of Emergency, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi Province, China.

Background: Arytenoid cartilage dislocation is a rare and often overlooked complication of tracheal intubation or blunt laryngeal trauma. The most common symptom is persistent hoarseness. Although cases of arytenoid dislocation due to tracheal intubation are reported more frequently in otolaryngology, reports on its occurrence in the intensive care unit (ICU) are lacking. We report a case of delayed diagnosis of arytenoid cartilage dislocation after tracheal intubation in the ICU.

Case Summary: A 20-year-old woman was referred to the ICU following a fall from a height. Her voice was normal; laryngeal computed tomography showed unremarkable findings on admission. However, due to deterioration of the patient's condition, tracheal intubation, and emergency exploratory laparotomy followed by laparoscopic surgery two d later under general anesthesia were performed. After extubation, the patient was sedated and could not communicate effectively. On the 10 day after extubation, the patient complained of hoarseness and coughing with liquids, which was attributed to laryngeal edema and is common after tracheal intubation. Therefore, specific treatment was not administered. However, the patient's symptoms did not improve. Five d later, an electronic laryngoscope examination revealed dislocation of the left arytenoid cartilage. The patient underwent arytenoid closed reduction under general anesthesia by an experienced otolaryngologist. Reported symptoms improved subsequently. The six-month follow up revealed that the hoarseness had resolved within four weeks of the reduction procedure.

Conclusion: Symptoms of arytenoid cartilage dislocation are difficult to identify in the ICU leading to missed or delayed diagnosis among patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v10.i15.5119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9198865PMC
May 2022

Application of novel subgroups of Chinese inpatients with diabetes based on machine learning paradigm.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2022 Jul 29;16(7):102556. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Six variables were used to determine five diabetes subgroups in European, Chinese and US populations in previous studies. This study aims to make new classification method of diabetes easier to use in clinical settings.

Methods: Clinical data of 1152 hospitalized diabetic patients were collected and built a highly accurate model based on machine learning paradigm.

Results: We visualized the confusion matrix of the classification model. The diagnose accuracy of five clusters (MOD, MARD, SIRD, SIDD and SAID) were 95%, 100%, 99%, 96% and 100%. An online tool (uqzhichen.uqcloud.net) was set up according to the cluster data based on machine learning paradigm. Six variables (age when diagnosed, HbA1c, BMI, HOMA2-β, HOMA2-IR and GADA) were needed to input in this diagnose system and then a highly accurate subgroup result was showed.

Conclusions: This is a stable and accurate online diagnose system to identify five new subgroups of diabetes based on machine learning paradigm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2022.102556DOI Listing
July 2022

NUP160 knockdown inhibits the progression of diabetic nephropathy and .

Regen Ther 2022 Dec 17;21:87-95. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Nephrology, Xinghua People's Hospital, Taizhou 225700, Jiangsu, China.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a severe diabetic complication and podocyte damage is a hallmark of DN. The Nucleoporin 160 (NUP160) gene was demonstrated to regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis in mouse podocytes. This study explored the possible role and mechanisms of NUP160 in high glucose-triggered podocyte injury. A rat model of DN was established by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Podocytes were treated with 33 mM high glucose. The effects of the Nup160 on DN and its mechanisms were assessed using MTT, flow cytometry, Western blot, ELISA, RT-qPCR, and luciferase reporter assays. The effects of NUP160 were analyzed by HE, PAS, and MASSON staining assays. The NUP160 level was significantly upregulated in podocytes treated with 33 mM high glucose. Functionally, NUP160 knockdown alleviated high glucose-induced apoptosis and inflammation in podocytes. Mechanistically, miR-495-3p directly targeted NUP160, and lncRNA HCG18 upregulated NUP160 by sponging miR-495-3p by acting as a ceRNA. Additionally, NUP160 overexpression reversed the effects of HCG18 knockdown in high glucose treated-podocytes. The assays indicated that NUP160 knockdown alleviated the symptoms of DN rats. NUP160 knockdown plays a key role in preventing the progression of DN, suggesting that targeting NUP160 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for DN treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reth.2022.05.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9234011PMC
December 2022

Role of the Demethylase AlkB Homolog H5 in the Promotion of Dentinogenesis.

Front Physiol 2022 15;13:923185. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Sciences of Stomatology, Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Ministry of Education (Hubei-MOST KLOS & KLOBM), School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Dentinogenesis is a key process in tooth formation and is regulated by a series of pre- and post-transcriptional regulations. N6-methyl-adenosine (mA), which is the most prevalent internal chemical modification that can be removed by the RNA demethylase AlkB homolog H5 (ALKBH5), has recently been reported to be involved in several biological processes. However, the exact function of ALKBH5-mediated mA modification in tooth development remains unclear. Here, we showed that Alkbh5 was expressed in pre-odontoblasts, polarizing odontoblasts, and secretory odontoblasts. overexpression in the mouse dental papilla cell line mDPC6T promoted odontoblastic differentiation. Conditional knockout of in -expressing odontoblasts led to a decrease in number of odontoblasts and increased pre-dentin formation. Mechanistically, RNA sequencing and mA sequencing of -overexpressing mDPC6T cells revealed that promoted odontoblast differentiation by prolonging the half-life of transcripts in an mA-dependent manner and by activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway. Notably, the loss of Alkbh5 expression in odontoblasts impaired tertiary dentin formation . These results suggested that the RNA demethylase ALKBH5 plays a role in dentinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.923185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9240783PMC
June 2022

A WWP2-PTEN-KLF5 signaling axis regulates odontoblast differentiation and dentinogenesis in mice.

J Biol Chem 2022 Jul 1;298(8):102220. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; Frontier Science Center for Immunology and Metabolism, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

WW domain-containing E3 Ubiquitin-protein ligase 2 (WWP2) has been found to positively regulate odontoblastic differentiation by monoubiquitinating the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) in a cell culture system. However, the in vivo role of WWP2 in mouse teeth remains unknown. To explore this, here we generated Wwp2 knockout (Wwp2 KO) mice. We found that molars in Wwp2 KO mice exhibited thinner dentin, widened predentin, and reduced numbers of dentinal tubules. In addition, expression of the odontoblast differentiation markers Dspp and Dmp1 was decreased in the odontoblast layers of Wwp2 KO mice. These findings demonstrate that WWP2 may facilitate odontoblast differentiation and dentinogenesis. Furthermore, we show for the first time that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a tumor suppressor, is expressed in dental papilla cells and odontoblasts of mouse molars and acts as a negative regulator of odontoblastic differentiation. Further investigation indicated that PTEN is targeted by WWP2 for degradation during odontoblastic differentiation. We demonstrate PTEN physically interacts with and inhibits the transcriptional activity of KLF5 on Dspp and Dmp1. Finally, we found WWP2 was able to suppress the interaction between PTEN and KLF5, which diminished the inhibition effect of PTEN on KLF5. Taken together, this study confirms the essential role of WWP2 and the WWP2-PTEN-KLF5 signaling axis in odontoblast differentiation and dentinogenesis in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2022.102220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9358474PMC
July 2022

Negative Reflection and Negative Refraction in Biaxial van der Waals Materials.

Nano Lett 2022 Jul 30;22(13):5607-5614. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583, Singapore.

Negative reflection and negative refraction are exotic phenomena that can be achieved by platforms such as double-negative metamaterial, hyperbolic metamaterial, and phase-discontinuity metasurface. Recently, natural biaxial van der Waals (vdW) materials, which support extremely anisotropic, low-loss, and highly confined polaritons from infrared to visible regime, are emerging as promising candidates for planar reflective and refractive optics. Here, we introduce three degrees of freedom, namely interface, crystal direction, and electric tunability, to manipulate the reflection and refraction of the polaritons. With broken in-plane symmetry contributed by the interface and crystal direction, distinguished reflection, and refraction such as negative and backward reflection, positive and negative refraction could exist simultaneously and exhibit high tunability. The numerical simulations show good consistency with the theoretical analysis. Our findings provide a robust recipe for the realization of negative reflection and refraction in biaxial vdW materials, paving the way for the polaritonics and on-chip integrated circuits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c02073DOI Listing
July 2022

Mutations of 1p genes do not consistently abrogate tumor suppressor functions in 1p-intact neuroblastoma.

BMC Cancer 2022 Jun 30;22(1):717. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

VIVA-KKH Paediatric Brain and Solid Tumour Programme, Children's Blood and Cancer Centre, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, 229899, Singapore.

Background: Deletion of 1p is associated with poor prognosis in neuroblastoma, however selected 1p-intact patients still experience poor outcomes. Since mutations of 1p genes may mimic the deleterious effects of chromosomal loss, we studied the incidence, spectrum and effects of mutational variants in 1p-intact neuroblastoma.

Methods: We characterized the 1p status of 325 neuroblastoma patients, and correlated the mutational status of 1p tumor suppressors and neuroblastoma candidate genes with survival outcomes among 100 1p-intact cases, then performed functional validation of selected novel variants of 1p36 genes identified from our patient cohort.

Results: Among patients with adverse disease characteristics, those who additionally had 1p deletion had significantly worse overall survival. Among 100 tumor-normal pairs sequenced, somatic mutations of 1p tumor suppressors KIF1Bβ and CHD5 were most frequent (2%) after ALK and ATRX (8%), and BARD1 (3%). Mutations of neuroblastoma candidate genes were associated with other synchronous mutations and concurrent 11q deletion (P = 0.045). In total, 24 of 38 variants identified were novel and predicted to be deleterious or pathogenic. Functional validation identified novel KIF1Bβ I1355M variant as a gain-of-function mutation with increased expression and tumor suppressive activity, correlating with indolent clinical behavior; another novel variant CHD5 E43Q was a loss-of-function mutation with decreased expression and increased long-term cell viability, corresponding with aggressive disease characteristics.

Conclusions: Our study showed that chromosome 1 gene mutations occurred frequently in 1p-intact neuroblastoma, but may not consistently abrogate the function of bonafide 1p tumor suppressors. These findings may augment the evolving model of compounding contributions of 1p gene aberrations toward tumor suppressor inactivation in neuroblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-022-09800-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9245282PMC
June 2022

Development of an In Situ Printing System With Human Platelet Lysate-Based Bio-Adhesive to Treat Corneal Perforations.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2022 06;11(6):26

Save Sight Institute, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Purpose: Corneal perforation is a clinical emergency that can result in blindness. Currently corneal perforations are treated either by cyanoacrylate glue which is toxic to corneal cells, or by using commercial fibrin glue for small perforations. Both methods use manual delivery which lead to uncontrolled application of the glues to the corneal surface. Therefore, there is a need to develop a safe and effective alternative to artificial adhesives.

Methods: Previously, our group developed a transparent human platelet lysate (hPL)-based biomaterial that accelerated corneal epithelial cells healing in vitro. This biomaterial was further characterized in this study using rheometry and adhesive test, and a two-component delivery system was developed for its application. An animal trial (5 New Zealand white rabbits) to compare impact of the biomaterial and cyanoacrylate glue (control group) on a 2 mm perforation was conducted to evaluate safety and efficacy.

Results: The hPL-based biomaterial showed higher adhesiveness compared to commercial fibrin glue. Treatment rabbits had lower pain scores and faster recovery, despite generating similar scar-forming structure compared to controls. No secondary corneal ulcer was generated in rabbits treated with the bio-adhesive.

Conclusions: This study reports an in situ printing system capable of delivering a hPL-based, transparent bio-adhesive and successfully treating small corneal perforations. The bio-adhesive-treated rabbits recovered faster and required no additional analgesia.

Translational Relevance: The developed in situ hPL bio-adhesives treatment represents a new format of treating corneal perforation that is easy to use, allows for accurate application, and can be a potentially effective and pain relief treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.11.6.26DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9251791PMC
June 2022

Secondary Ammonium-Based Hyperbranched Poly(amidoamine) with Excellent Membrane-Active Property for Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infection.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2022 Jul 28;5(7):3384-3395. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization (Ministry of Education), Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

With the rapid emergence of microbial infections induced by "superbugs", public health and the global economy are threatened by the lack of effective and biocompatible antibacterial agents. Herein, we systematically design a series of secondary ammonium-based hyperbranched poly(amidoamine) (SAHBP) with different alkyl chain lengths for probing high-efficacy antibacterial agents. SAHBP modified with alkyl tails at the hyperbranched core could efficiently kill and , two types of clinically important bacteria worldwide. The best SAHBP with 12-carbon-long alkyl tails (SAHBP-12) also showed high activity against problematic multidrug-resistant bacteria, including and methicillin-resistant (MRSA). Based on ζ potential, isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC), and membrane integrity assays, it is found that SAHBP-12 could attach to the cell membrane via electrostatic adsorption and hydrophobic interactions, following which the integrity of the bacterial cell wall and the cell membrane is disrupted, resulting in severe cell membrane damage and the leakage of cytoplasmic contents, finally causing bacterial cell death. Impressively, benefiting from excellent membrane-active property, SAHBP-12 exhibited robust therapeutic efficacy in MRSA-infected mice wounds. Moreover, SAHBP-12 also showed excellent biosafety in vitro and in vivo, which undoubtedly distinguished it as a potent weapon in combating the growing threat of problematic multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsabm.2c00356DOI Listing
July 2022

A New Wire Electrode for Improving the Machining Characteristics of High-Volume Fraction SiCp/Al Composite in WEDM.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jun 9;15(12). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China.

In wire electrical discharge machining, due to the random distribution of the insulating SiC particles, frequent wire rupture, low machining efficiency and surface quality when the common brass wire electrode (BWE) is used to process high-volume content SiCp/Al composite often appears. To address this issue, this paper proposes a new preparation method of zinc coating and surface microstructure on wire electrodes (ZCSMWE). The preparation process of ZCSMWE includes casting, coating, annealing and plastic processing. The experimental results show that, compared with BWE, ZCSMWE can increase material removal rate () by 16.67%, reduce surface roughness () by 21.18% and reduce wire rupture under the same discharge parameters. The analysis of workpiece surface topography shows that ZCSMWE can significantly decrease the recast layer and microcrack on the machined surface. The improvement mechanism of ZCSMWE main includes: The low work function zinc can promote the forming of the discharge channel. The vaporization of low boiling temperature zinc can reduce the temperature of the discharge gap and promote the ejecting of workpiece material. In addition, the surface microstructure on ZCSMWE can make the discharge spark more uniformly distributed and increase the proportion of the effective discharge, which contributes to making the discharge crater on the workpiece and wire electrode shallower and more uniform. The surface microstructure on ZCSMWE can also effectively improve the dielectric circulation, which can promote discharge debris to be expelled out and reduce the temperature in the discharge gap. Then, the wire rupture and microcracks on the workpiece surface can be reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15124098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9229688PMC
June 2022

Exploring the effects of substrate mineral fines on oil translocation in the shoreline environment: Experimental analysis, numerical simulation, and implications for spill response.

J Hazard Mater 2022 09 11;437:129341. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, QC H3G 1M8, Canada.

Mineral fines act a pivotal part in determining the fate and behavior of oil. In this study, the infiltrations of oil emulsion in simulated sediments and natural shoreline sediments were investigated using a fixed bed experiment. Oil infiltration process was simulated based on fixed-bed dispersion model. The role of mineral fines in oil release was explored using simulated and natural sediments. Although mineral fines exhibited a higher affinity for oil, it was found that increasing fines fractions decreased the flow rate of oil emulsion, thereby decreasing the oil retention in the sediment column. In terms of oil release from the sediment, the highest level of oil mass was observed in the oil-mineral flocculation phase compared to the water column and the water surface compartments. Compared to light crude oil, the release of engine oil from sediment was less. The effects of mineral fines on oil infiltration and release were also confirmed by using natural shoreline sediments. Results of our detailed field studies also showed that current shoreline classification datasets do not characterize the presence and fraction of mineral fines at a level of detail required to accurately predict the significance of oil translocation following spill incidents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129341DOI Listing
September 2022

Degradation of microplastics by hydroxyl radicals generated during microbially driven humus redox transformation.

Water Res 2022 Aug 9;221:118731. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil Environmental Health and Regulation, College of Resources and Environment, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China. Electronic address:

The production of ·OH during transformation of redox active substances has been increasingly documented, and it causes the ageing or degradation of microplastics (MPs) in natural systems. However, the contribution of the humus redox cycle to ·OH generation and MPs transformation has previously been overlooked, even though it is ubiquitous in alternating anoxic-oxic environments. In this work, the integrated pathways of ·OH generation during the redox transformation of humic acids (HAs) and the contribution of this ·OH to the transformation of MPs were investigated for the first time. It was found that ·OH could be produced continuously during successive cycles of redox transformation of HAs mediated by Bacillus thermotolerans SgZ-8 through exogeneous HAs dependent and independent pathways. O· and HO were identified as the key intermediate species, which were produced by both microbial aerobic respiration and HA oxidation. The ·OH generated by HA redox cycles could lead to a weight loss of PS-MPs of 18.1% through oxidative degradation during a period of 8 weeks of anoxic-oxic incubation. The EDC of HAs is closely related to ·OH production, which could have a large influence on the effectiveness of oxidative degradation of PS-MPs during various HAs redox cycles in temporarily anoxic environmental systems. These findings provide new insights into ·OH formation and MPs transformation through microbially driven humus redox cycles in alternating anoxic-oxic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2022.118731DOI Listing
August 2022

Case Report: Protein-Losing Enteropathy in Association With Tuberculosis-Related Constrictive Pericarditis.

Front Pediatr 2022 30;10:875032. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Nephrology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.

Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a clinical disorder in which an excessive amount of serum protein is lost into the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in hypoproteinemia and malnutrition. PLE is associated with a wide range of gastrointestinal disorders and the rare complication of constrictive pericarditis. We report a case in which pericardiectomy achieved marked improvement of extremely severe hypoalbuminemia caused by PLE associated with tuberculosis-related constrictive pericarditis. The formation of diarrhea and edema was aggravated by PLE, resulting in hypoalbuminemia. Cardiac computed tomography showed a calcified pericardium. Echocardiography showed decreased cardiac function underlying PLE. Functional imaging with technetium-99m serum albumin identified the region of protein leakage as the intestine. After pericardiectomy, the diarrhea ceased completely. Serum albumin concentrations were increased (3.3-3.7 g/dL), which indicated resolution of the PLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.875032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9207951PMC
May 2022
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