Publications by authors named "Zhenzhou Zhu"

31 Publications

Effects of selenate on Se, flavonoid, and glucosinolate in broccoli florets by combined transcriptome and metabolome analyses.

Food Res Int 2021 Aug 31;146:110463. Epub 2021 May 31.

College of Horticulture and Gardening, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China. Electronic address:

Broccoli is a nutritious vegetable popular all over the world. This study investigated the effects of different concentrations of selenate (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mmol/L) on the selenium (Se), glucosinolate, and flavonoid contents of broccoli florets. Results showed that the total Se, selenomethionine, and methyl selenocysteine contents increased following selenate dosage. Interestingly, selenate treatment of 0.4 mmol/L decreased the flavonoid but increased the glucosinolate content. Metabolome analysis revealed changes in the individual contents of glucosinolates and flavonoids. Conjoint analysis of transcriptome and metabolome showed that the glucosinolate and flavonoid compounds were potentially regulated by two sulfate transporter genes (Sultr3;1 and Sultr4;2) and several cytochrome P450 genes (e.g., CYP71B21, CYP72C1, and CYP81F1). These new findings indicated that Se treatment may influence glucosinolate and flavonoid accumulation by regulating the expression of these genes. The results of this study provide some novel insights into the effects of Se on glucosinolates and flavonoids in broccoli florets and deepen our understanding of the regulatory network between some specific genes and these compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110463DOI Listing
August 2021

Complexation of maltodextrin-based inulin and green tea polyphenols via different ultrasonic pretreatment.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Jun 18;74:105568. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Turin, Turin 10125, Italy. Electronic address:

Ultrasound has been applied in food processing for various purpose, showing potential to advance the physical and chemical modification of natural compounds. In order to explore the effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on the complexation of inulin and tea polyphenols (TPP), different frequencies (25, 40, 80 kHz) and output power (40, 80, 120 W) were carried out. According to the comparison in particle size distribution and phenolic content of different inulin-TPP complexes, it was indicated that high-intensity ultrasonic (HIU) treatment (25 kHz, 40 W, 10 min) could accelerate the interaction of polysaccharides and polyphenols. Moreover, a series of spectral analysis including UV-Vis, FT-IR and NMR jointly evidenced the formation of hydrogen bond between saccharides and phenols. However, the primary structure of inulin and the polysaccharide skeleton were not altered by the combination. Referring to field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), the morphology of ultrasound treated-complex presented a slight agglomeration in the form of bent sheets, compared to non-treated sample. The inulin-TPP complex also revealed better stability based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thus, it can be speculated from the identifications that proper ultrasonic treatment is promising to promote the complexation of some food components during processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093945PMC
June 2021

Selenium yeast promoted the Se accumulation, nutrient quality and antioxidant system of cabbage ( var. L.).

Plant Signal Behav 2021 Jun 5;16(6):1907042. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

College of Horticulture and Gardening, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, China.

The application of Se yeast as a Se source to cultivate Se-rich cabbage has a significant effect on cabbage growth and quality indices. Results showed that total plant weight, head weight, and head size in cabbage were notably increased by 48.4%, 88.3%, and 25.4% under 16 mg/kg Se yeast treatment, respectively. Compare with the control, a high proportion of 3874% of Se accumulation in cabbage head was also detected in 16 mg/kg Se yeast treatment. Selenocystine (SeCys) and Methyl-selenocysteine (MeSeCys) were the main Se speciations in the cabbage head. Application of 8 mg/kg Se yeast improved cabbage quality and antioxidant system indices, including free amino acid, soluble sugar, ascorbic acid, phenolic acid, glucosinolates, and SOD activity, which had 81.6%, 46.5%, 34.9%, 12.3%, 44.8%, 25.2% higher than that of the control, respectively. In summary, considering 8 mg/kg Se yeast as the appropriate level of Se enrichment during cabbage cultivation. These findings enhanced our understanding of the effects of Se yeast on the growth and quality of cabbage and provided new insights into Se-enrichment vegetable cultivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2021.1907042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143226PMC
June 2021

Ultrasound as a Promising Tool for the Green Extraction of Specialized Metabolites from Some Culinary Spices.

Molecules 2021 Mar 25;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska cesta 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Spices are a popular food of plant origin, rich in various phytochemicals and recognized for their numerous properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, as well as the content of specialized metabolites, of aqueous extracts of three spice species--garlic ( L.), ginger ( L.) and turmeric ( L.)--prepared by green extraction methods. Ultrasound treatment increased the chromaticity parameter b value of turmeric and ginger extracts, thus indicating a higher yellow color predominantly due to curcuminoids characteristic of these species. Ultrasound-assisted extraction significantly increased the content of total soluble solids, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and vitamin C. The temperature of the system was also an important factor, with the highest (70 °C) conditions in ultrasound-assisted extraction having a positive effect on thermolabile compounds (vitamin C, phenolics, total carotenoids). For example, turmeric extract treated with ultrasound at 70 °C had up to a 67% higher vitamin C content and a 69.4% higher total carotenoid content compared to samples treated conventionally at the same temperature, while ginger extracts had up to 40% higher total phenols. All different concentrations of spice extracts were not sufficient for complete inhibition of pathogenic bacterial strains of , and ; however, only garlic extracts had an effect on slowing down the growth and number of colonies. Spice extracts obtained by ultrasonic treatment contained a significantly higher level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity, suggesting that the extracts obtained have significant nutritional potential and thus a significant possibility for phytotherapeutic uses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037095PMC
March 2021

Physicochemical Characteristics of Cellulose Nanocrystals Derived from the Residue of Filamentous Microalga Tribonema utriculosum.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Institute of Hydrobiology, Department of Ecology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, People's Republic of China.

Tribonema biomass is considered promising biorefinery feedstock for the co-production of biodiesel and valuable bioproducts; however, the extraction of these useful compounds produces large amounts of algal residues, which produce increased environmental concerns. Herein, cellulose was extracted from the waste residue of T. utriculosum via alkalization and bleaching, followed by the production of high-value-added cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) via acid hydrolysis. The hydrolysis was performed with 60% (wt%) HSO at a yield of 13.31%, resulting in the generation of rod-shaped nanoparticles averaging 39.5 nm in diameter and 239.2 nm in length. The structural characterization analysis revealed that the prepared CNCs had high crystallinity (73.0%) due to the removal of non-cellulose components and amorphous regions by chemical treatment, as well as possessing good aqueous suspension stability (zeta potential = - 40.1 mV). Although the CNCs showed lower thermal stability than extracted cellulose, they spanned a broader temperature range due to two-stage degradation behaviour, with higher residue weight (16.7%). This work represents the first report on the preparation of a high-value-added industrial product, CNCs, from the filamentous microalga T. utriculosum, aiming to maximize benefits from waste algal residue reutilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-021-03495-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Optimization of Fermentation Process for Selenium Enrichment as Organic Selenium Source.

Front Nutr 2020 5;7:543873. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

National R&D Center for Se-rich Agricultural Products Processing, College of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, China.

Selenium is an essential trace element and micronutrient for human health. Application of organic selenium in plants and microorganisms as trace element supplement is attracting more and more attention. In this study, , an important probiotic, was used for selenium enrichment with sodium selenite as selenium source. The growth curve of was investigated, and 150 μg/ml was selected as the concentration of selenium for fermentation. With application of response surface methodology, the optimal fermentation conditions were obtained as follows: inoculation quantity of 7%, culture temperature of 33°C, and shaking speed of 170 rpm, leading to the maximal selenium conversion ratio of 94.3 ± 0.2%. Field emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometry evidenced that inorganic selenium had been successfully transformed. This study may contribute to get a strain with high Se conversion ratio, so as to extract organic selenium in the form of selenoprotein to be used for further application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.543873DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674919PMC
November 2020

Effect of linear charge density of polysaccharides on interactions with α-amylase: Self-Assembling behavior and application in enzyme immobilization.

Food Chem 2020 Nov 13;331:127320. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Transformation of Agricultural Products and College of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China; Food Science, Rutgers University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, United States.

The co-existence of polysaccharides and enzymes in the food matrix could form complexes that directly influence the catalytic efficacy of enzymes. This work investigated the self-assembly behaviors of α-amylase and charged polysaccharides and fabricated the α-amylase/polysaccharides complex coacervates. The results showed that the linear charge density of polysaccharides had a critical impact on the complex formation, structure, and enzyme protection under acidic conditions. At low pH, α-amylase formed compact and tight coacervates with the λ-carrageenan. However, α-amylase/pectin coacervates dissociated when the pH was lower than 3.0. The optimized binding ratio of α-amylase/λ-carrageenan was 12:1, and α-amylase/pectin was 4:1. Finally, the α-amylase/λ-carrageenan complex coacervates effectively immobilized the enzyme and almost 70% of enzyme activity remained in coacervates after exposure to pH3.0 for 1 h. This study demonstrates that the change in the linear charge density of polysaccharides could regulate the enzyme-catalyzed process in food processing by a simple and fine-controlled method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127320DOI Listing
November 2020

Soluble dietary fiber and polyphenol complex in lotus root: Preparation, interaction and identification.

Food Chem 2020 Jun 17;314:126219. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

National R&D Center for Se-rich Agricultural Products Processing Technology, College of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China.

In order to further determine the interaction between polysaccharides and polyphenols, the complex of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and two phenols were prepared. According to the results, at the conditions of pH = 4, temperature = 60 °C, concentration ratio of polysaccharide and phenol = 4:1, the maximum adsorption of catechin and gallic acid in the SDF complex was 155.74 and 134.05 mg/g, respectively. Due to UV-Vis and FT-IR analysis, it could be speculated that the interaction between SDF and phenols resulted in chemical combination. Furthermore, the monosaccharide composition and molecular weight distribution of SDF were significantly altered after conjugated with phenols. However, it showed no significant difference between two different SDF-phenol complexes, referring to GC and GPC data. The surface of SDF-phenol complex was loose with uniform arrangement, while the physical mixture surface was porous with irregular holes and cracks. Both SDF-CC and SDF-GA complex indicated higher thermal stability than the mixtures by TGA analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126219DOI Listing
June 2020

Effect of charge density of polysaccharide on self-assembly behaviors of ovalbumin and sodium alginate.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jul 12;154:1245-1254. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

College of Food Science and Engineering, National R&D Center for Se-rich Agricultural Products Processing Technology, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Hubei Province 430023, China.

Similarities and differences of assembly for ovalbumin (OVA) and two kinds of sodium alginate (SA1 and SA2) varying in charge densities (λ: λ ≈ 2:1) were investigated. The assembly processes of OVA/SA mixtures were characterized by phase diagram, particle size, and microstructure. Two differences between OVA/SA1 and OVA/SA2 mixtures in the phase diagram were distinctly observed. First, due to the higher charge density of SA1, the strong interaction between OVA and SA1 caused only pH to be recorded. A higher linear charge density of SA1 narrowed the pH-pH range at ratios of 2:1 and 1:1. Second, OVA/SA1 complexes formed a coacervate with a relatively strong resistance to ion-induced shielding effects. This maintained the smaller size (tighter structure) with a larger number of complexes in the coacervate without 250 mM NaCl. The regulating polysaccharides with different charge densities could control the soluble region of complexes and endow various size or morphology of the coacervate assembled by proteins and polysaccharides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.10.279DOI Listing
July 2020

Biomimetic dynamic membrane (BDM): Fabrication method and roles of carriers and laccase.

Chemosphere 2020 Feb 17;240:124882. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Biomimetic dynamic membrane (BDM) has been employed as a promising membrane separation technology regarding water/wastewater treatment (Model pollutant is methylene blue). Given its catalytic function on micro-pollutant removal and fouling control, detailed mechanism for impacts of fabrication method, carriers (CNT and GO) and laccase on the construction of biomimetic layer and enzyme immobilization have not been clear so far. In this work, the BDM performance with various fabrication methods, carriers and laccase were investigated and verified. The BDM fabrication tests demonstrated that BDM with mixed filtration method had better filtration performance (up to 120 L m h flux and 80% removal rate) than BDM with stepwise filtration method. Moreover, the laccases immobilized on GO exhibited a stronger laccase activity than those on CNT. Increasing CNT or GO dosage strengthened removal rate, but lowered flux, meanwhile flux and removal rate exhibited a significant fluctuation with certain laccase dosage. At 25 g m CNT or GO dosage and 50 g m laccase dosage, the optimized flux and removal rate values were obtained. Further study investigated the surface morphology and property of BDM, showing that BDM with mixed filtration method turned out to be the optimized enzyme immobilization mechanism and fabrication method. In addition, during multiple filtration cycles, with the optimized conditions, the removal rate, flux and laccase activity of BDM could maintain at high levels. On account of the finding of the present study, selecting a suitable fabrication method, appropriate CNT or GO dosage and laccase dosage can indeed optimize the structure of biomimetic layer and enzyme immobilization, expanding its possibility on sustainable operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124882DOI Listing
February 2020

Molecular characteristics of kappa-selenocarrageenan and application in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Dec 4;141:529-537. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

National R&D Center for Se-rich Agricultural Products Processing Technology, College of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, PR China; School of Food Science, Rutgers University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, United States.

Selenium is an essential trace element in human body, and kappa-selenocarrageenan (Se-car) is an organic source of selenium supplement. To further utilize Se-car in food packaging, biotherapy or biosensor, the molecular information of Se-car was characterized here and multi-functional Ag NPs synthesized by Se-car were fabricated. Results of GPC-MALLS, FTIR, potentiometric titration, and intrinsic viscosity showed that Se-car was polymerized by nearly 22 basic units of disaccharide. Sixty-four percentage of sulfated groups (SO) in carrageenan was replaced by selenium acid (SeO), which belonged to weak acid resulting from a gradually decrease of ζ-potential with acidity process to pH 1.0. Besides, the capacity of biosynthesis silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by Se-car was studied and it made a comparison with κ-carrageenan. Results exhibited that Se-car could serve as an efficient reducing and capping agent for Ag NPs fabrication (remarked as [email protected]). The k of [email protected] NPs for catalyzing 4-NP degradation was 2.14 × 10 s. Antibacterial test revealed [email protected] had an ability to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. To combine the selenium health benefit and functional metal nanoparticles, [email protected] might have potential applications in multiple areas like medicine, disease diagnostic, and drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.09.016DOI Listing
December 2019

Challenges and opportunities regarding the use of alternative protein sources: Aquaculture and insects.

Adv Food Nutr Res 2019 17;89:259-295. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Ourense, Spain. Electronic address:

The world population is constantly growing so that the needs of food, including protein sources, will also increase considerably in the coming years. Animal farming has been related to numerous environmental consequences such as soil erosion, exaggerated water consumption, generation of large quantities of waste and accumulation of greenhouse gases. This is a situation that demonstrates the suitability and importance of finding more sustainable protein alternatives without losing the quality and the nutritional benefits of current common protein sources. In this context, it is worth highlighting the potential of insects and products derived from aquaculture. Particularly, farmed aquatic food products can reduce the impact on wild fish stocks, whose overfishing may end up in an ecological collapse, and insects are easy to be reared and efficient in converting feed into biomass. However, there are still several challenges like the need to adapt technologies and methods for the production and well-characterization of the new ingredients, careful evaluation of the introduction of such new proteins in the diet and its safety of use, including potential allergies, and the acceptance by consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.afnr.2019.03.003DOI Listing
January 2020

Modulation of lipid metabolism and colonic microbial diversity of high-fat-diet C57BL/6 mice by inulin with different chain lengths.

Food Res Int 2019 09 3;123:355-363. Epub 2019 May 3.

Nutrition and Food Science Area, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Sciences, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n, 46100 Burjassot, València, Spain. Electronic address:

The physicochemical properties, biological functions and microbial degradation of inulins differ according to their degree of polymerization. However, the relationship between inulin activities and its effect on gut microbiota remains unknown. In this study, high fat diet with inulin (1 or 5 g/kg·bw), either with short or long chains groups were administered to different groups of mice (n = 10) for 10 weeks in order to investigate the effect of inulin on the microbial diversity of the animals. Litchi pericarp procyanidins (LPPC) were used for comparison purposes. Furthermore, the lipid metabolism and key regulator genes in mice were determined. The results indicated that natural inulin (1 g/kg·bw) ingestion reduced the body weight of fat mice between week 6-9. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in liver was remarkably higher after adding long chain inulin (5 g/kg·bw) compared to high-fat-diet mice. Moreover, high dose of natural inulin regulated malondialdehyde and advanced glycation end-products levels in mice liver. Likewise, the high dose of short-chain inulin increased sterol response element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), β-Hydroxy β-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) genetic expression. A significant change on the abundance of six genera in gut microbial profile suggested that inulin has the ability to modulate the lipid metabolism regardless of chain length, mainly due to its impact on colon microbiota variety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.05.003DOI Listing
September 2019

Recent Advances in Biotransformation of Saponins.

Molecules 2019 Jun 26;24(13). Epub 2019 Jun 26.

National R&D Center for Se-rich Agricultural Products Processing, College of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China.

Saponins are a class of glycosides whose aglycones can be either triterpenes or helical spirostanes. It is commonly recognized that these active ingredients are widely found in various kinds of advanced plants. Rare saponins, a special type of the saponins class, are able to enhance bidirectional immune regulation and memory, and have anti-lipid oxidation, anticancer, and antifatigue capabilities, but they are infrequent in nature. Moreover, the in vivo absorption rate of saponins is exceedingly low, which restricts their functions. Under such circumstances, the biotransformation of these ingredients from normal saponins-which are not be easily adsorbed by human bodies-is preferred nowadays. This process has multiple advantages, including strong specificity, mild conditions, and fewer byproducts. In this paper, the biotransformation of natural saponins-such as ginsenoside, gypenoside, glycyrrhizin, saikosaponin, dioscin, timosaponin, astragaloside and ardipusilloside-through microorganisms ( sp., lactic acid bacteria, bacilli, and intestinal microbes) will be reviewed and prospected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6650892PMC
June 2019

Optimization of Spray-Drying Process of Extract for Inulin Production.

Molecules 2019 04 29;24(9). Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Nutrition and Food Science Area, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine Department, Universitat de València, Faculty of Pharmacy, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n, 46100 Burjassot, València, Spain.

Jerusalem artichoke is an important natural matrix for inulin production. In this experiment, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the spray-drying parameters in order to determine the maximal inulin yield. For this study, three independent variables (heating temperature (Tª, 110-120 °C), creep speed (V, 18-22 rpm) and pressure (P, 0.02-0.04 MPa)) were used in the experimental design. Using the Box-Behnken design, the optimal parameters obtained were: drying temperature 114.6 °C, creep speed 20.02 rpm, and pressure: 0.03 MPa. The inulin yield, water content and particle size of inulin obtained by spray-drying and freeze-drying were compared. In this regard, the spray-dried inulin consisted of a white powder having a fine particle size, and the freeze-dried inulin had a pale-yellow fluffy floc. On the other hand, the drying methods had a great influence on the appearance and internal structure of inulin powder, since the spray-dried inulin had a complete and uniform shape and size, whereas the freeze-dried inulin had a flocculated sheet structure. The analysis showed that the spray-drying led to a higher inulin yield, lower water content and better surface structure than freeze-drying.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6539007PMC
April 2019

Transport of Flavanolic Monomers and Procyanidin Dimer A2 across Human Adenocarcinoma Stomach Cells (MKN-28).

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Mar 8;67(12):3354-3362. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

It has been proven that A-type procyanidins, containing an additional ether bond, compared to B-type procyanidins are also bioavailable in vitro and in vivo. However, their bioavailability and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract remain uncertain. In this study, a model of the human adenocarcinoma stomach cell line (MKN-28) was established to explore the cellular transport of flavanolic monomers and procyanidin dimer A2, which were isolated from the litchi pericarp extract. After the integrity and permeability of the cell monolayer were ensured by measurement of the transepithelial electrical resistance and the apparent permeability coefficient for Lucifer yellow, the transportation of procyanidins A2 and B2, (-)-epicatechin (EC), and (+)-catechin (CC) was studied at pH 3.0, 5.0, or 7.0 in the apical side, with compound concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 mg/mL based on the cytotoxicity test. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses indicated that EC, CC, and A2 were transported in the MKN-28 cell line from 30 to 180 min, while B2 showed no transport. The maximal transport efficiencies of EC, CC, and A2 were 23 ± 0.81, 13.16 ± 1.53, and 16.41 ± 1.36%, respectively, existing at 120, 180, and 120 min of transportation. Laser scanning confocal microscopy analysis presented the dynamic transmission of EC, in accordance with the result of concentration determination, suggesting that the A-type procyanidins are possibly absorbed through the stomach barrier, which is pH- and time-dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b00378DOI Listing
March 2019

Effects of Pulsed Electric Field Treatment on Compression Properties and Solutes Diffusion Behaviors of .

Molecules 2019 Feb 3;24(3). Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Laboratoire Transformations Intégrées de la Matière Renouvelable (UTC/ESCOM, EA 4297 TIMR), Centre de recherche Royallieu, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex, France.

is widely used as raw material for industrial production of inulin. Pressing (compression) and diffusion are two effective technologies for bio-compounds' recovery from plants. In this work, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at 400, 600, and 800 V/cm during 100 ms was applied to facilitate juice and solutes recovery from . The application of PEF led to electroporation of cell membranes and enhanced the tissue compression/juice expression and solutes diffusion. The consolidation coefficient (calculated by application of semi-empirical model) of PEF treated sample at 800 V/cm was 6.50 × 10 m²/s, which is significantly higher than that of untreated sample (5.02 × 10 m²/s) and close to that of freeze-thawed sample. Diffusion experiments with PEF treated samples were carried out at 25, 50, and 75 °C. A PEF treatment of at 800 V/cm led to a similar diffusion behavior at 25 °C, compared to diffusion behavior obtained from untreated sample at 75 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6384546PMC
February 2019

Degradation of anthocyanins and polymeric color formation during heat treatment of purple sweet potato extract at different pH.

Food Chem 2019 Feb 21;274:460-470. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

School of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, 430023 Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Purple sweet potato anthocyanins are common natural pigments widely used in food industry, while they are often thermally processed in application. Degradation of anthocyanins, formation of polymers and color changes of purple sweet potato extract (PSPE) were investigated at 90 °C in the range of pH 3.0-pH 7.0. Data analysis indicated a first-order reaction for anthocyanins degradation in solutions with pH 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 have half-lives of 10.27, 12.42 and 4.66 h, respectively. The polymeric color formation followed zero-order kinetics, progressively increasing with pH values. The color of PSPE were changed with heating time and pH value through visual observation and colorimetric characterization. Analysis by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC indicated that anthocyanins in solution with pH 3.0 changed from monomeric anthocyanin into new polymers during heat treatment. Degradation of anthocyanins was accompanied by an increase in polymeric color index, due to the formation of melanoidin pigments and condensation reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.07.141DOI Listing
February 2019

Anti-hyperuricemic and nephroprotective effects of extracts from Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne in hyperuricemic mice.

Food Funct 2018 Nov;9(11):5778-5790

School of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, 430023, China.

Clinically, Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne (C. sinensis) has been used to treat hyperuricemia and gout. However, the exact mechanism of action is still unknown. In the present study, the ethyl acetate fraction of C. sinensis fruit extract (CSF-E) was separated. Potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemic mice and normal mice were administered with CSF-E at 60, 120 and 180 mg kg-1, respectively for 7 days. Serum uric acid, creatinine and BUN levels, liver oxidative damage, and serum and hepatic XOD activities were primarily measured using assay kits. The evaluation of its nephroprotective effects was carried out by renal histopathological analysis. Simultaneously, renal protein levels of organic anion transporters, such as mURAT1 and mOAT1, were detected using western blotting to elucidate the possible mechanisms. The results showed that CSF-E could significantly inhibit XOD activities in both serum and liver (p < 0.05), decreasing uric acid, creatinine and BUN levels in serum, and increasing levels in the excretion of uric acid by down-regulated of mURAT1 and up-regulated mOAT1 protein expression of kidney in hyperuricemic mice. Moreover, PO-induced alterations in the levels of MDA, hepatic SOD and GSH-Px activities and renal inflammation damage in hyperuricemic mice were effectively recovered by CSF-E at 120 mg kg-1. CSF-E possessed anti-hyperuricemic and nephroprotective effects by suppressing XOD activity, improving renal function and regulating renal mURAT1 and mOAT1 protein expression, which resulted in beneficial effects on hyperuricemia and gout prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8fo01480aDOI Listing
November 2018

Increasing Yield and Antioxidative Performance of Litchi Pericarp Procyanidins in Baked Food by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Coupled with Enzymatic Treatment.

Molecules 2018 Aug 21;23(9). Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Nutrition and Food Science Area, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n, Burjassot, 46100 València, Spain.

Extraction with organic solvents is a traditional method to isolate bioactive compounds, which is energy-wasting and time-consuming. Therefore, enzyme and ultrasound treatments were combined to assist the extraction of oligomeric procyanidins from litchi pericarp (LPOPC), as an innovative approach to replace conventional extraction methods. Under optimum conditions (enzyme concentration 0.12 mg/mL, ultrasonic power 300 W, ultrasonic time 80 min, and liquid/solid ratio 10 mL/g), the yield of LPOPC could be improved up to 13.5%. HPLC analysis indicated that the oligomeric procyanidins (OPC) content of LPOPC from proposed extraction was up to 89.6%, mainly including (-)-epicatechin, procyanidin A1, A2, and A-type procyanidin trimer. Moreover, LPOPC powder was added in baked food to inhibit the lipid peroxidation. It was found that 0.2% () of LPOPC could maintain the quality of cookies in the first 7 days, by decreasing the peroxide values. The procyanidin dimers and trimers in LPOPC played more important roles as antioxidants compared to monomers during storage. The results also showed that the combined extraction process can be considered as a useful and efficient method for the extraction of functional components from other plant sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6225317PMC
August 2018

Enzyme-assisted extraction of polyphenol from edible lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) rhizome knot: Ultra-filtration performance and HPLC-MS profile.

Food Res Int 2018 09 21;111:291-298. Epub 2018 May 21.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine Department, Nutrition and Food Science Area, Universitat de ValènciaAvda, Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n 46100 Burjassot, València, Spain. Electronic address:

Rhizome knot is always wasted as useless and inedible part of lotus root, despite its abundance of polyphenols. In this work, enzyme-assisted extraction followed by ultra-filtration was investigated to recover polyphenols from rhizome knot. Cellulase and pectinase treatment enhanced the polyphenols extraction. The 100 kDa membrane resulted in better filtration yield than 50 kDa membrane, 3.84% and 3.37%, respectively. With 100 kDa membrane, the highest filtration yield (4.08%) was achieved with a rotational speed of 600 rpm, TMP of 0.3 MPa and pH of 5. Satisfied permeate turbidity (<3 NTU) and polyphenol transmission (>90%) were obtained under these conditions. The main polyphenols identified in both rhizome knot extract and permeate were: chlorogenic acid, B-type procyanidin dimer·HO, (+)-Catechin, B-type procyanidin dimer, (-)-Epicatechin, propyl gallate·HO, caffeic acid, (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate, and rutin. Membrane fouling led to the most important resistance (58% of total resistance). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) evidenced that protein accumulation was the main fouling cause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.05.047DOI Listing
September 2018

Innovative processing techniques for altering the physicochemical properties of wholegrain brown rice ( L.) - opportunities for enhancing food quality and health attributes.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2019 2;59(20):3349-3370. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Nutrition and Food Science Area, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Sciences, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n, Burjassot, València, 46100, Spain.

Rice is a globally important staple consumed by billions of people, and recently there has been considerable interest in promoting the consumption of wholegrain brown rice (WBR) due to its obvious advantages over polished rice in metabolically protective activities. This work highlights the effects of innovative processing technologies on the quality and functional properties of WBR in comparison with traditional approaches; and it is aimed at establishing a quantitative and/or qualitative link between physicochemical changes and high-efficient processing methods. Compared with thermal treatments, applications of innovative nonthermal techniques, such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electric fields (PEF), ultrasound and cold plasma, are not limited to modifying physicochemical properties of WBR grains, since improvements in nutritional and functional components as well as a reduction in anti-nutritional factors can also be achieved through inducing related biochemical transformation. Much information about processing methods and parameters which influence WBR quality changes has been obtained, but simultaneously achieving the product stabilization and functionality of processed WBR grains requires a comprehensive evaluation of all the quality changes induced by different processing procedures as well as quantitative insights into the relationship between the changes and processing variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2018.1491829DOI Listing
February 2020

From 'green' technologies to 'red' antioxidant compounds extraction of purple corn: a combined ultrasound-ultrafiltration-purification approach.

J Sci Food Agric 2018 Oct 5;98(13):4919-4927. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Nutrition and Food Science Area, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Sciences, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, València, Spain.

Background: A pilot scale process consisting of ultrasound-assisted extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, cross-flow ultrafiltration and AB-8 macroporous resins purification aiming to recover anthocyanins and zein from purple corn (PC) was optimized and scaled-up. The effects of five independent variables (ethanol concentration, liquid to solid ratio, ultrasound temperature, time and power) were discussed and the most influential factors were optimized.

Results: The highest total anthocyanin (0.45 ± 0.01 g kg ) and zein (17.14 ± 1.73 g kg ) contents from purple corn were obtained using an ultrasound power of 105 W, an extraction time of 90 min, an ethanol concentration of 74% and a liquid to solid ratio of 26:1, at 70 °C, and this was consistent with the predicted values (0.46 and 17.36 g kg , for anthocyanin and zein, respectively). Subsequently, ammonium sulfate precipitation was used to isolate anthocyanins and zein. After cross-flow ultrafiltration, zein (6.30 g) was obtained with 80% purity. Anthocyanins were purified by AB-8 macroporous resins, resulting in 1.60 g of anthocyanins. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis revealed eight different anthocyanins in purple corn extracts.

Conclusion: From the results obtained in the present study, it can be concluded that the proposed extraction-separation-filtration-purification method applied under the optimal conditions could be scaled-up to recover anthocyanins and zein simultaneously. Moreover, under the selected conditions, no significant degradation of anthocyanins was observed. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9024DOI Listing
October 2018

Technological aspects of horse meat products - A review.

Food Res Int 2017 12 30;102:176-183. Epub 2017 Sep 30.

Department of Animal Source Food Technology, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia.

Horse meat and its products can be considered as a food with a high nutritional value. However, due to cases of economically motivated food adulteration by the intentional addition of horse meat beef products in recent years, horse meat has become a controversial issue. Consumer confidence in meat products and the meat industry has diminished, although consumers consider the differences between the food content and the label as the major issue rather than the safety and nutritional characteristics of horse meat. The elaboration of meat products from horse meat (e.g. "cecina", dry-cured loin, salami, bressaola and pâté) is also an interesting alternative to other traditional meat products such as dry-cured pork hams, pork sausages and liver pâtés. In this review, the technological aspects, safety and storage stability of meat products elaborated from horse meat will be addressed by highlighting the nutritional and sensory aspects of these meat products. We aim to improve the existing knowledge about horse meat in the view of recent scandals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.09.094DOI Listing
December 2017

Recovery of Oil with Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Polyphenols from Chaenomelessinensis (Thouin) Koehne: Process Optimization of Pilot-Scale Subcritical Fluid Assisted Extraction.

Molecules 2017 Oct 22;22(10). Epub 2017 Oct 22.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China.

The potential effects of three modern extraction technologies (cold-pressing, microwaves and subcritical fluids) on the recovery of oil from (Thouin) Koehne seeds have been evaluated and compared to those of conventional chemical extraction methods (Soxhlet extraction). This oil contains unsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. Subcritical fluid extraction (SbFE) provided the highest yield-25.79 g oil/100 g dry seeds-of the three methods. Moreover, the fatty acid composition in the oil samples was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This analysis showed that the percentages of monounsaturated (46.61%), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (42.14%), after applying SbFE were higher than those obtained by Soxhlet, cold-pressing or microwave-assisted extraction. In addition, the oil obtained under optimized SbFE conditions (35 min extraction at 35 °C with four extraction cycles), showed significant polyphenol (527.36 mg GAE/kg oil), and flavonoid (15.32 mg RE/kg oil), content, had a good appearance and was of high quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6151523PMC
October 2017

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, Centrifugation and Ultrafiltration: Multistage Process for Polyphenol Recovery from Purple Sweet Potatoes.

Molecules 2016 Nov 20;21(11). Epub 2016 Nov 20.

Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, Laboratoire Transformations Intégrées de la Matière Renouvelable (UTC/ESCOM, EA 4297 TIMR), Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne CEDEX, France.

This work provides an evaluation of an ultrasound-assisted, combined extraction, centrifugation and ultrafiltration process for the optimal recovery of polyphenols. A purple sweet potato (PSP) extract has been obtained using ultrasonic circulating extraction equipment at a power of 840 W, a frequency of 59 kHz and using water as solvent. Extract ultrafiltration, using polyethersulfone (PES), was carried out for the recovery of polyphenol, protein and anthocyanin. Pre-treatment, via the centrifugation of purple sweet potato extract at 2500 rpm over 6 min, led to better polyphenol recovery, with satisfactory protein removal (reused for future purposes), than PSP extract filtration without centrifugation. Results showed that anthocyanin was efficiently recovered (99%) from permeate. The exponential model fit well with the experimental ultrafiltration data and led to the calculation of the membrane's fouling coefficient. The optimization of centrifugation conditions showed that, at a centrifugation speed of 4000 rpm (1195× ) and duration of 7.74 min, the optimized polyphenol recovery and fouling coefficient were 34.5% and 29.5 m, respectively. The removal of proteins in the centrifugation process means that most of the anthocyanin content (90%) remained after filtration. No significant differences in the intensities of the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS² peaks were found in the samples taken before and after centrifugation for the main anthocyanins; peonidin-3-feruloylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin-3-caffeoyl--hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside, and peonidin-3-caffeoyl-feruloyl sophoroside-5-glucoside. This proves that centrifugation is an efficient method for protein removal without anthocyanin loss. This study considers this process an ultrasound-assisted extraction-centrifugation-ultrafiltration for purple sweet potato valorization in "green" technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules21111584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6274370PMC
November 2016

Inhibition of cyclodextrins on α-galactosidase.

Food Chem 2017 Feb 21;217:59-64. Epub 2016 Aug 21.

School of Food Science and Technology, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China; Key Laboratory of the Deep Processing of Bulk Grain and Oil Authorized by Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430023, China. Electronic address:

This work successfully investigated the effects of different influential factors and hydrophobic cavities of cyclodextrins (CDs) on α-galactosidase (α-Gal) by detecting α-Gal activity. The highest inhibitory concentration of three kinds of CDs (α-, β-, and γ-CD) on α-Gal was 10mM. Moreover, the highest inhibition of α-Gal was obtained under the following conditions: reaction time of 90min, temperature of 30°C, and pH 6.0. Compared with other CDs, β-CD showed more ability to interact with α-Gal due to its appropriate cavity geometric dimensions. From circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance it was observed that β-CD changed the secondary structure of α-Gal and formed a hydrogen bond with this enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.057DOI Listing
February 2017

Bioavailability of Glucosinolates and Their Breakdown Products: Impact of Processing.

Front Nutr 2016 16;3:24. Epub 2016 Aug 16.

Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Laboratoire Transformations Intégrées de la Matière Renouvelable (UTC/ESCOM, EA 4297 TIMR), Centre de Recherche de Royallieu , Compiègne Cedex , France.

Glucosinolates are a large group of plant secondary metabolites with nutritional effects, and are mainly found in cruciferous plants. After ingestion, glucosinolates could be partially absorbed in their intact form through the gastrointestinal mucosa. However, the largest fraction is metabolized in the gut lumen. When cruciferous are consumed without processing, myrosinase enzyme present in these plants hydrolyzes the glucosinolates in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract to various metabolites, such as isothiocyanates, nitriles, oxazolidine-2-thiones, and indole-3-carbinols. When cruciferous are cooked before consumption, myrosinase is inactivated and glucosinolates transit to the colon where they are hydrolyzed by the intestinal microbiota. Numerous factors, such as storage time, temperature, and atmosphere packaging, along with inactivation processes of myrosinase are influencing the bioavailability of glucosinolates and their breakdown products. This review paper summarizes the assimilation, absorption, and elimination of these molecules, as well as the impact of processing on their bioavailability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2016.00024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4985713PMC
August 2016

HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(2) analytical profile of extracts obtained from purple sweet potato after green ultrasound-assisted extraction.

Food Chem 2017 Jan 29;215:391-400. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

School of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China.

Ultrasound pre-treatment (UAE) was applied to assist the extraction of valuable compounds (polyphenols (especially anthocyanins), and proteins) from purple sweet potato (PSP). Under optimum conditions (ultrasound time (40min); supplementary hot extraction (80°C) up to 120min; pH: 2.5; ethanol concentration: 58%), the highest concentrations of polyphenols (3.877mg/g), anthocyanins (0.293mg/g), and proteins (0.753mg/g) were found, with minimal specific energy consumption (8406J/mg). Moreover, anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin polyphenols in PSP extract from optimized extraction temperature were identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(2). The major identified anthocyanins were peonidin-3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin-3-(6″-caffeoyl-6‴-feruloyl sophoroside)-5-glucoside, cyanidin-3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, whereas the major identified non-anthocyanin molecules were quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid-3-glucose. The amount of the predominant anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin compounds from PSP extract obtained after UAE was higher than that extracted after conventional solvent extraction. The results obtained in this work demonstrated the efficiency of UAE for the recovery of anthocyanins from PSP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.07.157DOI Listing
January 2017

Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of gardenia fruit oil with bioactive components and their identification and quantification by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(2).

Food Funct 2015 Jul;6(7):2194-204

School of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic Univ., Wuhan, 430023, China.

Compounds in Fructus Gardeniae have been shown to possess a wide array of biological activities. However, Gardenia oil extracted from its fruit is less reported and its composition remains uncertain. To completely characterize lipophilic compounds in Gardenia oil, three conventional extraction (CE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods were investigated. The oil extraction yield obtained by UAE was 51.8% higher than that acquired by cold-pressed extraction (CPE). The fatty acid profile in UAE oil with different solvents was characterized by GC-MS. Petroleum ether was observed to be an ideal solvent with 8.59% extraction yield and 78.88% recovery rate and with a ratio of 3.11 of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids. Response surface methodology (RSM) with Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was applied to optimize conditions in UEA of oil to maximize extraction yield. Furthermore, the bioactive components in oil extracted by UAE were qualitatively identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(2) and HPLC-DAD analysis. The eight compounds in Gardenia oil, including geniposide, trans/cis-crocin-1, crocin-2, crocin-3, crocin-4, and trans/cis-crocetin, were structurally revealed. The corresponding transfer rates of the bioactive components showed that the lipophilic trans/cis-crocetin could be completely transferred from fruit to oil, with the highest concentration of 11.38 μg g(-1) oil among all compounds quantified. These findings could deliver potential application to a large-scale production of functional Gardenia oil whose bioactive components possess health benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5fo00205bDOI Listing
July 2015