Publications by authors named "Zhenyu Zhang"

617 Publications

lncRNA PART1 mitigates MPP-induced neuronal injury in SH-SY5Y cells via micRNA-106b-5p/MCL1 axis.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(8):8897-8908. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Objective: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Here, we aimed to explore the function of LncRNA PART1 in PD and its underlying mechanisms.

Methods: An MPTP-induced mouse model of PD was generated and the SH-SY5Y cells were treated with MPP to induce neuronal damage . The expressions of LncRNA PART1 and microRNA-106b-5p were assessed by RT-qPCR. The level of caspase 3 protein was detected by western blot. CCK8 assay and Annexin V/PI staining were used for detecting cell viability and survival rate, respectively. The interactions between microRNA-106b-5p and LncRNA PART1 or MCL1 were determined by RNA pull-down assay, RIP assay and DLR assay. The levels of inflammatory cytokines were assessed by ELISA, and the levels of LDH, ROS or SOD were verified using the appropriate assay kits.

Results: The expression of LncRNA PART1 was decreased in PD model and (all P<0.05). In SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP, the overexpression of LncRNA PART1 increased cell viability and reduced cell apoptosis, the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress reaction (all P<0.05). Furthermore, LncRNA PART1 sponged microRNA-106b-5p which directly targeted MCL1 and thus regulated the expression of MCL1. LncRNA PART1 attenuated the injury of SH-SY5Y cells induced by MPP via targeting microRNA-106b-5p and enhancing MCL1 expression.

Conclusion: LncRNA PART1 could alleviate the damage effects of MPP on SH-SY5Y cells by regulating microRNA-106b-5p/MCL1 axis, suggesting the potential therapeutic value of LncRNA PART1 as a target in PD.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430160PMC
August 2021

Role of Environmental Air Pollution in Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2021 Sep 9;21(8):42. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, 601 N. Caroline St. JHOC 6263, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a highly prevalent disease with large social and financial burdens. The pathophysiology is multifactorial. Environmental pollutants have been suggested to play a role in the inflammatory component of the disease process.

Recent Findings: Recent work has focused on exposure to various pollutants, primarily particulate matter (PM). Exposure to environmental pollutants leads to upregulation of inflammatory markers and ciliary dysfunction at the cellular level. Mouse models suggest a role for epithelial barrier dysfunction contributing to inflammatory changes after pollutant exposure. Clinical studies support the role of pollutants contributing to disease severity in certain populations, but the role in CRS incidence or prevalence is less clear. Research is limited by the retrospective nature of most studies. This review focuses on recent advancements in our understanding of the impact of environmental pollutants in CRS, limitations of the available data, and potential opportunities for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11882-021-01019-6DOI Listing
September 2021

A glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase fused to a carbohydrate binding module family 2 tag that specifically binds to the cellulose-modified electrode.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2021 Oct 12;150:109869. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biosensors, Biology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), No. 28789, Jingshi East Road, Licheng District, Jinan, Shandong, 250103, China. Electronic address:

The method of immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) on electrodes is especially important for the fabrication and performance of glucose biosensors. In this study, a carbohydrate binding module family 2 (CBM2) was successfully fused to the C terminal of GOD with a natural linker (NL) in endo-β-xylanase by genetic recombination, and a fusion GOD (GOD-NL-CBM2) was obtained. The CBM2 was used as an affinity adsorption tag for immobilization of the GOD-NL-CBM2 on a cellulose modified electrode. The specific activity of GOD-NL-CBM2 was comparable to that of the wild type GOD. In addition, the CBM2 tag of fusion GOD almost maintained its highest binding capacity under optimal catalytic conditions (pH 5.0, 50 °C). The morphology and composition analysis of the cellulose film reacted with and without GOD or GOD-NL-CBM2 confirmed the immobilization of GOD-NL-CBM2. The electrochemical properties of the GOD-NL-CBM2/cellulose film bioelectrode, with a characteristic peak of HO at +0.6 V in the presence of glucose, revealed the capability of the immobilized GOD-NL-CBM2 to efficiently catalyze glucose and produce HO. Additionally, the current signal response of the biosensor to glucose was linear in the concentration range from 1.25 to 40 mM (r ≥ 0.99). The sensitivity and detection limit of the GOD-NL-CBM2/cellulose film bioelectrode were 466.7 μA mol L cm and 0.475 mM (S/N = 3), respectively. Moreover, the glucose biosensor exhibited a rapid current change (< 5 s), high reproducibility (Relative standard deviation, RSD < 5%), substrate selectivity and stability, and retained about 80 % of the original current response after 2 months. The affinity adsorption-based immobilization strategy for GOD provides a promising approach to develop a high performance glucose biosensor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2021.109869DOI Listing
October 2021

Identification of a 3-gene signature based on differentially expressed invasion genes related to cancer molecular subtypes to predict the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients.

Bioengineered 2021 12;12(1):5916-5931

Orthopedics Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, Liaoning, China.

Invasion is a critical pathway leading to tumor metastasis. This study constructed an invasion-related polygenic signature to predict osteosarcoma prognosis. We initially determined two molecular subtypes of osteosarcoma, Cluster1 (C1) and Cluster2 (C2).. A 3 invasive-gene signature was established by univariate Cox analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two subtypes, and was validated in internal and two external data sets (GSE21257 and GSE39058). Patients were divided into high- and low-risk groups by their signature, and the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients in the high-risk group was poor. Based on the time-independent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the area under the curve (AUC) for 1-year and 2-year OS were higher than 0.75 in internal and external cohorts. This signature also showed a high accuracy and independence in predicting osteosarcoma prognosis and a higher AUC in predicting 1-year osteosarcoma survival than other four existing models. In a word, a 3 invasive gene-based signature was developed, showing a high performance in predicting osteosarcoma prognosis. This signature could facilitate clinical prognostic analysis of osteosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1971919DOI Listing
December 2021

The Efficacy and Safety of Epsilon-Aminocaproic Acid for Perioperative Blood Management in Spinal Fusion Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

World Neurosurg 2021 Aug 31;156:12-21. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Plastic and Burn Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Background: Perioperative blood loss is a major concern in spinal fusion surgery and often requires blood transfusion. A large amount of perioperative blood loss might increase the risks of various perioperative complications. Recent clinical studies have focused on the perioperative administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) in spinal fusion surgery. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EACA in spinal fusion surgery.

Methods: Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were systematically searched up to April 2021. Data on perioperative blood loss, blood transfusion, and complications were extracted and analyzed by RevMan software.

Results: Six randomized controlled studies comprising 398 patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery were included in this systematic review. Compared with the control group, the EACA group had significantly lower total perioperative blood loss, postoperative blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin, postoperative blood transfusion units, total blood transfusion units, and postoperative red blood cell transfusion units. Additionally, no significant differences were observed between the EACA and control groups in intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood transfusion units, intraoperative crystalloid administered, hospital stays, operative time, perioperative respiratory complications, and wound bleeding.

Conclusions: EACA in patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery is effective in perioperative hemostasis without increasing the incidence of postoperative complications. However, more large-scale trials are needed to examine the long-term adverse side effects of EACA in spinal fusion surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.08.113DOI Listing
August 2021

Discriminative Cross-Modality Attention Network for Temporal Inconsistent Audio-Visual Event Localization.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 20;30:7878-7888. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

It is theoretically insufficient to construct a complete set of semantics in the real world using single-modality data. As a typical application of multi-modality perception, the audio-visual event localization task aims to match audio and visual components to identify the simultaneous events of interest. Although some recent methods have been proposed to deal with this task, they cannot handle the practical situation of temporal inconsistency that is widespread in the audio-visual scene. Inspired by the human system which automatically filters out event-unrelated information when performing multi-modality perception, we propose a discriminative cross-modality attention network to simulate such a process. Similar to human mechanism, our network can adaptively select "where" to attend, "when" to attend and "which" to attend for audio-visual event localization. In addition, to prevent our network from getting trivial solutions, a novel eigenvalue-based objective function is proposed to train the whole network to better fuse audio and visual signals, which can obtain discriminative and nonlinear multi-modality representation. In this way, even with large temporal inconsistency between audio and visual sequence, our network is able to adaptively select event-valuable information for audio-visual event localization. Furthermore, we systemically investigate three subtasks of audio-visual event localization, i.e., temporal localization, weakly-supervised spatial localization and cross-modality localization. The visualization results also help us better understand how our network works.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3106814DOI Listing
September 2021

Coexistence of Superconductivity and Nontrivial Band Topology in Monolayered Cobalt Pnictides on SrTiO.

Nano Lett 2021 09 25;21(17):7396-7404. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

International Center for Quantum Design of Functional Materials (ICQD), Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale (HFNL), and CAS Center for Excellence in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.

As an intrinsically layered material, FeSe has been extensively explored for potentially revealing the underlying mechanisms of high transition temperature (high-) superconductivity and realizing topological superconductivity and Majorana zero modes. Here we use first-principles approaches to identify that the cobalt pnictides of CoX (X = As, Sb, Bi), none of which is a layered material in bulk form. Nevertheless, all can be stabilized as monolayered systems either in freestanding form or supported on the SrTiO(001) substrate. We further show that each of the cobalt pnictides may potentially harbor high- superconductivity beyond the Cu- and Fe-based superconducting families, and the underlying mechanism is inherently tied to their isovalency nature with the FeSe monolayer. Most strikingly, each of the monolayered CoX's on SrTiO is shown to be topologically nontrivial, and our findings provide promising new platforms for realizing topological superconductors in the two-dimensional limit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02830DOI Listing
September 2021

Discovery of Quality Markers of Nucleobases, Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Amino Acids for Chrysanthemi Flos From Different Geographical Origins Using UPLC-MS/MS Combined With Multivariate Statistical Analysis.

Front Chem 2021 5;9:689254. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and amino acids, as crucial nutrient compositions, play essential roles in determining the flavor, function and quality of Chrysanthemi Flos. The quality of Chrysanthemi Flos from different geographical origins is uneven, but there have been no reports about the screening of their quality markers based on nutritional ingredients. Here, we developed a comprehensive strategy integrating ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and multivariate statistical analysis to explore quality markers of Chrysanthemi Flos from different geographical origins and conduct quality evaluation and discrimination of them. Firstly, a fast, sensitive, and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method was established for simultaneous quantification 28 nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and amino acids of Chrysanthemi Flos from nine different regions in China. The results demonstrated that Chrysanthemi Flos from nine different cultivation regions were rich in the above 28 nutritional contents and their contents were obvious different; however, correlation analysis showed that altitude was not the main factor for these differences, which required further investigation. Subsequently, eight crucial quality markers for nine different geographical origins of Chrysanthemi Flos, namely, 2'-deoxyadenosine, guanosine, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate (cAMP), guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), arginine, proline, glutamate and tryptophan, were screened for the first time using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and the plot of variable importance for projection (VIP). Moreover, a hierarchical clustering analysis heat map was employed to intuitively clarify the distribution of eight quality markers in the nine different regions of Chrysanthemi Flos. Finally, based on the contents of selected eight quality markers, support vector machines (SVM) model was established to predict the geographical origins of Chrysanthemi Flos, which yielded excellent prediction performance with an average prediction accuracy of 100%. Taken together, the proposed strategy was suitable to discover the quality markers of Chrysanthemi Flos and could be used to discriminate its geographical origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.689254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375154PMC
August 2021

Downregulated ARID1A by miR-185 Is Associated With Poor Prognosis and Adverse Outcomes in Colon Adenocarcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 2;11:679334. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, College of Laboratory Diagnostic Medicine, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

AT-rich interaction domain 1A (ARID1A) is a tumor suppressor gene that mutates in several cancer types, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and colorectal cancer (CRC). In colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), the low expression of ARID1A was reported but the molecular reason is unclear. We noticed that ARID1A low expression was associated with increased levels of miR-185 in the COAD. Therefore, this study aims to explore ncRNA-dependent mechanism that regulates ARID1A expression in COAD regarding miR-185. The expression of ARID1A was tested in COAD cell line under the effect of miR-185 mimics compared with inhibitor. The molecular features associated with loss of ARID1A and its association with tumor prognosis were analyzed using multi-platform data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to identify potential signaling pathways associated with ARID1A alterations in colon cancer. Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that a low level of ARID1A was closely related to low survival rate in patients with COAD. Results showed that inhibiting miR-185 expression in the COAD cell line significantly restored the expression of ARID1A. Further, the increased expression of ARID1A significantly improved the prolonged overall survival of COAD. We noticed that there is a possible relationship between ARID1A high expression and tumor microenvironment infiltrating immune cells. Furthermore, the increase of ARID1A in tumor cells enhanced the response of inflammatory chemokines. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ARID1A is a direct target of miR-185 in COAD that regulates the immune modulations in the microenvironment of COAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.679334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8367751PMC
August 2021

Mucosal Healing Effectiveness and Safety of Anaprazole, a Novel PPI, vs. Rabeprazole in Patients With Duodenal Ulcers: A Randomized Double-Blinded Multicenter Phase II Clinical Trial.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 14;8:690995. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are validated gastric acid suppressors and have been widely used to treat patients with active duodenal ulcers. Although existing PPIs have shown great efficacy, many scientists are still devoted to developing more effective PPIs with better safety profile. Herein, we aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of anaprazole in duodenal mucosal healing, a novel PPI, to that of rabeprazole. In this multicenter, randomized, positive-controlled, double-blinded, parallel-group phase II clinical trial, a total of 150 qualified patients with endoscopically confirmed active duodenal ulcers were randomized (1:1:1) to receive rabeprazole 10 mg, anaprazole 20 mg or anaprazole 40 mg for 4 weeks. The ulcer healing rates after 4 weeks of treatment were compared between groups by independent central review and investigator review. In addition, symptoms and safety were evaluated. Based on the independent central review, the ulcer healing rates of the 10 mg rabeprazole, 20 mg anaprazole and 40 mg anaprazole groups were 88.0, 85.1, and 87.5%, respectively, in the FAS population and 88.9, 86.0, and 90.9%, respectively, in the PPS population. The ulcer healing rate difference between anaprazole 20 mg and Rabeprazole 10 mg is -2.9% (95% CI, -16.5-10.7%), and -0.5% (95% CI, -13.5-12.5%) between anaprazole 40 mg and Rabeprazole 10 mg, in the FAS population. Based on the investigator review, the ulcer healing rates of the 10 mg rabeprazole, 20 mg anaprazole, and 40 mg anaprazole groups were 72.0, 70.2, and 77.1%, respectively, in the FAS population and 75.6, 72.1, and 79.5%, respectively, in the PPS population. The ulcer healing rate difference between anaprazole 20 mg and Rabeprazole 10 mg is -1.8% (95% CI, -19.8-16.3%), and 5.1% (95% CI, -12.2-22.3%) between anaprazole 40 mg and Rabeprazole 10 mg, in the FAS population. Most patients (>90%) eventually achieved complete symptom relief. The incidence rates of adverse events were of no significant differences among the treatment groups. Potential possible better liver tolerance was observed in two anaprazole dose groups than rabeprazole 10 mg group. Both at a dosage of 20 and 40 mg daily, anaprazole, is effective with good safety profile in the treatment of active duodenal ulcers in this Phase 2 study, which allows anaprazole to be advanced to a phase III clinical trial. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=&term=NCT04503629&cntry=&state=&city=&dist=, Identifier: CTR20181464, NCT04503629.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.690995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317206PMC
July 2021

The effect of water stress on net primary productivity in northwest China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Net primary productivity (NPP) has been widely used as the indicator of vegetation function and exhibits large spatial and temporal variations caused by numerous factors. Northwest China (NWC) is one of the driest regions in China, and water supply is the key determinant of NPP here. However, studies on the effects of water stress on NPP in NWC at the regional scale are still relatively lacking. Thus, in this study, based on a set of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP and evapotranspiration (ET) datasets, we quantified the response of NPP to water stress, which is indicated by crop water stress index (CWSI). Regional average of annual NPP in NWC showed an increasing trend during the study period, at a rate of 0.84 g C m yr. At the province level, the NPP increase rates increased in the order of Ningxia (7.7%), Shaanxi (6.5%), Gansu (4.5%), Qinghai (3.8%), and Xinjiang (1.7%). NPP was negatively correlated with CWSI (p<0.05) in 73% of areas, indicating the key role of water stress in constraining NPP over this arid region. The effect of water stress on NPP changes with elevation. Water stress has the strongest negative impact on NPP in areas with elevations around 2000 m. In elevations above 5000 m, NPP is not limited by water stress, mostly positively correlated with CWSI. Our findings further clarify the importance of water stress in dryland ecosystems, while highlighting that elevation gradients can significantly affect the correlation between NPP and water stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15314-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Quantitative MRI-based radiomics for noninvasively predicting molecular subtypes and survival in glioma patients.

NPJ Precis Oncol 2021 Jul 26;5(1):72. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Gliomas can be classified into five molecular groups based on the status of IDH mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and TERT promoter mutation, whereas they need to be obtained by biopsy or surgery. Thus, we aimed to use MRI-based radiomics to noninvasively predict the molecular groups and assess their prognostic value. We retrospectively identified 357 patients with gliomas and extracted radiomic features from their preoperative MRI images. Single-layered radiomic signatures were generated using a single MR sequence using Bayesian-regularization neural networks. Image fusion models were built by combing the significant radiomic signatures. By separately predicting the molecular markers, the predictive molecular groups were obtained. Prognostic nomograms were developed based on the predictive molecular groups and clinicopathologic data to predict progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The results showed that the image fusion model incorporating radiomic signatures from contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging (cT1WI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) achieved an AUC of 0.884 and 0.669 for predicting IDH and TERT status, respectively. cT1WI-based radiomic signature alone yielded favorable performance in predicting 1p/19q status (AUC = 0.815). The predictive molecular groups were comparable to actual ones in predicting PFS (C-index: 0.709 vs. 0.722, P = 0.241) and OS (C-index: 0.703 vs. 0.751, P = 0.359). Subgroup analyses by grades showed similar findings. The prognostic nomograms based on grades and the predictive molecular groups yielded a C-index of 0.736 and 0.735 in predicting PFS and OS, respectively. Accordingly, MRI-based radiomics may be useful for noninvasively detecting molecular groups and predicting survival in gliomas regardless of grades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41698-021-00205-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313682PMC
July 2021

Molecular Understanding of Fouling Induction and Removal: Effect of the Interface Temperature on Milk Deposits.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 26;13(30):35506-35517. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom.

Molecular details concerning the induction phase of milk fouling on stainless steel at an elevated temperature range were established to better understand the effect of temperature on surface fouling during pasteurization. The liquid-solid interface that replicates an industrial heat exchanger (≤75°C), including four stages (preheating, heating, holding, and cooling), was investigated using both a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) and a customized flow cell. We found that the milk fouling induction process is rate-limited by the synergistic effects of bulk reactions, mass transfer, and surface reactions, all of which are controlled by both liquid and surface temperatures. Surface milk foulant becomes more rigid and compact as it builds up. The presence of protein aggregates in the bulk fluid leads to a fast formation of surface deposit with a reduced Young's modulus. Foulant adhesion and cohesion strength was enhanced as both interfacial temperature and processing time increased, while removal force increased with an increasing deposit thickness. During cleaning, caustic swelling and removal showed semilinear correlations with surface temperature (), where higher reduced swelling and enhanced removal. Our findings evidence that adsorption kinetics, characteristics of the foulant, and the subsequent removal mechanism are greatly dependent on the temperature profile, of which the surface temperature is the most critical one.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397245PMC
August 2021

Surface-Grafted Poly(ionic liquid) that Lubricates in Both Non-polar and Polar Solvents.

ACS Macro Lett 2021 Jul 28;10(7):907-913. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom.

We show that a surface-grafted polymer brush, 1--butyl-3-vinyl imidazolium bromide-based poly(ionic liquids), is able to reduce the interfacial friction by up to 66% and 42% in dodecane and water, respectively. AFM-based force spectroscopy reveals that the polymer brush adopts distinctively different interfacial conformations: swollen in water but collapsed in dodecane. Minimal surface adhesion was observed with both polymer conformations, which can be attributed to steric repulsion as the result of a swollen conformation in water or surface solvation when the hydrophobic fraction of the polymer was exposed to the dodecane. The work brings additional insight on the polymer lubrication mechanism, which expands the possible design of the polymer architecture for interfacial lubrication and modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.1c00174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296680PMC
July 2021

Combining Preoperative and Postoperative Inflammatory Indicators Can Better Predict the Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Partial Hepatectomy.

J Inflamm Res 2021 13;14:3231-3245. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Clinical Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Previous studies have shown that various preoperative inflammatory indicators can predict the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the role of postoperative inflammatory indicators remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the prognostic value of postoperative inflammatory indicators and whether combining preoperative and postoperative inflammatory indicators can improve the predictive performance of the prognostic model.

Patients And Methods: Eighty-eight patients with primary HCC were included in this study. A preoperative model, postoperative model, and combined model that integrated preoperative and postoperative inflammatory indicators were established. The prognostic value of the models was evaluated by the area under the curve of time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves (td-AUC).

Results: Multivariate analysis of preoperative and postoperative inflammatory indicators and clinicopathological indicators found that tumor number, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, and the preoperative platelet-lymphocyte ratio (prePLR), preoperative prognostic nutritional index (prePNI), and postoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (postNLR) were independent prognostic factors for the disease-free survival. The prognostic efficacy of the postNLR at 2 years and 3 years was better than that of tumor number, AFP level, and the prePLR, and prePNI. The combined model had higher td-AUC values than the preoperative model, postoperative model, American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition stage, and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage at 2 years (0.814 vs 0.754, 0.765, 0.513 and 0.527, respectively), and 3 years (0.786 vs 0.749, 0.753, 0.509 and 0.529, respectively). The predictive performance of the combined model was better than that of the preoperative model, postoperative model, and traditional clinical stage.

Conclusion: Postoperative inflammatory indicators were valuable prognostic indicators. The combination of preoperative and postoperative inflammatory indicators improved the predictive performance of the prognostic model. We should pay more attention to postoperative inflammatory indicators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S316177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286132PMC
July 2021

Ambient particulate matter air pollution is associated with increased risk of papillary thyroid cancer.

Surgery 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Background: The association between exposure to air pollution and papillary thyroid carcinoma is unknown. We sought to estimate the relationship between long-term exposure to the fine (diameter <2.5 μm) particulate matter component of air pollution and the risk of papillary thyroid cancer.

Methods: Adult (age ≥18) patients with newly diagnosed papillary thyroid carcinoma between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2016 across a single health system were identified using electronic medical records. Data from 1,990 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were compared with 3,980 age- and sex-matched control subjects without any evidence of thyroid disease. Cumulative fine (diameter <2.5 μm) particulate matter exposure was estimated by incorporating patients' residential zip codes into a deep learning neural networks model, which uses both meteorological and satellite-based measurements. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess for association between papillary thyroid carcinoma and increasing fine (diameter <2.5 μm) particulate matter concentrations over 1, 2, and 3 years of cumulative exposure preceding papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosis.

Results: Increased odds of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma was associated with a 5 μg/m increase of fine (diameter <2.5 μm) particulate matter concentrations over 2 years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.40) and 3 years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.44) of exposure. This risk differed by smoking status (pn = 0.04). Among current smokers (n = 623), the risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma was highest (adjusted odds ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-1.63).

Conclusion: Increasing concentration of fine (diameter <2.5 μm) particulate matter in air pollution is significantly associated with the incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma with 2 and 3 years of exposure. Our novel findings provide additional insight into the potential associations between risk factors and papillary thyroid carcinoma and warrant further investigation, specifically in areas with high levels of air pollution both nationally and internationally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2021.05.002DOI Listing
June 2021

TIPE1 Suppresses Growth and Metastasis of Ovarian Cancer.

J Oncol 2021 3;2021:5538911. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, China.

TIPE1, a newly identified member in TIPE (TNFAIP8) family, plays an important role in tumorigenesis and immune regulation, but its role in ovarian cancer, especially in tumor metastasis, remains unknown. In the current study, we aimed to reveal the protein expression spectrum of TIPE1 in normal human tissues and explored its relationship with metastasis in ovarian cancer. The results of IHC staining showed that TIPE1 protein was not only detected in cytoplasm in most human tissues but also expressed in both cytoplasm and nucleus in squamous epithelium and some epithelial-derived cells with secretory functions, such as esophagus, cervix uteri and ovary, and thyroid gland. Moreover, TIPE1 protein was downregulated in ovarian cancer tissues compared with that in the paracancerous. More importantly, TIPE1 suppressed tumorigenesis and metastasis of ovarian cancer and , as evidence shows its ability to suppress growth, colony formation, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of ovarian cancer. Taken together, our results demonstrate the suppressor role of TIPE1 in ovarian cancer metastasis, indicating TIPE1 might be a metastasis predictor and a novel therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5538911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8195659PMC
June 2021

Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Non-Allergic Patients.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Johns Hopkins Medicine, 1501, Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Baltimore, Maryland, United States;

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202102-0368LEDOI Listing
June 2021

A Comprehensive 6A Framework for Improving Patient Self-Management of Hypertension Using mHealth Services: Qualitative Thematic Analysis.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jun 21;23(6):e25522. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Centre for Digital Transformation, School of Computing and Information Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.

Background: Hypertension affects over 15% of the world's population and is a significant global public health and socioeconomic challenge. Mobile health (mHealth) services have been increasingly introduced to support hypertensive patients to improve their self-management behaviors, such as adherence to pharmacotherapy and lifestyle modifications.

Objective: This study aims to explore patients' perceptions of mHealth services and the mechanisms by which the services support them to self-manage their hypertension.

Methods: A semistructured, in-depth interview study was conducted with 22 outpatients of the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from March to May 2019. In 2015, the hospital introduced an mHealth service to support community-dwelling outpatients with self-management of hypertension. Content analysis was conducted by following a grounded theory approach for inductive thematic extraction. Constant comparison and categorization classified the first-level codes with similar meanings into higher-level themes.

Results: The patient-perceived mechanisms by which the mHealth service supported their self-management of hypertension were summarized as 6A: access, assessment, assistance, awareness, ability, and activation. With the portability of mobile phones and digitization of information, the mHealth service provided outpatients with easy access to assess their vital signs and self-management behaviors. The assessment results gave the patients real-time awareness of their health conditions and self-management performance, which activated their self-management behaviors. The mHealth service also gave outpatients access to assistance, which included health education and self-management reminders. Both types of assistance could also be activated by abnormal assessment results, that is, uncontrolled or deteriorating blood pressure values, discomfort symptoms, or not using the service for a long period. With its scalable use to handle any possible information and services, the mHealth service provided outpatients with educational materials to learn at their own pace. This led to an improvement in self-management awareness and ability, again activating their self-management behaviors. The patients would like to see further improvements in the service to provide more useful, personalized information and reliable services.

Conclusions: The mHealth service extended the traditional hypertension care model beyond the hospital and clinician's office. It provided outpatients with easy access to otherwise inaccessible hypertension management services. This led to process improvement for outpatients to access health assessment and health care assistance and improved their awareness and self-management ability, which activated their hypertension self-management behaviors. Future studies can apply the 6A framework to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of mHealth services for outpatients to self-manage chronic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/25522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277389PMC
June 2021

MiR-877-5p targets PDK-1 to promote aspirin-induced apoptosis in gastric mucosal cells.

Pharmazie 2021 Jun;76(6):256-260

Department of Geriatric Gastroenterology, the First Affiliated Hospital to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China;, Email:

This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-877-5p in aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury. MiRNA microarray analysis was performed using paired gastric mucosal samples to find differentially expressed miRNAs. miR-877-5p was selected for subsequent analyses. Used as a model system, gastric epithelial cells (GES-1) were transfected with miR-877-5p mimic/inhibitor, then treated with aspirin. The expression of miR-877-5p in GES-1 cells was examined using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Flow cytometry analysis was used to detect cell apoptosis. Western blot assay was used to measure the protein levels of PDK1. The interaction between miR-877-5p and PDK1 was determined by luciferase reporter assay. The expression of miR-877-5p in gastric mucosal injury samples was higher than that in normal samples. Also, depletion of miR-877-5p reduced the apoptosis of GES-1 cells. Luciferase reporting assay confirmed that PDK1 was a target gene of miR-877-5p. PDK1 inhibited the apoptosis of GES-1 cells treated by aspirin. Moreover, this inhibitory effect was abrogated after PDK1 knockdown. Downregulation of miR-877-5p reduced the apoptosis by targeting PDK1 in GES-1 cells treated by aspirin, indicating that miR-877-5p may be a potential therapeutic target for gastric mucosal injury caused by aspirin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1691/ph.2021.0926DOI Listing
June 2021

Orientated Immobilization of FAD-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase on Electrode by Carbohydrate-Binding Module Fusion for Efficient Glucose Assay.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 24;22(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biosensors, Biology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250103, China.

The discovery or engineering of fungus-derived FAD-dependent glucose 1-dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) is especially important in the fabrication and performance of glucose biosensors. In this study, a novel FAD-GDH gene, phylogenetically distantly with other FAD-GDHs from species, was identified. Additionally, the wild-type GDH enzyme, and its fusion enzyme (GDH-NL-CBM2) with a carbohydrate binding module family 2 (CBM2) tag attached by a natural linker (NL), were successfully heterogeneously expressed. In addition, while the GDH was randomly immobilized on the electrode by conventional methods, the GDH-NL-CBM2 was orientationally immobilized on the nanocellulose-modified electrode by the CBM2 affinity adsorption tag through a simple one-step approach. A comparison of the performance of the two electrodes demonstrated that both electrodes responded linearly to glucose in the range of 0.12 to 40.7 mM with a coefficient of determination R > 0.999, but the sensitivity of immobilized GDH-NL-CBM2 (2.1362 × 10 A/(M*cm)) was about 1-fold higher than that of GDH (1.2067 × 10 A/(M*cm)). Moreover, a lower detection limit (51 µM), better reproducibility (<5%) and stability, and shorter response time (≈18 s) and activation time were observed for the GDH-NL-CBM2-modified electrode. This facile and easy immobilization approach used in the preparation of a GDH biosensor may open up new avenues in the development of high-performance amperometric biosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197230PMC
May 2021

Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Anosmia.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e2111606. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Importance: Anosmia, the loss of the sense of smell, has profound implications for patient safety, well-being, and quality of life, and it is a predictor of patient frailty and mortality. Exposure to air pollution may be an olfactory insult that contributes to the development of anosmia.

Objective: To investigate the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of no more than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) with anosmia.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This case-control study examined individuals who presented from January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2016, at an academic medical center in Baltimore, Maryland. Case participants were diagnosed with anosmia by board-certified otolaryngologists. Control participants were selected using the nearest neighbor matching strategy for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and date of diagnosis. Data analysis was conducted from September 2020 to March 2021.

Exposures: Ambient PM2.5 levels.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Novel method to quantify ambient PM2.5 exposure levels in patients diagnosed with anosmia compared with matched control participants.

Results: A total of 2690 patients were identified with a mean (SD) age of 55.3 (16.6) years. The case group included 538 patients with anosmia (20%), and the control group included 2152 matched control participants (80%). Most of the individuals in the case and control groups were women, White patients, had overweight (BMI 25 to <30), and did not smoke (women: 339 [63.0%] and 1355 [63.0%]; White patients: 318 [59.1%] and 1343 [62.4%]; had overweight: 179 [33.3%] and 653 [30.3%]; and did not smoke: 328 [61.0%] and 1248 [58.0%]). Mean (SD) exposure to PM2.5 was significantly higher in patients with anosmia compared with healthy control participants at 12-, 24-, 36-, 60-month time points: 10.2 (1.6) μg/m3 vs 9.9 (1.9) μg/m3; 10.5 (1.7) μg/m3 vs 10.2 (1.9) μg/m3; 10.8 (1.8) μg/m3 vs 10.4 (2.0) μg/m3; and 11.0 (1.8) μg/m3 vs 10.7 (2.1) μg/m3, respectively. There was an association between elevated PM2.5 exposure level and odds of anosmia in multivariate analyses that adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, alcohol or tobacco use, and medical comorbidities (12 mo: odds ratio [OR], 1.73; 95% CI, 1.28-2.33; 24 mo: OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.30-2.29; 36 mo: OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.30-2.19; and 60 mo: OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.22-2.08). The association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and the odds of developing anosmia was nonlinear, as indicated by spline analysis. For example, for 12 months of exposure to PM2.5, the odds of developing anosmia at 6.0 µg/m3 was OR 0.79 (95% CI, 0.64-0.97); at 10.0 µg/m3, OR 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.82); at 15.0 µg/m3, OR 2.03 (95% CI, 1.15-3.58).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, long-term airborne exposure to PM2.5 was associated with anosmia. Ambient PM2.5 represents a potentially ubiquitous and modifiable risk factor for the loss of sense of smell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160589PMC
May 2021

Neural Network-Based Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Profile Compensation for Glaucoma Diagnosis in Myopia: Model Development and Validation.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 May 18;9(5):e22664. Epub 2021 May 18.

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital University of Medical Science, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China.

Background: Due to the axial elongation-associated changes in the optic nerve and retina in high myopia, traditional methods like optic disc evaluation and visual field are not able to correctly differentiate glaucomatous lesions. It has been clinically challenging to detect glaucoma in highly myopic eyes.

Objective: This study aimed to develop a neural network to adjust for the dependence of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (RNFLT) profile on age, gender, and ocular biometric parameters and to evaluate the network's performance for glaucoma diagnosis, especially in high myopia.

Methods: RNFLT with 768 points on the circumferential 3.4-mm scan was measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. A fully connected network and a radial basis function network were trained for vertical (scaling) and horizontal (shift) transformation of the RNFLT profile with adjustment for age, axial length (AL), disc-fovea angle, and distance in a test group of 2223 nonglaucomatous eyes. The performance of RNFLT compensation was evaluated in an independent group of 254 glaucoma patients and 254 nonglaucomatous participants.

Results: By applying the RNFL compensation algorithm, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detecting glaucoma increased from 0.70 to 0.84, from 0.75 to 0.89, from 0.77 to 0.89, and from 0.78 to 0.87 for eyes in the highest 10% percentile subgroup of the AL distribution (mean 26.0, SD 0.9 mm), highest 20% percentile subgroup of the AL distribution (mean 25.3, SD 1.0 mm), highest 30% percentile subgroup of the AL distribution (mean 24.9, SD 1.0 mm), and any AL (mean 23.5, SD 1.2 mm), respectively, in comparison with unadjusted RNFLT. The difference between uncompensated and compensated RNFLT values increased with longer axial length, with enlargement of 19.8%, 18.9%, 16.2%, and 11.3% in the highest 10% percentile subgroup, highest 20% percentile subgroup, highest 30% percentile subgroup, and all eyes, respectively.

Conclusions: In a population-based study sample, an algorithm-based adjustment for age, gender, and ocular biometric parameters improved the diagnostic precision of the RNFLT profile for glaucoma detection particularly in myopic and highly myopic eyes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/22664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170554PMC
May 2021

Heart failure related to adult congenital heart disease: prevalence, outcome and risk factors.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Aug 7;8(4):2940-2950. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Structural and Congenital Cardiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Aims: Information on the prevalence, outcome and factors associated with heart failure in patients with adult congenital heart disease (CHD) (ACHD-HF) is lacking. We aimed at assessing the prevalence and outcome of ACHD-HF, the variables associated with ACHD-HF, and the differences between major anatomical/pathophysiological ACHD subgroups.

Methods And Results: We included 3905 patients (age 35.4 ± 13.2 years) under active follow-up in our institution (last visit >2010). Outcome of ACHD-HF cases was compared with sex- and age-matched cases. Univariable and multivariable binary logistic regression with ACHD-HF diagnosis as a dependent variable was performed. Overall prevalence of ACHD-HF was 6.4% (mean age 49.5 ± 16.7 years), but was higher in patients with cyanotic CHD (41%), Fontan circulation (30%), and a systemic right ventricle (25%). All-cause mortality was higher in ACHD-HF cases when compared with controls (mortality rate ratio 4.67 (2.36-9.27); P = 0.0001). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age at latest follow-up [per 10 years; odds ratio (OR) 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-1.77], infective endocarditis (OR 4.11; 95%CI 1.80-9.38), history of atrial arrhythmia (OR 3.52; 95%CI 2.17-5.74), pacemaker implantation (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.50-4.72), end-organ dysfunction (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.03-5.63), New York Heart Association class (OR 9.28; 95% CI 6.04-14.25), heart rate (per 10 bpm; OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.08-1.50), ventricular dysfunction (OR 3.62; 95% CI 2.54-5.17), and pulmonary hypertension severity (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.21-2.30) were independently related to the presence of ACHD-HF. Some variables (age, atrial arrhythmia, pacemaker, New York Heart Association, and ventricular dysfunction) were related to ACHD-HF in all anatomical/physiological subgroups, whereas others were not.

Conclusions: ACHD-HF is prevalent especially in complex CHD and is associated with poor prognosis. Our data provide insight in the factors related to ACHD-HF including differences between specific anatomical and physiological subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318399PMC
August 2021

Sex differences in the longitudinal relationship of low-grade inflammation and echocardiographic measures in the Hoorn and FLEMENGHO Study.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0251148. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Epidemiology & Data Science, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: This study aimed to determine the within-person and between-persons associations of low-grade inflammation (LGI) and endothelial dysfunction (ED) with echocardiographic measures related to diastolic dysfunction (DD) in two general populations and whether these associations differed by sex.

Methods: Biomarkers and echocardiographic measures were measured at both baseline and follow-up in the Hoorn Study (n = 383) and FLEMENGHO (n = 491). Individual biomarker levels were combined into either a Z-score of LGI (CRP, SAA, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and sICAM-1) or ED (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sTM). Mixed models were used to determine within-person and between-persons associations of biomarker Z-scores with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and left atrial volume index (LAVI). These associations were adjusted for a-priori selected confounders.

Results: Overall Z-scores for LGI or ED were not associated with echocardiographic measures. Effect modification by sex was apparent for ED with LVEF in both cohorts (P-for interaction = 0.08 and 0.06), but stratified results were not consistent. Effect modification by sex was apparent for TNF-α in the Hoorn Study and E-selectin in FLEMENGHO with LVEF (P-for interaction≤0.05). In the Hoorn Study, women whose TNF-α levels increased with 1-SD over time had a decrease in LVEF of 2.2 (-4.5;0.01) %. In FLEMENGHO, men whose E-selectin levels increased with 1-SD over time had a decrease in LVEF of 1.6 (-2.7;-0.5) %.

Conclusion: Our study did not show consistent associations of LGI and ED with echocardiographic measures. Some evidence of effect modification by sex was present for ED and specific biomarkers.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251148PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096104PMC
May 2021

Lateral diffusion of single poly(ethylene oxide) chains on the surfaces of glassy and molten polymer films.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(16):164902

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH, United Kingdom.

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy was used to show that the temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) adsorbed on polystyrene and different poly(alkyl methacrylate) (PAMA) films in aqueous solution exhibited a maximum close to (but below) the surface glass transition temperature, T, of the film. This elevated diffusion was observed over a small range of temperatures below T for these surfaces, and at other temperatures, the diffusion was similar to that on silicon, although the diffusion coefficient for PEO on polystyrene at temperatures above T did not completely decrease to that on silicon, in contrast to the PAMA surfaces. It is concluded that the enhanced surface mobility of the films near the surface glass transition temperature induces conformational changes in the adsorbed PEO. The origin of this narrow and dramatic increase in diffusion coefficient is not clear, but it is proposed that it is caused by a coupling of a dominant capillary mode in the liquid surface layer with the polymer. Friction force microscopy experiments also demonstrate an unexpected increase in friction at the same temperature as the increase in diffusion coefficient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0051351DOI Listing
April 2021

Analyzing the Coevolution of Mobile Application Diffusion and Social Network: A Multi-Agent Model.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Apr 24;23(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

School of Economics and Management, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.

The successful diffusion of mobile applications in user groups can establish a good image for enterprises, gain a good reputation, fight for market share, and create commercial profits. Thus, it is of great significance for the successful diffusion of mobile applications to study mobile application diffusion and social network coevolution. Firstly, combined with a social network's dynamic change characteristics in real life, a mobile application users' social network evolution mechanism was designed. Then, a multi-agent model of the coevolution of a social network and mobile application innovation diffusion was constructed. Finally, the impact of mobile applications' value perception revenue, use cost, marketing promotion investment, and the number of seed users on the coevolution of social network and mobile application diffusion were analyzed. The results show that factors such as the network structure, the perceived value income, the cost of use, the marketing promotion investment, and the number of seed users have an important impact on mobile application diffusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e23050521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146323PMC
April 2021

Isolation, fermentation, and formulation of entomopathogenic fungi virulent against adults of Diaphorina citri.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Sep 1;77(9):4040-4053. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology (MOE), College of Plant Science and Technology, Institute of Urban and Horticultural Entomology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Mycopesticides are important for integrated management of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. However, there are few reports on the fermentation and formulation for mycopesticides with high virulence against D. citri.

Results: From four different locations in South China, 12 fungal strains were isolated and classified into Beauveria bassiana (two isolates), Fusarium fujikuroi (five isolates), and Cordyceps javanica (five isolates) based on the phylogenetic analysis of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS4 and morphology of colonies and conidia. Based on the highest initial virulence (86.52 ± 2.35%) and best growth characteristics, F-HY002-ACPHali was further optimized for biphasic fermentation (7.85 ± 2.62 × 10  g  dry substrate) with soybean meal + cottonseed flour (1:1) as the solid substrate and full light as the light/dark cycle. Furthermore, the oil-based conidial formulation was optimized with sesame oil as an effective carrier, which significantly enhanced conidial shelf life up to 16 weeks at 26 °C and 4 °C, thermo-stress (50 °C) and UV-B stress resistance, and virulence against adults of D. citri with increased mortalities and decreased LT in comparison to that of unformulated conidia.

Conclusion: Our results not only provide a valuable native strain with high virulence against adults of D. citri, but also imply the soybean meal + cottonseed flour as valuable solid substrate, full-light exposure as environmental stimuli for solid-state fermentation, and the sesame oil as an effective carrier for the formulation of the C. javanica. These findings will facilitate the development of a potential mycopesticide for the biological control of Asian citrus psyllid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6429DOI Listing
September 2021

An in situ TEM nanoindentation-induced new nanostructure in cadmium zinc telluride.

Nanoscale 2021 Apr 6;13(15):7169-7175. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-Traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

Phase transformations occurring in a solid govern the structural and physical properties significantly. Nevertheless, deformation-induced phase transition in a soft-brittle solid has not been demonstrated yet. Soft-brittle cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) based instruments have produced technological breakthroughs in the semiconductor industry, and therefore their phase transformations have been widely investigated during the past 60 years. In this study, in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nanoindentation was performed on CZT, and it was found that no brittle fracture occurred at a peak load of 41.9 μN, corresponding to a stress of 1.75 GPa. A new nanostructure induced by in situ TEM nanoindentation was observed, consisting of a single crystal, slip bands, stacking faults, a superlattice, a new tetragonal phase, and Moiré fringes. The new tetragonal phase was formed by partial Cd and Te atoms in the (111[combining macron]) plane slipping along the [1[combining macron]21[combining macron]] orientation, which was elucidated by ab initio simulations. It belongs to a tetragonal crystal system, and the lattice distances along the X and Y axes were 0.382 and 0.376 nm, respectively. Our findings provide new insights into the deformation-induced phase transformation for a soft-brittle solid, and have application potential in solar cells, radiation detectors, and medical imaging, quantum, flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr00447fDOI Listing
April 2021
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