Publications by authors named "Zhenwu Tang"

43 Publications

Methylsiloxane occurrence and distribution in free-range poultry eggs near a rural industrial park: Indicators of potential risks to birds.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Mar 18;415:125683. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address:

The ecological harm from methylsiloxanes has drawn worldwide attention. This study investigated three cyclic (D-D) and four linear siloxanes (L-L) in the eggs of free-range poultry collected near a rural industrial park in China and found total concentrations in the range of 19.2-1204 (median, 268) ng/g dry weight. Higher concentrations of methylsiloxanes were observed in chicken eggs than duck eggs. Cyclic siloxanes represented a median of 62.2% of the total methylsiloxane concentrations. A source assessment indicated that local soils and outdoor dust were more important sources of egg methylsiloxanes than poultry food. The partitioning of methylsiloxanes between egg yolk and egg albumen was investigated, and preferential distributions of the chemicals in the yolk were observed. This study confirmed that methylsiloxanes were highly prevalent in the study poultry eggs. The results suggested that the potential risks to some wild birds inhabiting this area should be of concern, as their physiologies and feeding ecologies are similar to those of the studied poultry, although available ecotoxicological data of the chemicals to birds remains scarce. Additional research is needed to characterize the accumulation of methylsiloxanes in different bird species and its associated adverse effects on their offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125683DOI Listing
March 2021

Methyl siloxanes in soils from a large silicone-manufacturing site, China: concentrations, distributions and potential human exposure.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206, China.

Methyl siloxanes are widely found in the environment, but little is known about the distributions of these chemicals in soils especially in areas where they are manufactured. We determined the concentrations of four cyclic (D-D) and 13 linear methyl siloxanes (L-L) in the soils from a siloxane-manufacturing site in China; the total concentrations of these 17 siloxanes (TSi) in the soils were 17.1-3,191 (median, 134) ng/g. We did not find extremely high concentrations of siloxanes in the soils. The median concentrations of total cyclic siloxanes (TCSi) were approximately sevenfold higher than those of total linear congeners. Hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane contributed a median of 59.7% and 20.3% of the TSi concentrations, respectively. Higher concentrations of soil TCSi were found in the silicone-manufacturing area relative to the other study areas. Source analysis indicated that industrial activities contributed substantially to soil siloxanes, in addition to the contribution of the siloxane emissions from specific consumer products. We calculated that the median values of daily TSi intakes through soil ingestion were 0.021 and 0.138 ng/kg-body weight/day for adults and children, respectively, under high exposure scenarios. Although our estimated daily intakes of the chemicals from soils were low, more research is required to improve our understanding of the health risks posed to humans exposed to siloxanes through other pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-00873-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Occurrence and trophic transfer of synthetic musks in the freshwater food web of a large subtropical lake.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 22;213:112074. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China; College of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address:

Synthetic musks (SMs) have drawn worldwide attention, as they are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to many organisms. There is not enough information on the bioaccumulation and trophodynamic behavior of SMs in freshwater food webs to reliably understand the associated ecological risks. In this study, the concentrations of six SM congeners in fifteen aquatic species from Lake Chaohu, China, was investigated. The total concentrations of the six SMs ranged from 0.29 to 59.7 ng/g dry weight (median, 4.41) in fish muscle tissue and in the whole body tissues of small fish species and shrimps. Galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were the predominant congeners, accounting for 65.0% and 28.5% of the total SM concentration, respectively. On the whole, the total concentrations of SMs in livers and gills were 0.18-32.8 and 0.84-254 times higher than those in muscle tissues in fish species, respectively. In the food web of Lake Chaohu, cashmeran (DPMI) and HHCB showed a trend towards trophic magnification, and AHTN tended to show trophic dilution, but these trends were not statistically significant. This suggested that the trophic transfer of these chemicals through the food web was strongly influenced by many factors, including tissue-specific distribution within individuals at higher trophic levels. More investigation into the trophic transfer of SMs in aquatic ecosystems and the factors influencing uptake is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112074DOI Listing
April 2021

Bioaccumulation and trophodynamics of cyclic methylsiloxanes in the food web of a large subtropical lake in China.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Feb 10;413:125354. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China. Electronic address:

Available information on the bioaccumulation and trophodynamics of cyclic methylsiloxanes in aquatic food webs is insufficient for a reliable understanding of their toxicity and potential ecological harm. The concentrations of four cyclic methylsiloxanes in aquatic species collected from Lake Chaohu (China) were measured and the total concentration was in range of 2.01-36.1 ng/g dry weight. Dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) represented 57.7% of the total measured methylsiloxane concentration. The distribution of these methylsiloxanes constitute the first tissue-specific record. The hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) tended to accumulate preferentially in fish muscles, while D6 was preferentially accumulated in fish liver and gills. In Lake Chaohu, significant trophic magnification of D3 (p < 0.01) and dilution of D6 (p < 0.05) were observed, and the trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were estimated at 4.94 and 0.68, respectively. No significant trends in D4 and D5 (p > 0.05) were observed within the food web. This study further confirmed the complexity of trophic transfer of the methylsiloxanes in the aquatic food web. The findings suggest that tissue-specific methylsiloxane distribution in aquatic species might also affect the observed TMFs. More research is required to investigate methylsiloxanes in additional species and their trophodynamics in different food webs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125354DOI Listing
February 2021

Concentrations, distribution and risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from seven major river basins in China over the past 20 years.

J Environ Manage 2021 Feb 1;280:111717. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206, China. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in river sediments in China have been extensively investigated. However, most previous studies only reported information about specific locations. As a result, the distribution and changes of these chemicals in sediments nationwide remain unknown. Based on published data during 1997-2020, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to understand the concentration, risk and the spatiotemporal variation of PAHs in river sediments from the seven major river systems in China. The report provides a national picture of PAHs in river sediments of China. Among the seven river systems, higher concentrations of sediment PAHs are found in the basins of Liaohe River and Haihe River. In the study sediments, high-molecular-mass (4-6-ring) PAHs were predominated, reflecting the widespread combustion of coal and fossil fuels across China. In addition, PAH source assessment also suggests that raw coal and crude oil are important contributors to PAH concentrations in the rivers in northeastern China. Over the past 20 years, there is no downward trend in the concentrations of ΣPAHs in sediments in the seven river basins; but the contribution of high-temperature combustion to the pollution has declined. In addition, our calculated risks from sediment PAHs seem to decline between 1997-2006 and 2007-2017 periods, although the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Of note, the data collection and the risk assessment methods used in this preliminary survey may result in some uncertainty. Our results suggest that the PAHs in river sediments in China still need to be paid attention to due to the complexity of their sources and harms to aquatic organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111717DOI Listing
February 2021

Global distribution and trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human blood and breast milk: A quantitative meta-analysis of studies published in the period 2000-2019.

J Environ Manage 2021 Feb 27;280:111696. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing, 100081, China. Electronic address:

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame-retardants that are found throughout the human body. However, global trends and diversity of the concentrations in human body and the potential risks remain largely unresolved. Based on published data during 2000-2019, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to understand the burden and risks of PBDEs in humans and their spatiotemporal variations. The report provides a global picture of PBDE concentrations in human blood and breast milk. We found the levels of body PBDE burden in the North American population were higher than those from Asia and Europe. However, high concentrations of blood PBDEs in occupational population from Asia were observed, largely because of poorly controlled e-waste recycling operations. Penta- and deca-BDE were the main contributors in North America and Asia, respectively, reflecting the difference in the production and use of these chemicals. On a global scale, no substantial decreases in the concentrations of PBDEs in the blood and breast milk were observed, although most of the chemicals have been phased out. The results suggested that humans will be exposed to PBDEs with relatively high concentrations in a certain period because of the legacy in products and the environmental media. And the potential health risks necessitate careful study in the future. Our results also remind that the uses of degradation-resistant chemicals should be attached great importance to their safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111696DOI Listing
February 2021

Methyl siloxanes in road dust from a large silicone manufacturing site in China: implications of human exposure.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 27;28(13):16054-16064. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206, China.

Methyl siloxanes are becoming increasingly prevalent in the environment because of their extensive use in various consumer products. Little is known about the distribution of these chemicals around factories or their presence in road dust. We conducted a survey of four cyclic (D-D) and 13 linear (L-L) siloxanes in road dusts around a manufacturing site and found a total siloxane concentration range of 47.3-3.16 × 10 ng/g (median 372). The predominant siloxanes in the road dust samples were D, D, D, and D, with median contributions of 65.3%, 17.9%, 6.36%, and 2.16% of the total siloxane concentrations, respectively. Our reported concentrations were comparable to those found in household dusts in previous studies. No high concentrations of siloxanes were observed in the road dust samples from the manufacturing site, which suggests that siloxanes in outdoor dusts are likely affected by many factors. Under a high exposure scenario, the daily intakes of total siloxanes via road dust ingestion at the 95th percentile were 2.13 and 0.313 ng/kg-bw/day for children and adults, respectively. Although the estimated exposure to siloxanes in outdoor dust for humans was low, more studies on the distributions and risks of siloxanes released from manufacturing sites are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11773-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Synthetic musk fragrances in sediments from a subtropical river-lake system in eastern China: occurrences, profiles, and ecological risks.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 20;28(12):14597-14606. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing, 100081, China.

Synthetic musk fragrances (SMFs) in aquatic environments have been of increasing concern because of their potential characteristic of persistent, bioaccumulated, and ecological harm. However, little is known about the distribution of SMFs in river-lake systems. In this study, the occurrence and risks of six SMFs measured in sediments from Lake Chaohu (eastern China) and the rivers flowing into it were investigated. The total sedimentary SMF concentrations ranged from 2.43 to 15.5 ng/g in Lake Chaohu (median = 5.17 ng/g), and 2.34-104 ng/g in the rivers (median = 10.6 ng/g). Overall, moderate levels of SMFs were found in comparison with previous results from other areas. Galaxolide and tonalide dominated in the rivers whereas cashmeran was dominant in Lake Chaohu. A source assessment indicated that the discharge from industries contributed importantly to the pollution of SMFs in the studied waters, in addition to the inputs from domestic sewage. Our estimates suggested that the current sedimentary SMF concentrations were likely to pose extremely low ecological risk to aquatic organisms. However, more studies are needed to focus on the spatial and temporal trends in distribution as well as the ecotoxicological implications of SMFs in the Lake Chaohu area because there is a general lack of relevant information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11486-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Concentration profile, spatial distributions and temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments across China: Implications for risk assessment.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Dec 31;206:111205. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing, 100081, China. Electronic address:

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments of China have been extensively investigated; however, most studies conducted to date have focused on specific locations, and the pollution and risk posed by these chemicals in sediments at the national scale remain unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the concentrations and risks of PBDEs in sediments in China and their spatiotemporal variations based on available literature. Overall, the sediments across China contain moderate to high levels of PBDEs, with BDE-209 being the dominant congener, followed by BDE-47 and BDE-99. The sediment concentrations of PBDEs were highest in southern China and lowest in northeastern China. Additionally, based on their PBDE concentrations, 18.4%, 30.0%, and 11.9% of sediment samples from rivers, lakes, and coastal waters, respectively, posed low to moderate eco-toxicological risks, but 6.90% of river sediments posed high risks. Between 2001 and 2017, the concentrations and risks of PBDEs in the sediments from rivers and coastal waters tended to decrease gradually. Additionally, there were low to moderate risks from PBDEs in lake sediments, and the risks in 2012-2017 were 3.30 times higher than those in 2006-2011. However, more studies about the spatial and temporal trends in PBDEs in sediment across China and their impacts on aquatic organisms are needed because there is still a general lack of relevant information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111205DOI Listing
December 2020

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils from Tianjin, North China: distribution, health risk, and temporal trends.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Mar 30;43(3):1177-1191. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing, 100081, China.

Available information is still insufficient for a comprehensive understanding of the global distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the environment. In particular, little is known about the changing trend of their distribution in urban soils. We conducted a survey of 21 PBDEs in urban soils from Tianjin, China. The chemicals were widely present in the area and summed concentrations ranged from 0.65 to 108 ng/g in soil, indicating low to moderate levels of pollution relative to other areas. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, contributing 88.9% of the concentrations of total soil PBDEs. Source assessment indicated that soil PBDEs in the area were mainly derived from the release of commercial deca-BDE from local industrial production processes and consumer products. We found that the soil concentrations of PBDEs appear to have declined in recent years, compared with other previous reports in this region. However, more studies are needed on this possible change trend of PBDE pollution, especially its impact on human health, although their calculated non-carcinogenic health risks in this study were low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-020-00645-9DOI Listing
March 2021

Phthalates in preschool children's clothing manufactured in seven Asian countries: Occurrence, profiles and potential health risks.

J Hazard Mater 2020 04 12;387:121681. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition of National Health Commission, National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:

Phthalates could be introduced into clothing as chemical additives or impurities, becoming a potential source of human exposure. We measured the concentrations of 15 phthalates in new preschool children's clothing manufactured in seven Asian countries. Phthalates were prevalent in all samples, and total concentrations were 2.92-223 μg/g, indicating a moderate contamination level. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di(isobutyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate were the most abundant phthalates measured, representing a median of 48.5 %, 13.6 % and 13.4 % of the total concentrations, respectively. Total concentrations did not differ significantly by country of manufacture, while the concentrations of individual phthalates and their composition profiles varied widely. We also found differing phthalate levels by item type, fabric composition, and color. Under the assumed two exposure scenarios, the median of summed dermal exposure doses of six phthalate were 539 and 950 ng/kg of body weight per day, respectively. When children wore trousers, long-sleeved shirts, briefs and socks at the same time, the reproductive risks exceeded acceptable level, although the carcinogenic risk of DEHP was low. Our results suggested that new clothing is an important route of phthalate exposure to preschool children. More research is required to investigate the contaminations and associated with risks in child clothing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121681DOI Listing
April 2020

Occurrence and Distribution of Phthalates in Sanitary Napkins from Six Countries: Implications for Women's Health.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Dec 18;53(23):13919-13928. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment , Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences , Beijing 100012 , China.

Chemicals in feminine hygiene products can exert adverse health effects as a result of strong absorptive capacity of the vagina and vulva. However, little information is available on phthalates in sanitary napkins. We measured the concentrations of 15 phthalates in sanitary napkins collected from six countries and found total concentrations in the range of 1733-11942 ng/g. Di(isobutyl)phthalate (DiBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and di--butyl phthalate (DnBP) were the dominant congeners, representing a median of 27.3, 26.7, and 20.4% of the total median phthalate concentrations across all countries, respectively. The phthalates likely originated mainly from the introduction in the manufacturing process, and some may have been from the use of plastic or paper materials. The estimated intake (at the 90th percentile) of DiBP, DnBP, and DEHP from sanitary napkins approximately represented 6.35-23.6, 3.35-9.90, and 1.06-9.57%, respectively, of the total exposure, indicating that sanitary napkins are a relevant source of exposure to these chemicals. The calculated health risks of phthalates in sanitary napkins were generally low, but the carcinogenic risks in some samples exceeded acceptable levels. More research is required to investigate the contaminations in sanitary napkins and those associated with risks to women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b03838DOI Listing
December 2019

Concentrations and distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in vegetables and animal-based foods before and after grilling: Implication for human exposure.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Nov 5;690:965-972. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China. Electronic address:

The effects of grilling on health risks posed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food remain poorly understood. The changes of concentrations, distributions, and risks of PAHs in vegetables and animal-based foods before and after grilling were investigated in this study. The sum of 16 (∑) PAH concentrations in grilled vegetables and grilled animal-based foods were 60.4-1936 and 69.1-4668 ng/g, respectively. Grilling markedly increased the ∑ PAH concentrations in most foods analyzed. Grilling clearly increased the low-molecular-weight PAH contributions to the ∑ PAH concentrations in vegetables but increased the heavier PAH contributions to the ∑ PAH concentrations in some animal-based foods. With the grilling, the total benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent concentrations of the 16 PAHs in Chinese chives and enoki mushrooms and most animal-based foods were improved significantly. Source assessments indicated that environmental sources contributed PAHs to the raw foods and high-temperature pyrolysis during grilling contributed large proportions of the PAHs in the grilled foods. The carcinogenic risks to humans from the exposure of PAHs in vegetables and animal-based foods were estimated. Grilling increased the total risks of PAHs in vegetables and animal-based foods by factors of 3.12 and 5.49, respectively. Total risks of PAHs in the 11 foods were 3.43 times higher when the foods were grilled than when raw. The results suggested that the negative effects of grilling on human health should be of great concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.07.074DOI Listing
November 2019

Metals in wild fish from Gaotang Lake in the area of coal mining, China: assessment of the risk to human health.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Aug 17;26(23):23754-23762. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing, 100081, China.

Environmental pollution can cause metal accumulation in aquatic organisms, but information on metal bioaccumulation in wild fish from coal mining areas is limited. We investigated tissue-specific metal accumulation in six economically important fish species common to Gaotang Lake, China, located in a coal mining area. We also conducted an assessment of potential risks to human health from consumption of these fish. Mean concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, mercury, lead, and antimony in the muscle of six fish species were below the corresponding Chinese maximum allowable concentrations except chromium and generally comparable with levels in fish reported by other studies. Tissue distribution patterns suggested that chromium and mercury were easily transported to the muscle, but concentrations of the other six metals were higher in the liver and gills. The daily intake of each metal was estimated at 0.002-0.220 g/day/kg body weight, and the non-carcinogenic health risks associated with the consumption of the fish from Gaotang Lake were acceptable. The results suggest that metal bioaccumulation in wild fish is not high in this coal mining area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05732-8DOI Listing
August 2019

A new multistep purification method for simultaneously determining organic ultraviolet absorbents in fish tissue.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 Dec 11;191(1):16. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition of National Health Commission, National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100021, China.

More information is required to improve our understanding of the presence of organic ultraviolet absorbents (UVAs) in organisms and the risks posed to biota. Effective removal of lipids in the determination of UVAs in biological samples is a sample-processing bottleneck. In this study, we optimized a multistep purification method for fish tissue samples extracted using an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method. The purification method involved performing Florisil column chromatography, redissolving the extract in ethanol, and then performing dispersive solid-phase extraction using primary and secondary amine, Florisil, and C silica sorbents. The purified samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was effective and reliable, and was used to detect trace concentrations (ng/g) of 12 UVAs in fish tissue samples. The mean recovery range of the UVAs in fish tissue extracts was 65.4-118%, and the method detection limit range was 0.20-2.50 ng/g dw. The validated method was used to analyze 12 UVAs in fish samples from a local supermarket.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-7139-8DOI Listing
December 2018

Concentrations and tissue-specific distributions of organic ultraviolet absorbents in wild fish from a large subtropical lake in China.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jan 9;647:1305-1313. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China. Electronic address:

Organic ultraviolet absorbents (UVAs) have been detected in various materials and biota, but little is known about the distributions of UVAs in the tissues of biota. In this study, tissue-specific UVA accumulation in six fish species from Lake Chaohu, China, was investigated. The sums of 12 UVA concentrations in muscles, gills, and livers were 7.65-120, 10.1-281, and 26.4-359 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor, and 2-(2'-hydroxy-3',5'-di-tert-butylphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole were the dominant UVAs. Ethylhexyl salicylate and homosalate have been found in the aquatic species firstly. UVAs were taken up to different degrees by different fish species. The UVA muscle bioconcentration factors were lower than predicted by the Estimation Programs Interface Suite model, suggesting that such models may overestimate UVA accumulation in fish. The tissue distribution patterns indicated that UVAs are easily transferred to the muscles after being absorbed through the gills. The liver was found to preferentially accumulate UVAs and have a high UVA accumulation capacity, implying liver damage may be caused by UVAs. This is the first time the partitioning of UVAs between the liver, muscle, and gills of freshwater fish has been studied. The data acquired will improve our understanding of the pharmacokinetics and toxicities of UVAs in aquatic organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.117DOI Listing
January 2019

Self-Nitrogen-Doped Carbon from Plant Waste as an Oxygen Electrode Material with Exceptional Capacity and Cycling Stability for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Sep 14;10(38):32212-32219. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment , Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences , Beijing 100012 , China.

To promote the development of electric automobiles, high energy density and high-power batteries are urgently needed. More and more attention has been paid to look for high-performance cathode catalysts for Li-O batteries. However, the sluggish kinetic reaction, the stacking of electrical insulation product of LiO, and the undesired parasitic reaction restrict their capacity and present poor cycling performance. Here, we prepared nitrogen self-doped activated carbons (N-PIACs) derived from the plant waste (poplar inflorescence) through the activation and slow pyrolysis carbonization method, exhibiting several advantages. The materials presented a three-dimensional interconnecting pore structure and a high surface area. Besides, defects and functional groups doped by nitrogen as active sites improved electrochemical catalysis activity. The Li∥N-PIACs-O battery delivered a high specific capacity of 12060 mAh/g, which was 2.3 times that of the pristine plant waste-based Li-O battery (N-PICs). In addition, it presented more excellent cycling stability than other common carbon materials. In this study, we developed a functional carbon nanomaterial from cheap natural materials, which might become a highly attractive subject, indicating that this strategy could strengthen the properties of Li-O batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b11282DOI Listing
September 2018

Occurrence, distribution and ecological risk of ultraviolet absorbents in water and sediment from Lake Chaohu and its inflowing rivers, China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Nov 24;164:540-547. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:

The available information is insufficient to enable a reliable understanding of the global distribution and effect of organic ultraviolet absorbents (UVAs) on ecosystems. Little is known about the pollution of China's lakes by these chemicals. We conducted a survey of UVAs in water and sediment from Lake Chaohu and its inflowing rivers. The UVAs were widely present in this area and the concentrations of total 12 UVAs (Σ UVAs) ranged between 162 and 587 ng/L in water and 9.70-178 ng/g in sediment. Benzophenone and benzophenone-3 were dominant in water, and benzophenone and octocrylene dominated in sediment. Higher concentrations of benzophenone were detected in the investigated water samples, although the contamination levels of UVAs in this study were comparable to those investigated in other areas. In addition to the inputs from the UVAs used as filters in cosmetics, the discharge from industries using UVAs as stabilizers also contributed much to the pollution in the study waters. Generally, the risk to aquatic organisms from exposure to UVAs in this area was low, but further research is needed to elucidate the fate of UVAs and to understand bioaccumulation and associated risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.08.045DOI Listing
November 2018

Concentrations and human health implications of heavy metals in market foods from a Chinese coal-mining city.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Mar 21;50:37-44. Epub 2017 Jan 21.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China. Electronic address:

Concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Sb) in vegetables, meat and fish purchased from traditional agri-product markets in Huainan, China, were measured. Concentrations of the eight metals in most of the measured samples were lower than their respective maximum allowable concentrations (MACs), except for Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu in some of the samples exceeded safe limits. Based on local food consumption, the intake of individual metals was estimated to be less than their respective recommended limits. However, the overall target hazard quotient (THQ) for the eight metals was 1.07 based on the digestion of leafy vegetables and 2.12 based on the consumption of all of the investigated foods. The results of this study suggest that the overall risk from exposure to multiple metals in foods should be of concern, even though low-to-moderate heavy metal pollution is present in foods from Huainan markets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.01.011DOI Listing
March 2017

Contamination and health risks of heavy metals in street dust from a coal-mining city in eastern China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2017 Apr 22;138:83-91. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

Huanghua Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau, Huanghua, Hebei 061100, China. Electronic address:

We collected street dust from Huainan, a typical coal-mining city in China, to investigate the contamination features and health risks of heavy metals. Concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, As, and Sb were generally low to moderate, while pollution levels of Cd and Hg were moderate to high. Concentrations of Cd and Hg were associated with considerable health risks at 64.3% and 58.6% of sites, respectively. In particular, about a fifth of samples had associated high risks as a result of Hg contamination levels. Relative to other urban areas, the street dust from the mining area had no more severe metal pollution, which might be partly attributed to the deposition of coal dust onto street dusts. A source assessment indicated that metals in dust form Huainan were mainly derived from vehicular-related activities, industrial emissions, weathering of coal dust and natural soils, and coal combustion. Although the health risk levels from exposure to individual metals in dusts were low, the non-carcinogenic risks from multiple metals to local children exceeded the acceptable level (1.0), suggesting that the overall risk from exposure to multiple metals in dust is concerning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.11.003DOI Listing
April 2017

[Accumulation and health risks of heavy metals in vegetables around a typical coal-fired power plant].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2016 Mar;45(2):241-5

Objective: To investigate the impacts of heavy metals from coal-fired power plant on the safety of the surrounding vegetables.

Methods: Accumulation and distribution characteristics of six metals in the vegetables around a typical coal-fired power plant were investigated and the human risks were assessed using health risk assessment model.

Results: In the ten kinds of vegetables, the standard-exceeding rates of Cu were 17.4%, 14.3% and 14.3% in leaf, leguminous and solanaceous fruit vegetables, respectively. In leaf vegetables, the standard-exceeding rates of Hg and Cr were 21.7%, 17.4%, respectively. Heavy metals in the other vegetables were below the food safety standards of China. The non-carcinogenic risk value from exposure to vegetable Cu was 1.09 for children, but those from other five metals were less than 1.0 for both adults and children. However, the health risk levels of multiclass metals in the vegetables were 2.18 and 3.00, for adults and children, respectively.

Conclusion: Around the coal-fired power plant, the metal levels in the vegetables were relatively lower, indicating there was no serious vegetable pollution from the power plant. There are on no obvious health hazards from exposure to vegetable metals, excluding Cu. But the risk of multiclass metals in the vegetables should be of great concern.
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March 2016

Pollution threatens migratory shorebirds.

Science 2015 Dec;350(6265):1176-7

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.350.6265.1176-cDOI Listing
December 2015

Environmental risks of HBCDD from construction and demolition waste: a contemporary and future issue.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015 Nov 1;22(21):17249-52. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China.

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), as one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), is of great concern globally because of its persistence in the environment and negative impacts on humans and animals. HBCDD has been mainly used in flame-retarded expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams for insulation in the construction industry. Most of these products will become a part of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste at the end of their life cycle (30-50 years) which is typically disposed of into landfills or incineration. However, the recycling of this material takes quite a low share compared with landfill and incineration. Consequently, high environmental risks will exist in these disposal approaches due to the HBCDD in C&D waste. Currently, XPS or EPS products containing HBCDD in the construction industry have not reached the end of their life cycle in most countries. Relatively little attention has been paid to this emergency issue by either the government or public. Furthermore, C&D waste is most likely disposed of by direct dumping, simple stacking, or open burning in developing countries. Therefore, this paper highlights the global environmental risks of HBCDD from C&D waste. Areas of research for key problems of HBCDD contained in C&D waste are suggested to help control and finally eliminate the impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5487-2DOI Listing
November 2015

China: Overhaul rules for hazardous chemicals.

Nature 2015 Sep;525(7570):455

Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/525455dDOI Listing
September 2015

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in road dusts from a plastic waste recycling area in north China: implications for human health.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Jan 2;23(1):625-37. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy and Environmental Systems Optimization, Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206, China.

Road dusts were collected from an area where intense mechanical recycling of plastic wastes occurs in Wen'an, north China. These dusts were investigated for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals contamination to assess the health risk related to these components. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Σ21PBDE concentrations in these dusts ranged from 2.67 to 10,424 ng g(-1) and from 3.23 to 10,640 ng g(-1), respectively. These PBDE concentrations were comparable to those observed in road dust from e-waste recycling areas but were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in outdoor or road dusts from other areas. This indicates that road dusts in the study area have high levels of PBDE pollution. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for 86.3% of the total PBDE content in dusts. Thus, commercial deca-BDE products were the dominant source. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn in these same dust samples were 10.1, 0.495, 112, 54.7, 0.150, 71.8, 10.6, and 186 mg kg(-1), respectively. The geoaccumulation index suggests that road dusts in this area are moderately to heavily polluted with Cd, Hg, and Sb. This study shows that plastic waste processing is a major source of toxic pollutants in road dusts in this area. Although the health risk from exposure to dust PBDEs was low, levels of some heavy metals in this dust exceeded acceptable risk levels for children and are of great concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5296-7DOI Listing
January 2016

Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2015 Dec 20;122:343-51. Epub 2015 Sep 20.

MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy and Environmental Systems Optimization, Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address:

Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.08.006DOI Listing
December 2015

The distribution and biomagnification of higher brominated BDEs in terrestrial organisms affected by a typical e-waste burning site in South China.

Chemosphere 2015 Jan;118:301-8

Soil, vegetation, and several terrestrial species including turtledove, chicken, goose, grasshopper, dragonfly, butterfly and ant, were collected from an area surrounding a typical e-waste burning site in South China. The samples were examined to investigate the levels, congener profiles, and biomagnification extent of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that may be present in the environment as a result of the e-waste, which was processed in a crude recycling style. Elevated levels of Σ(21)PBDEs were found in the biota (101–4725 ng g(−1) lipid weight (lw)), vegetation leaf (82.9–319 ng g(−1) dry weight (dw)) and soil samples (5.2–22 110 ng g(−1) dw), indicating that PBDE contamination in the samples collected from the e-waste burning site may pose risks to the local terrestrial ecosystem and local populations. Higher BDE congeners, especially deca-BDE (BDE-209) were the dominant homologs in organisms and nonbiological matrices, followed by nona-BDE and octa-BDE. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were calculated as the ratio of the lipid-normalized concentration in the predator to that in the prey. The highest BMF (3.4) was determined for BDE-153 in the grasshopper/turtledove food chain. Other higher brominated congeners, such as BDE-202, -203, -154, -183 and -209, were also biomagnified in the terrestrial food chain with BMFs of 1.7–3.3. BDE-47, -100, and -99 were not biomagnified in the examined food chains (BMFs < 1), which suggests that bioaccumulation and biotransformation of PBDEs in terrestrial ecosystems could be distinguished from those in aquatic ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.062DOI Listing
January 2015

Distribution and accumulation of hexachlorobutadiene in soils and terrestrial organisms from an agricultural area, East China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2014 Oct 13;108:329-34. Epub 2014 Aug 13.

MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy and Environmental Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address:

Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) is a potential persistent organic pollutant that has been found in abiotic environments and organisms. However, information on HCBD in soils and its accumulation in terrestrial food chains is scarce. This study investigated the accumulation of HCBD in soils, plants, and terrestrial fauna in a typical agricultural area in Eastern China, and drew comparisons with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The HCBD concentrations in soils were <0.02-3.1ng/g dry weight, which were similar to α-endosulfan concentrations but much lower than the concentrations of some other OCPs. The HCBD soil-plant accumulation factors, 8.5-38.1, were similar to those of o,p'-DDT and higher than those of HCHs and p,p'-DDT, indicating that HCBD is strongly bioaccumulated by rice and vegetables. HCBD concentrations of 1.3-8.2ng/g lipid weight were found in herbivorous insects, earthworms, and Chinese toads. The biomagnification factor, the ratio between the lipid-normalized concentrations in the predator and the prey, was found to be 0.16-0.64 for different food chains of Chinese toads, so HCBD was found not to biomagnify, which is in contrast with OCPs. Further research into whether HCBD is biomagnified in high trophic level organisms or through the entire terrestrial food web is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.07.024DOI Listing
October 2014

Estimation and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from magnesium metallurgy facilities in China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2014 Nov 24;21(22):12629-37. Epub 2014 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China.

Field monitoring was conducted to develop a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission inventory for the magnesium (Mg) metallurgy industry in China. PAH emissions in stack gas and fly/bottom ash samples from different smelting units of a typical Mg smelter were measured and compared. Large variations of concentrations, congener patterns, and emission factors of PAHs during the oxidation and reduction stages in the Mg smelter were observed. The measured average emission factor (166,487 μg/t Mg) was significantly higher than those of other industrial sources. Annual emission from Mg metallurgy in 2012 in China was estimated at 116 kg (514 g BaPeq) for PAHs. The results of this study suggest that PAH emission from Mg industries should be considered by local government agencies. These data may be helpful for understanding PAH levels produced by the Mg industry and in developing a PAH inventory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3133-zDOI Listing
November 2014

Concentrations, atmospheric partitioning, and air-water/soil surface exchange of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran along the upper reaches of the Haihe River basin, North China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2014 20;21(13):7863-75. Epub 2014 Mar 20.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, 100012, Beijing, China,

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) were overall measured and compared in ambient air, water, soils, and sediments along the upper reaches of the Haihe River of North China, so as to evaluate their concentrations, profiles, and to understand the processes of gas-particle partitioning and air-water/soil exchange. The following results were obtained: (1) The average concentrations (toxic equivalents, TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/PCDF in air, water, sediment, and soil samples were 4,855 fg/m(3), 9.5 pg/L, 99.2 pg/g dry weight (dw), and 56.4 pg/g (203 fg TEQ/m(3), 0.46 pg TEQ/L, 2.2 pg TEQ/g dw, and 1.3 pg TEQ/g, respectively), respectively. (2) Although OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD were the dominant congeners among four environmental sinks, obvious discrepancies of these congener and homologue patterns of PCDD/PCDF were observed still. (3) Significant linear correlations for PCDD/PCDF were observed between the gas-particle partition coefficient (K p) and the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P L (0)) and octanol-air partition coefficient (K oa). (4) Fugacity fraction values of air-water exchange indicated that most of PCDD/PCDF homologues were dominated by net volatilization from water into air. The low-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (tetra- to hexa-) presented a strong net volatilization from the soil into air, while high-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (hepta- to octa-) were mainly close to equilibrium for air-soil exchange.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2733-yDOI Listing
May 2015