Publications by authors named "Zhengyuan Wang"

62 Publications

[Effect evaluation of health education intervention on nutrition label for community residents in Shanghai].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2020 Sep;49(5):744-754

Division of Health Risk Factor Monitoring and Control, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China.

Objective: To understand the knowledge, attitude and practice(KAP) of nutrition label for community residents in Shanghai and the effects of health education interventions, and to explore the factors affecting the knowledge, attitude and practice(KAP), and to provide theoretical bases for relevant policies.

Methods: Using stratified random sampling to randomly select at least 20 residents before and after the intervention in each community in Shanghai. A baseline survey was carried out in early March 2016. The survey included basic information and the knowledge、attitude and practice of nutrition label. Using a combination of online and offline method such as issuing posters, folding pages, conducting lectures on knowledge, tweeting on WeChat public accounts, etc. , for a 4-month intervention, and an assessment survey was conducted in June. The same questionnaire was used before and after the intervention.

Results: The awareness rate of nutrition labels among community residents in Shanghai increased from 63. 0% before the intervention to 87. 4% after the intervention. The proportion of those who felt it necessary to label nutrition labels increased from 77. 7% before the intervention to 88. 3%. When purchasing prepackaged food, the proportion of people who often read nutrition labels increased from 32. 2% before intervention to 51. 8%, and the above differences were statistically significant(P<0. 05). After the intervention, the mastery of nutrition labeling knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of men were positively changed(P<0. 05). After the intervention, residents in the suburban areas have significantly improved their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to nutrition labeling(P<0. 05). The improvement effects of residents in the suburbs was lower than that in the other two types of areas(P<0. 05). Logistic regression analysis showed that intervention, female, high education, living in the central city, knowing the nutrition label, and thinking that it is necessary to label the nutrition label are the protective factors of looking at the nutrition label when buying foods.

Conclusion: Health education can effectively improve the awareness rate of prepackaged food nutrition labels, relevant attitudes and behavior changes of residents in Shanghai communities. After intervention, the knowledge and behavior of nutrition labels in Shanghai communities are at a high level. Men, low-education low-income and residents in remote areas are the key population for future health education related to nutrition labels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2020.05.008DOI Listing
September 2020

Higher poultry consumption was associated with an earlier age at menarche.

Acta Paediatr 2021 03 16;110(3):889-895. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, XinHua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Aim: To examine the association between meat consumption and earlier age of menarche among schoolgirls in Shanghai.

Methods: The study randomly selected 1981 schoolgirls aged 6-18 years in Shanghai using a two-stage random sampling design. Information on meat intake was collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Menarche age, household income, physical activity and other covariates were obtained by standardised questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between intake of meat and earlier age of menarche. Earlier age of menarche was defined as first menstruation before 12 years of age.

Results: Among the 986 girls who had experienced menarche, 518/986 (52.5%) had earlier age of menarche. After adjusting for body mass index, age, physical activity, sleep, household income and parental education, consumption of poultry was positively associated with risk of earlier age of menarche (P-trend = .03). Girls who never consumed poultry had a lower risk of earlier age of menarche (odds ratio [OR]: 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.96). Neither the consumption of pork, beef, lamb, processed meat nor total meat consumption was associated with menarche age.

Conclusion: Higher consumption of poultry was associated with an earlier age at menarche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.15554DOI Listing
March 2021

Relationship of household cooking salt and eating out on iodine status of pregnant women in environmental iodine-deficient coastal areas of China.

Br J Nutr 2020 11 10;124(9):971-978. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

General Office, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai200336, People's Republic of China.

As city residents eat out more frequently, it is unknown that if iodised salt is still required in home cooking. We analysed the relationship of household salt and eating out on urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in pregnant women. A household condiment weighing method was implemented to collect salt data for a week. A household salt sample was collected. A urine sample was taken at the end of the week. Totally, 4640 participants were investigated. The median UIC was 139·1 μg/l in pregnant women and 148·7, 140·0 and 122·9 μg/l in the first, second and third trimesters. Median UIC in the third trimester was lower than in the other trimesters (P < 0·001). The usage rates of iodised (an iodine content ≥ 5·0 mg/kg) and qualified-iodised (an iodine content ≥ 21·0 mg/kg) salt were 73·9 and 59·3 %. The median UIC in the qualified-iodised salt group was higher than in the non-iodised group (P = 0·037). The median UIC in the non-iodised group who did not eat out was lower than in qualified-salt groups who both did and did not eat out (P = 0·007, <0·001). The proportion of qualified-iodised salt used in home cooking is low, but foods eaten out have universal salt iodisation according to the national compulsory policy. Household iodised salt did not play a decisive role in the iodine status of pregnant women. Pregnant women in their third trimester who are not eating out and using non-iodised salt at home require extra iodine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000711452000207XDOI Listing
November 2020

Appropriate Range of Median Urinary Iodine Concentration in 8- to 10-Year-Old Children Based on Generalized Additive Model.

Thyroid 2020 10 12;30(10):1535-1540. Epub 2020 May 12.

Institute of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

The appropriate range of median urinary iodine concentration (MUI) in children has always been controversial. To prevent the occurrence of a goiter epidemic in Shanghai, we explored the appropriate range of MUI by integrating multiple monitoring results. This study summarized and analyzed the monitoring data from 1997, 1999, 2011, 2014, and 2017 of children living in Shanghai. In each monitoring year, the probability-proportional-to-size sampling technique was used to select 30 sampling units. In each sampling unit, one primary school was randomly selected. From each selected school, 40 children 8- to 10-year-old were randomly recruited to measure thyroid volume (Tvol) and their household salt iodine intake. In 1997, 1999, 2011, 2014, and 2017, MUI of 8- to 10-year-old children was 228, 214, 182, 171, and 183 μg/L, and median Tvol (MTvol) was 2.9, 1.2, 1.0, 1.8, and 2.8 mL, respectively. There was a linear correlation between goiter rate and MTvol ( = 0.95,  = 0.014; 100 × goiter rate = 1.314 × MTvol -1.287). Generalized additive model (GAM) was used to predict MTvol as follows, MTvol = 0.60689 + 0.00302 MUI +0.999928 s (MUI) -0.05172 mean salt iodized concentrations (MSIs) +0.03481 × 100 × iodized salt coverage rate +0.00000969 per capita disposable income +0.271422 s (per capita disposable income) -0.38772 × monitoring year gap. The results revealed that the average relative error between predicted and actual value was 15.2%. GAM results showed that at 27-277 μg/L MUI, the goiter rate was <5%. Iodine status is appropriate in Shanghai. Under the existing economy and MSI, the optimal range of MUI should be 70-277 μg/L in 8- to 10-year-old children living in Shanghai.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2019.0813DOI Listing
October 2020

The associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and cardiometabolic risks in Chinese children and adolescents.

Pediatr Obes 2020 08 20;15(8):e12634. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Division of Health Risk Factors Monitoring and Control, Shanghai Municipal Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.

Background: The intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to an increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases.

Objectives: This study aims to examine associations between SSB intake and cardiometabolic risks among Chinese children and adolescences.

Methods: Data from 3958 participants aged 6-17 years old were obtained in Shanghai, China, from September to October 2015. A 3-day dietary record and a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were applied to assess SSB consumption and frequency. Anthropometric and laboratory measurements were conducted to measure cardiometabolic indicators.

Results: After adjusting for age, sex, daily energy intake, pubertal stage, sedentary time, maternal education, and household income, SSB consumption was positively associated with serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), while it was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (P < .05). The participants in the highest intake category (≥201.7 mL/day) of SSB consumption had 0.10 (95%CI, 0.02-0.18) mmol/L higher total cholesterol and 0.09 (95%CI, 0.03-0.16) mmol/L higher LDL-C levels than the nonconsumption group (0 mL/day). There was a quasi-U-shaped trend in LDL-C across the categories of >0 mL/day SSB consumption. SSB frequency was positively associated with BMI (P = .04).

Conclusions: SSB intake was positively associated with serum cholesterol and was weakly associated with BMI in Chinese children and adolescents, independent of energy intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12634DOI Listing
August 2020

The Associations of Dietary Iron, Zinc and Magnesium with Metabolic Syndrome in China's Mega Cities.

Nutrients 2020 Feb 28;12(3). Epub 2020 Feb 28.

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 27 Nanwei Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050, China.

Background: Iron, zinc and magnesium perform differently in body metabolism but exist in similar food. This study was to evaluate the associations of dietary iron, zinc and magnesium with metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Methods: A sample of a total of 5323 participants from four of China's mega cities was included in the current study. Both a 3-day 24-h dietary recall and household condiment weighing were applied to assess dietary intake, respectively. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations of dietary iron, zinc and magnesium with MetS.

Results: After adjusting for age, sex, region, years of education, physical activity level, intended physical exercises, smoking status, alcohol use, daily energy intake and mutual adjustment for dietary iron, zinc and magnesium, significant positive trends were found across quartiles of total dietary iron and the risk of MetS, as well as for magnesium and MetS ( value for trends = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively); dietary zinc was inversely associated with MetS risk ( value for trend < 0.01). Magnesium from grains and potato was positively associated with MetS ( value for trend < 0.01).

Conclusions: Dietary iron and magnesium were positively associated with the risk of MetS, while zinc was inversely associated with the risk of MetS, in China's mega cities. The positive association of magnesium with MetS could be a result confounding by other factors correlated with magnesium in grains and potato, which warrants further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12030659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146276PMC
February 2020

CDK9 inhibitors reactivate p53 by downregulating iASPP.

Cell Signal 2020 03 19;67:109508. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Haematology, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address:

Loss of p53's tumor-suppressive function, either via TP53 mutation or hyperactive p53 inhibitory proteins, is one of the most frequent events in the development of human cancer. Here, we describe a strategy of pharmacologically inhibiting iASPP, a negative regulator of p53, to restore wild-type p53's tumor-suppressive function. iASPP knockdown in the colon cancer cell line HCT116 efficiently promoted p53's transcriptional activity and induced p53-dependent cell death, suggesting a key role for iASPP in silencing p53 in this cell line. Screening of a preclinical and clinical drug library using isogenic HCT116 cell models revealed that cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) inhibitors preferentially inhibit p53, rather than p53, cells. Mechanistically, CDK9 inhibitors downregulated iASPP at the transcriptional level. This downregulation was dose- and time-dependent. CDK9 inhibitors further showed synergistic effects in killing p53 HCT116 cells when combined with the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3. In a large TCGA pan-cancer cohort, iASPP overexpression predicted poor overall survival (OS) in wild-type p53 patients, with worse OS observed when MDM2 was simultaneously overexpressed. Our study identifies CDK9 inhibitors as p53-reactivating agents, and proposes a strategy to treat cancer by efficiently reactivating p53 via the concurrent inhibition of iASPP and MDM2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2019.109508DOI Listing
March 2020

Iodine status of 8 to 10 years old children within 20 years following compulsory salt iodization policy in Shanghai, China.

Nutr J 2019 11 2;18(1):63. Epub 2019 Nov 2.

Institute of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150081, Heilongjiang, China.

Background: In 1996, Shanghai implemented universal salt iodization and has became the last provincial unit in China to carry out this intervention. In this study, we summarized achievements in past 20 years, to provide suggestions and evidence for the next stage of iodine supplementation.

Methods: This study summarized and analyzed monitoring data of children from 1997, 1999, 2005, 2011, 2014, and 2017 in Shanghai. In each monitoring year, 30 streets or towns were selected using the probability-proportional-to-size sampling technique. One primary school was selected from each street or town by a simple random sampling technique. From each school, 40 children aged 8 to 10 years were randomly selected. The number of children was divided equally by sex and age.

Results: In 1997, 1999, 2005, 2011, 2014, and 2017, median urinary iodine (MUI) was 227.5 μg/L, 214.3 μg/L, 198.1 μg/L, 181.6 μg/L, 171.4 μg/L, and 183.0 μg/L, goiter rate was 3.07, 0.40, 0.08, 0.08, 0.86, and 1.90%, and median thyroid volume (MTvol) was 2.9 mL, 1.2 mL, 2.4 mL, 1.0 mL, 1.8 mL, and 2.8 mL, respectively. There was a linear correlation between goiter rate and median thyroid volume (MTvol) (r = 0.95, P = 0.014). Household salt iodine concentration (SIC) was dropping every monitoring (P < 0.05). There was a significant difference among different household SIC groups in MUI in 1999 and 2017, and in MTvol in 1999 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected in the other years.

Conclusions: In Shanghai, the iodine status of 8 to 10 years old children is adequate. Household SIC have little effect on iodine status of children. Future studies should analyze the dietary sources of iodine, especially from pre-packaged and prepared-away-from-home foods or meals. The regular monitoring of iodine status is important to human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-019-0491-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825720PMC
November 2019

[Evaluation of dietary intake quantity and quality of high school students in Shanghai City].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2019 Jul;48(4):560-572

Shanghai Institutes of Prevention Medicine, Shanghai 200336, China.

Objective: To understand the dietary intake quantity and quality of high school students in Shanghai education.

Methods: From 2015 to 2016, Shanghai center for Disease Control and Prevention, divided the school into three levels(urban area, suburban area and rural area) according to the economic level and population composition of the street where the school was located. The probability-proportional-to-size sampling technique was used to select 19 high schools, from which 9 boys and 9 girls from same class were randomly recruited for each grade. A total of 1026 students were recruited. The survey included general situation questionnaire and dietary inquiry. Participants were required to complete the standardized questionnaire form through face-to-face interviews with trained interviewers. Chinese Dietary Guidelines(2016) was used to evaluate dietary quantity while China healthy diet index(CHDI) was used to evaluate dietary quality.

Results: The medians of intake of grain, vegetables, fruits, meat/livestock, fish/shrimp, eggs, milk and milk products, bean and bean products, cooking oil, cooking salt were 313. 8, 189. 7, 66. 3, 179. 2, 34. 7, 48. 9, 133. 3, 33. 3, 27. 1 and 6. 0 g/d within high school students, respectively. In both boys and girls, the medians of intake of vegetables, fruits, fish/shrimp, dairy products were lower than reference standard and meat/livestock was higher(P<0. 05). The intake differences among different area's high school students upon grain, vegetables, fruits, poultry/livestock, fish/shrimp, dairy products, beans/nuts, cooking oil, cooking salt were statistically significant(P<0. 05). The CHDI median total score of high school students was 68. 5 in Shanghai. 75. 2% of the CHDI total scores were between 60 and 80. The vegetable score, dark vegetable score, fruit score and total CHDI score in boys were significantly lower than those in girls(P<0. 05). The urban area CHDI score was significantly higher than suburban's and countryside's(P<0. 05).

Conclusion: Both dietary structure and dietary quality are inappropriate and unfit within high school students in Shanghai, the urban area's condition is better than another two. We suggest to increase intake of vegetables, fruits, fish/shrimp, dairy products while decrease poultry/livestock's consumption.
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July 2019

The Dietary Intake and Its Features across Four Seasons in the Metropolis of China.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2019 ;65(1):52-59

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

Chinese diet pattern known as plant-based is more linked with seasonal supply, but it is lack of study on seasonal difference in dietary intakes in China. Our study was to assess seasonal variation in the absolute dietary intake among general population in a metropolis, Shanghai, China. A representative sample of general population aged 15 and older (n=1,704) were randomly stratified-sampled from communities in Shanghai. Dietary survey included consecutive 3-day-24-hour diet record recall and household condiments weighing. Data was collected across four seasons during 2012-2014. Most of food and condiments consumption differed across seasons in Shanghai. Intakes of grains, legumes and cooking oil were highest in spring; vegetables, fruit and non-alcoholic beverage highest, but cooking oil and cooking salt lowest in summer; red meat, nuts and cooking salt highest in winter. Seasonality existed in the intakes of energy and energy contributed from macronutrients that fat contributed more in winter but less in summer. Seasonal variations were also found in beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin K, thiamin, folate and sodium intakes. Seasonal changes of dietary intake were extensively observed in Shanghai, a highly-developed metropolis in China. Given the seasonal differences and their features described in current article, the estimation methods of the average dietary intake across whole year by just conducting dietary survey in one single season warrants further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.65.52DOI Listing
June 2019

Is the Cooking Salt Safe in China? Assessment of Chemical Contaminants in Cooking Salt.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2019 Oct 5;191(2):512-516. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Division of Health Risk Factor Monitoring and Control, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.

Global environmental pollution is becoming more serious, and most dietary salts come from nature. We postulated that chemical pollutants could affect the quality of salt. Forty-five different types of salt were collected from supermarkets, convenience stores, and online retailers in Shanghai, 2015. These comprised more than 90% of all cooking salts consumed in Shanghai, China. We measured and analyzed heavy metal elements, fluoride, potassium ferrocyanide, and 16 phthalate plasticizers. Lead was detected in only two types of salt at concentrations recorded of 0.047 mg/kg and 0.077 mg/kg. The concentrations of total arsenic, total mercury, cadmium, and barium were under limit of detection (LOD) in all samples. The maximum fluoride concentration of salts was 2.50 mg/kg. The median fluoride concentration of domestic salts was significantly lower than foreign-produced salts, and it was significantly higher in sea salt than in other types of salt (P < 0.05). The maximum potassium ferrocyanide concentration in 12 types of salts was 9.20 mg/kg, which was under the Chinese national standard. Just three salt types had low levels of diethylhexyl phthalate concentrations that were above the LOD, at 0.208 mg/kg, 0.375 mg/kg, and 0.380 mg/kg, respectively. All other phthalate indicators were below the LOD in all samples. The level of chemical pollutants in salt is either very low or under LOD. We believe that dietary salt products are safe at retail, and the long-term dietary exposure of cooking salts will not pose any significant health risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-1646-5DOI Listing
October 2019

Total and Nonheme Dietary Iron Intake Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Chinese Men and Women.

Nutrients 2018 Nov 4;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 4.

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 27 Nanwei Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050, China.

The causal relationship between serum ferritin and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains inconclusive. Dietary iron intake increases serum ferritin. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations of total, heme, and nonheme dietary iron intake with MetS and its components in men and women in metropolitan China. Data from 3099 participants in the Shanghai Diet and Health Survey (SDHS) obtained during 2012⁻2013 were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-h diet records from 3 consecutive days. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the associations of dietary iron intake with MetS and its components. After adjustment for potential confounders as age, sex, income, physical exercise, smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake, a positive trend was observed across quartiles of total iron intake and risk of MetS ( for trend = 0.022). Compared with the lowest quartile of total iron intake (<12.72 mg/day), the highest quartile (≥21.88 mg/day) had an odds ratio (95% confidence interval), OR (95% CI), of 1.59 (1.15,2.20). In addition, the highest quartile of nonheme iron intake (≥20.10 mg/day) had a 1.44-fold higher risk of MetS compared with the lowest quartile (<11.62 mg/day), and higher risks of MetS components were associated with the third quartiles of total and nonheme iron intake. There was no association between heme iron intake and risk of MetS ( for trend = 0.895). Associations for total and nonheme iron intake with MetS risk were found in men but not in women. Total and nonheme dietary iron intake was found to be positively associated with MetS and its components in the adult population in metropolitan China. This research also revealed a gender difference in the association between dietary iron intake and MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10111663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266186PMC
November 2018

[Assessment of chemical pollutant levels of dietary salt in Shanghai in 2015].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2018 May;47(3):391-394

Division of Health Risk Factor Monitoring and Control, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China.

Objective: To detect the chemical pollutants concentrations of dietary salt and to comprehend the effect of chemical pollutants on the quality of salt.

Methods: 45 kinds of salt with different countries, brands and types were collected in Shanghai during May to June in 2015. Five different heavy metal elements, fluoride, potassium ferrocyanide and 16 phthalate plasticizers were measured, and the result were analyzed with the standard.

Results: The salt of largest consumption was domestic halite/well salt in Shanghai, accounting for 87. 6% of the total salt consumption. Lead was detected in only two types of salt at concentrations recorded of 0. 047 and 0. 077 mg/kg, which were far below the Chinese national standard. The concentrations of total arsenic, total mercury, cadmium, and barium were lower than the limit of detection( LOD) in all samples. The median fluoride concentration of salts was 0. 16 mg/kg( maximum 2. 50 mg/kg). The median fluoride concentration of domestic salts was significantly lower than foreign-produced salts( P < 0. 05), and it was significantly higher in sea salt than in other types of salt. The median potassium ferrocyanide concentration in 12 types of salts was4. 30 mg/kg( maximum 9. 2 mg/kg), which was lower than the Chinese national standard. Just 3 salt types had low levels of bis( 2-ethylhexyl) phthalate concentrations that were above the LOD, at 0. 208, 0. 375 and 0. 380 mg/kg, respectively.

Conclusion: The level of chemical pollutants in salt is either very low or absent.
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May 2018

Is adherence to the Chinese Dietary Guidelines associated with better self-reported health? The Chinese Dietary Guidelines Adherence Score.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018;27(4):914-924

Department of Nutrition Hygiene, Division of Health Risk Factor Monitoring and Control, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.

Background And Objectives: Poor adherence to dietary guidelines is related to physical and mental disorders, as reflected in self-reported health statuses. This study evaluates the association between diet quality and selfreported health within the Shanghai Diet and Health Study.

Methods And Study Design: We used Chinese Dietary Guidelines Adherence scores to assess diet quality in a cross-sectional study of 4487 subjects above 15 years of age, who completed three-day 24h diet recalls and responded to self-reported health questionnaires. A composite health score was calculated based on Item Response Theory, using the Rasch model. Multiple linearregression models were evaluated to assess the relationship between self-reported health status and diet quality.

Results: Based on the various adherence scores, we divided our sample into fifths. Based on these divisions and with the exception of a single instance, our results show a significant trend: self-reported health declines with declining adherence to official dietary guidelines. This trend was even significant when controlling for a large number of potential confounders.

Conclusions: This study shows that consumption of a healthy and balanced diet, as reflected in adherence to the Chinese Dietary Guidelines, is related to increased levels of overall health among Shanghai residents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.072018.02DOI Listing
September 2019

The Association of Dietary Cholesterol and Fatty Acids with Dyslipidemia in Chinese Metropolitan Men and Women.

Nutrients 2018 Jul 25;10(8). Epub 2018 Jul 25.

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 27 Nanwei Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050, China.

Background: The associations between dietary cholesterol and fatty acids and serum lipids are controversial. This study is to examine the association of dietary cholesterol and fatty acids with serum lipids and dyslipidemia in Chinese metropolitan male and female adults.

Methods: 3850 participants in the Shanghai Diet and Health Survey were investigated during the period 2012⁻2013. Information was obtained on dietary intake, anthropometric and blood laboratory measurements. Dyslipidemia was determined by US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III).

Results: Dietary cholesterol was in line with serum TC, LDL-C and the LDL-C to HDL-C ratio in general and the partial correlation coefficients were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.13⁻1.15, = 0.015), 0.73 (95% CI: 0.21⁻1.24, = 0.006) and 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00⁻0.02, = 0.018), respectively. The partial correlation coefficients were greater in women. Dietary fatty acids were not associated with serum lipids. The highest quintile of dietary cholesterol intake (≥538.0 mg/day) was associated with an approximate 1.6-fold risk for high TC and high HDL-C compared with the lowest quintile (<193.1 mg/day) generally.

Conclusions: Dietary cholesterol was associated with serum cholesterol in Chinese metropolitan adults and a higher risk of dyslipidemia was observed at a high level of dietary cholesterol intake. Whether there should be an upper limit on dietary cholesterol in the Chinese population warrants further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10080961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6115945PMC
July 2018

Eating Out-of-Home in Adult Residents in Shanghai and the Nutritional Differences among Dining Places.

Nutrients 2018 Jul 23;10(7). Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Department of Nutrition Hygiene, Division of Health Risk Factor Monitoring and Control, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China.

Background: With the rapid development of Shanghai's economy, diet habits have undergone great changes. The study aimed to examine the situation of out-of-home (OH) eating in Shanghai adults and the nutrition characteristics of eating in different dining places, and to assess the social demographic determinants of eating OH.

Method: Data was sourced from the Shanghai Diet and Health Survey (SDHS) involving people aged 18 years or older in 2012⁻2013. The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and three-day 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) were used to collect dietary intake data on how people eat out in a cross-sectional study of 1689 adults. OH food refers to the food prepared or consumed away from home. We define that people who eat at least one meal prepared away from home in each survey have a habit of eating outside. The multiple linear and logistic regression methods were used for statistical analysis.

Results: The prevalence of eating OH and at restaurants was only 55.1% and 31.8%, respectively. There was an increase in energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, and iron intake while eating OH. Restaurant and company/school canteen consumption were both associated with an increase in daily total energy intake of 140 kcal and 91 kcal, and fat intake of 6.0 g and 4.3 g, respectively. However, eating at restaurants was associated with higher intake of 548 mg of sodium. However, no significant association was observed between eating at canteens and higher sodium intake.

Conclusions: Eating OH related to a poor diet quality, and the diet quality was different restaurant and canteen food. There may be a need for interventions to target residents' overall dining-out behavior, particularly focusing on the consumption of restaurant food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10070951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6073505PMC
July 2018

A Comparative Study of Iodized Salt Programs: Shanghai and Switzerland.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2019 Jan 5;187(1):59-64. Epub 2018 May 5.

Institute of Iodine Deficiency Disorders Prevention and Control, Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Both Shanghai and Switzerland are developed regions with long-standing salt iodization programs and periodic monitoring. However, the two regions have their own approach to the implementation of the iodized salt policy. In Shanghai, monitoring was carried out every few years, using probability-proportional-to-size sampling technique to select 30 sampling units. Each unit consisted of more than 12 pregnant women and one randomly selected primary school. Urine samples were then taken from the chosen pregnant women and randomly recruited students of that school for iodine test. Data of Switzerland used in this comparative study was extracted from published researches. In Shanghai, the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in 2014 was 20% lower than in 1999 (P < 0.05). The median UIC of pregnant women in 2014 was 9.5% lower than that in 2011 (P < 0.05). In terms of iodized salt concentration, opposite to the increasing in Switzerland, it has exhibited a downward trend in Shanghai (P < 0.05). For the years monitored, the iodized salt concentration in Shanghai was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in Switzerland. Though the UIC of children exhibited a downward trend in Shanghai (P < 0.05), it was still significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in Switzerland over the same monitoring period. However, the UIC in pregnant women was a totally different story, which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in Shanghai than in Switzerland. Iodized salt is very important for maintaining sufficient iodine level in the population. Appropriate concentration of iodine in fortified salt needs to be decided according to local conditions. Special attention should be paid to the iodine level of pregnant women in Shanghai, and more education about iodine is necessary for the public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1370-6DOI Listing
January 2019

A PAX5-OCT4-PRDM1 developmental switch specifies human primordial germ cells.

Nat Cell Biol 2018 06 30;20(6):655-665. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA.

Dysregulation of genetic pathways during human germ cell development leads to infertility. Here, we analysed bona fide human primordial germ cells (hPGCs) to probe the developmental genetics of human germ cell specification and differentiation. We examined the distribution of OCT4 occupancy in hPGCs relative to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We demonstrated that development, from pluripotent stem cells to germ cells, is driven by switching partners with OCT4 from SOX2 to PAX5 and PRDM1. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that PAX5 encodes a critical regulator of hPGC development. Moreover, an epistasis analysis indicated that PAX5 acts upstream of OCT4 and PRDM1. The PAX5-OCT4-PRDM1 proteins form a core transcriptional network that activates germline and represses somatic programmes during human germ cell differentiation. These findings illustrate the power of combined genome editing, cell differentiation and engraftment for probing human developmental genetics that have historically been difficult to study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-018-0094-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5970969PMC
June 2018

A Comparison of Iodine Status in Children and Pregnant Women After a Policy Change in the Iodized Salt Standard in Shanghai, China.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2018 Oct 14;185(2):275-281. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Institute of Iodine Deficiency Disorders Prevention and Control, Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

In Shanghai, a new iodized salt standard was implemented in 2012. To provide evidence to the government, we compared iodine status before (35 mg/kg) and after (30 mg/kg) adjustment in vulnerable populations living in Shanghai. The probability-proportional-to-size sampling technique was used to select at least 360 pregnant women for urine iodine test and at least 1200 students for thyroid measurement and the household salt test. Of these students, at least 360 performed urine iodine test. The median thyroid volume and the median household salt iodine concentration of children aged 8-10 years were 1.80 ml and 24.8 mg/kg in 2015, and 0.97 ml and 28.3 mg/kg in 2011. The median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 126.52 and 139.77 μg/L in 2015 and 2011. All differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The median UIC of students was 171.40 and 181.63 μg/L in 2015 and 2011, the difference was not statistically significant. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that thyroid volume in children was associated with sex, age, region, and household salt iodized concentration. The current iodized salt concentration meets the basic needs of the population's iodine requirements except for pregnant women. Periodic monitoring is necessary particularly in vulnerable groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1257-6DOI Listing
October 2018

[Discussion on the standard of clinical genetic testing report and the consensus of gene testing industry].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2018 Feb;35(1):1-8

BGI Genomics, BGI-Shenzhen, Guangdong 518083, China; Beijing Union Medical College, WHO Collaborating Center for Community Control of Hereditary Diseases, Beijing 100005, China. Email:

The widespread application of next generation sequencing (NGS) in clinical settings has enabled testing, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of genetic diseases. However, many issues have arisen in the meanwhile. One of the most pressing issues is the lack of standards for reporting genetic test results across different service providers. The First Forum on Standards and Specifications for Clinical Genetic Testing was held to address the issue in Shenzhen, China, on October 28, 2017. Participants, including geneticists, clinicians, and representatives of genetic testing service providers, discussed problems of clinical genetic testing services across in China and shared opinions on principles, challenges, and standards for reporting clinical genetic test results. Here we summarize expert opinions presented at the seminar and report the consensus, which will serve as a basis for the development of standards and guidelines for reporting of clinical genetic testing results, in order to promote the standardization and regulation of genetic testing services in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1003-9406.2018.01.001DOI Listing
February 2018

Dynamic Changes in the Bivariable Distribution of Urinary Iodine Concentration and Thyroid Volume in Children Aged 8 to 10 Years in China.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2017 May;29(4):288-295

1 Harbin Medical University, Harbin, HL, China.

National iodine-deficiency disorder surveillance surveys were conducted in 1999, 2005, and 2011 in China. Probability-proportional-to-size sampling technique was used to select sampling units. The mean of thyroid volume (Tvol) in the 100 to 199 µg/L UIC (urinary iodine concentration) group was significantly lower than that in the 200 to 299 µg/L UIC group in 2011 ( P < .05). The status in the 100 to 199 µg/L versus ≥300 µg/L and 200 to 299 µg/L versus ≥300 µg/L groups in 1999, and 100 to 199 µg/L versus ≥300 µg/L group in 2011 were the same ( P < .05). The mean Tvol in the <100 µg/L UIC group was significantly higher than that in the 100 to 199 µg/L UIC group in 1999 ( P < .05). Both insufficient and excess iodine may be associated with an increase in Tvol, and adequate iodine intake should be defined as median UIC 100 to 299 µg/L.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539517709027DOI Listing
May 2017

Metadherin regulates actin cytoskeletal remodeling and enhances human gastric cancer metastasis via epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Int J Oncol 2017 Jul 17;51(1):63-74. Epub 2017 May 17.

Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Baoshang, Shanghai 201999, P.R. China.

Metadherin (MTDH) can be recruited to mature tight junction complexes, and it regulates mesenchymal marker protein expression in many tumors and promote cancer metastasis. This study investigated the influence of MTDH expression on gastric cancer and to elucidate the potential mechanisms by which MTDH regulates actin cytoskeletal remodeling and enhances human gastric cancer metastasis via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Relative MTDH mRNA expression levels were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), and MTDH protein expression levels and localization were evaluated via immunohistochemical (ICH) staining. We studied the role of MTDH in cancer cell migration and invasion by modulating MTDH expression in the gastric cancer cell lines MKN45 and AGS. We also confirmed the functions of MTDH through in vivo experiments. We found that MTDH expression levels were correlated with lymph node metastasis, TNM stages and decreased OS (P=0.002, <0.001 and 0.010, respectively) in human gastric cancer and that MTDH upregulation promoted EMT in vitro. Consistent with this finding, MTDH downregulation inhibited cell migration and invasion in vitro and suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, MTDH knockdown regulated actin cytoskeletal remodeling and inhibited EMT. Overall, our results provide a novel role for MTDH in regulating gastric cancer metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2017.4002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5467779PMC
July 2017

[Effects of nutrition intervention among students in primary school for children of migrant workers in Shanghai].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2017 Mar;46(2):277-281

Department of Nutrition Hygiene, Health Risk Factors Monitor and Control Division, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control & Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China.

Objective: To evaluate effects of nutrition intervention on nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice and lunch nutrition situation of students in primary school for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, to provide evidence for promoting children 's growth and development and health education.

Methods: A total of 4 primary schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai were selected by stratified cluster sampling in 2014- 2015, and then were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. All students of 4and 5 grades were selected as subject. Nutrition intervention included the school canteen and students. Survey was implemented before and after intervention, and included demographic questionnaire, physical test and nutrition survey using dietary recall.

Results: The average rise in quantity of weight, BMI, the power of gripping, nutrition attitude accuracy and paper folding test score in intervention group were significantly higher than control group. Intervention was helpful to improve the awareness rates of dietary guidelines and the favor rate of school lunch. Except fat, the average rise in intake of energy and main nutrients in intervention group were significantly higher than control group. The average rise in intake of food grains, soybeans and soy products and vegetables and the average falling in intake of animal food in intervention group were significantly higher than control group. All of the differences were statistically significant( P < 0. 05). The average intake of energy, main nutrients and some kinds of food in intervention group were more close to the standard.

Conclusion: Nutrition intervention has a positive impact on students ' growth and development, nutrition knowledge and attitude, cognitive ability and dietary intake, and should be put into widespread application.
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March 2017

[Relative validity of food frequency questionnaire for estimating dietary nutrients intake].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2016 Sep;45(5):743-748

Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control & Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China.

Objective: To assess the relative validity of food frequency questionnaire( FFQ) for estimating dietary nutrients and food intakes.

Methods: Using random sampling methods to select 200 people from Minhang District and Jinshan District. Dietary intakes were estimated by weighed dietary records combining with 24 h dietary recalls( as reference method) and food frequency questionnaire. Relative validity were examined by T-test, Wilcoxon rank test and correlation analysis.

Results: The foods groups were the same in FFQ and 24 h dietary recalls. Correlated with daily intake of grains, beans and products, vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, fruits, meat and poultry, aquatic product, milk and products in two methods( Correlation coefficients: 0. 248- 1. 000). The daily food of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, cholesterol had significantly positive correlation in FFQ and 24 h dietary recalls( Correlation coefficients: 0. 209- 0. 340). No statistical difference in energy and fat. The daily food of Mg, K, P, Mn, I, Ca, Se had significantly positive correlation in two methods( Correlation coefficients: 0. 204-0. 419). No statistical difference in Mg, K, P, Mn, I. The daily food of vitamin B1、B2、C、niacin had significantly positive correlation in two methods( Correlation coefficients:0. 170- 0. 305). No statistical difference in vitamin B1、B2.

Conclusion: Food frequency questionnaire can be used to evaluate dietary intakes of I, cruciferous vegetables, soy isoflavones, energy, fat, Mg, K, P, Mn, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2.
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September 2016

Trichinella spiralis: Adaptation and parasitism.

Vet Parasitol 2016 Nov 2;231:8-21. Epub 2016 Jul 2.

McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University in St. Louis, MO, 63108, MO, USA; Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Publication of the genome from the clade I organism, Trichinella spiralis, has provided us an avenue to address more holistic problems in parasitology; namely the processes of adaptation and the evolution of parasitism. Parasitism among nematodes has evolved in multiple, independent events. Deciphering processes that drive species diversity and adaptation are keys to understanding parasitism and advancing control strategies. Studies have been put forth on morphological and physiological aspects of parasitism and adaptation in nematodes; however, data is now coming available to investigate adaptation, host switching and parasitism at the genomic level. Herein we compare proteomic data from the clade I parasite, Trichinella spiralis with data from Brugia malayi (clade III), Meloidogyne hapla and Meloidogyne incognita (clade IV), and free-living nematodes belonging to the genera Caenorhabditis and Pristionchus (clade V). We explore changes in protein family birth/death and expansion/reduction over the course of metazoan evolution using Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as outgroups for the phylum Nematoda. We further examine relationships between these changes and the ability and/or result of nematodes adapting to their environments. Data are consistent with gene loss occurring in conjunction with nematode specialization resulting from parasitic worms acclimating to well-defined, environmental niches. We observed evidence for independent, lateral gene transfer events involving conserved genes that may have played a role in the evolution of nematode parasitism. In general, parasitic nematodes gained proteins through duplication and lateral gene transfer, and lost proteins through random mutation and deletions. Data suggest independent acquisition rather than ancestral inheritance among the Nematoda followed by selective gene loss over evolutionary time. Data also show that parasitism and adaptation affected a broad range of proteins, especially those involved in sensory perception, metabolism, and transcription/translation. New protein gains with functions related to regulating transcription and translation, and protein family expansions with functions related to morphology and body development have occurred in association with parasitism. Further gains occurred as a result of lateral gene transfer and in particular, with the cyanase protein family In contrast, reductions and/or losses have occurred in protein families with functions related to metabolic process and signal transduction. Taking advantage of the independent occurrences of parasitism in nematodes, which enabled us to distinguish changes associated with parasitism from species specific niche adaptation, our study provides valuable insights into nematode parasitism at a proteome level using T. spiralis as a benchmark for early adaptation to or acquisition of parasitism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2016.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5127757PMC
November 2016

Alcoholic beverage preferences and associated drinking patterns by socioeconomic status among high-school drinkers in three metropolises of China.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2016 ;25(1):184-94

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Email:

To examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and adolescent alcoholic beverage preferences and the associated drinking patterns in China. The study used cross-sectional data collected from 136 junior or senior high schools, using a self-administered questionnaire. A total number of 7,075 subjects of drinking students were selected from three metropolises (Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou) via a two-stage stratified sampling method. Among the adolescent drinkers, 87.8% (95% CI: 86.5-89.0) reported that they drunk alcohol during the past years preceding the study, while 42.4% (95% CI: 40.4-44.4) of the subjects stated that they had drunk alcohol during the past 30 days. There were gradual increases in the usual quantity (>1 Standard Drink, SD) of alcoholic beverages with increasing SES, with highest rates reported by the high-level SES. Beer and grape wine were the most widely consumed alcoholic beverage, regardless of SES. Our findings suggest that high-level SES students have an increasing prevalence of drinking behaviour. Their confirmation by future studies which extend the sampling regions is required to further the prevention of adolescent alcohol abuse in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.20DOI Listing
May 2016

Transcriptional comparison of human induced and primary midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

Sci Rep 2016 Feb 4;6:20270. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Department of Genetics; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University, CA, USA.

Generation of induced dopaminergic (iDA) neurons may provide a significant step forward towards cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). To study and compare transcriptional programs of induced cells versus primary DA neurons is a preliminary step towards characterizing human iDA neurons. We have optimized a protocol to efficiently generate iDA neurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). We then sequenced the transcriptomes of iDA neurons derived from 6 different hPSC lines and compared them to that of primary midbrain (mDA) neurons. We identified a small subset of genes with altered expression in derived iDA neurons from patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD). We also observed that iDA neurons differ significantly from primary mDA neurons in global gene expression, especially in genes related to neuron maturation level. Results suggest iDA neurons from patient iPSCs could be useful for basic and translational studies, including in vitro modeling of PD. However, further refinement of methods of induction and maturation of neurons may better recapitulate full development of mDA neurons from hPSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep20270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4740755PMC
February 2016

Co-expression of parathyroid hormone related protein and TGF-beta in breast cancer predicts poor survival outcome.

BMC Cancer 2015 Nov 23;15:925. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Better methods to predict prognosis can play a supplementary role in administering individualized treatment for breast cancer patients. Altered expressions of PTHrP and TGF-β have been observed in various types of human cancers. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the association of PTHrP and TGF-β level with the clinicopathological features of the breast cancer patients.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine PTHrP and TGF-β protein expression in 497 cases of early breast cancer, and Kaplan-Meier method and COX's Proportional Hazard Model were applied to the prognostic value of PTHrP and TGF-β expression.

Results: Both over-expressed TGF-β and PTHrP were correlated with the tumor in larger size, higher proportion of axillary lymph node metastasis and later clinical stage. Additionally, the tumors with a high TGF-β level developed poor differentiation, and only TGF-β expression was associated with disease-free survival (DFS) of the breast cancer patients. Followed up for a median of 48 months, it was found that only the patients with negative TGF-β expression had longer DFS (P < 0.05, log-rank test). Nevertheless, those with higher PTHrP expression tended to show a higher rate of bone metastasis (67.6 % vs. 45.8 %, P = 0.019). In ER negative subgroup, those who developed PTHrP positive expression presented poor prognosis (P < 0.05, log-rank test). The patients with both positive TGF-β and PTHrP expression were significantly associated with the high risk of metastases. As indicated by Cox's regression analysis, TGF-β expression and the high proportion of axillary lymph node metastasis served as significant independent predictors for breast cancer recurrence.

Conclusions: TGF-β and PTHrP were confirmed to be involved in regulating the malignant progression in breast cancer, and PTHrP expression, to be associated with bone metastasis as a potential prognostic marker in ER negative breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-015-1873-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4655491PMC
November 2015

Acceptability and feasibility of smartphone-assisted 24 h recalls in the Chinese population.

Public Health Nutr 2015 Dec 10;18(18):3272-7. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

1Department of Nutrition Hygiene,Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention,1380 West Zhongshan Road,Changning District,Shanghai 200336,People's Republic of China.

Objective: To examine the acceptability and feasibility of using smartphone technology to assess beverage intake and evaluate whether the feasibility of smartphone use is greater among key sub-populations.

Design: An acceptability and feasibility study of recording the video dietary record, the acceptability of the ecological momentary assessment (EMA), wearing smartphones and whether the videos helped participants recall intake after a cross-over validation study.

Setting: Rural and urban area in Shanghai, China.

Subjects: Healthy adults (n 110) aged 20-40 years old.

Results: Most participants reported that the phone was acceptable in most aspects, including that videos were easy to use (70%), helped with recalls (77%), EMA reminders helped them record intake (75%) and apps were easy to understand (85%). However, 49% of the participants reported that they had trouble remembering to take videos of the beverages before consumption or 46% felt embarrassed taking videos in front of others. Moreover, 72% reported that the EMA reminders affected their consumption. When assessing overall acceptability of using smartphones, 72% of the participants were favourable responders. There were no statistically significant differences in overall acceptability for overweight v. normal-weight participants or for rural v. urban residents. However, we did find that the overall acceptability was higher for males (81%) than females (61%, P=0·017).

Conclusions: Our study did not find smartphone technology helped with dietary assessments in a Chinese population. However, simpler approaches, such as using photographs instead of videos, may be more feasible for enhancing 24 h dietary recalls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980015000907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4600407PMC
December 2015

Nucleotide insertions and deletions complement point mutations to massively expand the diversity created by somatic hypermutation of antibodies.

J Biol Chem 2014 Nov 15;289(48):33557-67. Epub 2014 Oct 15.

From Anaptysbio Inc., San Diego, California 92121 and.

During somatic hypermutation (SHM), deamination of cytidine by activation-induced cytidine deaminase and subsequent DNA repair generates mutations within immunoglobulin V-regions. Nucleotide insertions and deletions (indels) have recently been shown to be critical for the evolution of antibody binding. Affinity maturation of 53 antibodies using in vitro SHM in a non-B cell context was compared with mutation patterns observed for SHM in vivo. The origin and frequency of indels seen during in vitro maturation were similar to that in vivo. Indels are localized to CDRs, and secondary mutations within insertions further optimize antigen binding. Structural determination of an antibody matured in vitro and comparison with human-derived antibodies containing insertions reveal conserved patterns of antibody maturation. These findings indicate that activation-induced cytidine deaminase acting on V-region sequences is sufficient to initiate authentic formation of indels in vitro and in vivo and that point mutations, indel formation, and clonal selection form a robust tripartite system for antibody evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.607176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4246108PMC
November 2014