Publications by authors named "Zheng Zhong"

455 Publications

Native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry combined with molecular docking for the characterization of ginsenoside-myoglobin interactions.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 Sep 21:e9203. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Rationale: The interactions between proteins and ligands are involved in many biological processes and early stage of drug development. Native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has played an important role in characterization of protein-ligand interactions. Herein, native ESI-MS combined with molecular docking was used for the characterization of ginsenoside-myoglobin (Mb) interactions.

Methods: The binding of ginsenosides (Rb , Rc, Rd, Re) to Mb was determined by native ESI-MS. The titration experiments were performed for the calculation of the dissociation constants (K ) of the complexes. Molecular docking was used to simulate the binding of ginsenosides with Mb by AutoDock.

Results: The ginsenoside-Mb complex with stoichiometric ratio 1:1 was observed by native ESI-MS. The K values determined by the direct calculation were matched with those by the curve fitting. However, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) obtained by the direct calculation were bigger than those by the curve fitting. By the molecular docking, it was inferred that hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bond and Van der Waals forces were participated in the binding of ginsenosides to protein.

Conclusions: The ginsenoside-Mb interactions can be characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry combined with molecular docking. This approach can be helpful to investigate the interactions between natural drugs and protein in various diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.9203DOI Listing
September 2021

CCL2 produced by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is essential for the accumulation and activation of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: The development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is closely tied with the immune system. C-C motif chemokine ligands (CCL) were proved to lead to immune recruitment and training. Thus, we reckoned CCL2 to be the kernel of immune suppression in PDAC tissues.

Methods: We compared normal pancreatic tissues with PDAC tissues according to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and clinical samples. Flow cytometry was used to identify M-MDSCs. We further demonstrated immune suppression of M-MDSCs according to proliferation rates of CD8 T cells/CD4 T cells. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Arginase were also tested by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot analysis. We also analyzed the specific mechanisms by cluster analysis after CCL2 stimulating M-MDSCs.

Results: We found that CCL2 highly increased in PDAC tissues. CCL2 is positively related to CD33 and CD14, markers of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs). We have demonstrated that CCL2 recruited M-MDSCs into PDAC tissues both in vitro and in vivo. M-MDSCs recruitment is accompanied by sustained immune suppression. Furthermore, we have found that M-MDSCs impeded T cell proliferation and produced high levels of ROS and Arginase, which can be enhanced by CCL2. Mechanistically, CCL2 stimulated M-MDSCs led to a significant upregulation of genes, a large part of which accumulated in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Treatment of aloesin, MAPK signaling inhibitor, relieved the associated immunosuppressive phenotype induced by CCL2.

Conclusions: Our study indicates that PDAC cells produced CCL2, which promoted localized M-MDSC recruitment and immune suppression, thereby promoting tumor progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iid3.523DOI Listing
September 2021

Long-term effect of plastic feeding on growth and transcriptomic response of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.).

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 27;287(Pt 1):132063. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

Plastic waste has been considered a serious global environmental problem for decades. Despite the high recalcitrance of synthetic plastics, the biodegradation of polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by some insect larvae has been reported; however, the mechanism of degradation remains largely unknown. We investigated the effects of plastics on the growth of mealworms (larvae of Tenebrio molitor) and their role in PS and PE degradation. Mealworms were capable of ingesting high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), expanded polystyrene (EPS) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) but not linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) or polypropylene (PP). Plastic consumption was negatively dependent on plastic crystallinity. Transcriptome analysis and KEGG mapping revealed that mealworms act as downstream decomposers in plastic depolymerization and that fatty acid degradation pathways may play important roles in the digestion of plastic degradation intermediates produced by gut bacteria. In addition, PS and PE degradation was achieved via the diffusion of extracellular depolymerases, which probably acted on the distal backbone and produce shorter linear chains that containing ≤16 C atoms instead of branched chains. Additionally, the intermediates of PS degradation are expected to be further decomposed by mealworms as xenobiotics. This study provided a preliminary understanding of plastic degradation mechanism by mealworms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132063DOI Listing
August 2021

Dopaminergic signaling in prefrontal cortex contributes to the antidepressant effect of electroacupuncture: An iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis in a rat model of CUMS.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Electroacupuncture (EA) is used as an adjunctive treatment for depression. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms of EA in the depressive rat model induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in male adult Wistar rats. The underlying mechanisms were explored by using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis of the proteins in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and observing the number of the PFC neurons stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and synaptic morphological changes under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that EA plus paroxetine (EA + Par) for 1 week significantly relieved depression-like anhedonia symptoms and improved anxiety-like behavior, accompanied by the improvements in synaptic morphology and a significant increase of PFC neurons. Moreover, EA or paroxetine alone significantly alleviated anhedonia symptoms after 2 weeks of intervention. Additionally, iTRAQ analysis showed that dopaminergic signaling was significantly altered in CUMS rats after 1 week of EA treatment. As the critical enzyme of this pathway, aromatic-l-amino-acid decarboxylase (DDC) was significantly upregulated after the treatment with EA + Par for 1 week. These findings suggested that the dopaminergic signaling pathway in PFC may be involved in the antidepressant mechanisms of EA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24732DOI Listing
September 2021

The ceRNA PVT1 inhibits proliferation of ccRCC cells by sponging miR-328-3p to elevate FAM193B expression.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 09 13;13(17):21712-21728. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 20092, Shanghai, China.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common and fatal malignancy. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as crucial biomarkers and regulators in many cancers, warranting the detailed investigation of their biological functions and molecular mechanisms. In this study, we explored the role and mechanism of plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1), a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) in ccRCC tissues and . We found that PVT1 is upregulated in ccRCC cells and promoted cell proliferation. Bioinformatic analysis, dual-luciferase reporter assays, argonaute 2-RNA immunoprecipitation (AGO2-RIP), quantitative PCR arrays, western blot assay, and rescue experiments were conducted to explore the underlying mechanisms of PVT1. Our analyses revealed that miR-328-3p was a direct target of PVT1 and that FAM193B was a direct target of miR-328-3p. FAM193B is upregulated in ccRCC tissues and promotes cell proliferation by activating the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways. Our results indicated that PVT1 promotes ccRCC cells proliferation by sponging miR-328-3p to upregulate FAM193B and activate the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways. Collectively, these results suggest that PVT1- miR-328-3p-FAM193B loop could serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457591PMC
September 2021

Exploring the mechanism of Shenqisherong pill against cervical spondylotic myelopathy by network pharmacology and molecular docking.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Spine Disease Institute, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Theory and Therapy of Muscles and Bones, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Shenqisherong pill (SQSRP) has been used clinically to treat cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with satisfactory results; however, its active ingredients and mechanisms are unclear. The present study aimed to explore the active ingredients and molecular mechanisms of SQSRP against CSM using network pharmacology and molecular docking.

Methods: The compounds in SQSRP were obtained from public databases and related literature, and oral bioavailability (≥30%) and drug-likeness (≥0.18) were screened using absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) criteria. Compounds-related and CSM-related target genes were identified using public databases, and the overlapping genes between compounds and CSM target genes were identified using a Venn diagram. Cytoscape and STRING were used to construct, visualize, and analyze the interaction network between these overlapping targets. Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of overlapping targets used Omicshare tools and constructed a compound-overlapping targets network, target-pathway network, and compound-target-pathway network using Cytoscape. Finally, molecular docking software was used to verify the targets.

Results: A total of 447 compounds in SQSRP were identified, and ADME screening identified 96 compounds as potentially active ingredients. A total of 249 compound-related genes and 280 CSMrelated genes were identified using public databases, and 53 overlapping genes were identified. The results of compound targets and protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that the pharmacological effects of SQSRP against CSM involved 56 compounds and 53 genes. The results of GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis suggested that the therapeutic effects of SQSRP against CSM were exerted by reducing inflammation, inhibiting apoptosis, and protecting neurons. The molecular mechanisms may be strongly associated with PI3K-Akt, MAPK, IL-17, and TNF, which might be pivotal signaling pathways.

Conclusions: The active ingredients and mechanisms of SQSRP against CSM were investigated using network pharmacology. The findings proved that the pill could treat CSM through multi-component, multitarget, and multi-pathway synergy and provide a theoretical basis for the subsequent extraction of active ingredients from SQSRP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-408DOI Listing
August 2021

Predicting the aggressiveness of peripheral zone prostate cancer using a fractional order calculus diffusion model.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Aug 18;143:109913. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Radiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the performance of parameters D, β, μ from the Fractional Order Calculus (FROC) model at differentiating peripheral zone (PZ) prostate cancer (PCa) MATERIAL AND METHODS: 75 patients who underwent targeted MRI-guided TRUS prostate biopsy within 6 months of MRI were reviewed retrospectively. Regions of interest (ROI) were placed on suspicious lesions on MRI scans. ROIs were then correlated to pathological results based on core biopsy location. The final tumor count is a total: 23 of GS 6 (3 + 3), 36 of GS 7 (3 + 4), 18 of GS 7 (4 + 3), and 19 of GS ≥ 8. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) scans were fitted into the FROC and monoexponential model to calculate ADC and FROC parameters: anomalous diffusion coefficient D, intravoxel diffusion heterogeneity β, and spatial parameter μ. The performance of FROC parameters and ADC at differentiating PCa grade was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

Results: In differentiating low (GS 6) vs. intermediate (GS 7) risk PZ PCa, combination of (D, β) provides the best performance with AUC of 0.829 with significance of p = 0.018 when compared to ADC (AUC of 0.655). In differentiating clinically significant (GS 6) vs. clinically significant (GS ≥ 7) PCa, combination of (D, β, μ) provides highest AUC of 0.802 when compared to ADC (AUC of 0.671) with significance of p = 0.038. Stratification of intermediate (GS 7) and high (GS ≥ 8) risk PCa with FROC did not reach a significant difference when compared to ADC.

Conclusion: Combination of FROC parameters shows greater performance than ADC at differentiating low vs. intermediate risk and clinically insignificant vs. significant prostate cancers in peripheral zone lesions. The FROC diffusion model holds promise as a quantitative imaging technique for non-invasive evaluation of PZ PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2021.109913DOI Listing
August 2021

Clinical features and outcomes of 1845 patients with follicular lymphoma: a real-world multicenter experience in China.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 08 23;14(1):131. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University and Institute of Hematology, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Clinical features and outcomes of FL patients in Chinese population are limited, thus promoting us to perform this analysis on a large cohort of 1845 patients with FL enrolled from nine medical centers nationwide in China. In this cohort, the median age of patients at diagnosis was 53 years, which was comparable to that reported previously for Chinese FL patients (49-51 years) but younger than that for Western FL patients (60-65 years). In contrast with Western patients, Chinese FL patients more likely involved extranodal sites but less frequently infiltrated bone marrow. Other clinical characteristics were comparable between two populations. In this study, 91% of patients were managed with chemotherapy, yielding 72% and 46% of overall-response rate and complete remission. After median 55-month follow-up, 5-year progressive-free and overall survival were 61% and 89%, respectively. Both were analogous to those reported in prior Chinese and Western studies. Consistent with published data, addition of rituximab into both induction (R) and maintenance (R) treatment led to the most favorable outcomes. Interestingly, R only had better outcomes than R only. Notably, 7% of patients experienced histologic transformation (HT) and correlated with poor survival. Of the transformed FL cases, 3% and 4% of HT events occurred prior to or post-treatment, respectively. Importantly, the latter displayed worse outcomes than the former. Altogether, this study provides real-world information of the largest cohort of FL patients so far in China, which might lay a foundation for clinical investigation of Chinese FL in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01139-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383436PMC
August 2021

Diffusion in Sephadex Gel Structures: Time Dependency Revealed by Multi-Sequence Acquisition over a Broad Diffusion Time Range.

Mathematics (Basel) 2021 Jul 19;9(14). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

It has been increasingly reported that in biological tissues diffusion-weighted MRI signal attenuation deviates from mono-exponential decay, especially at high -values. A number of diffusion models have been proposed to characterize this non-Gaussian diffusion behavior. One of these models is the continuous-time random-walk (CTRW) model, which introduces two new parameters: a fractional order time derivative and a fractional order spatial derivative . These new parameters have been linked to intravoxel diffusion heterogeneities in time and space, respectively, and are believed to depend on diffusion times. Studies on this time dependency are limited, largely because the diffusion time cannot vary over a board range in a conventional spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence due to the accompanying T2 decays. In this study, we investigated the time-dependency of the CTRW model in Sephadex gel phantoms across a broad diffusion time range by employing oscillating-gradient spin-echo, pulsed-gradient spin-echo, and pulsed-gradient stimulated echo sequences. We also performed Monte Carlo simulations to help understand our experimental results. It was observed that the diffusion process fell into the Gaussian regime at extremely short diffusion times whereas it exhibited a strong time dependency in the CTRW parameters at longer diffusion times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/math9141688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8356480PMC
July 2021

Effect of Intravenous Lidocaine on Serum Interleukin-17 After Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 3;15:3379-3390. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Surgical stress promotes tumor metastasis. Interleukin (IL)-17 plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, and high IL-17 expression predicts poor prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lidocaine may exert tumor-inhibiting effects. We hypothesize that intravenous lidocaine attenuates surgical stress and reduces serum IL-17 levels during video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) for NSCLC.

Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 60 early-stage NSCLC patients undergoing VATS, into a lidocaine group (n = 30; intravenous lidocaine bolus 1.0 mg/kg, and 1.0 mg/kg/h until the end of surgery) or a normal saline control group (n = 30). The primary outcome was serum IL-17 level at 24 hours postoperatively. The secondary outcomes included serum IL-17 level at the time of post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) discharge, serum cortisol level at PACU discharge and postoperative 24 hours, pain scores (0-10) from PACU discharge to 48 hours postoperatively, incidences of postoperative nausea and vomiting, dizziness, and arrhythmia during 0-48 hours postoperatively, and 30-day mortality. Long-term outcomes included chemotherapy, cancer recurrence, and mortality.

Results: The lidocaine group had lower serum IL-17 at 24 hours postoperatively compared with the control group (23.0 ± 5.8 pg/mL vs 27.3 ± 8.2 pg/mL, difference [95% CI] = -4.3 [-8.4 to -0.2] pg/mL; = 0.038). The lidocaine group also had reduced serum IL-17 (difference [95% CI] = -4.6 [-8.7 to -0.5] pg/mL), serum cortisol (difference [95% CI] = -37 [-73 to -2] ng/mL), and pain scores (difference [95% CI] = -0.7 [-1.3 to -0.1] points) at PACU discharge. During a median follow-up of 10 (IQR, 9-13) months, 2 patients in the lidocaine group and 6 patients in the control group received chemotherapy, one patient in the control group had cancer recurrence, and no death event occurred.

Conclusion: Intravenous lidocaine was associated with reduced serum IL-17 and cortisol following VATS procedures in early-stage NSCLC patients.

Trial Registration: ChiCTR2000030629.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S316804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8349198PMC
August 2021

A Tandem Organic Photovoltaic Cell with 19.6% Efficiency Enabled by Light Distribution Control.

Adv Mater 2021 Aug 8:e2102787. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P. R. China.

Despite more potential in realizing higher photovoltaic performance, the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of tandem organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells still lags behind that of state-of-the-art single-junction cells. In this work, highly efficient double-junction tandem OPV cells are fabricated by optimizing the photoactive layers with low voltage losses and developing an effective method to tune optical field distribution. The tandem OPV cells studied are structured as indium tin oxide (ITO)/ZnO/bottom photoactive layer/interconnecting layer (ICL)/top photoactive layer/MoO /Ag, where the bottom and top photoactive layers are based on blends of PBDB-TF:ITCC and PBDB-TF:BTP-eC11, respectively, and ICL refers to interconnecting layer structured as MoO /Ag/ZnO:PFN-Br. As these results indicate that there is not much room for optimizing the bottom photoactive layer, more effort is put into fine-tuning the top photoactive layer. By rationally modulating the composition and thickness of PBDB-TF:BTP-eC11 blend films, the 300 nm-thick PBDB-TF:BTP-eC11 film with 1:2 D/A ratio is found to be an ideal photoactive layer for the top sub-cell in terms of photovoltaic characteristics and light distribution control. For the optimized tandem cell, a PCE of 19.64% is realized, which is the highest result in the OPV field and certified as 19.50% by the National Institute of Metrology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202102787DOI Listing
August 2021

Males and Females Have Distinct Molecular Events in the Articular Cartilage during Knee Osteoarthritis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 23;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Division of Growth and Development, Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major public health challenge that imposes a remarkable burden on the affected individuals and the healthcare system. Based on the clinical observation, males and females have different prevalence rates and severity levels of OA. Thus, sex-based differences may play essential roles in OA's prognosis and treatment outcomes. To date, the comprehensive understanding of the relationship between sex and OA is still largely lacking. In the current study, we analyzed a published transcriptome dataset of knee articular cartilage (GSE114007) from 18 healthy (five females, 13 males) and 20 OA (11 females, nine males) donors to provide a slight insight into this important but complex issue. First, comparing female healthy cartilage samples with those of males revealed 36 differential expression genes (DEGs), indicating the fundamental sex-related differences at the molecular level. Meanwhile, 923 DEGs were distinguished between OA and healthy female cartilage, which can be enriched to 15 Reactome pathways. On the other hand, when comparing OA and healthy male cartilage, there are only 419 DEGs were identified, and only six pathways were enriched against the Reactome database. The different signaling response to OA in the male and female cartilage was further enforced by recognizing 50 genes with significantly different OA-responsive expression fold changes in males and females. Particularly, 14 Reactome pathways, such as "Extracellular matrix organization", "Collagen biosynthesis and modifying enzymes", "Dissolution of fibrin clot", and "Platelet Aggregation (Plug formation)", can be noted from these 50 sex-dependent OA-responsive genes. Overall, the current study explores the Sex as a Biological Variable (SABV) at the transcriptomic level in the knee articular cartilage in both healthy status and OA event, which could help predict the differential OA prognosis and treatment outcome of males and female patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8346087PMC
July 2021

In-plane simultaneous multisegment imaging using a 2D RF pulse.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Purpose: To develop an in-plane simultaneous multisegment (IP-SMS) imaging technique using a 2D-RF pulse and to demonstrate its ability to achieve high spatial resolution in EPI while reducing image distortion.

Methods: The proposed IP-SMS technique takes advantage of periodic replicates of the excitation profile of a 2D-RF pulse to simultaneously excite multiple segments within a slice. These segments were acquired over a reduced FOV and separated using a joint GRAPPA reconstruction by leveraging virtual coils that combined the physical coil sensitivity and 2D-RF pulse spatial response. Two excitations were used with complementary spatial response profiles to adequately cover a full FOV, producing a full-FOV image that had the benefits of reduced FOV with high spatial resolution and reduced distortion. The IP-SMS technique was implemented in a diffusion-weighted single-shot EPI sequence. Experimental demonstrations were performed on a phantom and healthy human brain.

Results: In the phantom experiment, IP-SMS enabled a four-fold acceleration using an eight-channel coil without causing residual aliasing artifacts. In the human brain experiment, diffusion-weighted images with high in-plane resolution (1 × 1 mm ) and substantially reduced image distortion were obtained in all imaging planes in comparison with a commercial diffusion-weighted EPI sequence. The capability of IP-SMS for contiguous whole-brain coverage was also demonstrated.

Conclusion: The proposed IP-SMS technique can realize the benefits of reduced-FOV imaging while achieving a full-FOV coverage with good image quality and time efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28956DOI Listing
August 2021

The factors associated with nosocomial infection in elderly hip fracture patients: gender, age, and comorbidity.

Int Orthop 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Orthopedics, Fourth Medical Center, General Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing, 100000, China.

Purpose: This is a retrospective case-control study to ascertain the factors influencing nosocomial infection (NI) in elderly patients with hip fractures.

Methods: A total of 80,174 patients (≥ 60 years) who suffered hip fractures between 2006 and 2017 were identified through a national inquiry of 94 hospitals. The patients were divided into an NI group and control group according to the occurrence or lack of occurrence of NI within 48 hours after surgery, respectively. Age, gender, hip fracture pattern, whether to operate, surgical treatments, and comorbidities were recorded as variables.

Results: A total of 9806 elderly hip fracture patients (60 years) were included, 1977 of whom were patients diagnosed with NI. The control group consisted of randomly drawn cases from the 9806 patients from different hospitals with a rate of one NI patient: four patients without NI. Patient gender, age, and in particular the number of comorbidities were associated with occurrence of NI. Using regression models to predict infection outcomes based on the number of comorbidities had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.714, while using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) yielded a smaller value of 0.694. The most common comorbidities of this elderly cohort were chronic respiratory disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, and coronary heart disease.

Conclusions: Older age, male gender, and greater number of comorbidities were found to be associated with the occurrence of NI. In particular, the number of comorbidities was the most accurate predictor of NI occurrence, and when used to build a regression model, it had greater predictive capability than CCI to predict NI in elderly hip fracture patients. Additionally, the common diseases of the elderly should be primarily considered when investigating the relationship between comorbidities and NI in older patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-021-05104-3DOI Listing
August 2021

Evaluation of a fractional-order calculus diffusion model and bi-parametric VI-RADS for staging and grading bladder urothelial carcinoma.

Eur Radiol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Center for MR Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, MC-707, Suite 1A, 1801 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA.

Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for distinguishing non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) from muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and low- from high-grade bladder urothelial carcinoma using a fractional-order calculus (FROC) model as well as a combination of FROC DWI and bi-parametric Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS).

Methods: Fifty-eight participants with bladder urothelial carcinoma were included in this IRB-approved prospective study. Diffusion-weighted images, acquired with 16 b-values (0-3600 s/mm), were analyzed using the FROC model. Three FROC parameters, D, β, and μ, were used for delineating NMIBC from MIBC and for tumor grading. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed based on the individual FROC parameters and their combinations, followed by comparisons with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and bi-parametric VI-RADS based on T2-weighted images and DWI.

Results: D and μ were significantly lower in the MIBC group than in the NMIBC group (p = 0.001 for each), and D, β, and μ all exhibited significantly lower values in the high- than in the low-grade tumors (p ≤ 0.011). The combination of D, β, and μ produced the highest specificity (85%), accuracy (78%), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC, 0.782) for distinguishing NMIBC and MIBC, and the best sensitivity (89%), specificity (86%), accuracy (88%), and AUC (0.892) for tumor grading, all of which outperformed the ADC. The combination of FROC parameters with bi-parametric VI-RADS improved the AUC from 0.859 to 0.931.

Conclusions: High b-value DWI with a FROC model is useful in distinguishing NMIBC from MIBC and grading bladder tumors.

Key Points: • Diffusion parameters derived from a FROC diffusion model may differentiate NMIBC from MIBC and low- from high-grade bladder urothelial carcinomas. • Under the condition of a moderate sample size, higher AUCs were achieved by the FROC parameters D (0.842) and μ (0.857) than ADC (0.804) for bladder tumor grading with p ≤ 0.046. • The combination of the three diffusion parameters from the FROC model can improve the specificity over ADC (85% versus 67%, p = 0.031) for distinguishing NMIBC and MIBC and enhance the performance of bi-parametric VI-RADS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08203-2DOI Listing
August 2021

The Relative Weight of Temporal Envelope Cues in Different Frequency Regions for Mandarin Disyllabic Word Recognition.

Front Neurosci 2021 15;15:670192. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Acoustic temporal envelope (E) cues containing speech information are distributed across all frequency spectra. To provide a theoretical basis for the signal coding of hearing devices, we examined the relative weight of E cues in different frequency regions for Mandarin disyllabic word recognition in quiet.

Design: E cues were extracted from 30 continuous frequency bands within the range of 80 to 7,562 Hz using Hilbert decomposition and assigned to five frequency regions from low to high. Disyllabic word recognition of 20 normal-hearing participants were obtained using the E cues available in two, three, or four frequency regions. The relative weights of the five frequency regions were calculated using least-squares approach.

Results: Participants correctly identified 3.13-38.13%, 27.50-83.13%, or 75.00-93.13% of words when presented with two, three, or four frequency regions, respectively. Increasing the number of frequency region combinations improved recognition scores and decreased the magnitude of the differences in scores between combinations. This suggested a synergistic effect among E cues from different frequency regions. The mean weights of E cues of frequency regions 1-5 were 0.31, 0.19, 0.26, 0.22, and 0.02, respectively.

Conclusion: For Mandarin disyllabic words, E cues of frequency regions 1 (80-502 Hz) and 3 (1,022-1,913 Hz) contributed more to word recognition than other regions, while frequency region 5 (3,856-7,562) contributed little.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.670192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320289PMC
July 2021

Bioprinting of dual ECM scaffolds encapsulating limbal stem/progenitor cells in active and quiescent statuses.

Biofabrication 2021 08 13;13(4). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, United States of America.

Limbal stem cell deficiency and corneal disorders are among the top global threats for human vision. Emerging therapies that integrate stem cell transplantation with engineered hydrogel scaffolds for biological and mechanical support are becoming a rising trend in the field. However, methods for high-throughput fabrication of hydrogel scaffolds, as well as knowledge of the interaction between limbal stem/progenitor cells (LSCs) and the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) are still much needed. Here, we employed digital light processing (DLP)-based bioprinting to fabricate hydrogel scaffolds encapsulating primary LSCs and studied the ECM-dependent LSC phenotypes. The DLP-based bioprinting with gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) or hyaluronic acid glycidyl methacrylate (HAGM) generated microscale hydrogel scaffolds that could support the viability of the encapsulated primary rabbit LSCs (rbLSCs) in culture. Immunocytochemistry and transcriptional analysis showed that the encapsulated rbLSCs remained active in GelMA-based scaffolds while exhibited quiescence in the HAGM-based scaffolds. The primary human LSCs encapsulated within bioprinted scaffolds showed consistent ECM-dependent active/quiescent statuses. Based on these results, we have developed a novel bioprinted dual ECM 'Yin-Yang' model encapsulating LSCs to support both active and quiescent statues. Our findings provide valuable insights towards stem cell therapies and regenerative medicine for corneal reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/ac1992DOI Listing
August 2021

Reoperation with Total Hysterectomy after Incomplete Surgery Is Helpful in Patients with Incidentally Diagnosed Uterine Leiomyosarcoma.

Gynecol Obstet Invest 2021 20;86(4):408-414. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of initial surgical treatments and surgical re-exploration on the oncological outcomes of patients with incidentally diagnosed uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS).

Design: A retrospective analysis of 87 patients who underwent re-exploration for incidentally diagnosed uLMS at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center was performed.

Methods: Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for analyses.

Results: The median age (range) at diagnosis was 49 (23-76) years. The median disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 15.1 and 56.7 months, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests showed the median DFS was longer in patients with restaging operation (N = 30) than without (N = 55) (p = 0.017) but no significant difference in median OS (p = 0.142). In patients who underwent myomectomy/subtotal hysterectomy, 5 patients (28.5%) had remnant sarcoma during re-exploration with complete uterine removal, and re-exploration was associated with longer DFS (p = 0.038) and OS (p = 0.042).

Limitations: The limitation of this study is its retrospective observational design with a limited number of patients.

Conclusion: Reoperation with total hysterectomy after incomplete surgery may be helpful in patients with incidentally diagnosed uLMS at the first treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515895DOI Listing
September 2021

Single-cell RNA-seq reveals cellular heterogeneity of mouse carotid artery under disturbed flow.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jul 16;7(1):180. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Cyrus Tang Hematology Center, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Disturbed blood flow (d-flow) has been known to induce changes of the cells in the arterial wall, increasing the risk of atherosclerosis. However, the heterogeneity of the vascular cell populations under d-flow remains less understood. To generate d-flow in vivo, partial carotid artery ligation (PCL) was performed. Seven days after ligation, single-cell RNA sequencing of nine left carotid arteries (LCA) from the PCL group (10,262 cells) or control group (14,580 cells) was applied and a single-cell atlas of gene expression was constructed. The integrated analysis identified 15 distinct carotid cell clusters, including 10 d-flow-relevant subpopulations. Among endothelial cells, at least four subpopulations were identified, including Klk8 ECs, Lrp1 ECs, Dkk2 ECs, and Cd36 ECs. Analysis of GSVA and single-cell trajectories indicated that the previously undescribed Dkk2 ECs subpopulation was mechanosensitive and potentially transformed from Klk8 ECs under d-flow. D-flow-induced Spp1 VSMCs subpopulation that appeared to be endowed with osteoblast differentiation, suggesting a role in arterial stiffness. Among the infiltrating cell subpopulations, Trem2 Mφ, Birc5 Mφ, DCs, CD4 T cells, CXCR6 T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes were identified under d-flow. Of note, the novel Birc5 Mφ was identified as a potential contributor to the accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerosis. Finally, Dkk2 ECs, and Cd36 ECs were also found in the proatherosclerotic area of the aorta where the d-flow occurs. In conclusion, we presented a comprehensive single-cell atlas of all cells in the carotid artery under d-flow, identified previously unrecognized cell subpopulations and their gene expression signatures, and suggested their specialized functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00567-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290019PMC
July 2021

A Neuronal Apoptosis Model induced by Spinal Cord Compression in Rat.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jun 29(172). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Spine Research Institute, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;

As a severe progressive degenerative disease, cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) has a poor prognosis and is associated with physical pain, stiffness, motor or sensory dysfunction, and a high risk of spinal cord injury and acroparalysis. Thus, therapeutic strategies that promote efficient spinal cord regeneration in this chronic and progressive disease are urgently needed. Effective and reproducible animal spinal cord compression models are required to understand the complex biological mechanism underlying CSM. Most spinal cord injury models reflect acute and structural destructive conditions, whereas animal models of CSM present a chronic compression in the spinal cord. This paper presents a protocol to generate a rat spinal cord compression model, which was further evaluated by assessing the behavioral score and observing the compressed spinal cord region. The behavioral assessments showed decreased monitor motor disability, including joint movements, stepping ability, coordination, trunk stability, and limb muscle strength. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunostaining revealed considerable neuronal apoptosis in the compressed region of the spinal cord.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/62604DOI Listing
June 2021

MRI with sub-millisecond temporal resolution over a reduced field of view.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Purpose: To demonstrate an MRI pulse sequence-Sub-millisecond Periodic Event Encoded Dynamic Imaging with a reduced field of view (or rFOV-SPEEDI)-for decreasing the scan times while achieving sub-millisecond temporal resolution.

Methods: rFOV-SPEEDI was based on a variation of SPEEDI, known as get-SPEEDI, which used each echo in an echo-train to sample a distinct k-space raster by synchronizing with a cyclic event. This can produce a set of time-resolved images of the cyclic event with a temporal resolution determined by the echo spacing (typically < 1 ms). rFOV-SPEEDI incorporated a 2D radiofrequency (RF) pulse into get-SPEEDI to limit the field of view (FOV), leading to reduction in phase-encoding steps and subsequently decreased scan times without compromising the spatial resolution. Two experiments were performed at 3T to illustrate rFOV-SPEEDI's capability of capturing fast-changing electric currents in a phantom and the rapid opening and closing of aortic valve in human subjects over reduced FOVs. The results were compared with those from full FOV get-SPEEDI.

Results: In the first experiment, the rapidly varying currents (50-200 Hz) were successfully captured with a temporal resolution of 0.8 ms, and agreed well with the applied currents. In the second experiment, the rapid opening and closing processes of aortic valve were clearly visualized with a temporal resolution of 0.6 ms over a reduced FOV (12 × 12 cm ). In both experiments, the acquisition times of rFOV-SPEEDI were decreased by 33%-50% relative to full FOV get-SPEEDI acquisitions and the spatial resolution was maintained.

Conclusion: Reducing the FOV is a viable approach to shortening the scan times in SPEEDI, which is expected to help stimulate SPEEDI applications for studying ultrafast, cyclic physiological and biophysical processes over a focal region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28924DOI Listing
July 2021

Correlation between C-Reactive Protein to Albumin Ratio and Disease Activity in Patients with Axial Spondyloarthritis.

Dis Markers 2021 12;2021:6642486. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510317, China.

Background: The C-reactive protein (CRP) to albumin (ALB) ratio (CAR) has emerged as a novel inflammatory biomarker. This study was designed to investigate the role of CAR in the disease activity of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA).

Methods: A total of 241 patients and 61 healthy controls were retrospectively enrolled in this study. AxSpA patients were further divided into the inactive group ( = 176) and active group ( = 65) according to Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) cutoff value of 4. Laboratory data and clinical assessment indices were recorded. Spearman's correlation analysis, receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis were performed.

Results: In axSpA patients, CAR was significantly higher than the healthy group ( < 0.001). Similarly, axSpA patients in the active group had higher CAR than the inactive group ( < 0.001). Besides, CAR was positively correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) ( = 0.704, < 0.001), CRP ( = 0.996, < 0.001), BASDAI ( = 0.329, < 0.001), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) ( = 0.330, < 0.001). ROC curve analysis suggested that the area under the curve (AUC) of CAR for axSpA of the active group was 0.701, which was higher than that of CRP and ESR. The optimal cutoff point of CAR for axSpA of the active group was 0.3644, with a sensitivity and specificity of 58.5% and 79.0%. Binary logistic analysis results revealed that CAR was an independent predictive factor for axSpA disease activity (odds ratio = 4.673, 95% CI: 1.423-15.348, = 0.011).

Conclusions: CAR was increased in axSpA and axSpA of the active group. CAR may be a novel and reliable indicator for axSpA disease activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6642486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216814PMC
June 2021

Intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy utilizing cisplatin inhibits bladder cancer by decreasing the fibrocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in an m6A-dependent manner.

Mol Immunol 2021 09 26;137:28-40. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Urology, Shanghai General Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC), using immunomodulatory cisplatin, is a novel treatment for bladder cancer (BC) that allows the delivery of specific drugs to the local malignant lesion. To explore the immunomodulatory effect of cisplatin during IAIC, we detected the proportion of immunosuppressed cells in BC tissue from eight BC patients, with the reduction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), more specifically fibrocytic-MDSCs (f-MDSCs). Further, we demonstrated that cisplatin inhibits their proliferation and immunosuppressive activity. f-MDSCs promote tumor proliferation and metastasis in the BC immune environment. Then, we analyzed the genetic differences detected in samples before and after chemotherapy and found that granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) decreased after IAIC. Furthermore, G-CSF methylation decreased following treatment with cisplatin. Specifically, treatment with cisplatin decreased the methylase (METTL3) levels in BC cells, which is important for G-CSF production. Collectively, cisplatin decreased the number of f-MDSCs during IAIC, by blocking G-CSF methylation via targeting METTL3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.06.012DOI Listing
September 2021

Optimizing Spatial Allocation of COVID-19 Vaccine by Agent-Based Spatiotemporal Simulations.

Geohealth 2021 Jun 1;5(6):e2021GH000427. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of Geography and Planning Sun Yat-sen University Guangzhou China.

Optimizing allocation of vaccine, a highly scarce resource, is an urgent and critical issue during fighting against on-going COVID-19 epidemic. Prior studies suggested that vaccine should be prioritized by age and risk groups, but few of them have considered the spatial prioritization strategy. This study aims to examine the spatial heterogeneity of COVID-19 transmission in the city naturally, and optimize vaccine distribution strategies considering spatial prioritization. We proposed an integrated spatial model of agent-based model and SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered). It simulated spatiotemporal process of COVID-19 transmission in a realistic urban context. Individual movements were represented by trajectories of 8,146 randomly sampled mobile phone users on December 28, 2016 in Guangzhou, China, 90% of whom aged 18-60. Simulations were conducted under seven scenarios. Scenarios 1 and 2 examined natural spreading process of COVID-19 and its final state of herd immunity. Scenarios 3-6 applied four vaccination strategies (random strategy, age strategy, space strategy, and space & age strategy), and identified the optimal vaccine strategy. Scenario 7 assessed the most appropriate vaccine coverage. The results demonstrates herd immunity is heterogeneously distributed in space, thus, vaccine intervention strategies should be spatialized. Among four strategies, space & age strategy is substantially most efficient, with 7.7% fewer in attack rate and 44 days longer than random strategy under 20% vaccine uptake. Space & age strategy requires 30%-40% vaccine coverage to control the epidemic, while the coverage for a random strategy is 60%-70% as a comparison. The application of our research would greatly improves the effectiveness of the vaccine usability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2021GH000427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207830PMC
June 2021

Identification of Somatic Genetic Alterations Using Whole-Exome Sequencing of Uterine Leiomyosarcoma Tumors.

Front Oncol 2021 11;11:687899. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Background: The genomic abnormalities associated with uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS) have not been fully elucidated to date.

Objective: To understand the pathogenesis of uLMS and to identify driver mutations and potential therapeutic targets in uLMS.

Methods: Three matched tumor-constitutional DNA pairs from patients with recurrent uLMS were subjected to whole-exome capture and next-generation sequencing. The role of the selected gene in uLMS was analyzed by the CCK-8 assay and colony formation assay after specific siRNA knockdown.

Results: We identified four genes with somatic SNVs, namely, SLC39A7, GPR19, ZNF717, and TP53, that could be driver mutations. We observed that 30.7% (4/13) of patients with uLMS had TP53 mutations as analyzed by direct sequencing. Analysis of somatic copy number variants (CNVs) showed regions of chromosomal gain at 1q21-23, 19p13, 17q21, and 17q25, whereas regions of chromosomal loss were observed at 2q35, 2q37, 1p36, 10q26, 6p22, 8q24, 11p15, 11q12, and 9p21. The gene was amplified in two patients and mutated in another (: NM_030974: exon2: c.G264C, p.E88D). Amplification of the gene was associated with shorter PFS and OS in soft tissue sarcoma, as shown by TCGA database analysis. Knockdown of expression was observed to decrease cell growth and colony formation in uterine sarcoma cell lines.

Conclusions: Exome sequencing revealed mutational heterogeneity of uLMS. The gene was amplified in uLMS and could be a candidate oncogene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.687899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226214PMC
June 2021

Neural networks underlying hyperkinetic seizures: A quantitative PET and SEEG study.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 09 18;122:108130. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tian Tan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery Laboratory, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Neurostimulation, Beijing, China; China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Hyperkinetic seizures (HKS) are characterized by complex movements that commonly occur during seizures arising from diverse cortical structures. A common semiology network may exist and analyzing the anatomo-electrical mechanisms would facilitate presurgical evaluation. Here, quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) and stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) analysis was used to explore the underlying mechanism of HKS.

Methods: We retrospectively collected patients with epilepsy with HKS between 2014 and 2019. The interictal PET data of patients with epilepsy with HKS were compared with those of 25 healthy subjects using statistical parametric mapping to identify regions with significant hypometabolism. Then, regions of interest (ROI) for SEEG analysis were identified based on the results of PET analysis. Patients in which the ROIs were covered by intracerebral electrodes were selected for further analysis. Stereoelectroencephalography -clinical correlations with latency measurements were analyzed, and we also performed coherence analysis among ROIs both before and during HKS.

Results: Based on the inclusion criteria, 27 patients were analyzed. In the PET analysis, significant hypometabolism was observed in the ipsilateral dorsoanterior insular lobe, bilateral mesial frontal lobes (supplementary motor area/middle cingulate cortex, SMA/MCC), and the bilateral heads of the caudate nuclei in patients with HKS compared with the control group (p < 0.001). We selected dorsoanterior insula and SMA/MCC as ROIs for SEEG analysis. Eight patients with 23 HKS events were selected for further analysis. There was a linear correlation between the ictal involvement of both the dorsoanterior insula and SMA/MCC with the onset of HKS. Stereoelectroencephalography analysis indicated alpha range activity seemed more often associated with dorsoanterior insula and SMA/MCC involvement during HKS.

Conclusions: The dorsoanterior insular lobe, mesial frontal lobes (SMA/MCC), and the bilateral heads of the caudate nuclei were probably involved in the generation of HKS. The SEEG analysis further indicated that the occurrence of HKS might be partly associated with synchronized rhythmical alpha activity between dorsoanterior insula and SMA/MCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108130DOI Listing
September 2021

GLIS1, a potential candidate gene affect fat deposition in sheep tail.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 May 16;48(5):4925-4931. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation & Breeding of Grassland Livestock, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, 010070, China.

Fat deposition in sheep tails is as a result of a complicated mechanism. Mongolian sheep (MG) and Small Tail Han sheep (STH) are two fat-tailed Chinese indigenous sheep breeds while DairyMeade and East Friesian (DS) are two thin-tailed dairy sheep breeds recently introduced to China. In this study, population genomics analysis was applied to identify candidate genes associated with sheep tails based on an in-depth whole-genome sequencing of MG, STH and DS. The selective signature analysis demonstrated that GLIS1, LOC101117953, PDGFD and T were in the significant divergent regions between DS and STH-MG. A nonsynonymous point mutation (g.27807636G>T) was found within GLIS1 in STH-MG and resulted in a Pro to Thr substitution. As a pro-adipogenic factor, GLIS1 may play critical roles in the mesodermal cell differentiation during fetal development affecting fat deposition in sheep tails. This study gives a new insight into the genetic basis of species-specific traits of sheep tails.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06468-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260413PMC
May 2021

Deep supervised learning using self-adaptive auxiliary loss for COVID-19 diagnosis from imbalanced CT images.

Neurocomputing 2021 Oct 7;458:232-245. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Information Processing of Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, China.

The outbreak and rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a huge impact on the lives and safety of people around the world. Chest CT is considered an effective tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of COVID-19. For faster examination, automatic COVID-19 diagnostic techniques using deep learning on CT images have received increasing attention. However, the number and category of existing datasets for COVID-19 diagnosis that can be used for training are limited, and the number of initial COVID-19 samples is much smaller than the normal's, which leads to the problem of class imbalance. It makes the classification algorithms difficult to learn the discriminative boundaries since the data of some classes are rich while others are scarce. Therefore, training robust deep neural networks with imbalanced data is a fundamental challenging but important task in the diagnosis of COVID-19. In this paper, we create a challenging clinical dataset (named COVID19-Diag) with category diversity and propose a novel imbalanced data classification method using deep supervised learning with a self-adaptive auxiliary loss (DSN-SAAL) for COVID-19 diagnosis. The loss function considers both the effects of data overlap between CT slices and possible noisy labels in clinical datasets on a multi-scale, deep supervised network framework by integrating the effective number of samples and a weighting regularization item. The learning process jointly and automatically optimizes all parameters over the deep supervised network, making our model generally applicable to a wide range of datasets. Extensive experiments are conducted on COVID19-Diag and three public COVID-19 diagnosis datasets. The results show that our DSN-SAAL outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and is effective for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in varying degrees of data imbalance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2021.06.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8180474PMC
October 2021

Mass spectrometry-based urinary metabolomics for exploring the treatment effects of Radix ginseng-Schisandra chinensis herb pair on Alzheimer's disease in rats.

J Sep Sci 2021 Aug 16;44(16):3158-3166. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, National Center of Mass Spectrometry in Changchun, Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, P. R. China.

Herb pairs are the unique combinations of two relatively fixed herbs, intrinsically convey the basic idea of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. The compatibility of Radix ginseng and Schisandra chinensis has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating Alzheimer's disease for many years. However, there are few studies on Radix ginseng-Schisandra chinensis herb pair, and the underlying action mechanism is still unclear. In this study, the mechanism of Radix ginseng-Schisandra chinensis herb pair on Alzheimer's disease was investigated by using the mass spectrometry-based urinary metabolomics method. Sixteen urinary endogenous metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers. Meanwhile, 10 biomarkers were quantified with tandem mass spectrometry. The study result showed that the brain pathologic symptoms of model rats were improved and the potential biomarkers were adjusted backward significantly after the herb pair administration. The metabolic pathways linked to the herb pair-regulated endogenous biomarkers included phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, purine metabolism, and so on. The above metabolic pathways reflected that Radix ginseng-Schisandra chinensis herb pair mainly regulates abnormal energy metabolism, reduces inflammation, and regulates gut microbiota and neurotransmitters in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202100061DOI Listing
August 2021

Value of total lesion glycolysis and cell-of-origin subtypes for prognostic stratification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Jun;11(6):2509-2520

Department of Hematology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Background: This study aimed to explore the added prognostic value of baseline metabolic volumetric parameters and cell of origin subtypes to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) in nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients.

Methods: A total of 184 consecutive nodal DLBCL patients who underwent baseline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were included in this study. Kaplan-Meier estimates were generated to evaluate the clinical, biological, and PET/CT parameters' prognostic value. The Cox proportional hazards model was performed to examine the potential independent predictors for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: With a median follow-up of 35 months, the 3-year PFS and OS were 65.2% and 73.0%, respectively. In univariate analysis, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), cell-of-origin subtypes, and NCCN-IPI were both PFS and OS predictors. High TLG (≥1,852), non-germinal center B (non-GCB), as well as high NCCN-IPI (≥4), were shown to be independently significantly associated with inferior PFS and OS after multivariate analysis. Based on the number of risk factors (high TLG, non-GCB, and high NCCN-IPI), a revised risk model was designed, and the participants were divided into four risk groups with very different outcomes, in which the PFS rates were 89.7%, 66.2%, 51.7%, and 26.7% (χ=30.179, P<0.001), and OS rates were 93.1%, 73.8%, 56.7%, and 43.3%, respectively (χ=23.649, P<0.001), respectively. Compared with the NCCN-IPI alone, the revised risk model showed a stronger ability to reveal further discrimination among subgroups, especially for participants with very unfavorable survival outcomes (PFS: χ=9.963, P=0.002; OS: χ=4.166, P=0.041, respectively).

Conclusions: The TLG, cell-of-origin subtypes, and NCCN-IPI are independent prognostic survival factors in DLBCL patients. Moreover, the revised risk model composed of the number of risk factors (high TLG, non-GCB, and high NCCN-IPI) can stratify patients better than the NCCN-IPI, especially for patients at high risk, which suggests its potential integration into decision making for personalized medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-1166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107342PMC
June 2021
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