Publications by authors named "Zhen-Wen Zhang"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Anthocyanin and Phenolic Acids Contents Influence the Color Stability and Antioxidant Capacity of Wine Treated With Mannoprotein.

Front Nutr 2021 18;8:691784. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Xianyang, China.

Wine is consumed by humans worldwide, but the functional components are lost and the color changes during its production. Here, we studied the effects of mannoprotein (MP) addition (0, 0.1, and 0.3 g/L) upon crushing and storage. We measured anthocyanins, phenolic acids profiles, color characteristics, and antioxidant activities of wine. The results showed that the addition of MP before fermentation significantly increased the total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content, total tannin content (TTC), total flavonoid content, and total flavanol content in wine, whereas the addition of MP during storage had the opposite effect. The addition of MP before alcohol fermentation significantly increased the amount of individual anthocyanins and individual phenolic acids, maintained the color, and increased the antioxidant capacity of wine. In addition, the addition of 0.3 g/L MP during storage increased the content of individual phenolic acids and TPC of wine. However, the addition of 0.1 g/L MP during storage significantly reduced the TPC, TAC, TTC, and individual anthocyanin content (except for malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-acetly-glucoside); meanwhile, the treatment attenuated the color stability and antioxidant capacity of wine. The results demonstrated that the addition of MP before alcohol fermentation could increase the functional components and improve the color stability and antioxidant capacity of wine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.691784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249586PMC
June 2021

TBHQ improved neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury by inhibiting the overactivation of astrocytes.

Brain Res 2020 07 7;1739:146818. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Academy of Medical Engineering and Translational Medicine, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. Electronic address:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major leading cause of death and long-term disability. Although astrocytes play a key role in neuroprotection after TBI in the early stage, the overactivation of astrocytes can lead to long-term functional deficits, and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. In addition, it is unknown whether the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor2/haem oxygenase-1 (Nrf-2/HO-1) pathway could elicit a neuroprotective effect by decreasing astrocyte overactivation after TBI. We aimed to study the effects of tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in reducing astrocyte overactivation after TBI and explored the underlying mechanisms. We first established a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model in rats and performed Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining to observe brain tissue damage. The cognitive function of rats was assessed by modified neurological severity scoring (mNSS) and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Astrocyte and microglia activation was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Oxidative stress conditions were investigated using Western blotting. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was designed to assess the level of the proinflammatory factor tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Dihydroethidium (DHE) staining was used to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS). Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The results showed that the administration of TBHQ ameliorated motor function and cognitive deficits and decreased the lesion volume. In addition, TBHQ significantly decreased astrocyte overactivation, diminished the pro-inflammatory phenotype M1 and inflammatory cytokines production after TBI, increased Nrf-2 nuclear accumulation, and enhanced the levels of the Nrf-2 downstream antioxidative genes HO-1 and NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1). Furthermore, TBHQ treatment alleviated apoptosis and neuronal death in the cerebral cortex. Overall, our data indicated that the upregulation of Nrf-2 expression could enhance neuroprotection and decrease astrocyte overactivation and might represent a new theoretical basis for treating TBI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2020.146818DOI Listing
July 2020

Cluster bagging promotes melatonin biosynthesis in the berry skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Carignan during development and ripening.

Food Chem 2020 Feb 10;305:125502. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, College of Enology/College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; Heyang Experimental and Demonstrational Stations for Grape, Northwest A&F University, Heyang, Shaanxi 715300, China. Electronic address:

Melatonin, a tryptophan derivative, is an important functional component in grape berries. We investigated the effect of cluster bagging on melatonin biosynthesis in the berries of two wine grape cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Carignan, during fruit development and ripening. Cluster bagging delayed fruit coloring and ripening, and bag-treated berries of both grape cultivars synthesized more melatonin and most of the precursor compounds including L-tryptophan, N-acetylserotonin, tryptamine, and serotonin compared to those exposed to light (control) conditions. Interestingly, 5-methoxytryptamine was only detected in the berries of Carignan and not of Cabernet Sauvignon, both in the cluster bagging and control groups. In addition, melatonin and most of its precursors, decreased after veraison. VvSNAT1 and VvT5H expression levels were positively correlated with melatonin content. Our findings suggested that melatonin synthesis pathways differ among grape cultivars, and that VvSNAT1 and VvT5H may show key regulatory roles in the melatonin synthesis of grape berries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125502DOI Listing
February 2020

MicroRNAs in the Progress of Diabetic Nephropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 7;2019:3513179. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Background: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing literature to evaluate the different outcomes of microRNAs (miRNAs) in diabetic nephropathy (DN), including urinary albumin excretion rates, urinary albumin creatinine rates, glomerular filtration rate, HbAc1, and creatinine.

Methods: Electronic databases including PUBMED, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched for eligible publications to July 2018. The following comparisons between treatment groups were included: normal group versus DN group; control group versus micro/macroalbuminuria group.

Results: Twelve eligible studies that included 2500 participants were finally recruited in this meta-analysis. Fifteen miRNAs (miRNA-21, miRNA-181b, miRNA-194, miRNA-30, miRNA-215, and others) were upregulated whereas seven miRNAs (miRNA-26a, miRNA-126, miRNA-424, miRNA-574-3p, miR-223, miR-155, and miR-192) were downregulated in the DN group compared with control groups. The miR-133b, miR-342, miR-30, miR-192, miR-194, and miR-215 were significantly correlated in urinary albumin excretion rates (r=0.33, 95% CI= 0.26-0.39). miR-192, miR-217, miR-15b, miR-34a, and miR-636 were correlated with urinary albumin creatinine rates (r=0.69; 95% CI=0.12-0.92), while miR-133b, miR-345, miR-33, miR-326, miR-574-3p, miR-126, miR-217, miR-15b, miR-34a, and miR-636 were significantly correlated with HbAc1 (r =0.23, 95% CI = 0.15-0.31). There were twelve miRNAs that were closely related to the glomerular filtration rate (r=0.28, 95% CI =0.21-0.34). Creatinine (r=0.33, 95% CI = 0.22-0.40) was significantly different between normal and DN groups.

Conclusions: The meta-analysis acquired the correlations between miRNAs and outcomes including UAER, UACR, eGFR, HbAc1, and creatinine in DN. It suggested that miRNAs may participate in the pathogenesis of DN process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3513179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431481PMC
March 2019

Exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide alleviates oxidative damage from copper stress in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cuttings.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Sep 26;130:555-565. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China; Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Yangling, 712100, China. Electronic address:

Copper (Cu) stress is the most common abiotic stress experienced in vineyards owing to the copper-based fungicides application. Plant hormones, including 24-Epibrassinolide (EBR), may alleviate the adverse impacts of heavy metal stress on plants. We investigated the effects of EBR pretreatment on root morphological parameters, active oxygen metabolism, osmolytes contents, antioxidant enzyme activity, endogenous phytohormone contents, and ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle activity of one-year-old grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cuttings under Cu stress. Pretreatment with EBR significantly enhanced root morphological parameters (total root length, root surface area, root diameter, root volume, and tip number), increased soluble protein and proline contents, and significantly decreased the contents of HO, O, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in roots and leaves. EBR pretreatment increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase oxidase (POD), and the contents of the endogenous phytohormones abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid in the leaves. In addition, EBR regulated the balance of the AsA-GSH cycle by increasing the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), glutathione peroxidase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and the contents of the antioxidant ascorbate (AsA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), but the contents of glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) decreased. Among the treatments tested, pretreatment with 0.10 mg/L EBR showed the optimal performance for alleviation of Cu toxicity. The results show that exogenous brassinosteroids reduce oxidative damage and improve the tolerance of Cu stress of grapevine cuttings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.07.029DOI Listing
September 2018

A Preliminary Study of Aroma Composition and Impact Odorants of Cabernet Franc Wines under Different Terrain Conditions of the Loess Plateau Region (China).

Molecules 2018 May 5;23(5). Epub 2018 May 5.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Due to its appropriate climate characteristics, the Loess Plateau region is considered to be one of the biggest optimal regions for producing high-quality mountain wine in China. However, the complex landform conditions of vineyards are conducive to the formation of mountainous microclimates, which ultimately influence the wine quality. This study aimed to elucidate the influences of three terrain conditions of the Loess Plateau region on the aroma compounds of Cabernet Franc wines by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 40, 36 and 35 volatiles were identified and quantified from the flat, lower slope and higher slope vineyards, respectively. Esters were the largest group of volatiles, accounting for 54.6⁻56.6% of total volatiles, followed by alcohols. Wines from the slope lands had the higher levels of aroma compounds than that from flat land. According to their aroma-active values (OAVs), ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate and isoamyl acetate were the most powerful compounds among the eight impact odorants, showing only quantitative but not qualitative differences between the three terrain wines. The shapes of the OAVs for three terrain wines were very similar.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6100157PMC
May 2018

Melatonin in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs: A review.

Food Chem 2017 Sep 24;231:185-191. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

A decade has passed since melatonin was first reported in grapes in 2006. During this time, melatonin has not only been found in the berries of most wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, but also in most grape-related foodstuffs, e.g. wine, grape juice and grape vinegar. In this review, we discuss the melatonin content in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs (especially wine) from previous studies, the physiological function of melatonin in grapes, and the factors contributing to the production of melatonin in grapes and wines. In addition, we identify future research needed to clarify the mechanisms of grape melatonin biosynthesis and regulation, and establish more accurate analysis methods for melatonin in grapes and wines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.03.137DOI Listing
September 2017

Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

Molecules 2015 Oct 19;20(10):18967-87. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

College of Enology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shannxi, China.

Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG), Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP), and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK), on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant) analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3'5'-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3'5'-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3'5'/3'-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of China and potentially in other rainy regions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules201018967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332443PMC
October 2015

Brassinosteroids are involved in controlling sugar unloading in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' berries during véraison.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2015 Sep 15;94:197-208. Epub 2015 Jun 15.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China; Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

Sugar unloading in grape berries is a crucial step in the long-distance transport of carbohydrates from grapevine leaves to berries. Brassinosteroids (BRs) mediate many physiological processes in plants including carbohydrate metabolism. Here, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries cultivated in clay loam fields were treated with an exogenous BR (24-epibrassinolide; EBR), a BR synthesis inhibitor (brassinazole; Brz), Brz + EBR (sprayed with EBR 24 h after a Brz treatment), and deionized water (control) at the onset of véraison. The EBR treatment sharply increased the soluble sugars content in the berries, but decreased it in the skins. The EBR and Brz + EBR treatments significantly promoted the activities of both invertases (acidic and neutral) and sucrose synthase (sucrolytic) at various stages of ripening. The mRNA levels of genes encoding sucrose metabolic invertase (VvcwINV), and monosaccharide (VvHT3, 4, 5 and 6) and disaccharide (VvSUC12 and 27) transporters were increased by the EBR and/or Brz + EBR treatments. Generally, the effects of the Brz treatment on the measured targets contrasted with the effects of the EBR treatments. The EBR and Brz treatments inhibited the biosynthesis of the endogenous BRs 6-deoxocastastarone and castasterone. Both EBR and Brz + EBR treatments increased the brassinolide contents, down-regulated the expression of genes encoding BRs biosynthetic enzymes BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE and DWARF1, (VvBR6OX1 and VvDWF1) and induced BR receptor gene BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (VvBRI1) expression in deseeded berries. Together, these results show that BRs are involved in controlling sugar unloading in grape berries during véraison.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2015.06.005DOI Listing
September 2015

Melatonin treatment of pre-veraison grape berries to increase size and synchronicity of berries and modify wine aroma components.

Food Chem 2015 Oct 4;185:127-34. Epub 2015 Apr 4.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

A comprehensive investigation was carried out to determine the effect of exogenous melatonin treatment of pre-veraison grapes on grape berries and its wines. Two melatonin treatments of pre-veraison grape berries increased the weight of the berries by approximately 6.6%. Meanwhile, this melatonin treatment could be beneficial in the reduction of underripe and overripe fruits and in enhancing the synchronicity of the berries. In addition, there were significant differences in the volatile compound composition between the wine produced from the melatonin-treated berries and the wines made from untreated berries. The wine from melatonin-treated pre-veraison grape berries had stronger fruity, spicy, and sweet sensory properties, compared to the wines made from untreated berries. Prolonging the treatment through repeated applications can enhance these effects and under different seasonal conditions, more pronounced effects on the grape quality and wine properties can be observed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.140DOI Listing
October 2015

Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

Molecules 2015 Feb 2;20(2):2536-54. Epub 2015 Feb 2.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules20022536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6272641PMC
February 2015

Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

Molecules 2014 Sep 2;19(9):13683-703. Epub 2014 Sep 2.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes in different regions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules190913683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6271934PMC
September 2014

The ameliorative effects of exogenous melatonin on grape cuttings under water-deficient stress: antioxidant metabolites, leaf anatomy, and chloroplast morphology.

J Pineal Res 2014 Sep 26;57(2):200-12. Epub 2014 Jul 26.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Grapes are an important economic crop and are widely cultivated around the world. Most grapes are grown in arid or semi-arid regions, and droughts take a heavy toll in grape and wine production areas. Developing effective drought-resistant cultivation measures is a priority for viticulture. Melatonin, an indoleamine, mediates many physiological processes in plants. Herein, we examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve the resistance of wine grape seedlings grown from cuttings to polyethylene glycol-induced water-deficient stress. The application of 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG) markedly inhibited the growth of cuttings, caused oxidative stress and damage from H2 O2 and O2∙-, and reduced the potential efficiency of Photosystem II and the amount of chlorophyll. Application of melatonin partially alleviated the oxidative injury to cuttings, slowed the decline in the potential efficiency of Photosystem II, and limited the effects on leaf thickness, spongy tissue, and stoma size after application of PEG. Melatonin treatment also helped preserve the internal lamellar system of chloroplasts and alleviated the ultrastructural damage induced by drought stress. This ameliorating effect may be ascribed to the enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes, increased levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants, and increased amount of osmoprotectants (free proline). We conclude that the application of melatonin to wine grapes is effective in reducing drought stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12159DOI Listing
September 2014

Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of young wines made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes treated by 24-epibrassinolide.

Molecules 2014 Jul 14;19(7):10189-207. Epub 2014 Jul 14.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6271388PMC
July 2014

Randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in Chinese patients with hyponatremia caused by SIADH.

J Clin Pharmacol 2014 Dec;54(12):1362-7

Department of Endocrinology, Key laboratory of endocrinology, Ministry of Health, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academe of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

To study the effect of tolvaptan on non-acute, non-hypovolemic hyponatremia in inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) syndrome in Chinese patients. Hyponatremic SIADH patients received placebo (N = 18) or tolvaptan (N = 19) at an initial dose of 15 mg/day with further titration to 30 mg/day and 60 mg/day based on serum sodium concentrations. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Primary endpoint was the change of the serum sodium from baseline to days 4 and 7. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for statistical analysis. At day 4, average daily changes in serum sodium levels from baseline was 1.9 ± 2.9 mmol/L (1.9 ± 2.9 mEq/L) in the placebo group and 8.1 ± 3.6 mmol/L (8.1 ± 3.6 mEq/L) in the tolvaptan group; at day 7, the values were 2.5 ± 3.9 mmol/L (2.5 ± 3.9 mEq/L) and 8.6 ± 3.9 mmol/L (8.6 ± 3.9 mmEq/L) for the placebo and tolvaptan groups (ANCOVA, P < 0.001). At days 4 and 7, daily urine output and proportions of patients with normalized serum sodium were significantly superior in the tolvaptan group. The most common adverse events occurring in the tolvaptan group were dry mouth and thirst. Tolvaptan demonstrated superiority to placebo in the treatment of Chinese SIADH patients with hyponatremia by elevating serum sodium concentration with acceptable safety profile.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.342DOI Listing
December 2014

Regulating the secondary metabolism in grape berry using exogenous 24-epibrassinolide for enhanced phenolics content and antioxidant capacity.

Food Chem 2013 Dec 7;141(3):3056-65. Epub 2013 Jun 7.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of application of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins and phenolics content of Vitis vinifera grape berry (cvs. Yan 73 and Cabernet Sauvignon). The grapevine clusters were sprayed with 0 (control), 0.10, 0.40, or 0.80 mg/l of 24-epibrassinolide during veraison, respectively. The EBR application increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), the content of total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins, individual anthocyanins and the antioxidant capacity of matured grape skins in both varieties. The application also increased the content of flavonoids and anthocyanins in Yan73 pulp. Compared to the other treatments, the treatment of EBR at 0.40 mg/l had significantly higher level than the control in all above assays. Our results indicated that the exogenous EBR treatment can significantly promote grape ripening and enhance anthocyanins and other phenolics contents and antioxidant capacity in the grape skin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.05.137DOI Listing
December 2013

Varietal differences among the phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of four cultivars of spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) in Chongyi County (China).

Food Chem 2012 Oct 9;134(4):2049-56. Epub 2012 Apr 9.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

Spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) is an important wild plant species in South China. To provide sufficient experimental evidence for the strong antioxidant activity of spine grapes, four cultivars from Chongyi County, China, including three red varieties (Junzi #1, Junzi #2, and Liantang) and one white variety (Baiyu) were evaluated. The Junzi #1 had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids, flavanols, and anthocyanins) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, cupric-reducing capacity and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity) among the four varieties. HPLC analysis of spine grapes revealed that the (+)-catechin was the most abundant phenolics and the hydroxycinnamic acids were the major phenolic acids in the four varieties. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the Junzi #1 belongs to the group with high phenolic content and strong antioxidant power. The results suggest the Junzi #1 has the best health promoting properties, and the higher utilization value and potential for development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.005DOI Listing
October 2012

The proliferative role of insulin and the mechanism underlying this action in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

J BUON 2012 Oct-Dec;17(4):658-62

Endocrine Department, Subei People's Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Nantong West Road NO 98, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225001, China.

Purpose: To explore the proliferative role of insulin and the potential mechanism in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

Methods: MCF-7 cells were treated with different concentrations of insulin. Morphological observation and methylthiazolyltetrazolium (MTT) assay were used to detect the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. The expression of insulin receptor mRNA was detected by RT-PCR, with or without mitogen activated kinase (MAPK) signals blocked by their inhibitors: SP600125, the inhibitor of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and PD98059, the inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated (ERK1/2).

Results: Insulin increased the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-independent manner. Western blotting implicated that 100 nM insulin induced activation of JNK and ERK. The expression of phosphorylated JNK was detected within 5 min after insulin treatment and sustained for an hour, while ERK was activated later than JNK, at the 30th min after insulin treatment. Then we reevaluated the proliferative effect promoted by insulin after MAPK signaling pathway was blocked by its inhibitors. The results showed that after inhibiting the activities of JNK and ERK, the proliferative effect of insulin was also attenuated. Western blot results showed that, while blocking the MAPK signaling pathway, 10 μM (ERK pathway inhibitor) could significantly inhibit phosphorylated activation of ERK1/2 with 200 nM insulin at 30 min, while no obvious inhibition with 20 μM SP600125 (JNK pathway inhibitor) of phosphorylated activation of ERK1/2 was noticed.

Conclusion: It seems that insulin can stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro. MAPK signal transduction pathway involves the proliferative effect, which also regulates the expression of insulin receptor, mediates and amplifies the insulin signaling pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
April 2013

Effect of rain-shelter cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the phenolic profile of berry skins and the incidence of grape diseases.

Molecules 2012 Dec 27;18(1):381-97. Epub 2012 Dec 27.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of "Cabernet Gernischet" grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18010381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6270002PMC
December 2012

Exogenously applied abscisic acid to Yan73 (V. vinifera) grapes enhances phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2013 Jun 23;64(4):444-51. Epub 2012 Nov 23.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, PR China.

Yan73 is a 'teinturier' red wine variety cultivated in China and widely used in winemaking to strengthen red wine colour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applied to the grapevine cluster on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the wine made from Yan73. Two hundred mg/l ABA was applied on Yan73 grapevine cluster during veraison. As they mature, these ABA-treated and untreated grape berries were transformed into wines, respectively, and the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these wines were compared. The results showed that phenolic content (total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity were higher in the wine produced with ABA-treated Yan73 grapes than those in the wine from untreated grapes. Compared to Cabernet Sauvignon wine, Yan73 wine had higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant capacity. These strongly suggest that exogenously applied ABA to Yan73 grapes can enhance phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine, and Yan73 wine has the higher utilization value and potential for development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2012.746291DOI Listing
June 2013

Comparison on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of cabernet sauvignon and merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China.

Molecules 2012 Jul 25;17(8):8804-21. Epub 2012 Jul 25.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA) and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside) revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules17088804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6268136PMC
July 2012

Paraventricular nucleus corticotrophin releasing hormone contributes to sympathoexcitation via interaction with neurotransmitters in heart failure.

Basic Res Cardiol 2011 May 2;106(3):473-83. Epub 2011 Feb 2.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, China.

Recent studies indicate that systemic administration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induces increases in corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH type 1 receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). In this study, we explored the hypothesis that CRH in the PVN contributes to sympathoexcitation via interaction with neurotransmitters in heart failure (HF). Sprague-Dawley rats with HF or sham-operated controls (SHAM) were treated for 4 weeks with a continuous bilateral PVN infusion of the selective CRH-R1 antagonist NBI-27914 or vehicle. Rats with HF had higher levels of glutamate, norepinephrine (NE) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and lower levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67) in the PVN when compared to SHAM rats. Plasma levels of cytokines, NE, ACTH and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were increased in HF rats. Bilateral PVN infusions of NBI-27914 attenuated the decreases in PVN GABA and GAD67, and the increases in RSNA, ACTH and PVN glutamate, NE and TH observed in HF rats. These findings suggest that CRH in the PVN modulates neurotransmitters and contributes to sympathoexcitation in rats with ischemia-induced HF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-011-0155-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3118407PMC
May 2011

Treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease.

Neurosci Bull 2010 Feb;26(1):66-76

Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, the General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces , Beijing 100039, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by progressive degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), resulting in the deficiency of DA in the striatum. Thus, symptoms are developed, such as akinesia, rigidity and tremor. The aetiology of neuronal death in PD still remains unclear. Several possible mechanisms of the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons are still elusive. Various mechanisms of neuronal degeneration in PD have been proposed, including formation of free radicals, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, calcium cytotoxicity, trophic factor deficiency, inflammatory processes, genetic factors, environmental factors, toxic action of nitric oxide, and apoptosis. All these factors interact with each other, inducing a vicious cycle of toxicity causing neuronal dysfunction, atrophy and finally cell death. Considerable evidence suggests that free radicals and oxidative stress may play key roles in the pathogenesis of PD. However, currently, drug therapy cannot completely cure the disease. DA replacement therapy with levodopa (L-Dopa), although still being a gold standard for symptomatic treatment of PD, only alleviates the clinical symptoms. Furthermore, patients usually experience severe side effects several years after the L-Dopa treatment. Until now, no therapy is available to stop or at least slow down the neurodegeneration in patients. Therefore, efforts are made not only to improve the effect of L-Dopa treatment for PD, but also to investigate new drugs with both antiparkinsonian and neuroprotective effects. Here, the advantages and limitations of current and future therapies for PD were dicussed. Current therapies include dopaminergic therapy, DA agonists, MAO-B inhibitor, COMT inhibitors, anticholinergic drugs, surgical procedures such as pallidotomy and more specifically deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN), and stem cell transplantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-010-0302-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5552548PMC
February 2010
-->