Publications by authors named "Zhen Zhu"

401 Publications

RNA-seq reveal RNA binding protein GNL3 as a key mediator in the development of psoriasis vulgaris by regulating the IL23/IL17 axis.

Life Sci 2021 Sep 3:119902. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Deparment of Dermatology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, China. Electronic address:

Background: Psoriasis is a systemic chronic inflammatory skin disorder that was prone to recurrence. The RNA binding protein GNL3 has an important function in maintaining the proliferative ability of stem cells, and its overexpression leads to apoptosis. GNL3 is expressed in the epidermis, however, its regulatory mechanism in psoriasis vulgaris is still poorly understood.

Objective: To identify the role of GNL3 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris.

Materials And Methods: RNA-seq was performed to obtain the data of genes' expression and splicing events in Hela cells after shGNL3 and shCtrl was transferred. High quality results of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and alternative splicing events (ASEs) were further attained by quality control and analysis. Through the functional enrichment analysis of DEGs and ASEs, the regulating effect of GNL3 was discussed, and the hypothesis was further confirmed in HaCat cells and psoriasis lesions.

Results: The mRNA expression of IL23A in Hela cells was upregulated in GNL3 knockdown, and the ratio of ASE occurred in TNFAIP3 was increased. However, in HaCaT cells, the mRNA expression level of IL23A was downregulated in GNL3 knockdown, and the ratio of ASE of TNFAIP3 was decreased. Additionally, the results obtained in HaCaT cells was further validated in the lesional psoriatic skin.

Conclusion: GNL3 takes an important part in the development of psoriasis vulgaris by regulating the IL23/IL17 axis, which may serve as the basis of effective targeted treatment in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119902DOI Listing
September 2021

QTL mapping for starch paste viscosity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) using chromosome segment substitution lines derived from two sequenced cultivars with the same Wx allele.

BMC Genomics 2021 Aug 5;22(1):596. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Institute of Food Crops, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jiangsu High Quality Rice R&D Center, Nanjing Branch of China National Center for Rice Improvement, Nanjing, 210014, China.

Background: The eating and cooking qualities (ECQs) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) are key characteristics affecting variety adoption and market value. Starch viscosity profiles tested by a rapid visco analyzer (RVA) offer a direct measure of ECQs and represent the changes in viscosity associated with starch gelatinization. RVA profiles of rice are controlled by a complex genetic system and are also affected by the environment. Although Waxy (Wx) is the major gene controlling amylose content (AC) and ECQs, there are still other unknown genetic factors that affect ECQs.

Results: Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for starch paste viscosity in rice were analyzed using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) developed from the two cultivars 9311 and Nipponbare, which have same Wx-b allele. Thus, the effect of the major locus Wx was eliminated and the other locus associated with the RVA profile could be identified. QTLs for seven parameters of the starch RVA profile were tested over four years in Nanjing, China. A total of 310 QTLs were identified (from 1 to 55 QTLs per trait) and 136 QTLs were identified in more than one year. Among them, 6 QTLs were stalely detected in four years and 26 QTLs were detected in at least three years including 13 pleiotropic loci, controlling 2 to 6 RVA properties simultaneously. These stable QTL hotspots were co-located with several known starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs). Sequence alignments showed that nucleotide and amino acid sequences of most SSRGs were different between the two parents. Finally, we detected stable QTLs associated with multiple starch viscosity traits near Wx itself, supporting the notion that additional QTLs near Wx control multiple characteristic values of starch viscosity.

Conclusions: By eliminating the contribution from the major locus Wx, multiple QTLs associated with the RVA profile of rice were identified, several of which were stably detected over four years. The complexity of the genetic basis of rice starch viscosity traits might be due to their pleiotropic effects and the multiple QTL hot spots. Minor QTLs controlling starch viscosity traits were identified by using the chromosome segment substitution strategy. Allele polymorphism might be the reason that QTLs controlling RVA profile characteristics were detected in some known SSRG regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07913-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340499PMC
August 2021

Virulence factors and molecular characteristics of Shigella flexneri isolated from calves with diarrhea.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Jul 16;21(1):214. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Key Laboratory of New Animal Drug Project of Gansu Province, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Development of the Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences of CAAS, Jiangouyan, Qilihe District, 730050, Lanzhou, China.

Background: The natural hosts of Shigella are typically humans and other primates, but it has been shown that the host range of Shigella has expanded to many animals. Although Shigella is becoming a major threat to animals, there is limited information on the genetic background of local strains. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of virulence factors and the molecular characteristics of S. flexneri isolated from calves with diarrhea.

Results: Fifty-four S. flexneri isolates from Gansun, Shanxi, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Tibet obtained during 2014 to 2016 possessed four typical biochemical characteristics of Shigella. The prevalences of ipaH, virA, ipaBCD, ial, sen, set1A, set1B and stx were 100 %, 100 %, 77.78 %, 79.63 %, 48.15 %, 48.15 and 0 %, respectively. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) based on 8 variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci discriminated the isolates into 39 different MLVA types (MTs), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) based on NotI digestion divided the 54 isolates into 31 PFGE types (PTs), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on 15 housekeeping genes differentiated the isolates into 7 MLST sequence types (STs).

Conclusions: The findings from this study enrich our knowledge of the molecular characteristics of S. flexneri collected from calves with diarrhea, which will be important for addressing clinical and epidemiological issues regarding shigellosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02277-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285881PMC
July 2021

Epidemiologic Features, Radiological Findings andClinical Outcomes of 19 Patients with COVID-19in a Single Center in Beijing, China.

Chin Med Sci J 2021 Jun;36(2):85-96

Department of Radiology,Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

ObjectiveTo describe the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and prognoses of COVID-19 confirmed patients in a single center in Beijing, China. Methods The study retrospectively included 19 patients with nucleic acid-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at our hospital from January 20 to March 5, 2020. The final follow-up date was March 14, 2020. The epidemiologic and clinical information was obtained through direct communication with the patients or their family members. Laboratory results retrieved from medical records and radiological images were analyzed both qualitatively by two senior chest radiologists as well as quantitatively via an artificial intelligence software. Results We identified 5 family clusters (13/19, 68.4%) from the study cohort. All cases had good clinical prognoses and were either mild (3/19) or moderate (16/19) clinical types. Fever (15/19, 78.9%) and dry cough (11/19, 57.9%) were common symptoms. Two patients received negative results for more than three consecutive viral nucleic acid tests. The longest interval between an initial CT abnormal finding and a confirmed diagnosis was 30 days. One patient's nucleic acid test turned positive on the follow-up examination after discharge. The presence of radiological abnormalities was non-specific for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Conclusions COVID-19 patients with mild or no clinical symptoms are common in Beijing, China. Radiological abnormalities are mostly non-specific and massive CT examinations for COVID-19 screening should be avoided. Analyses of the contact histories of diagnosed cases in combination with clinical, radiological and laboratory findings are crucial for the early detection of COVID-19. Close monitoring after discharge is also recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24920/003821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265916PMC
June 2021

Genetic analysis of human parainfluenza virus type 4 associated with severe acute respiratory infection in children in Luohe City, Henan Province, China, during 2017-2018.

Arch Virol 2021 Sep 6;166(9):2585-2590. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

WHO WPRO Regional Reference Measles/Rubella Laboratory, NHC Key Laboratory of Medical Virology and Viral Diseases (National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), 155# Changbai Road, Changping District, Beijing, 102200, China.

During 2017-2018, nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) from 627 hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection at Luohe Center Hospital were tested by RT-PCR for human parainfluenza virus 4 (HPIV-4). Fourteen (2.2%) of the 627 samples were positive for HPIV-4. The complete HN gene was amplified from nine positive samples and sequenced. Sequence comparisons showed that the HPIV-4 strains circulating in the city of Luohe are closely related to HPIV-4A strains. Our study indicated that there were multiple lineages of HPIV-4 circulating in Henan Province in China during the study period. This will improve our understanding of the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of HPIV-4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-05154-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8321989PMC
September 2021

Conductive Polymer (Graphene/PPy)-BiPO Composite Applications in Humidity Sensors.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jun 20;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 20.

NTRC-MCETRC and Aarshanano Composite Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh 522201, India.

In this particular experiment, a chain of conductive polymer graphene/polypyrrole (Gr/PPy) and BiPO-or (Gr/PPy)-BiPO-materials were prepared and used as moisture-sensitive materials. The structure and morphology of the conductive polymer (Gr/PPy)-BiPO materials were analyzed using an X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Moreover, properties such as hysteresis loop, impedance, sensing response, and response and recovery time were calculated and evaluated using an inductance-capacitance-resistance analyzer. The data expressed that PPy/BiPO, as prepared in this study, exhibited excellent sensing properties, with impedance changing by only a few orders of range. Furthermore, the response time and time of recovery were 340 s and 60 s, respectively, and negligible humidity hysteresis occurred at different relative humidities. Therefore, conductive PPy/BiPO, as prepared in the present study, is an excellent candidate for application in humidity sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13122013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233805PMC
June 2021

ULECGNet: An Ultra-Lightweight End-to-End ECG Classification Neural Network.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Jun 18;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

ECG classification is a key technology in intelligent ECG monitoring. In the past, traditional machine learning methods such as SVM and KNN have been used for ECG classification, but with limited classification accuracy. Recently, the end-to-end neural network has been used for the ECG classification and shows high classification accuracy. However, the end-to-end neural network has large computational complexity including a large number of parameters and operations. Although dedicated hardware such as FPGA and ASIC can be developed to accelerate the neural network, they result in large power consumption, large design cost, or limited flexibility. In this work, we have proposed an ultra-lightweight end-to-end ECG classification neural network which has extremely low computational complexity (~8.2k parameters & ~227k MUL/ADD operations) and can be squeezed into a low-cost MCU (i.e. microcontroller) while achieving 99.1% overall classification accuracy. This outperforms the state-of-the-art ECG classification neural network. Implemented on a low-cost MCU (i.e. MSP432), the proposed design consumes only 0.4 mJ and 3.1 mJ per heartbeat classification for normal and abnormal heartbeats respectively for real-time ECG classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2021.3090421DOI Listing
June 2021

CBX7 suppresses urinary bladder cancer progression via modulating AKR1B10-ERK signaling.

Cell Death Dis 2021 05 25;12(6):537. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Laboratory Animal Science, Fudan University, 200032, Shanghai, China.

The chromobox (CBX) proteins mediate epigenetic gene silencing and have been implicated in the cancer development. By analyzing eight CBX family members in TCGA dataset, we found that chromobox 7 (CBX7) was the most strikingly downregulated CBX family member in urinary bladder cancer (UBC), as compared to normal tissues. Though dysregulation of CBX7 has been reported in multiple cancers, its specific role and clinical relevance in UBC remain unclear. Herein, we found that frequent downregulation of CBX7 in UBC specimens, which was due to its promoter hypermethylation, was correlated with poor prognosis. The ectopic expression of CBX7 suppressed UBC cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and cancer stemness, whereas CBX7 depletion promoted cancer cell aggressiveness. Importantly, CBX7 overexpression in UBC cells inhibited tumorigenicity, whereas CBX7 depletion promoted the tumor development, indicating its tumor-suppressive role in UBC. Using RNA-seq and chromosome immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we identified aldo-keto reductase family 1 member 10 (AKR1B10) as a novel downstream target of CBX7, which was negatively modulated by CBX7 in a PRC1-dependent manner and involved in stimulating ERK signaling. Consistently, AKR1B10 overexpression induced cancer cell aggressiveness, whereas suppression of AKR1B10 by siRNA or its small molecular inhibitor, oleanolic acid, reversed the CBX7 deficiency-induced cellular effects. AKR1B10 overexpression was negatively associated with CBX7 downregulation and predicted poor clinical outcomes in UBC patients. Taken together, our results indicate that CBX7 functions as a tumor suppressor to downregulate AKR1B10 and further inactivates ERK signaling. This CBX7/AKR1B10/ERK signaling axis may provide a new therapeutic strategy against UBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03819-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149849PMC
May 2021

Electrical stimulation of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes using conductive polydopamine-reduced graphene oxide-hybrid hydrogels for constructing cardiac microtissues.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Sep 12;205:111844. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096, China. Electronic address:

The development of diversified biomaterials in tissue engineering has been promoted by growing research into carbon-based nanomaterials. Usually, ideal scaffold materials should possess properties similar to the extracellular matrix of natural myocardial tissue. In this study, dopamine-reduced graphene oxide (GO), was prepared and doped into gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels, resulting in novel conductive and mechanical properties for controlling cell growth. Cardiomyocytes (CMs) cultured on PDA-rGO-incorporated hydrogels (GelMA-PDA-rGO) had greater cytocompatibility than those cultured on GelMA hydrogels, as evidenced by higher cell survival rates and up-regulation of cardiac-relevant proteins. Finally, electrical stimulation was applied to facilitate the maturation of CMs which was seeded on different hydrogels. The findings revealed that electrical stimulation of conductive hybrid hydrogel scaffolds improved the orientational order parameter of sarcomeres (OOP). In addition, propagation of intercellular pacing signals, which improves the expression of gap junction proteins was noticed, likewise calcium handling capacity was present in conductive hybrid hydrogels compared to those in pure GelMA group. This study has shown that the combination of GelMA-PDA-rGO based conductive hydrogels and electrical stimulation possessed synergistic effects for engineering a more functional and mature myocardium layer as well as further application in drug screening and disease modeling in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.111844DOI Listing
September 2021

Pain during and after coronavirus disease 2019: Chinese perspectives.

Pain Rep 2021 10;6(1):e931. Epub 2021 May 10.

SUSTech Center for Pain Medicine, School of Medicine, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic poses a major threat to human health and health care systems. Urgent prevention and control measures have obstructed patients' access to pain treatment, and many patients with pain have been unable to receive adequate and timely medical services. Many patients with COVID-19 report painful symptoms including headache, muscle pain, and chest pain during the initial phase of the disease. Persistent pain sequela in patients with COVID-19 has a physical or mental impact and may also affect the immune, endocrine, and other systems. However, the management and treatment of neurological symptoms such as pain are often neglected for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Based on the China's early experience in the management of COVID-19 symptoms, the possible negative effects of pre-existing chronic pain in patients with COVID-19 and the challenges of COVID-19 prevention and control bring to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain are discussed. This review calls to attention the need to optimize pain management during and after COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PR9.0000000000000931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116038PMC
May 2021

Psychological Health Issues of Medical Staff During the COVID-19 Outbreak.

Front Psychiatry 2021 30;12:611223. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused public panic and psychological health problems, especially in medical staff. We aimed to investigate the psychological effect of the COVID-19 outbreak on medical staff. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the psychological impact of medical staff working in COVID-19 designated hospitals from February to March 2020 in China. We assessed psychological health problems using the Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90). Among 656 medical staff, 244 were frontline medical staff and 412 general medical staff. The prevalence of psychological health problems was 19.7%. The SCL-90 scores in frontline medical staff were significantly higher than that in general medical staff (mean: 141.22 vs. 129.54, < 0.05). Furthermore, gender [odds ratio (OR) = 1.53, 95% CI = (1.02, 2.30), = 0.042 for female vs. male] and the burden of current work [OR = 7.55, 95% CI = (3.75, 15.21), < 0.001 for high burden; OR = 2.76, 95% CI = (1.80, 4.24), < 0.001 for moderate burden vs. low burden] were associated with increased risk of poor psychological status. Medical staff experienced a high risk of psychological health problems during the outbreak of COVID-19, especially for frontline medical staff. Psychological health services are expected to arrange for medical staff in future unexpected infectious disease outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.611223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8119643PMC
April 2021

Inheritance and breeding of japonica rice with good eating quality in Jiangsu province.

Yi Chuan 2021 May;43(5):442-458

Institute of Food Crops, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jiangsu High Quality Rice Risearch and Development Center, Nanjing Branch of China National Center for Rice Improvement, Nanjing 210014, China.

In order to develop a variety of japonica rice with good eating quality suitable for planting in Jiangsu Province, the genetic basis of high quality, disease resistance and high yield japonica rice varieties in Jiangsu Province was systematically studied. The relationship among different rice qualities of cooking, nutrition, and eating was studied by association analysis. It was clear that amylose content was the key factor affecting eating quality. The semi waxy rice with amylose content of 10%~14% has bright surface, soft texture, and elasticity, combining the softness of glutinous rice and the elasticity of japonica rice. The cold rice is not hard, and the taste is excellent. It meets the taste requirements of people in Yangtze River Delta region who like to eat soft fragrant japonica rice. The semi waxy japonica rice variety "Kantou 194" with a low expression of amylose content gene Wx and an amylose content of about 10% was selected as the core germplasm for improving eating quality. Pyramiding breeding of japonica rice variety with good eating quality, disease resistance and high yield was carried out by examining the development of Wx gene molecular markers and the use of closely linked molecular markers with disease resistance and high yield genes. A series of new japonica rice varieties with good taste such as Nanjing 46, Nanjing 5055, Nanjing 9108, and Nanjing 5718, suitable for different rice areas of Jiangsu Province, have been bred and approved by Jiangsu Provincial Variety Approval Committee. The layout of japonica rice varieties with good taste covering different rice areas in Jiangsu Province has been formed. These varieties have been planted with an accumulated area of more than 5.3 million hectares, which has effectively promoted the development of high quality rice industry in Jiangsu Province and its surrounding areas, and made important contributions to the structural adjustment of the supply side of rice industry, improving quality and efficiency, and ensuring food security.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16288/j.yczz.20-452DOI Listing
May 2021

Targeting RFWD2 as an Effective Strategy to Inhibit Cellular Proliferation and Overcome Drug Resistance to Proteasome Inhibitor in Multiple Myeloma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 21;9:675939. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Medicine & Holistic Integrative Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

The potential to overcome resistance to proteasome inhibitors is greatly related with ubiquitin-proteasome system during multiple myeloma (MM) treatment process. The constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (RFWD2), referred to an E3 ubiquitin ligase, has been identified as an oncogene in multiple cancers, yet important questions on the role of RFWD2 in MM biology and treatment remain unclear. Here we demonstrated that MM patients with elevated RFWD2 expression achieved adverse outcome and drug resistance by analyzing gene expression profiling. Moreover, we proved that RFWD2 participated in the process of cell cycle, cell growth and death in MM by mass spectrometry analysis. study indicated that inducible knockdown of RFWD2 hindered cellular growth and triggered apoptosis in MM cells. Mechanism study revealed that RFWD2 controlled MM cellular proliferation via regulating the degradation of P27 rather than P53. Further exploration unveiled that RFWD2 meditated P27 ubiquitination via interacting with RCHY1, which served as an E3 ubiquitin ligase of P27. Finally, study illustrated that blocking RFWD2 in BTZ-resistant MM cells overcame the drug resistance in a myeloma xenograft mouse model. Taken together, these findings provide compelling evidence for prompting that targeting RFWD2 may be an effective strategy to inhibit cellular proliferation and overcome drug resistance to proteasome inhibitor in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.675939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097052PMC
April 2021

A microfluidic single-cell array for in situ laminar-flow-based comparative culturing of budding yeast cells.

Talanta 2021 Aug 20;231:122401. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

ETH Zurich, Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, Mattenstrasse 26, Basel, 4058, Switzerland.

To facilitate in situ comparative culturing of budding yeast cells in a precisely controlled microenvironment, we developed a microfluidic single-cell array (MiSCA) with 96 traps (16 rows × 6 columns) for single-cell immobilization. Through optimization of the distances between neighboring traps and the applied flow rates by using a hydraulic equivalent circuit of the fluidic network, yeast cells were delivered to each column of the array by laminar focused flows and reliably captured at the traps by hydrodynamic forces with about 90% efficiency of cell immobilization. Immobilized cells in different columns within the same device can then be cultured in parallel while being exposed to different media and compounds delivered by laminar flows. For biological validation of the comparative cell-culturing device, we used budding yeast that can express yellow fluorescent protein upon the addition of β-estradiol in cell-culturing medium. Experimental results show successful induction of fluorescence in cells immobilized in desired columns that have been dosed with β-estradiol. The MiSCA system allows for performing sets of experiments and control experiments in parallel in the same device, or for executing comparative experiments under well-defined laminar-perfusion conditions with different media, as well as in situ monitoring of dynamic cellular responses upon different analytical compounds or reagents for single-cell analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122401DOI Listing
August 2021

Infrared spectroscopic imaging study of BV-2 microglia altering tumor cell biological activity and cellular fraction.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 06 30;559:129-134. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Translational Institute for Cancer Pain, Clinical Research and Innovation Unit, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (Chongming Branch), Shanghai, 202150, PR China. Electronic address:

Tumor brain metastasis is a severe threat to patients' neurological function, in which microglia may be involved in the process of tumor cell metastasis among nerve cells. Our study focused on the interaction between microglia and breast and lung cancer cells. Changes in the proliferation and migration ability of cocultured tumor cells were examined; synchrotron radiation-based fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SR-FTIR) was used to detect changes in the structures and contents of biomolecules within the tumor cells. The experimental results showed that the proliferation and migration ability of tumor cells increased after coculture, and the structures and contents of biological macromolecules in tumor cells changed. The absorption peak positions of the amide Ⅱ and amide Ⅰ bands observed for the four kinds of tumor cells changed, and the absorption intensities were significantly enhanced, indicating changes in the secondary structures and contents of proteins in tumor cells, which may be the root cause of the change in tumor cell characteristics. Therefore, the metabolites of microglia may be involved in the progression of tumor cells in the nervous system. In this study, we focused on the interaction between microglia and tumor cells by using SR-FTIR and provided a new understanding of the mechanism of brain metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.04.095DOI Listing
June 2021

Design and 3D modeling investigation of a microfluidic electrode array for electrical impedance measurement of single yeast cells.

Electrophoresis 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing, P. R. China.

High-resolution microscopic imaging may cause intensive image processing and potential impact of light irradiation on yeast replicative lifespan (RLS). Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) could be alternatively used to perform high-throughput and label-free yeast RLS assays. Prior to fabricating EIS-integrated microfluidic devices for yeast RLS determination, systematic modeling and theoretical investigation are crucial for device design and optimization. Here, we report three-dimensional (3D) finite-element modeling and simulations of EIS measurement in a microfluidic single yeast in-situ impedance array (SYIIA), which is designed by patterning an electrode matrix underneath a cell-trapping array. SYIIA was instantiated and modeled as a 5 × 5 sensing array comprising 25 units for cell immobilization, culturing, and time-lapse EIS recording. Simulations of yeast growing and budding in a sensing unit demonstrated that EIS signals enable the characterization of cell growth and daughter-cell dissections. In the 5 × 5 sensing array, simulation results indicated that when monitoring a target cell, daughter dissections in its surrounding traps may induce variations of the recorded EIS signals, which could cause mistakes in identifying target daughter-cell dissections. To eliminate the mis-identifications, electrode array pitch was optimized. Therefore, the results could conduct the design and optimization of microfluidic electrode-array-integrated devices for high-throughput and accurate yeast RLS assays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.202100028DOI Listing
May 2021

Transmission dynamics of the rubella virus circulating in China during 2010-2019: two lineage switches between genotypes 1E and 2B.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Kunming, China.

Background: To provide a better understanding of the progress on rubella control and elimination in China, a genetic analysis was conducted to examine the transmission pattern of the endemic rubella virus in China during 2010-2019.

Methods: Total 4895 strains were obtained from 29 out of the 31 provinces in mainland of China during 2010-2019. The genotyping region of the strains were amplified, determined, and assembled. Genotyping analysis and lineage division were performed by comparisons with the World Health Organization reference strains and previously reported lineage reference strains, respectively. Further phylogenetic analyses were performed to compare the genetic relationship.

Results: During 2010-2019, the domestic lineage 1E-L1 and multiple imported lineages of rubella viruses including 2B-L1, 1E-L2, and 2B-L2c were identified. Further analysis of the circulation trend of the different lineages indicated that two switches occurred among the lineages. The first shift was from lineage 1E-L1 to 2B-L1, which occurred around 2015-2016, followed by the lowest rubella incidence in 2017. The second shift was from lineage 2B-L1 to 1E-L2 and 2B-L2c, which occurred around 2018-2019, coinciding with rubella resurgence and the subsequent nationwide epidemic during 2018-2019. Insufficient genomic information worldwide made it impossible to trace the origin of the imported viruses in this study.

Conclusions: China was moving toward rubella elimination, as evidenced by the fact that previous endemic lineages were not detected. However, rubella reemerged in 2018 and 2019 due to the newly imported rubella viruses. Therefore, to realize the rubella elimination goal, joint efforts are required for all countries worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab339DOI Listing
April 2021

Evaluation Humidity Sensing Properties of Graphene/HS-TiO₂ Nanocomposites.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 10;21(10):5143-5149

Department of Center for General Education, St. Mary's Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Yilan 26647, Taiwan.

This paper reports on a nanocomposite synthesized by sol-gel procedure comprising graphene sheets with hollow spheres of titanium dioxide (G/HS-TiO₂) with varying weight percentages of graphene for the purpose of humidity sensors. The surface morphology of the nanocomposite was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The structural properties were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The response to 12-80% RH at room temperature exhibited sensitivity ( = 135). However, the relative humidity range of 12-90% at room temperature exhibited higher sensitivity ( = 557). Sensors fabricated using the proposed nanocomposite exhibited high sensitivity to humidity, high stability, rapid response times, and rapid recovery times with hysteresis error of less than 1.79%. These results demonstrate the outstanding potential of his material for the monitoring of atmospheric humidity. This study also sought to elucidate the mechanisms underlying humidity sensing performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.19446DOI Listing
October 2021

The type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility gene CDKAL1 polymorphism is associated with depressive symptom in first-episode drug-naive schizophrenic patients.

Hum Psychopharmacol 2021 Sep 15;36(5):e2790. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research Center of Biological Psychiatry, Suzhou Guangji Hospital, The Affiliated Guangji Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow Unversity, Suzhou, Jiangsu, PR China.

Background: Patients with schizophrenia have an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus that has shown a significant association with the rs7754840 polymorphism in the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) regulatory subunit-associated protein 1-like 1 (CDKAL1).

Objective: To examine whether this polymorphism was involved in the susceptibility in first-episode drug-naive schizophrenic patients (FDSP), and further influenced their clinical symptoms.

Methods: This polymorphism was genotyped in 239 FDSP and 368 healthy controls. The clinical symptoms in FDSP were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) five-factor models.

Results: There was no significant difference in the allelic and genotypic frequencies of this polymorphism between two groups (both p > 0.05) after adjusting for covariates. However, the PANSS depressive score significantly differed by genotype in FDSP after adjusting for covariates (F = 5.25, p = 0.006). This significant difference also persisted after Bonferroni correction (p < 0.05). FDSP with C/C genotype had significantly higher PANSS depressive score than those with C/G genotype (p = 0.007) and those with G/G genotype (p = 0.005). Moreover, further stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed the significant association between the rs7754840 polymorphism and PANSS depressive score in FDSP (β = -1.07, t = -2.75, p = 0.007).

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that although the CDKAL1 rs7754840 polymorphism did not contribute to the susceptibility to FDSP, it might be implicated in depressive symptoms in this patient group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hup.2790DOI Listing
September 2021

Biomimetic N-Doped Graphene Membrane for Proton Exchange Membranes.

Nano Lett 2021 05 13;21(10):4314-4319. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute of Microelectronics, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) with both high selectivity and high permeance are of great demand in hydrogen-based applications, especially in fuel cells. Although graphene membranes have shown high selectivity of protons over other ions and molecules, the relatively low permeance of protons through perfect pristine graphene restricts its practical applications. Inspired by the nitrogen-assisted proton transport in biological systems, we introduced N-doping to increase the proton permeance and proposed a type of N-doped graphene membranes (NGMs) for proton exchange, which have both high proton permeance and high selectivity. Compared to the state-of-the-art commercial PEMs, the NGMs show significant increases in both areal proton conductivity (2-3 orders of magnitude) and selectivity of proton to methanol (1-2 orders of magnitude). The work realized the controllable tuning of proton permeance of the graphene membrane with N-doping and developed a new type of graphene-based PEMs with high performance for practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c00813DOI Listing
May 2021

CDKN2A Deletion in Melanoma Excludes T Cell Infiltration by Repressing Chemokine Expression in a Cell Cycle-Dependent Manner.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:641077. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital), Nanjing, China.

T-cell-mediated immune response is the prerequisite for T-cell-based immunotherapy. However, the limitation of T-cell infiltration in solid tumors restricted the therapeutic effect of T-cell-based immunotherapy. The present study screened the molecular and genetic features of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) cohort, revealing that T-cell infiltration negatively correlated with genome copy number alteration. The analysis of the TCGA-SKCM cohort indicated that the copy number of CDKN2A was significantly decreased in patients with low T-cell infiltration. The results were validated in the other two melanoma cohorts (DFCI, Science 2015, and TGEN, Genome Res 2017). Besides, the immunohistochemistry analysis of CDKN2A and CD8 expression in 5 melanoma and 15 invasive melanoma patients also showed that CD8 expression was decreased in the patients with low CDKN2A expression and there was a positive correlation between CDKN2A and CD8 expression in these patients. Interestingly, the CDKN2A deletion group and the group with low expression of T-cell markers shared similar gene and pathway alteration as compared with the normal CDKN2A group and the group with high expression of T-cell markers, especially the chemokine pathway. Further mechanistic study indicated that CDKN2A enhanced T cell recruitment and chemokine expression possibly through modulating MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Finally, we also found that CDKN2A deletion negatively correlated with the expression of T-cell markers in many other cancer types. In conclusion, CDKN2A deletion could inhibit T cell infiltration by inhibiting chemokine expression in a cell cycle dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.641077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027313PMC
March 2021

Sustainable border control policy in the COVID-19 pandemic: A math modeling study.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 May-Jun;41:102044. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Systems Science and Industrial Engineering, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902, United States.

Background: Imported COVID-19 cases, if unchecked, can jeopardize the effort of domestic containment. We aim to find out what sustainable border control options for different entities (e.g., countries, states) exist during the reopening phases, given their own choice of domestic control measures.

Methods: We propose a SUIHR model, which has built-in imported risk and (1-tier) contact tracing to study the cross-border spreading and control of COVID-19. Under plausible parameter assumptions, we examine the effectiveness of border control policies, in combination with internal measures, to confine the virus and avoid reverting back to more restrictive life styles again.

Results: When the basic reproduction number R of COVID-19 exceeds 2.5, even 100% effective contact tracing alone is not enough to contain the spreading. For an entity that has completely eliminated the virus domestically, and resumes "normal", without mandatory institutional quarantine, even very strict border control measures combined with effective contact tracing can only delay another outbreak by 6 months. For entities employing a confining domestic control policy, non-increasing net imported cases is sufficient to remain open.

Conclusions: Extremely strict border control in entities, where domestic spreading is currently eliminated (e.g., China), is justifiable. However such harsh measure are not necessary for other places. Entities successfully confining the virus by internal measures can open up to similar entities without additional border controls so long as the imported risk stays non-increasing. Opening the borders to entities lacking sufficient internal control of the virus should be exercised in combination with pre-departure screening and tests upon arrival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2021.102044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025603PMC
May 2021

Combination of microwave discharge electrodeless lamp and a TiO/HZSM-5 composite for the photocatalytic degradation of dimethyl sulphide.

Authors:
Zhen Zhu Jiang Yu

Environ Res 2021 06 1;197:111082. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Research Center of Environmental Catalysis & Separation Process, Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Environmental Catalysis, College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, PR China; Institute of Anqing, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Anqing, 410205, PR China. Electronic address:

In this study, an integrated photocatalytic system consisting of a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL) and TiO/HZSM-5 was established to investigate the intensified degradation of dimethyl sulphide (DMS). The system targets optimisation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and photocatalytic degradation pathways without catalyst deactivation. TiO/HZSM-5, containing highly dispersed TiO nanoparticles, was prepared through the sol-gel method. TiO/HZSM-5 exhibits strong acidity and can adsorb DMS in multiple adsorption forms. Thus, the adsorption capacity of TiO/HZSM-5 is 20 and 53 times higher than that of Aeroxide TiO (P25) in dry and highly humid air, respectively. UV-Vis analysis was performed to investigate the ROS in the gas phase. The results show that the concentrations of the ROS increased by 8% and 62.7% in dry and highly humid air, respectively. O and O (D), as well as ·OH are the major ROS, accounting for 73.6% and 61.6% in dry and highly humid air, respectively. A total of 92.5% DMS was removed over 600 min in dry air. Microwaves have strong desorption effects on absorbed substances, promoting the degradation of DMS via ROS in the gas phase. Moreover, O, O (D), and ·OH can mineralise more DMS molecules into SO and SO through methanesulfonic acid. The highest mineralisation rate of 89.48% was obtained at 90% humidity over 600 min without catalyst deactivation. Therefore, this integrated system induced by microwave radiation can improve ROS production and prevent catalyst deactivation, providing an alternative to achieve higher photocatalytic performances in dry and highly humid air.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111082DOI Listing
June 2021

Evaluating the Ability of Multi-Sensor Techniques to Capture Topographic Complexity.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 17;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Geography, Planning, and Environment, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA.

This study provides an evaluation of multiple sensors by examining their precision and ability to capture topographic complexity. Five different small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) were evaluated, each with a different camera, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). A lidar was also used on the largest sUAS and as a mobile scanning system. The quality of each of the seven platforms were compared to actual surface measurements gathered with real-time kinematic (RTK)-GNSS and terrestrial laser scanning. Rigorous field and photogrammetric assessment workflows were designed around a combination of structure-from-motion to align images, Monte Carlo simulations to calculate spatially variable error, object-based image analysis to create objects, and MC32-PM algorithm to calculate vertical differences between two dense point clouds. The precision of the sensors ranged 0.115 m (minimum of 0.11 m for MaRS with Sony A7iii camera and maximum of 0.225 m for Mavic2 Pro). In a heterogenous test location with varying slope and high terrain roughness, only three of the seven mobile platforms performed well (MaRS, Inspire 2, and Phantom 4 Pro). All mobile sensors performed better for the homogenous test location, but the sUAS lidar and mobile lidar contained the most noise. The findings presented herein provide insights into cost-benefit of purchasing various sUAS and sensors and their ability to capture high-definition topography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21062105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002534PMC
March 2021

Retracted: Morusinol Exhibits Selective and Potent Antitumor Activity Against Human Liver Carcinoma by Inducing Autophagy, G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest, Inhibition of Cell Invasion and Migration, and Targeting of Ras/MEK/ERK Pathway.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Mar 25;27:e932335. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Pathology, Shanghai East Hospital, Shanghai, China (mainland).

An editorial decision has been made to retract this manuscript due to breach of publishing guidelines, following the identification of non-original and manipulated figures. Reference: Zhen Zhu, Tianyu Xiao, Xuejiao Chang, Yanfei Hua, Jinli Gao: Morusinol Exhibits Selective and Potent Antitumor Activity Against Human Liver Carcinoma by Inducing Autophagy, G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest, Inhibition of Cell Invasion and Migration, and Targeting of Ras/MEK/ERK Pathway. Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:1864-1870. 10.12659/MSM.912992.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.932335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009253PMC
March 2021

Progressive and Aligned Pose Attention Transfer for Person Image Generation.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Mar 23;PP. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

This paper proposes a new generative adversarial network for pose transfer, i.e., transferring the pose of a given person to a target pose. We design a progressive generator which comprises a sequence of transfer blocks. Each block performs an intermediate transfer step by modeling the relationship between the condition and the target poses with attention mechanism. Two types of blocks are introduced, namely Pose-Attentional Transfer Block (PATB) and Aligned Pose-Attentional Transfer Block (APATB). Compared with previous works, our model generates more photorealistic person images that retain better appearance consistency and shape consistency compared with input images. We verify the efficacy of the model on the Market-1501 and DeepFashion datasets, using quantitative and qualitative measures. Furthermore, we show that our method can be used for data augmentation for the person re-identification task, alleviating the issue of data insufficiency.Code and pretrained models are available at: https://github.com/tengteng95/Pose-Transfer.git.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3068236DOI Listing
March 2021

Refraction correction and coordinate displacement compensation in nearshore bathymetry using ICESat-2 lidar data and remote-sensing images.

Opt Express 2021 Jan;29(2):2411-2430

In nearshore bathymetry based on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2), water refraction causes a position displacement of the seafloor signal photon, decreasing the bathymetric accuracy. A novel refraction-correction method is proposed for the ICESat-2. Based on the experimental results and statistical analysis, it is illustrated that the displacement in elevation direction reaches several meters at the relative depth. The displacement in the along- and cross-track directions is very small, ranging from millimeters to centimeters. Finally, the relationship of refraction displacements with various incident angles and water depths is analyzed in detail, revealing the nearshore bathymetry characteristics of ICESat-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.409941DOI Listing
January 2021

Diurnal transcriptomics analysis reveals the regulatory role of the circadian rhythm in super-hybrid rice LY2186.

Genomics 2021 May 8;113(3):1281-1290. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy for Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:

Heterosis, an important biological phenomenon wherein F hybrids exhibit better performance than any of their parents, has been widely applied; however, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we studied and compared the dynamic transcriptional profiles of super-hybrid rice LY2186 and its parents at 17 time points during 2 day/night cycles and identified 1552 rhythmic differentially expressed genes (RDGs). Cluster and functional enrichment analyses revealed that the day- and night-phased RDGs were mainly enriched in the photosynthesis and stress response categories, respectively. Regulatory network analysis indicated that circadian-related RDGs are core components in both the day and night phases and extensively regulate downstream genes involved in photosynthesis, starch synthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, and other pathways. Furthermore, among the 282 RDGs mapped onto the quantitative tract loci of small intervals (≤100 genes), 72.3% were significantly enriched in the yield, vigor, and anatomy categories. These findings provide valuable information for exploring heterosis mechanisms further and guiding breeding practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2020.12.046DOI Listing
May 2021

Design and fabrication of an integrated heart-on-a-chip platform for construction of cardiac tissue from human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes and in situ evaluation of physiological function.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 May 9;179:113080. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, PR China. Electronic address:

In vitro model of the human cardiac tissues generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) could facilitate drug discovery and patient-specific studies of physiology and disease. However, the immature state of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) compared to adult myocardium is a key defect that must be overcome to enable the potential applications of hiPSC-CMs in drug testing. For this purpose, we developed a heart-on-a-chip device that contains microfluidic channels for long-term dynamic culture of cells, platinum wire electrodes for electrical stimulation of hiPSC-CMs, and gold electrode arrays as acquisition electrodes for real-time recording electrophysiological signals of cardiac tissues. Human iPSC-CMs cultured on biocompatible hydrogels in the chip chamber can be electrically stimulated to prompt the maturation of cardiomyocytes (CMs) and generate functional cardiac tissues. Drug tests were performed with calcium transient measurements to evaluate drug responsiveness of electrical stimulated and unstimulated cardiac tissues. The results show that only the electrical-stimulated cardiac tissues respond correctly to drug treatment of verapamil and isoprenaline, indicating the reliability of this engineered cardiac tissues for drug testing. The above integrated heart-on-a-chip device provides a promising platform for drug efficacy testing and cardiactoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113080DOI Listing
May 2021

Antibody seroprevalence in the epicenter Wuhan, Hubei, and six selected provinces after containment of the first epidemic wave of COVID-19 in China.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Mar 5;8:100094. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), Beijing, China.

Background: China implemented containment measures to stop SARS-CoV-2 transmission in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. After the first epidemic wave, we conducted population-based serological surveys to determine extent of infection, risk factors for infection, and neutralization antibody levels to assess the real infections in the random sampled population.

Methods: We used a multistage, stratified cluster random sampling strategy to conduct serological surveys in three areas - Wuhan, Hubei Province outside Wuhan, and six provinces selected on COVID-19 incidence and containment strategy. Participants were consenting individuals >1 year old who resided in the survey area >14 days during the epidemic. Provinces screened sera for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM, IgG, and total antibody by two lateral flow immunoassays and one magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay; positive samples were verified by micro-neutralization assay.

Findings: We enrolled 34,857 participants (overall response rate, 92%); 427 were positive by micro-neutralization assay. Wuhan had the highest weighted seroprevalence (4•43%, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=3•48%-5•62%), followed by Hubei-ex-Wuhan (0•44%, 95%CI=0•26%-0•76%), and the other provinces (<0•1%). Living in Wuhan (adjusted odds ratio aOR=13•70, 95%CI= 7•91-23•75), contact with COVID-19 patients (aOR=7•35, 95%CI=5•05-10•69), and age over 40 (aOR=1•36, 95%CI=1•07-1•72) were significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among seropositives, 101 (24%) reported symptoms and had higher geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers than among the 326 (76%) without symptoms (30±2•4 vs 15±2•1, <0•001).

Interpretation: The low overall extent of infection and steep gradient of seropositivity from Wuhan to the outer provinces provide evidence supporting the success of containment of the first wave of COVID-19 in China. SARS-CoV-2 infection was largely asymptomatic, emphasizing the importance of active case finding and physical distancing. Virtually the entire population of China remains susceptible to SARS-CoV-2; vaccination will be needed for long-term protection.

Funding: This study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (2020YFC0846900) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82041026, 82041027, 82041028, 82041029, 82041030, 82041032, 82041033).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7864613PMC
March 2021
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