Publications by authors named "Zhen Zhou"

592 Publications

Alteration of Autonomic Nervous System Is Associated With Severity and Outcomes in Patients With COVID-19.

Front Physiol 2021 19;12:630038. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Previous studies suggest that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic infection involving multiple systems, and may cause autonomic dysfunction.

Objective: To assess autonomic function and relate the findings to the severity and outcomes in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: We included consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to the 21st COVID-19 Department of the east campus of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from February 6 to March 7, 2020. Clinical data were collected. Heart rate variability (HRV), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), D-dimer, and lymphocytes and subsets counts were analysed at two time points: nucleic-acid test positive and negative. Psychological symptoms were assessed after discharge.

Results: All patients were divided into a mild group (13) and a severe group (21). The latter was further divided into two categories according to the trend of HRV. Severe patients had a significantly lower standard deviation of the RR intervals (SDNN) ( < 0.001), standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals (SDANN) ( < 0.001), and a higher ratio of low- to high-frequency power (LF/HF) ( = 0.016). Linear correlations were shown among SDNN, SDANN, LF/HF, and laboratory indices ( < 0.05). Immune function, D-dimer, and NT-proBNP showed a consistent trend with HRV in severe patients ( < 0.05), and severe patients without improved HRV parameters needed a longer time to clear the virus and recover ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: HRV was associated with the severity of COVID-19. The changing trend of HRV was related to the prognosis, indicating that HRV measurements can be used as a non-invasive predictor for clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.630038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170133PMC
May 2021

The Correlation between COVID-19 Activities and Climate Factors in Different Climate Types Areas.

J Occup Environ Med 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Institute of Cerebrovascular Diseases, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong 266003, P. R. China (Liu, Zhu, Wang, Zhou, Guo).

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of human infection with COVID-19 in Moscow, Lima, Kuwait and Singapore, to analyze the effects of climate factors on the incidence of COVID-19.

Methods: Collect the daily incidence of COVID-19 and related climate data in four areas, construct a negative binomial regression model, and analyze the correlation between the incidence of COVID-19 and meteorological factors.

Results: AH was the climate factors affecting the incidence of COVID-19 in Moscow, Lima and Singapore; Ta and RH were the climate factors affecting the incidence of COVID-19 in Kuwait.

Conclusions: The incidence of COVID-19 in four areas were all associated with the humidity, and climate factors should be taken into consideration when epidemic prevention measures are taken, and environment humidification may be a feasible approach to decrease COVID-19 virus transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000002274DOI Listing
May 2021

Recovering chemical sludge from the zero liquid discharge system of flue gas desulfurization wastewater as flame retardants by a stepwise precipitation process.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 7;417:126054. Epub 2021 May 7.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090, China.

In this study, a five-stage stepwise precipitation process, including pre-sedimentation, magnesium removal, gypsum precipitation, ettringite precipitation and calcium removal, was proposed as a softening pretreatment for zero liquid discharge system for flue gas desulfurization wastewater. Batch tests and long-term bench-scale experiment showed that magnesium, sulfate and calcium were efficiently removed with efficiencies all above 98.0%, leaving a clean effluent majorly containing NaCl and NaOH. The precipitated CaSO, CaCO, Mg(OH) and ettringite were completely separated by stepwise precipitation, and the purity of Mg(OH) and ettringite were further enhanced by washing and soaking treatment. CaSO and CaCO can be directly recycled as gypsum product and desulfurizing agent within the power plant, while Mg(OH) and ettringite presented proper particle size and excellent thermal properties as a synergistic flame retardant. The flame retardancy of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer were greatly improved when blended with recovered Mg(OH) and ettringite, and possessed better performance by blending them together because ettringite could act as a dispersing and compatible agent of Mg(OH), and relieve the intensity of smoke releasing. Chemical sludge recovery compensates the total cost of the five-stage process by 45.0%, and makes the process technically versatile, economically beneficial and environmentally friendly without solid waste production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126054DOI Listing
May 2021

In vivo monitoring of volatile metabolic trajectories enables rapid diagnosis of influenza A infection.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May 15;57(39):4791-4794. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute of Mass Spectrometry and Atmospheric Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

We report that influenza A virus infection induces changes in odor traits that could be captured by real-time high-resolution mass spectrometry in a living mouse model. The most striking changes in the volatile metabolites may be associated mostly to glyoxylate/dicarboxylate metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01061aDOI Listing
May 2021

Identification and validation of a hypoxia-related prognostic and immune microenvironment signature in bladder cancer.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 May 7;21(1):251. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Urology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200072, China.

Background: Bladder cancer is the leading causes of cancer-associated mortality and seriously affects population health. Hypoxia plays a key role in tumor development and immune escape, which contributes to malignant behaviors.

Methods: In this study, we analyzed the RNA-seq and clinical information of bladder cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. To investigate the hypoxia-related prognostic and immune microenvironment in bladder cancer, we constructed a hypoxia-related risk model for overall survival (OS). The RNA-seq and clinical data of bladder cancer patients from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were used as validation sets.

Results: The hypoxia-related risk signature was significantly correlated with clinical outcomes and could independently predict OS outcomes. Furthermore, the hypoxia-related risk signature could effectively reflected the levels of immune cell type fractions and the expression of critical immune checkpoint genes were higher in the high-risk group compared to the low-risk group. We also validated the expression levels of the prognostic genes in bladder cancer and paracancerous tissue samples through qRT-PCR analysis.

Conclusion: We established a 7 hypoxia-related gene (HRG) signature that can be used as an independent clinical predictor and provided a potential mechanism in bladder cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01954-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103571PMC
May 2021

Contralaterally Enhanced Networks for Thoracic Disease Detection.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 May 6;PP. Epub 2021 May 6.

Identifying and locating diseases in chest X-rays are very challenging, due to the low visual contrast between normal and abnormal regions, and distortions caused by other overlapping tissues. An interesting phenomenon is that there exist many similar structures in the left and right parts of the chest, such as ribs, lung fields and bronchial tubes. This kind of similarities can be used to identify diseases in chest X-rays, according to the experience of broad-certificated radiologists. Aimed at improving the performance of existing detection methods, we propose a deep end-to-end module to exploit the contralateral context information for enhancing feature representations of disease proposals. First of all, under the guidance of the spine line, the spatial transformer network is employed to extract local contralateral patches, which can provide valuable context information for disease proposals. Then, we build up a specific module, based on both additive and subtractive operations, to fuse the features of the disease proposal and the contralateral patch. Our method can be integrated into both fully and weakly supervised disease detection frameworks. It achieves 33.17 AP50 on a carefully annotated private chest X-ray dataset which contains 31,000 images. Experiments on the NIH chest X-ray dataset indicate that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance in weakly-supervised disease localization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2021.3077913DOI Listing
May 2021

Proposing a deep learning-based method for improving the diagnostic certainty of pulmonary nodules in CT scan of chest.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Deepwise AI Lab, Beijing, China.

Objective: To compare the performance of a deep learning (DL)-based method for diagnosing pulmonary nodules compared with radiologists' diagnostic approach in computed tomography (CT) of the chest.

Materials And Methods: A total of 150 pathologically confirmed pulmonary nodules (60% malignant) assessed and reported by radiologists were included. CT images were processed by the proposed DL-based method to generate the probability of malignancy (0-100%), and the nodules were divided into the groups of benign (0-39.9%), indeterminate (40.0-59.9%), and malignant (60.0-100%). Taking the pathological results as the gold standard, we compared the diagnostic performance of the proposed DL-based method with the radiologists' diagnostic approach using the McNemar-Bowker test.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the diagnosis results of the proposed DL-based method and the radiologists' diagnostic approach (p < 0.001). Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in the composition of the diagnosis results between the proposed DL-based method and the radiologists' diagnostic approach (all p > 0.05). The difference in diagnostic accuracy between the proposed DL-based method (70%) and radiologists' diagnostic performance (64%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.243).

Conclusions: The proposed DL-based method achieved an accuracy comparable with the radiologists' diagnostic approach in clinical practice. Furthermore, its advantage in improving diagnostic certainty may raise the radiologists' confidence in diagnosing pulmonary nodules and may help clinical management. Therefore, the proposed DL-based method showed great potential in a certain clinical application.

Key Points: • Deep learning-based method for diagnosing the pulmonary nodules in computed tomography provides a higher diagnostic certainty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07919-5DOI Listing
May 2021

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Supplementation during Pregnancy Is Associated with Allergic Rhinitis in the Offspring by Modulating Immunity.

J Immunol Res 2021 14;2021:6638119. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Otolaryngology, Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310006, China.

Background: Maternal supplementation with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) has immunologic effects on the developing fetus through multiple pathways. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of VD3 supplementation on immune dysregulation in the offspring during allergic rhinitis.

Methods: Different doses of VD3 as well as control were given to pregnant female mice. Ovalbumin (OVA) challenge and aluminum hydroxide gel in sterile saline were used to induce allergic rhinitis in offspring mice. Nasal lavage fluids (NLF) were collected, and eosinophils were counted in NLF 24 hours after the OVA challenge. Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg subtype-relevant cytokines, including IFN-, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, TGF-, and OVA-IgE levels from the blood and NLF of offspring mice, were detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The Treg subtype was analyzed by flow cytometry. Treg cells were purified from offspring and were adoptively transferred to OVA-sensitized allogenic offspring mice. The outcomes were assessed in allogenic offspring.

Results: Our data showed that VD3 supplementation significantly decreased the number of eosinophils, basophils, and lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and NLF. The proportion of CD4CD25FoxP3Tregs had a positive correlation with VD3 in a dose-dependent manner. The levels of serum IgE, IL-4, and IL-17 were decreased while the expressions of IFN-, IL-10, and TGF- were significantly enhanced in VD3 supplementation groups. Adoptive transfer CD4CD25FoxP3Tregs of VD3 supplementation groups promoted Th1 and suppressed Th2 responses in the offspring during allergic rhinitis.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that low dose VD3 supply in pregnant mice's diet suppressed Th2 and Th17 responses in allergic rhinitis by elevating the Th1 subtype and the proportion of CD4CD25FoxP3Tregs in offspring. It suggested that low dose VD3 supply may have the potential to act as a new therapeutic strategy for allergic rhinitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6638119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062205PMC
April 2021

High anticancer activity and apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing properties of novel lanthanide(III) complexes bearing 8-hydroxyquinoline--oxide and 1,10-phenanthroline.

Dalton Trans 2021 May;50(17):5828-5834

State Key Laboratory for the Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources, School of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Guangxi Normal University, 15 Yucai Road, Guilin 541004, PR China.

In the quest for rare earth metal complexes with enhanced cancer chemotherapeutic properties, the discovery of seven lanthanide(iii) complexes bearing 8-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (NQ) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligands, i.e., [SmIII(NQ)(phen)(H2O)Cl2] (Ln1), [EuII(NQ)(phen)(H2O)Cl2] (Ln2), [GdIII(NQ)(phen)(H2O)Cl2] (Ln3), [DyIII(NQ)(phen)(H2O)Cl2] (Ln4), [HoIII(NQ)(phen)(H2O)Cl2] (Ln5), [ErIII(NQ)(phen)(H2O)Cl2] (Ln6), and [YbIII(NQ)(phen)(H2O)Cl2] (Ln7), as potential anticancer drugs is described. Complexes Ln1-Ln7 exhibit high antiproliferative activity against cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells (IC50 = 0.025-0.097 μM) and low toxicity to normal HL-7702 cells. Moreover, complex Ln1, and to a lesser extent Ln7, can upregulate the expression of LC3 and Beclin1 and downregulate p62 to induce apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cell lines, which is related to the cell autophagy-inducing properties of Ln1 and Ln7. Furthermore, in vivo assays suggest that Ln1 significantly inhibits A549/DDP xenograft tumor growth (56.5%). These results indicate that lanthanide(iii) complex Ln1 is a promising candidate as an anticancer drug against cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00450fDOI Listing
May 2021

Financial toxicity, mental health, and gynecologic cancer treatment: The effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among low-income women in New York City.

Cancer 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Background: New York City (NYC) emerged as an epicenter of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and marginalized populations were affected at disproportionate rates. The authors sought to determine the impact of COVID-19 on cancer treatment, anxiety, and financial distress among low-income patients with gynecologic cancer during the peak of the NYC pandemic.

Methods: Medicaid-insured women who were receiving gynecologic oncology care at 2 affiliated centers were contacted by telephone interviews between March 15 and April 15, 2020. Demographics and clinical characteristics were obtained through self-report and retrospective chart review. Financial toxicity, anxiety, and cancer worry were assessed using modified, validated surveys.

Results: In total, 100 patients completed the telephone interview. The median age was 60 years (range, 19-86 years), and 71% had an annual income <$40,000. A change in employment status and early stage cancer (stage I and II) were associated with an increase in financial distress (P < .001 and P = .008, respectively). Early stage cancer and telehealth participation were significantly associated with increased worry about future finances (P = .017 and P = .04, respectively). Lower annual income (<$40,000) was associated with increased cancer worry and anxiety compared with higher annual income (>$40,000; P = .036 and P = .017, respectively). When controlling for telehealth participation, income, primary language, and residence in a high COVID-19 prevalence area, a delay in medical care resulted in a 4-fold increased rate of anxiety (P = .023, 95% CI, 1.278-14.50). Race was not significantly associated with increased financial distress, cancer worry, or anxiety.

Conclusions: Low socioeconomic status was the most common risk factor for increased financial distress, cancer worry, and anxiety. Interventions aimed at improving access to timely oncology care should be implemented during this ongoing pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33537DOI Listing
April 2021

AI-based analysis of CT images for rapid triage of COVID-19 patients.

NPJ Digit Med 2021 Apr 22;4(1):75. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelms the medical resources in the stressed intensive care unit (ICU) capacity and the shortage of mechanical ventilation (MV). We performed CT-based analysis combined with electronic health records and clinical laboratory results on Cohort 1 (n = 1662 from 17 hospitals) with prognostic estimation for the rapid stratification of PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients. These models, validated on Cohort 2 (n = 700) and Cohort 3 (n = 662) constructed from nine external hospitals, achieved satisfying performance for predicting ICU, MV, and death of COVID-19 patients (AUROC 0.916, 0.919, and 0.853), even on events happened two days later after admission (AUROC 0.919, 0.943, and 0.856). Both clinical and image features showed complementary roles in prediction and provided accurate estimates to the time of progression (p < 0.001). Our findings are valuable for optimizing the use of medical resources in the COVID-19 pandemic. The models are available here: https://github.com/terryli710/COVID_19_Rapid_Triage_Risk_Predictor .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41746-021-00446-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062628PMC
April 2021

The enhanced mixing states of oxalate with metals in single particles in Guangzhou, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 7;783:146962. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Mass Spectrometry and Atmospheric Environment, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center for on-line source apportionment system of air pollution Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China; Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Joint Laboratory of Collaborative Innovation for Environmental Quality, Guangzhou 510632, China.

Recently, internal mixing states of oxalate with metals in single particles have been reported from field studies, yet the role of metals in the formation processes of oxalate remains unclear due to the diversity of chemical components and complex atmospheric environment. In this study, the mixing states of oxalate with five metals, including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), vanadium (V) and iron (Fe) were investigated in Guangzhou, China. It was found that 55% of oxalate-containing particles were internally mixed with these metals. The number fraction of oxalate in the metal-containing particles ranged from 5.4-26%, which is much higher than that in the total detected particles (4.0%), indicating significant enrichment of oxalate in the metal-containing particles. Enhanced oxalate production was found in the Fe- and V-containing particles based on distinctly higher relative peak area (RPA) ratios of oxalate to its precursors compared to the total particles, possibly due to enhanced aqueous phase reactions in the Fe- and V-containing particles. However, enrichment of oxalate in the Zn-, Pb-, and Cu-containing particles was possibly associated with complexation of gas phase oxalic acid with the metals, as indicated by the small increase in RPA ratios in these particles. On the other hand, the internal mixing of oxalate with metals was found to provide a way of efficient photolysis of oxalate-metal complexes, which led to a decrease in oxalate after sunrise in the metal-containing particles. In this study, the enhanced mixing states of oxalate with metals have revealed the important role of metals in the production and degradation of oxalate, providing insights for the evaluation of metals in the formation processes of organic aerosol in field studies, which is beneficial to the further study of air pollution in metal emission areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146962DOI Listing
August 2021

Bacterial and Microfauna Mechanisms for Sludge Reduction in Carrier-Enhanced Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactors Revealed by Metagenomic Sequencing Analysis.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 05 15;55(9):6257-6269. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China.

Packing carriers into the anaerobic side-stream reactor (ASSR) can enhance sludge reduction and save footprint by investigating ASSR-coupled membrane bioreactors (AP-MBRs) under different hydraulic residence times of the ASSR (HRT). Three AP-MBRs and an anoxic-aerobic MBR (AO-MBR) showed efficient chemical oxygen demand (>94.2%) and ammonium nitrogen removal (>99.3%). AP-MBRs have higher ( < 0.05) total nitrogen (61.4-67.7%) and total phosphorus (57.5-63.8%) removal than AO-MBRs (47.8 and 47.7%). AP-MBRs achieved sludge reduction efficiencies of 11.8, 31.8, and 36.2% at HRT values of 2.5, 5.0, and 6.7 h. Packing carriers greatly improved sludge reduction under low HRT and is promising for accelerating sludge reduction in compact space. Metagenomic sequencing analysis showed that genes responsible for metabolism were enriched in AO-MBRs, while genes related to cellular motility and cell signaling were more abundant in the AP-MBRs. A longevity-regulating pathway showed that long lifespan provided more opportunities for worms to prey bacteria. Microscopic examination revealed that some specific protozoa (, , , , and ) and metazoa ( and ) were enriched in ASSRs. was only detected in ASSRs, and unique appeared on carriers. These results contribute to growing understanding of micrometabolic mechanisms including functional genes and microfauna-driving sludge reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c07880DOI Listing
May 2021

Conditioning of raw sludge and thermally hydrolyzed sludge by ferric salt and cationic polyacrylamide: rheological analysis.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Apr;83(7):1566-1577

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China E-mail:

In this study, the conditioning effect of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) with different charge densities on raw sludge (RS) and thermo-hydrolyzed sludge (HS) pretreated with or without ferric salt is studied through orthogonal experiments. In addition, this paper uses the principles of rheology and morphology to analyze and clarify the conditioning mechanism of RS and HS, and reveals the mechanism of thermal hydrolysis to improve the dewatering performance of sludge. Compared with the RS, the HS has smaller particle size, better filterability, stronger fluidity and more obvious thixotropy. However, due to the influence of filter pressing time, ferric salt should be added before conditioning. The orthogonal experiment shows that the optimal conditioner is CPAM with charge density of 60, and the specific resistance to filtration and capillary suction time of the adjusted thermo-hydrolyzed sludge are reduced to (1.11 ± 0.07) × 10 m/kg and 16.1 ± 1.8 s; the particle size increased from 61.2 to 253.5 μm. The moisture content of the sludge cake is about 48%. The structural strength and thixotropy of HS are higher than those of the RS, and can be greatly improved by adding ferric salt. Morphological analysis confirms that thermal hydrolysis can lyse microbial cells in sludge, and the sludge treated with ferric salt will have more porous structure and stronger flocculation strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.051DOI Listing
April 2021

LncRNA XIST promotes inflammation by downregulating GRα expression in the adenoids of children with OSAHS.

Exp Ther Med 2021 May 17;21(5):500. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310006, P.R. China.

Whether glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) serves a role in obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) remains unclear. However, it has been reported that GRα expression is decreased in the adenoids of patients with OSAHS. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of GRα in OSAHS and the underlying mechanism. Bioinformatics assays revealed that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) X inactivate-specific transcript (XIST) was closely associated with GRα. Furthermore, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR showed that the expression of lncRNA XIST was significantly increased in the adenoids of patients with OSAHS compared with healthy controls. Further studies by Pearson correlation analysis, RNA pull-down assay, western blot analysis and ELISA demonstrated that XIST significantly decreased the expression of GRα and that significantly increased the production of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, tumor necrosis factor α, IL-6 and IL-1β, while the overexpression of GRα significantly decreased the production of these inflammatory cytokines in NP69 cells, a human nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line. Furthermore, XIST significantly increased the protein levels of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) subunits, including Rel-B, c-Rel, P52, P50 and P65, which are associated with the transcription of cytokines. The stimulatory effect of XIST was significantly inhibited by the NF-κB inhibitor EVP4593. These results indicated that the stimulatory effect of XIST was dependent on NF-κB. In summary, the present study demonstrated that the XIST-GRα-NF-κB signaling pathway contributed to inflammation in the adenoids of patients with OSAHS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.9931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005745PMC
May 2021

Higenamine attenuates cardiac fibroblast abstract and fibrosis via inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad signaling.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 23;900:174013. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 274 Zhijiang RD, Shanghai, 200071, China; Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave Box CVRI, Rochester, NY, 14642, United States. Electronic address:

Rationale: Higenamine (HG), is one of the main active components in many widely used Chinese herbs, and a common ingredient of health products in Europe and North America. Several groups, including our own, have previously shown the beneficial effects of HG against cardiomyocyte death during acute ischemic damage. However, the effect of HG on chronic cardiac remodeling, such as cardiac fibrosis, remains unknown.

Objective: Herein, we aim to investigate the role of HG in cardiac fibrosis in vivo as well as its cellular and molecular mechanisms.

Methods And Results: Chronic pressure overload with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) significantly increased cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and cardiac dysfunction in mice, which were significantly attenuated by HG. Consistently, cardiac fibrosis induced by the chronic infusion of isoproterenol (ISO), was also significantly reduced by HG. Interestingly, our results showed that HG had no effect on adult mouse CM hypertrophy in vitro. However, HG suppressed the activation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) in vitro. Furthermore, TGF-β1-induced expression of ACTA2, a marker of fibroblast activation, was significantly suppressed by HG. Concomitantly, HG inhibited TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in CFs. HG also reduced the expression of extracellular matrix molecules such as collagen I and collagen III. To our surprise, the inhibitory effect of HG on CFs activation was independent of the activation of the beta2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) that is known to mediate the effect of HG on antagonizing CMs apoptosis.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that HG ameliorates pathological cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction at least partially by suppressing TGF-β1/Smad signaling and CFs activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174013DOI Listing
June 2021

Development and validation of a clinically applicable deep learning strategy (HONORS) for pulmonary nodule classification at CT: A retrospective multicentre study.

Lung Cancer 2021 05 11;155:78-86. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Jinling Hospital, The First School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Nanjing, China; Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To propose a practical strategy for the clinical application of deep learning algorithm, i.e., Hierarchical-Ordered Network-ORiented Strategy (HONORS), and a new approach to pulmonary nodule classification in various clinical scenarios, i.e., Filter-Guided Pyramid NETwork (FGP-NET).

Materials And Methods: We developed and validated FGP-NET on a collection of 2106 pulmonary nodules on computed tomography images which combined screened and clinically detected nodules, and performed external test (n = 341). The area under the curves (AUCs) of FGP-NET were assessed. A comparison study with a group of 126 skilled radiologists was conducted. On top of FGP-NET, we built up our HONORS which was composed of two solutions. In the Human Free Solution, we used the high sensitivity operating point for screened nodules, but the high specificity operating point for clinically detected nodules. In the Human-Machine Coupling Solution, we used the Youden point.

Results: FGP-NET achieved AUCs of 0.969 and 0.847 for internal and external test. The AUCs of the subsets of the external test set ranged from 0.890 to 0.942. The average sensitivity and specificity of the 126 radiologists were 72.2 ± 15.1 % and 71.7 ± 15.5 %, respectively, while a higher sensitivity (93.3 %) but a relatively inferior specificity (64.0 %) were achieved by FGP-NET. HONORS-guided FGP-NET identified benign nodules with high sensitivity (sensitivity,95.5 %; specificity, 72.5 %) in the screened nodules, and identified malignant nodules with high specificity (sensitivity, 31.0 %; specificity, 97.5 %) in the clinically detected nodules. These nodules could be reliably diagnosed without any intervention from radiologists, via the Human Free Solution. The remaining ambiguous nodules were diagnosed with high performance, which however required manual confirmation by radiologists, via the Human-Machine Coupling Solution.

Conclusions: FGP-NET performed comparably to skilled radiologists in terms of diagnosing pulmonary nodules. HONORS, due to its high performance, might reliably contribute a second opinion, aiding in optimizing the clinical workflow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2021.03.008DOI Listing
May 2021

Compact wastewater treatment process based on abiotic nitrogen management achieved high-rate and facile pollutants removal.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 13;330:124991. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China; State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.

Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT), ammonium ion exchange and regeneration (AIR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) were coupled as CAIRM to treat domestic wastewater compactly and efficiently. CAIRM achieved efficient removal of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus with total hydraulic retention time of 4.6 h, and obtained 2.3 ± 0.9 mg/L TN in the effluent. CEPT removed phosphate and impurities and prevented AIR from pollution. AIR maintained excellent nitrogen removal with a slight decrease in the exchange capacity of ion exchangers. MBR polished the effluent from AIR, and the larger particle size and better dewaterability of sludge mitigated the membrane fouling. Many heterotrophic genera, such as Rhodobacter and Defluviimonas, were enriched in the oligotrophic MBR. This study demonstrates the viability and stability of CAIRM in efficient wastewater treatment, which will address critical challenges in insufficient nitrogen removal and high land occupancy of current processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124991DOI Listing
June 2021

Three-Dimensional Graphene-Based Macrostructures for Electrocatalysis.

Small 2021 Jun 18;17(22):e2005255. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of New Energy Material Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin, 300350, P. R. China.

Electrochemical energy storage and conversion is an effective strategy to relieve the increasing energy and environment crisis. The sluggish reaction kinetics in the related devices is one of the major obstacles for them to realize practical applications. More efforts should be devoted to searching for high-efficiency electrocatalysts and enhancing the electrocatalytic performance. 3D graphene macrostructures (3D GMs) are one kind of porous crystalline materials with 3D structures at both micro- and macro-scale. The unique structure can achieve large accessible surface area, expose many active sites, promote fast mass/electron transport, and provide wide room for further functional modification. All these features make them promising candidates for electrocatalysis. In this review, the authors focus on the latest progress of 3D GMs for electrocatalysis. First, the preparation methods of 3D GMs are introduced followed by the strategies for functional modifications. Then, their electrocatalytic performances are discussed in detail including monofunctional and bifunctional electrocatalysis. The electrocatalytic processes involve oxygen reduction reaction, oxygen evolution reaction, hydrogen evolution reaction, and carbon dioxide reduction reaction. Finally, the challenges and perspectives are presented to offer a guideline for the exploration of excellent 3D GM-based electrocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202005255DOI Listing
June 2021

Online Real-Time Monitoring of Exhaled Breath Particles Reveals Unnoticed Transport of Nonvolatile Drugs from Blood to Breath.

Anal Chem 2021 03 16;93(12):5005-5008. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Institute of Mass Spectrometry and Atmospheric Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

We used online secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to measure venlafaxine (VEN), a nonvolatile drug, in the exhaled air of mice intraperitoneally treated with VEN. The breath pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of VEN was recorded, which was in good agreement with that of the blood. Combined with online collection of exhaled breath particles (EBPs), it was shown that VEN existed as part of EBPs rather than gas molecules in the breath. Linear free-energy relationship analysis confirmed that almost completely ionized VEN at physiological conditions unlikely partition from the lung lining fluid (LLF) into breath air. This implies that the occurrence of VEN in exhaled air accompanies the formation of EBPs from the LLF. By comparison with the low breath signals of VEN metabolites, passive membrane permeability and lung/blood partition coefficient are suggested as the main influencing factors for the levels of drugs in the breath. This study advances our knowledge on the mechanism by which nonvolatile drugs are transferred from blood into exhaled breath, providing guidance for breath test-based therapeutic drug monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00509DOI Listing
March 2021

Characteristics and risk differences of different tumor size on localized prostate cancer: A retrospective cohort study in the SEER database.

Cancer Med 2021 04 16;10(8):2763-2773. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Urology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital,Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the role of tumor size in predicting tumor risk for localized prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP).

Methods: Twenty-five thousand, one hundred twenty-seven men with PCa receiving RP from 2010 to 2015 were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Kaplan-Meier plots and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to illustrate overall survival (OS) according to the tumor size. The tumor size was confirmed by postoperative pathology after RP.

Results: Among overall localized PCa, 84.6% were high-risk PCa, 9.2% were intermediate-risk PCa, and 6.2% were low-risk PCa. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that tumor size ≥21 mm was an independent risk predict factor of low-risk PCa (odds ratio [OR]: 11.940; 95% CI, 9.404-15.161; p < 0.001) and intermediate-risk PCa (OR: 1.887; 95% CI, 1.586-2.245; p < 0.001). Tumor sizes ≤5 mm significantly correlated with high-risk PCa (p < 0.001). Tumor size ≤5 mm had the worst OS in overall localized PCa and high-risk PCa (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: In localized PCa, tumor sizes ≥21 mm may help predict low or intermediate-risk PCa, while tumor sizes ≤5 mm might help predict high-risk PCa. In clinical practice, we should be on high alert for patients with tumors size ≤5 mm due to its poor prognosis after RP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026935PMC
April 2021

Targeting FGFR in non-small cell lung cancer: implications from the landscape of clinically actionable aberrations of FGFR kinases.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, China.

Objective: Dysfunction in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling has been reported in diverse cancer types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The frequency of aberrations in Chinese NSCLC patients is therefore of great clinical significance.

Methods: A total of 10,966 NSCLC patients whose tumor specimen and/or circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) underwent hybridization capture-based next-generation sequencing were reviewed. Patients' clinical characteristics and treatment histories were also evaluated.

Results: aberrations, including mutations, fusions, and gene amplifications, were detected in 1.9% (210/10,966) of the population. abnormalities were more frequently observed in lung squamous cell carcinomas (6.8%, 65/954) than lung adenocarcinomas (1.3%, 128/9,596). oncogenic mutations were identified in 19 patients (~0.17%), of which, 68% were male lung squamous cell carcinoma patients. Eleven out of the 19 patients (58%) had concurrent altered PI3K signaling, thus highlighting a potential combination therapeutic strategy of dual-targeting FGFR and PI3K signaling in such patients. Furthermore, fusions retaining the intact kinase domain were identified in 12 patients (0.11%), including 9 , 1 , 1 novel , and 1 novel fusion between the and 5'-untranslated regions, which may have caused overexpressions. Concomitant mutations or amplifications were observed in 6 patients, and 4 patients received anti-EGFR inhibitors, in whom fusions may have mediated resistance to anti-EGFR therapies. amplification was detected in 24 patients, with the majority being amplifications. Importantly, oncogenic mutations, fusions, and gene amplifications were almost always mutually exclusive events.

Conclusions: We report the prevalence of anomalies in a large NSCLC population, including mutations, gene amplifications, and novel fusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2020.0120DOI Listing
March 2021

Myocardial extracellular volume fraction analysis in doxorubicin-induced beagle models: comparison of dual-energy CT with equilibrium contrast-enhanced single-energy CT.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Feb;11(1):102-110

Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Dual-energy CT (DECT) permits the simultaneous operation of two different kV levels, providing a potential method toward the assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of DECT for evaluation of the myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) fraction in comparison with single-energy CT (SECT).

Methods: Myocardial ECV was quantified in fifteen dogs using DECT and dynamic equilibrium SECT before and after doxorubicin administration. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) was used to assess myocardial function. The histological collagen volume fraction (CVF) was calculated as the gold standard. The Bland-Altman analysis was performed to compare the agreement between DECT-ECV and SECT-ECV. The association among ECV values derived from DECT and SECT, CVF, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined by correlation analysis. The variations of these values were evaluated using repeated ANOVA.

Results: The DECT- and SECT-ECV were increased with the elongation of modeling time (pre-modeling . 16-week models . 24-week models: DECT-ECV 24.1%±1.1%, 35.1%±1.3% and 37.6%±1.4%; SECT-ECV 22.9%±0.8%, 33.6%±1.2% and 36.3%±1.0%; n=30 in per-subject analysis, all P<0.05). Both ECV values of DECT and SECT correlated well with the histological CVF results (R=0.935 and 0.952 for the DECT-ECV and SECT-ECV; all P<0.001; n=13). Bland-Altman plots showed no significant differences between DECT- and SECT-ECV.

Conclusions: DECT-ECV correlated well with both SECT-ECV and histology, showing the feasibility of DECT in evaluating doxorubicin-induced diffuse myocardial interstitial fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cdt-20-798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944207PMC
February 2021

Combination uterine artery embolization and hysteroscopic resection for a symptomatic uterine leiomyoma: A collaborative single-session approach for better patient care.

Clin Imaging 2021 Jan 30;77:111-116. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

The Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic uterine fibroids is accompanied by transcervical fibroid expulsion in 3-15% of cases. It can be a source of significant patient distress, may require reintervention for removal, and is the most common reason for hospital readmission following UAE. Conversely, the success of hysteroscopic resection decreases with increasing fibroid size while the risk of complications increases. Because certain fibroid features identifiable on preoperative imaging predict need for eventual hysteroscopic resection, it is possible to prospectively identify such patients and employ an alternative management strategy. We present such an approach, illustrated in the case of a woman with a pedunculated broad-based uterine fibroid successfully managed via combination UAE and immediate hysteroscopic resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2021.01.031DOI Listing
January 2021

Responses of microbial structures, functions and metabolic pathways for nitrogen removal to different hydraulic retention times in anaerobic side-stream reactor coupled membrane bioreactors.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 25;329:124903. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090, China.

Synchronous sludge reduction and nitrogen removal have attracted increasing attention, while the underlying mechanisms of diverse nitrogen metabolism within the complicated processes remain unclear. Four anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactors, three of which were upgraded by anaerobic side-stream reactors (ASSR) and carriers (APSSR-MBRs), were operated to determine effects of hydraulic retention time of ASSRs. APSSR-MBRs achieved more significant nitrogen removal and higher nitrate uptake rate because of more denitrifying bacteria and the supernumerary release of secondary substrates. Ammonia uptake rate showed the diverse Nitrospira preceded over anaerobic decay and sulfide inhibition in the ASSR, and made the reactor exhibit higher nitrification capacity. Metagenomic analysis indicated that APSSR-MBRs showed higher abundances of genes related to nitrogen consumption processes, and higher abundances on the carriers, confirming their pivotal roles in nitrogen metabolism. This study provided novel perspectives to build a bridge between process model and nitrogen metabolism in the sludge reduction system..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124903DOI Listing
June 2021

Analysis of single-cell microbial mass spectra profiles from single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 May;35(10):e9069

Institute of Mass Spectrometer and Atmospheric Environment, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center for On-Line Source Apportionment System of Air Pollution, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

Rationale: Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry is a practical method for studying microbial aerosols. However, the related mass spectral characteristics of single-cell microorganisms have not yet been studied systematically; hence, further investigations are necessary.

Methods: Different microbial cells were grown and directly aerosolized in the laboratory. These aerosols were then drawn into a single-particle mass spectrometer platform, and single-cell mass spectra profiles were obtained in real-time. The biological characteristics, ion variation trends, and microbial types were analyzed with either laser pulse energy or laser fluence.

Results: The single-particle mass spectra contained prominent peaks that could be attributed to the presence of biological matter, such as organic phosphate and nitrogen, amino acids, and spore-associated calcium complexes. Limited types of average mass spectral patterns were present, and a significant correlation was found between the ion intensity trend (presence and absence of peaks) and laser ionization energy (expressed by the total positive ion intensity). Although a single spectral data point does not contain all the peaks of the average spectrum, it covers most of the characteristic peaks and could be identified using a machine learning algorithm. After the analysis of single-particle mass spectra, we found that using multi-group features (e.g., peak intensity ratio of m/z +47 and +41, peak intensity ratio of N(CH ) and N(CH ) , and 12 peak variables) led to an identification accuracy of approximately 92.4% with the random forest algorithm.

Conclusions: The results indicate that single-cell mass spectral profiles can be used to distinguish microbial aerosols and further illustrate their origin in a laboratory setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.9069DOI Listing
May 2021

Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 patients: mid-term follow up by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2021 02 25;23(1):14. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 2, Anzhen Road, Chaoyang, Beijing, 100029, China.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induces myocardial injury, either direct myocarditis or indirect injury due to systemic inflammatory response. Myocardial involvement has been proved to be one of the primary manifestations of COVID-19 infection, according to laboratory test, autopsy, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). However, the middle-term outcome of cardiac involvement after the patients were discharged from the hospital is yet unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate mid-term cardiac sequelae in recovered COVID-19 patients by CMR METHODS: A total of 47 recovered COVID-19 patients were prospectively recruited and underwent CMR examination. The CMR protocol consisted of black blood fat-suppressed T2 weighted imaging, T2 star mapping, left ventricle (LV) cine imaging, pre- and post-contrast T1 mapping, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). LGE were assessed in mixed both recovered COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. The LV and right ventricle (RV) function and LV mass were assessed and compared with healthy controls.

Results: A total of 44 recovered COVID-19 patients and 31 healthy controls were studied. LGE was found in 13 (30%) of COVID-19 patients. All LGE lesions were located in the mid myocardium and/or sub-epicardium with a scattered distribution. Further analysis showed that LGE-positive patients had significantly decreased LV peak global circumferential strain (GCS), RV peak GCS, RV peak global longitudinal strain (GLS) as compared to non-LGE patients (p < 0.05), while no difference was found between the non-LGE patients and healthy controls.

Conclusion: Myocardium injury existed in 30% of COVID-19 patients. These patients have depressed LV GCS and peak RV strains at the 3-month follow-up. CMR can monitor the COVID-19-induced myocarditis progression, and CMR strain analysis is a sensitive tool to evaluate the recovery of LV and RV dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12968-021-00710-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904320PMC
February 2021

Ir-Porphyrin-Based Metal-Organic Framework as a Dual Metallo- and Photocatalyst for Inert Alkyl C(sp)H Bond Activation and Direct Functionalization.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 24;13(9):10925-10932. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Zhang Dayu School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, P. R. China.

The activation and transformation of inert alkyl C(sp)H bonds to obtain high-value fine chemicals by sustainable solar energy are of great significance. Herein, by incorporating Ir-porphyrin into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to stabilize the highly active carbene, we reported a new approach to combining metallo- and photocatalysis to efficiently accelerate carbene migratory insertion and CH bond activation the radical coupling pathway for inert alkane functionalization. The -formed carbene was restricted into the pores of MOFs to produce Ir-carbene, allowing the first-time isolation and structural characterization of the Ir-carbene intermediate which are not stabilized by a heteroatom. The product of the reaction, especially the cyclic ethers as substrates, suggested that the functionalization of the α position of the alkoxy group was favored. Additionally, the new approach could be extended to stabilize the metal carbene intermediates to realize C(sp)H bond alkylation and arylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22276DOI Listing
March 2021

Sperm microRNAs confer depression susceptibility to offspring.

Sci Adv 2021 Feb 10;7(7). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Center of Molecular Diagnostic and Therapy, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Research Unit of Extracellular RNA, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Department of Physiology, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for MicroRNA Biology and Biotechnology, NJU Advanced Institute of Life Sciences (NAILS), School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023, China.

Evidence that offspring traits can be shaped by parental life experiences in an epigenetically inherited manner paves a way for understanding the etiology of depression. Here, we show that F1 offspring born to F0 males of depression-like model are susceptible to depression-like symptoms at the molecular, neuronal, and behavioral levels. Sperm small RNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs) in particular, exhibit distinct expression profiles in F0 males of depression-like model and recapitulate paternal depressive-like phenotypes in F1 offspring. Neutralization of the abnormal miRNAs in zygotes by antisense strands rescues the acquired depressive-like phenotypes in F1 offspring born to F0 males of depression-like model. Mechanistically, sperm miRNAs reshape early embryonic transcriptional profiles in the core neuronal circuits toward depression-like phenotypes. Overall, the findings reveal a causal role of sperm miRNAs in the inheritance of depression and provide insight into the mechanism underlying susceptibility to depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd7605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875527PMC
February 2021

[Analysis of a child with carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A deficiency due to variant of CPT1A gene].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb;38(2):184-187

Department of Neurology, Hunan Children's Hospital, Changsha, Hunan 410007, China.

Objective: To report on the clinical, metabolic and genetic characteristics of a child with carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency.

Methods: Clinical data and the level of acylcarnitine for a child who initially presented as epilepsy were analyzed. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the child and her parents and subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS).

Results: Mass spectrometry of blood acylcarnitine indicated increased carnitine 0 (C0) and significantly increased C0/ (C16+C18). DNA sequencing revealed that the child has carried compound heterozygous variants of the CPT1A gene, namely c.1846G>A and c.2201T>C, which were respectively inherited from her mother and father.

Conclusion: CPT1A presenting initially as epilepsy was unreported previously. Analysis of blood acylcarnitine C0 and C0/ (C16 + C18) ratio and NGS are necessary for the identification and diagnosis of CPT1A deficiency. The c.1846G>A and c.2201T>C variants of the CPT1A gene probably underlay the disease in this child. Above finding has also enriched the spectrum of CPT1A gene variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20200309-00146DOI Listing
February 2021