Publications by authors named "Zhen Ye"

189 Publications

High Concentrations of Triglycerides are Associated with Diabetic Kidney Disease in New-onset Type 2 Diabetes in China: Findings from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) Study.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Karamay Municipal People's Hospital, Xinjiang, China.

Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the associations of metabolic abnormalities with incident DKD and to explore whether dyslipidemia, especially high fasting triglyceride (TG), was associated with the development of DKD.

Methods: A total of 11 142 new-onset type 2 diabetes patients with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m were followed up during 2011-2016. Incident DKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m at follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the relationship of metabolic abnormalities at baseline and at follow-up with risks of DKD. High TG was defined by TG ≥1.70 mmol/L. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was defined by HDL-c < 1.0 mmol/L for men or < 1.3 mmol/L for women.

Results: Participants who developed DKD had higher levels of waist circumference and systolic blood pressure, and lower levels of HDL-c at both baseline and follow-up visits. The DKD group also had higher levels of post-load plasma glucose and TG at follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that both high TG at baseline (odds ratio, OR = 1.37, P = 0.012) and high TG at follow-up (OR = 1.71, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with increased risks of DKD. Patients with high TG levels at both baseline and follow-up had higher risk of DKD compared with constantly normal TG (OR = 1.65, P < 0.001) after adjustment for covariates.

Conclusions: In a large population of new-onset type 2 diabetes patients, high TG level was an independent risk factor for the development of DKD. Tight TG control might delay the occurrence of DKD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.14502DOI Listing
July 2021

Geometric modeling of attitude jitter for three-line-array imaging satellites.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(13):20952-20969

Attitude jitter causes image motion and degrades geometric accuracy of high-resolution satellite images. This work studies the mechanism of the attitude jitter effect on the imaging geometry of three-line-array push-broom sensors onboard satellites, which is a typical configuration used for topographic mapping. Based on a rigorous physical imaging model, we derived quantitative models of the geometric effect of attitude jitter in the roll, pitch, and yaw angles on the image distortions of the forward, nadir, and backward view sensors, and the accuracy of the derived models is validated through comprehensive experiments and analyses. The experimental results reveal the following. First, the attitude jitter in the roll angle dominates the cross-track image deviation; it does not affect the along-track geometry of the nadir-view sensor but marginally affects the off-nadir-view sensors, and the image distortions share a linear relationship with the image column coordinates. Second, the attitude jitter in the pitch angle dominates the along-track image deviation, and the image distortions in the off-nadir-view images are relatively larger than those in the nadir-view images. The attitude jitter in the pitch angle does not affect the cross-track geometry of the nadir-view sensor but marginally affects the off-nadir-view sensors, and the image distortions share a linear relationship with the image column coordinates. Finally, the attitude jitter in the yaw angle mainly causes the cross-track image deviation in the off-nadir-view sensors, and the along-track image geometries of all the three view sensors are marginally affected to the same extent by the yaw angle variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.426192DOI Listing
June 2021

The association between age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and albuminuria in Chinese adults: A nationwide population study.

J Diabetes 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Jiangsu Province Hospital on Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Background: Type 2 diabetes is increasingly diagnosed at a younger age worldwide and in China. Limited data are available regarding the association between age at diabetes diagnosis and risks of albuminuria. This study sought to examine the independent effect of age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes on the risk of albuminuria.

Methods: We used data from a nationwide multicenter study with 207 961 participants in mainland China. Age, sex, and study site were matched for 31 366 screen-detected type 2 diabetes cases and 31 366 normal controls. Age, sex, study site, and diabetes duration were matched for 7490 self-reported type 2 diabetes cases and 7490 normal controls. Risks of having albuminuria in matched type 2 diabetes vs controls were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis in strata of age at diabetes diagnosis.

Results: Although the absolute rate of albuminuria is higher in older adults, the odds ratio of albuminuria in type 2 diabetes vs matched controls decreased with increasing age at diagnosis. For participants with diabetes diagnosed at an age of <50, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, or ≥70 years, the multivariable adjusted risk of albuminuria increased by 81%, 60%, 45%, and 33% for screen-detected diabetes, and 135%, 121%, 90%, and 58% for self-reported diabetes compared with their normal controls, respectively.

Conclusions: A younger age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is associated with a more significantly elevated risk of albuminuria than an older age at diagnosis in Chinese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.13213DOI Listing
July 2021

Epidemiology of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Tai'an area.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 5;11(1):11596. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Health Management, The First Affiliated Hospital, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong Engineering Laboratory for Health Management, Shandong Medicine and Health Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), a serious threat to human health, is mainly transmitted by rodents in Eurasia. The risk of disease differs according to sex, age, and occupation. Further, temperature and rainfall have some lagging effects on the occurrence of the disease. The quantitative data for these factors in the Tai'an region of China are still unknown. We used a forest map to calculate the risk of HFRS in different populations and used four different mathematical models to explain the relationship between time factors, meteorological factors, and the disease. The results showed that compared with the whole population, the relative risk in rural medical staff and farmers was 5.05 and 2.00, respectively (p < 0.05). Joinpoint models showed that the number of cases decreased by 33.32% per year from 2005 to 2008 (p < 0.05). The generalized additive model showed that air temperature was positively correlated with disease risk from January to June, and that relative humidity was negatively correlated with risk from July to December. From January to June, with an increase in temperature, after 15 lags, the cumulative risk of disease increased at low temperatures. From July to December, the cumulative risk decreased with an increase in the relative humidity. Rural medical staff, farmers, men, and middle-aged individuals were at a high risk of HFRS. Moreover, air temperature and relative humidity are important factors that affect disease occurrence. These associations show lagged and differing effects according to the season.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91029-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257732PMC
July 2021

Blastocyst score, a blastocyst quality ranking tool, is a predictor of blastocyst ploidy and implantation potential.

F S Rep 2020 Sep 28;1(2):133-141. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Ronald O. Perelman and Claudia Cohen Center for Reproductive Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.

Objective: To convert blastocyst (BL) morphological grade and BL day into a numeric blastocyst score (BS).

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Academic center.

Patients: A total of 5,653 BL of known implantation (fetal heart, FH) and 11,348 biopsied BL.

Interventions: Based on their FH rates and/or significance, a score (1-4) was assigned to each BL grade component. The BL morphological score (BMS) is the sum (BS = BMS on day 5; BS = BMS + 2 on day 6).

Main Outcome Measures: Statistics characterized the FH and euploidy odds with BS.

Results: All three morphology grade components and BL day were associated with implantation and euploidy probability. The FH rate and euploidy odds decrease with larger BS. The BS was the most important factor (odds ratio [OR] per unit change = 0.807, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.784, 0.831) for untested and euploid BL implantation, and the sole one for euploid BL (OR/unit change = 0.845, 95% CI 0.803, 0.889). The BS is the second most significant factor after maternal age for euploidy probability (OR/unit change = 0.808, 95% CI 0.795, 0.822). In training and validation sets (75:25), the BS can predict implantation with similar area under the curve [AUC] (training = 0.628, 95% CI 0.613, 0.643; validation = 0.606, 95% CI 0.581, 0.631). The BS has better euploidy prediction ability (training AUC = 0.683, 95% CI 0.673, 0.693; validation AUC = 0.698, 95% CI 0.681, 0.715). The BS can stratify BL into good (3-5), fair (6-9), and poor (10-14) groups, reflecting their FH, live birth rates, and ploidy status. Advanced maternal age was associated with lower untested BL implantation and lower euploidy odds across all groups.

Conclusions: The BS is a predictor of BL ploidy and FH implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xfre.2020.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8244376PMC
September 2020

Effect of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Goal Achievement on Vascular Physiology Evaluated by Quantitative Flow Ratio in Patients Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 18;8:679599. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Cardiology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

The change in coronary physiology from lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) lacks an appropriate method of examination. Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a novel angiography-based approach allowing rapid assessment of coronary physiology. This study sought to determine the impact of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal achievement on coronary physiology through QFR. Cases involving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and 1-year angiographic follow-up were screened and assessed by QFR analysis. Patients were divided into two groups according to the LDL-C level at the 1-year follow-up: (1) goal-achievement group (LDL-C < 1.8 mmol/L or reduction of ≥50%, = 146, lesion = 165) and (2) non-achievement group ( = 286, lesion = 331). All QFR data and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) at 1 year were compared between groups. No differences between the groups in quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) data or QFR post-PCI were found. At the 1-year follow-up, lower percentage diameter stenosis (DS%) and percentage area stenosis (AS%) were recorded in the goal-achievement group (27.89 ± 10.16 vs. 30.93 ± 12.03, = 0.010, 36.57 ± 16.12 vs. 41.68 ± 17.39, = 0.003, respectively). Additionally, a better change in QFR was found in the goal-achievement group (0.003 ± 0.068 vs. -0.018 ± 0.086, = 0.007), with a lower incidence of physiological restenosis and MACCEs (2.1 vs. 8.4%, = 0.018, 5.4 vs. 12.6%, = 0.021, respectively). Evaluated by QFR, patients who achieved the LDL-C goal appear to have a better coronary physiological benefit. This group of patients also has a better clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.679599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249848PMC
June 2021

Clinical application value of Inhibin B alone or in combination with other hormone indicators in subfertile men with different spermatogenesis status: A study of 324 Chinese men.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Jun 28:e23882. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Andrology, Jinghua Hospital of Shenyang, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Background: In this study, we investigated the clinical value of serum Inhibin B alone or in combination with other hormone indicators in subfertile men.

Methods: This is a multicenter study involving 324 men from different cities in China. Testicular volume, routine semen analysis, serum Inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, estradiol, and prolactin were measured. Testicular tissue samples were also analyzed in 78 of 129 patients with azoospermia to distinguish impaired spermatogenesis from obstructive azoospermia.

Results: The concentration of Inhibin B, FSH, and AMH is related to spermatogenesis. For men with impaired spermatogenesis, including mild-to-moderate oligozoospermia (IMO) and severe oligozoospermia (ISO), serum levels of Inhibin B and FSH are highly correlated with sperm counting. However, in patients with idiopathic moderate oligozoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, there was no significant correlation between Inhibin B (or FSH) and sperm concentration. The upper cutoff value of Inhibin B to diagnose ISO is 58.25 pg/ml with a predictive accuracy of 80.65%. To distinguish between nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) and obstructive azoospermia (OA), the area under the curve (AUC) for AMH + Inhibin B + FSH is very similar to Inhibin B (0.943 vs. 0.941). The cutoff level of Inhibin B to diagnose nonobstructive azoospermia is 45.9 pg/ml with a positive and negative prediction accuracy of 97.70% and 85.71%, respectively.

Conclusion: In summary, Inhibin B is a promising biomarker alone or in combination with other hormone indicators for the diagnosis of testicular spermatogenesis status, helping clinical doctors to distinguish NOA from OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23882DOI Listing
June 2021

Chiral Lewis acid-bonded picolinaldehyde enables enantiodivergent carbonyl catalysis in the Mannich/condensation reaction of glycine ester.

Chem Sci 2021 Jan 26;12(12):4353-4360. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry & Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University Chengdu 610064 P. R. China http://www.scu.edu.cn/chem_asl/.

A new strategy of asymmetric carbonyl catalysis a chiral Lewis acid-bonded aldehyde has been developed for the direct Mannich/condensation cascade reaction of glycine ester with aromatic aldimines. The co-catalytic system of 2-picolinaldehyde and chiral Yb-,'-dioxides was identified to be efficient under mild conditions, providing a series of trisubstituted imidazolidines in moderate to good yields with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Enantiodivergent synthesis was achieved changing the sub-structures of the chiral ligands. The reaction could be carried out in a three-component version involving glycine ester, aldehydes, and anilines with equally good results. Based on control experiments, the X-ray crystal structure study and theoretical calculations, a possible dual-activation mechanism and stereo-control modes were provided to elucidate carbonyl catalysis and enantiodivergence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc07052aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179594PMC
January 2021

Coronary artery aneurysm combined with myocardial bridge: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jun;9(16):3996-4000

Department of Cardiology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou 350001, Fujian Province, China.

Background: Coronary artery aneurysm combined with myocardial bridge is a very rare clinical situation. The prognosis of this clinical situation is not yet clear.

Case Summary: A coronary artery aneurysm and myocardial bridge in the same segment of the coronary artery were found in a 54-year-old female patient who underwent coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound examination. Through conservative treatment, the patient was discharged from the hospital smoothly, and she was in good condition during 5 mo of follow-up.

Conclusion: Coronary artery aneurysm combined with myocardial bridge seems to have a good prognosis, but due to the rarity of this clinical situation, further research and follow-up are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i16.3996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8180216PMC
June 2021

Health seeking behavior and associated factors among individuals with cough in Yiwu, China: a population-based study.

BMC Public Health 2021 06 16;21(1):1157. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, 310051, P.R. China.

Background: Previous studies have shown that a certain proportion of the population did not seek medical treatment after coughing, and understanding the potential reasons is crucial for disease prevention and control.

Method: A population-based study was conducted with the probability proportional to population size sampling in Yiwu, Zhejiang, China. A total of 5855 individuals aged ≥15 years lived in Yiwu for more than 6 months were included. All participants completed a laptop-based questionnaire to collect detailed information by a face-to-face interview. Characteristics of individuals were described by categories of health seeking behavior using frequency and percentage. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations of social-demographic and cough characteristics with health seeking behavior.

Results: 19.3% (1129/5855) of participants had a cough in the past month, 40% (452/1129) had sought medical treatment. Of these, 26.5% (120/452) chose hospitals at county level or above. Individuals aged ≥65 years old (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.12), female (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.06), living in rural areas (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.003, 1.69), persistent cough for 3-8 weeks (OR = 2.91, 95% CI: 1.72, 4.92) and with more accompanying symptoms (P  < 0.001) were more likely to seek medical treatment, but those coughed for > 8 weeks were not (p > 0.5). Female (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.54) and people living in rural areas (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.92) were less likely to choose hospitals at county level or above while the higher educated were more likely to (OR = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.35, 8.02). Those who coughed for more than 2 weeks were more likely to choose hospitals at or above the county level. But the number of accompanying symptoms does not show any significant relationship with the choice of medical facility.

Conclusion: The present study found that age, sex, living areas and features of cough were associated with health seeking behavior. It is worth noting that those who coughed for too long (e.g. > 8 weeks) were less likely to seek medical treatment. Targeted measures should be developed based on the key factors found in this study to guide persons to seek medical treatment more scientifically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11250-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207678PMC
June 2021

Immune status changing helps diagnose osteoarticular tuberculosis.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0252875. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Spine and Osteopathy Ward, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, People's Republic of China.

Objective: This study is aimed to develop a new nomogram for the clinical diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis (TB).

Methods: xCell score estimation to obtained the immune cell type abundance scores. We downloaded the expression profile of GSE83456 from GEO and proceed xCell score estimation. The routine blood examinations of 326 patients were collected for further validation. We analyzed univariate and multivariate logistic regression to identified independent predicted factor for developing the nomogram. The performance of the nomogram was assessed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The correlation of ESR with lymphocytes, monocytes, and ML ratio was performed and visualized in osteoarticular TB patients.

Results: Compared with the healthy control group in the dataset GSE83456, the xCell score of basophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets was higher, while lymphoid was lower in the EPTB group. The clinical data showed that the cell count of monocytes were much higher, while the cell counts of lymphocytes were lower in the osteoarticular TB group. AUCs of the nomogram was 0.798 for the dataset GSE83456, and 0.737 for the clinical data. We identified the ML ratio, BMI, and ESR as the independent predictive factors for osteoarticular TB diagnosis and constructed a nomogram for the clinical diagnosis of osteoarticular TB. AUCs of this nomogram was 0.843.

Conclusions: We demonstrated a significant change between the ML ratio of the EPTB and non-TB patients. Moreover, we constructed a nomogram for the clinical diagnosis of the osteoarticular TB diagnosis, which works satisfactorily.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252875PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205131PMC
June 2021

Hyperthyroidism Prevalence in China After Universal Salt Iodization.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 28;12:651534. Epub 2021 May 28.

Zhejiang Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Zhejiang CDC), Hangzhou, China.

Background: Universal salt iodization (USI) was implemented in mainland China in 1996. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism and its risk factors now require examination.

Methods: Data were acquired from a nationwide Thyroid, Iodine, and Diabetes Epidemiological survey (TIDE 2015-2017) of 78,470 subjects from 31 provinces. Iodine status, and thyroid hormones and antibodies were measured.

Results: After two decades of USI, the prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism (OH), Graves' disease (GD), severe subclinical hyperthyroidism (severe SCH), and mild subclinical hyperthyroidism (mild SCH) in mainland China was 0.78%, 0.53%, 0.22%, and 0.22%, respectively. OH and GD prevalence were higher in women than in men (OH: 1.16% . 0.64%, P<0.001; GD: 0.65% . 0.37%, P<0.001).Prevalence was significantly decreased after 60 years-of-age compared with 30-39 years-of-age (OH:0.61% . 0.81%, P<0.001; GD: 0.38% . 0.57%, P<0.001).Excessive iodine(EI) and deficient iodine(DI) were both related to increased prevalence of OH (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-2.59; OR1.35, 95%CI 1.07-1.72, respectively); however, only deficient iodine was associated with increased prevalence of GD (OR1.67, 95%CI 1.30-2.15). Increased thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody levels were significantly associated with prevalence of OH and GD, but not severe SCH and mild SCH. Although hyperthyroidism was more prevalent in women, the association disappeared after adjusting for other factors such as antibody levels.

Conclusion: OH and GD prevalences in mainland China are stable after two decades of USI. Iodine deficiency, elevated thyroid antibody levels, and middle age are the main risk factors for OH and GD. The severe SCH population, rather than the mild SCH population, shows similar characteristics to the OH population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.651534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194401PMC
May 2021

Gut Microbiota May Not Be Fully Restored in Recovered COVID-19 Patients After 3-Month Recovery.

Front Nutr 2021 13;8:638825. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Reproductive Health, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 124 million people worldwide. In addition to the development of therapeutics and vaccines, the evaluation of the sequelae in recovered patients is also important. Recent studies have indicated that COVID-19 has the ability to infect intestinal tissues and to trigger alterations of the gut microbiota. However, whether these changes in gut microbiota persist into the recovery stage remains largely unknown. Here, we recruited seven healthy Chinese men and seven recovered COVID-19 male patients with an average of 3-months after discharge and analyzed their fecal samples by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis to identify the differences in gut microbiota. Our results suggested that the gut microbiota differed in male recovered patients compared with healthy controls, in which a significant difference in Chao index, Simpson index, and β-diversity was observed. And the relative abundance of several bacterial species differed clearly between two groups, characterized by enrichment of opportunistic pathogens and insufficiency of some anti-inflammatory bacteria in producing short chain fatty acids. The above findings provide preliminary clues supporting that the imbalanced gut microbiota may not be fully restored in recovered patients, highlighting the importance of continuous monitoring of gut health in people who have recovered from COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.638825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155354PMC
May 2021

Longitudinal Changes in Knee Joint Synovial Vascularity in a Rabbit Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Quantification Using Power Doppler Ultrasound and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 08 3;47(8):2430-2441. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Ultrasound, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, China; Department of Clinical Medicine, Quanzhou Medical College, Quanzhou, China. Electronic address:

We studied a rabbit model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to examine the time course of changes in synovial neovascularization based on quantitative power Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Twenty-five male New Zealand rabbits were in the ovalbumin-induced arthritis (OIA) group, and 5 were in the control group. Both rear knee joints of all rabbits were examined using conventional US and CEUS over 16 weeks. The knee synoviums of OIA rabbits were sampled by US-guided biopsy, and expression of CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was determined by immunohistochemistry. The correlation of joint damage based on multimodal US with microvessel density (CD31 positivity) and VEGF expression at different times was analyzed. OIA rabbits had increased synovial expression of CD31 and VEGF from weeks 6 to 12 (p < 0.01). During the early stage of CEUS enhancement, "dot enhancement" was more common at weeks 6 and 8, and "stripe enhancement" was more common at weeks 12 and 16 (p < 0.05). There were significant positive correlations of synovial CD31 and VEGF expression with power Doppler image grade, CEUS grade and peak intensity (p < 0.05 for all). Thus, OIA rabbits mimicked early-stage RA at 6 to 8 weeks, middle-stage RA at 8 to 12 weeks and late-stage RA at 12 to 16 weeks. Power Doppler image grade, CEUS grade and peak intensity, especially when combined with CD31 expression data, accurately characterized the extent of synovial vascularization in a rabbit model of RA. Increased vascularity based on CEUS may have value for the early diagnosis of RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2021.03.012DOI Listing
August 2021

The clinical value of three-dimensional measurement in the diagnosis of thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the ligamentum flavum.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 May;11(5):2040-2051

Second Department of Spine Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a major cause of thoracic myelopathy, which is often accompanied by multiple segmental stenosis or other degenerative spinal diseases. However, in the above situations, it is difficult to determine the exact segment responsible. The objective of this study was to analyze three-dimensional (3D) radiological parameters in order to establish a novel diagnostic method for discriminating the responsible segment in OLF-induced thoracic myelopathy, and to evaluate its superiority compared to the conventional diagnostic methods.

Methods: Eighty-one patients who underwent surgery for thoracic myelopathy caused by OLF from 2016 to 2020 were enrolled in this study as the myelopathy group, and 79 patients who had thoracic OLF but displayed no definite neurological signs from 2018 to 2020 were enrolled as the non-myelopathy group. We measured the one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and 3D radiological parameters, calculated their optimal cutoff values, and compared their diagnostic values.

Results: Significant differences were observed in the 1D, 2D, and 3D radiological parameters between the myelopathy and non-myelopathy groups (P<0.01). As a 3D radiological parameter, the OLF volume (OLFV) ratio (OLFV ratio = OLFV/normal canal volume × 100%) was the most accurate parameter for diagnosing OLF-induced thoracic myelopathy, with a diagnostic coincidence rate of 88.1%. We also found that an OLFV ratio of 26.3% could be used as the optimal cutoff value, with a sensitivity of 87.7% and a specificity of 88.6%. Moreover, the OLFV ratio [area under the curve (AUC): 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-0.95] showed a statistically higher diagnostic value than the 1D and 2D parameters (AUC: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.67-0.81; AUC: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.77-0.89, respectively) (P<0.05). Pearson correlation analysis illustrated that the OLFV ratio was significantly negatively correlated with preoperative modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) score (r=-0.73, 95% CI: -0.81 to -0.60, P<0.01).

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the superiority of the OLFV ratio over the conventional 1D and 2D computed tomography (CT)-based radiological parameters for the diagnosis of OLF-induced thoracic myelopathy. The novel diagnostic method based on the OLFV ratio will help to determine the responsible segment in multi-segmental thoracic OLF or when thoracic OLF coexists with other degenerative spinal diseases. The OLFV ratio also accurately reflects the clinical state of symptomatic patients with thoracic OLF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047373PMC
May 2021

Atorvastatin Regulates MALAT1/miR-200c/NRF2 Activity to Protect Against Podocyte Pyroptosis Induced by High Glucose.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 13;14:1631-1645. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin, 541001, People's Republic of China.

Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the main complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), which leads to the long-term loss of kidney functions. Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) can alleviate DN by interacting with microRNAs (miRNAs). In this work, we aimed to explore the effects of the MALAT1/miR-200c/NRF2 regulatory axis on the pyroptosis and oxidative stress (Oxidative stress, OS) of renal podocytes in high glucose (HG) environment and whether the lipid-lowering drug atorvastatin (AT) can relieve renal OS through this approach.

Methods: MPC-5, a mouse podocyte cell line, was induced by HG as a cell model. The protein expressions of caspase-1, GSDMD, NLRP3, NRF2, etc. were detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence, and the mRNA level of caspase-1, GSDMD, NLRP3, NRF2, MALAT1, miR-200c was tested by qRT-PCR. The cell pyroptosis of podocytes treated with AT was verified by CCK-8 or flow cytometry. The levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) were measured by spectrophotometer, respectively.

Results: The caspase-1 was upregulated in time-dependent manner and got the peak at 48 h and 30 mmol/L respectively in MPC-5 cells treated with HG. Further, the expression of GSDMD, MALAT1 and miR-200c were increased, while the level of NRF2, HO-1, OS-related indicators, were decreased simultaneously. Knockdown the MALAT1 protected MPC-5 cells from pyroptosis and OS induced by HG. However, overexpressing miR-200c in control-group cells increased pyroptosis and upregulated the OS level with HG culture medium. Further, atorvastatin protected MPC-5 cells from cell pyroptosis and downregulated the level of renal OS via attenuating the expression of MALAT1 and miR-200c.

Conclusion: Atorvastatin protects podocyte cells via MALAT1/miR-200c/NRF2 signal pathway from pyroptosis and OS induced by HG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S298950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053520PMC
April 2021

How are typical urban sewage treatment technologies going in China: from the perspective of life cycle environmental and economic coupled assessment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

The Bartlett School of Construction and Project Management, University College London, WC1E 6BT, London, UK.

Sewage treatment is an important public service, but it consumes a lot of energy and chemicals in the process of removing wastewater pollutants, which may cause the risk of pollution transfer. To find the corresponding hot issues, this paper took the lead in integrating life cycle assessment (LCA) with life cycle costing (LCC) to evaluate four most typical sewage treatment technologies with more than 85% share in China. It is found that anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (AAO) was the optimal treatment scheme with relatively small potential environmental impact and economic load. The normalized results show that the trends of the four technologies on eleven environmental impact categories were basically the same. Marine aquatic ecotoxicity potential accounted for more than 70% of the overall environmental impact. Contribution analysis indicates that electricity and flocculant consumption were the main processes responsible for the environmental and economic burden. Overall, electricity consumption was the biggest hot spot. Sensitivity analysis verifies that a 10% reduction in electricity could bring high benefits to both the economy and the environment. These findings are expected to provide effective feedback on the operation and improvement of sewage treatment. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13910-wDOI Listing
April 2021

Associations between parity, pregnancy loss, and breastfeeding duration and risk of maternal type 2 diabetes: An observational cohort study.

J Diabetes 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Parity, pregnancy loss, and breastfeeding duration were found to be associated with diabetes. However, the results are inconsistent. Also, no epidemiological studies have examined the association of these reproductive factors with diabetes in the same large population. We aim to investigate the associations between parity, pregnancy loss, breastfeeding duration, and the risk of maternal diabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese females.

Methods: We included 131 174 females aged ≥40 years from the REACTION study (Risk Evaluation of Cancers in Chinese Diabetic Individuals: A Longitudinal Study). Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to assess the association between parity, pregnancy loss, and breastfeeding duration and type 2 diabetes.

Results: The number of parities and breastfeeding duration were positively related to fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postload glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Compared with those with one birth, nulliparous women or women with 2 or ≥3 births had a significantly increased risk of diabetes. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 1.27 (1.10-1.48), 1.17 (1.12-1.22), and 1.28 (1.21-1.35), respectively. Compared with women without pregnancy loss, those who underwent 2 (OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14) or ≥3 pregnancy losses (OR 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18) had an increased risk of diabetes. Moreover, women with a breastfeeding duration ≥0 to 6 months (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.90) and ≥6 to 12 months (OR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99) had a significantly lower risk of diabetes.

Conclusions: Nulliparous women or women with multiparity or more than one pregnancy loss have an increased risk of diabetes in later life, while women who breastfeed more than 0 to 12 months have a lower risk of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.13176DOI Listing
March 2021

Association of early adulthood weight and subsequent weight change with cardiovascular diseases: Findings from REACTION study.

Int J Cardiol 2021 06 3;332:209-215. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: Excessive adiposity in adulthood is positively associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is less studied how the risk is separately explained by early adulthood weight and later weight change, especially in Asian ancestries.

Methods: This study included 121160 participants in a large population-based cohort in China. Body weight at 20 and 40 years of age wase self-reported. Information on CVD history was obtained through standard questionnaires.

Results: The odds ratios (ORs) were 1.20 (95% CI, 1.10-1.31) for coronary heart disease (CHD), 1.74 (95% CI, 1.36-2.22) for myocardial infarction (MI), 1.14 (95% CI, 0.99-1.32) for stroke and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12-1.31) for total CVD among individuals with early overweight, and became more prominent for early obesity. Meanwhile, A moderate weight gain of 2.5 kg between early adulthood and midlife significantly increased the risk of CHD (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.05-1.32), stroke (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03-1.38) and total CVD (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04-1.27), and the risk escalated with higher amounts of weight gain. Conversely, a weight loss of 2.5 kg conferred lower risk of CVD compared with a stable weight. In further cross-analysis, participants with early adulthood overweight or obesity and significant weight gain afterwards exhibited the greatest risk of CVD.

Conclusions: High early adulthood BMI and subsequent weight gain had both independent and combined effect on the risk of CVD after midlife. Therefore, weight management should start before early adulthood, and emphasized throughout adulthood for CVD prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.02.086DOI Listing
June 2021

Predicting the Failure Risk of Internal Fixation Devices in Chinese Patients Undergoing Spinal Internal Fixation Surgery: Development and Assessment of a New Predictive Nomogram.

Biomed Res Int 2021 26;2021:8840107. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Guangxi Medical University, No. 22 Shuangyong Road, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China.

The current study is aimed at developing and validating a nomogram of the risk of failure of internal fixation devices in Chinese patients undergoing spinal internal fixation. We collected data from a total of 1139 patients admitted for spinal internal fixation surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from May 2012 to February 2019. Of these, 1050 patients were included in the spinal internal fixation group and 89 patients in the spinal internal fixation device failure group. Patients were divided into training and validation tests. The risk assessment of the failure of the spinal internal fixation device used 14 characteristics. In the training test, the feature selection of the failure model of the spinal internal fixation device was optimized using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model. Based on the characteristics selected in the LASSO regression model, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for constructing the model. Identification, calibration, and clinical usefulness of predictive models were assessed using C-index, calibration curve, and decision curve analysis. A validation test was used to validate the constructed model. In the training test, the risk prediction nomogram included gender, age, presence or absence of scoliosis, and unilateral or bilateral fixation. The model demonstrated moderate predictive power with a C-index of 0.722 (95% confidence interval: 0.644-0.800) and the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.722. Decision curve analysis depicted that the failure risk nomogram was clinically useful when the probability threshold for internal fixation device failure was 3%. The C-index of the validation test was 0.761. This novel nomogram of failure risk for spinal instrumentation includes gender, age, presence or absence of scoliosis, and unilateral or bilateral fixation. It can be used for evaluating the risk of instrumentation failure in patients undergoing spinal instrumentation surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8840107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857875PMC
June 2021

Preliminary preclinical study of Chol-DsiRNA polyplexes formed with PLL[30]-PEG[5K] for the RNAi-based therapy of breast cancer.

Nanomedicine 2021 04 3;33:102363. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Center for Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA. Electronic address:

RNA interference molecules have tremendous potential for cancer therapy but are limited by insufficient potency after i.v. administration. We previously found that Chol-DsiRNA polyplexes formed between cholesterol-modified dicer-substrate siRNA (Chol-DsiRNA) and the cationic diblock copolymer PLL[30]-PEG[5K] greatly increase the activity of Chol-DsiRNA against a stably expressed reporter mRNA in primary murine syngeneic breast tumors after daily i.v. dosing. Here, we provide a more thorough preliminary preclinical study of Chol-DsiRNA polyplexes against the therapeutically relevant target protein, STAT3. We found that Chol-DsiSTAT3 polyplexes greatly increase plasma exposure, distribution, potency, and therapeutic activity of Chol-DsiSTAT3 in primary murine syngeneic 4T1 breast tumors after i.v. administration. Furthermore, inactive Chol-DsiCTRL polyplexes are well tolerated by healthy female BALB/c mice after chronic i.v. administration at 50 mg Chol-DsiCTRL/kg over 28 days. Thus, Chol-DsiRNA polyplexes may be a good candidate for Phase I clinical trials to improve the treatment of breast cancer and other solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2021.102363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184584PMC
April 2021

Inverted U-Shaped Associations between Glycemic Indices and Serum Uric Acid Levels in the General Chinese Population: Findings from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) Study.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 Jan;34(1):9-18

Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021, Shandong, China.

Objective: The relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and glycemic indices, including plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour postload glucose (2h-PG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), remains inconclusive. We aimed to explore the associations between glycemic indices and SUA levels in the general Chinese population.

Methods: The current study was a cross-sectional analysis using the first follow-up survey data from The China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study. A total of 105,922 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 40 years underwent the oral glucose tolerance test and uric acid assessment. The nonlinear relationships between glycemic indices and SUA levels were explored using generalized additive models.

Results: A total of 30,941 men and 62,361 women were eligible for the current analysis. Generalized additive models verified the inverted U-shaped association between glycemic indices and SUA levels, but with different inflection points in men and women. The thresholds for FPG, 2h-PG, and HbA1c for men and women were 6.5/8.0 mmol/L, 11.0/14.0 mmol/L, and 6.1/6.5, respectively (SUA levels increased with increasing glycemic indices before the inflection points and then eventually decreased with further increases in the glycemic indices).

Conclusion: An inverted U-shaped association was observed between major glycemic indices and uric acid levels in both sexes, while the inflection points were reached earlier in men than in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2021.003DOI Listing
January 2021

The Correlation Between Metabolic Disorders And Tpoab/Tgab: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study.

Endocr Pract 2020 Aug;26(8):869-882

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, P.R. China.

Objective: Studies have shown that metabolic abnormalities influence the immune system. Because the prevalence of metabolic and autoimmune thyroid diseases has increased synchronously, the correlation between them was worth exploring. The study objective was to investigate the relationship between metabolic disorders and thyroid auto-antibodies in euthyroid subjects.

Methods: Data were obtained from the Thyroid Diseases and Diabetes Mellitus project survey of 55,891 subjects from 31 provinces in China. The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs), thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), urinary iodine concentration, blood glucose, lipid profile, and uric acid levels were evaluated. Free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels were measured in patients with abnormal serum TSH levels.

Results: In males, the BMI, WC, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and 2-hour post-glucose oral glucose tolerance test results of the TPOAb-/TgAb-positive group were significantly higher than those of the TPOAb-/TgAb-negative group. In females, the BMI, WC, SBP, DBP, total cholesterol, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the TPOAb-/TgAb-positive group were significantly increased compared to the TPOAb-/TgAb-negative group. Multivariate analysis showed that in males, the odds ratio (OR) of positive TgAbs in the abdominal obesity group was 1.175 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.016 to 1.359; P = .03), and the OR of positive TPOAbs in the hyperuricemia group was 1.195 (95% CI, 1.041 to 1.372; P = .011). In females, the OR of positive TgAbs was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.068 to 1.326; P = .002) in the high LDL-C group.

Conclusion: Obesity, high LDL-C, and hyperuricemia were positively correlated with the prevalence of positive thyroid autoantibodies in euthyroid subjects in a gender-dependent manner. This cross-sectional survey showed that metabolic disorders are associated with increased positive thyroid autoantibody levels in euthyroid subjects in a gender-dependent manner.

Abbreviations: AIT = autoimmune thyroiditis; BMI = body mass index; CI = confidence interval; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; FPG = fasting plasma glucose; FT3 = free triiodothyronine; FT4 = free thyroxine; HbA1c = glycated hemoglobin; HDL-C = high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C = low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; OGTT2hPG = oral glucose tolerance test 2-hours post-glucose; OR = odds ratio; SBP = systolic blood pressure; TC = total cholesterol; TG = triglycerides; TgAb = thyroglobulin antibody; TPOAb = thyroid peroxidase antibody; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone; UA = uric acid; WC = waist circumference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4158/EP-2020-0008DOI Listing
August 2020

GSK-3β Regulates the Expression of P21 to Promote the Progression of Chordoma.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 11;13:201-214. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin, Guangxi 541001, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Chordoma is a rare malignant bone tumor transformed from the remnants of notochord. It is characterized as highly aggressive and locally invasive, difficult to be completely removed by surgery, and has a poor clinical prognosis. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) is involved in many cellular processes. GSK-3β overexpression has been shown to promote the development of many cancers, according to previous studies. However, the role of GSK-3β in chordoma remains unclear.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB) were performed on clinical specimens to measure GSK-3β expression in chordoma, and immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) were performed to examine the expression of GSK-3β and P21 in cell lines. Cell proliferation was detected by the CCK-8 assay and colony formation analysis, cell migration and invasion checked by Transwell experiments, and cell apoptosis was determined by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. P21 was predicted as a downstream target gene of GSK-3β using STRING and UNIHI databases. Moreover, we used immunoprecipitation to confirm that GSK-3β and P21 interacted with each other. The double luciferase reporter gene assay showed that GSK-3β could regulate the promoter activity of P21. Finally, the role of the GSK-3β -P21 pathway in chordoma tumorigenesis was analyzed in vivo in nude mice.

Results: Our study showed that GSK-3β was significantly higher in chordoma tissues than in paracancer tissues, and siRNA knockdown of GSK-3β inhibited chordoma cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Additionally, our research found that GSK-3β bound and downregulated the expression of the P21 gene, and the expression of silencing P21 partially reversed the inhibitory effect of knockdown GSK-3β on chordoma. Furthermore, xenografts showed that knockdown GSK-3β inhibited the formation of chordomas in vivo.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that the GSK-3β-P21 axis may be an important signaling pathway for the occurrence and development of chordoma, providing a new therapeutic target for the clinical treatment of this disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S289883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810826PMC
January 2021

Association of Serum Bile Acids Profile and Pathway Dysregulation With the Risk of Developing Diabetes Among Normoglycemic Chinese Adults: Findings From the 4C Study.

Diabetes Care 2021 Feb 18;44(2):499-510. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China

Objective: Comprehensive assessment of serum bile acids (BAs) aberrations before diabetes onset remains inconclusive. We examined the association of serum BA profile and coregulation with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among normoglycemic Chinese adults.

Research Design And Methods: We tested 23 serum BA species in subjects with incident diabetes ( = 1,707) and control subjects ( = 1,707) matched by propensity score (including age, sex, BMI, and fasting glucose) from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) Study, which was composed of 54,807 normoglycemic Chinese adults with a median follow-up of 3.03 years. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for associations of BAs with T2DM were estimated using conditional logistic regression.

Results: In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis, per SD increment of unconjugated primary and secondary BAs were inversely associated with incident diabetes, with an OR (95% CI) of 0.89 (0.83-0.96) for cholic acid, 0.90 (0.84-0.97) for chenodeoxycholic acid, and 0.90 (0.83-0.96) for deoxycholic acid ( < 0.05 and false discovery rate <0.05). On the other hand, conjugated primary BAs (glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, and sulfated glycochenodeoxycholic acid) and secondary BA (tauroursodeoxycholic acid) were positively related with incident diabetes, with ORs ranging from 1.11 to 1.19 (95% CIs ranging between 1.05 and 1.28). In a fully adjusted model additionally adjusted for liver enzymes, HDL cholesterol, diet, 2-h postload glucose, HOMA-insulin resistance, and waist circumference, the risk estimates were similar. Differential correlation network analysis revealed that perturbations in intraclass (i.e., primary and secondary) and interclass (i.e., unconjugated and conjugated) BA coregulation preexisted before diabetes onset.

Conclusions: These findings reveal novel changes in BAs exist before incident T2DM and support a potential role of BA metabolism in the pathogenesis of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-0884DOI Listing
February 2021

Physiological benefits evaluated by quantitative flow ratio in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2020 12 14;20(1):523. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Cardiology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, No. 29 Xin Quan Road, Fuzhou, 350001, Fujian, People's Republic of China.

Background: To explore the clinical benefits of revascularization in patients with different levels of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from the perspective of quantitative flow ratio (QFR).

Methods: Patients who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and one-year angiographic follow-up were retrospectively screened and computed by QFR analysis. Based on their LVEF, 301 eligible patients were classified into reduced LVEF (≤ 50%, n = 48) and normal LVEF (> 50%, n = 253) groups. Pre-PCI QFR, post-PCI QFR, follow-up QFR, late lumen loss (LLL), LVEF and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) at one year were compared between groups.

Results: The reduced LVEF group had a lower mean pre-PCI QFR than the normal LVEF group (0.67 ± 0.16 vs. 0.73 ± 0.15, p = 0.004), but no significant difference was found in the post-PCI or one-year follow-up QFR. No association was found between LVEF and QFR at pre-PCI or follow-up. The reduced LVEF group had greater increases in QFR (0.27 ± 0.18 vs. 0.22 ± 0.15, p = 0.043) and LVEF (6.05 ± 9.45% vs. - 0.37 ± 8.11%, p < 0.001) than the normal LVEF group. The LLL results showed no difference between the two groups, indicating a similar degree of restenosis. The reduced LVEF group had a higher incidence of MACCEs (14.6% vs. 4.3%, p = 0.016), which was mainly due to the higher risk of heart failure (6.3% vs. 0%, p = 0.004).

Conclusion: Compared to the corresponding normal LVEF patients, patients with reduced LVEF who underwent successful PCI were reported to have greater increases in QFR and LVEF, a similar degree of restenosis, and a higher incidence of MACCEs due to a higher risk of heart failure. It seems that patients with reduced LVEF gain more coronary benefits from successful revascularization from the perspective of flow physiology evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-020-01814-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737262PMC
December 2020

Prevalence of late-onset hypogonadism among middle-aged and elderly males in China: results from a national survey.

Asian J Androl 2021 Mar-Apr;23(2):170-177

School of Public Health, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi 563000, China.

This study aimed to propose an operational definition of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) that incorporates both clinical symptoms and serum testosterone measurements to evaluate the prevalence of LOH in aging males in China. A population-based sample of 6296 men aged 40 years-79 years old was enrolled from six representative provinces in China. Serum total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured and free testosterone (cFT) was calculated. The Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale was used to evaluate the LOH symptoms. Finally, 5078 men were included in this analysis. The TT levels did not decrease with age (P = 0.59), and had no relationship with AMS symptoms (P = 0.87 for AMS total score, P = 0.74 for ≥ 3 sexual symptoms). The cFT levels decreased significantly with age (P < 0.01) and showed a negative association with the presence of ≥ 3 sexual symptoms (P = 0.03). The overall estimated prevalence of LOH was 7.8% (395/5078) if a cFT level <210 pmol l combined with the presence of ≥ 3 sexual symptoms was used as the criterion of LOH. Among them, 26.1% (103/395) and 73.9% (292/395) had primary and secondary hypogonadism, respectively. After adjustment for confounding factors, primary and secondary hypogonadism was positively related to age and comorbidities. Body mass index was an independent risk factor for secondary hypogonadism. The results suggest that the AMS total score is not an appropriate indicator for decreased testosterone, and that the cFT level is more reliable than TT for LOH diagnosis. Secondary hypogonadism is the most common form of LOH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aja.aja_59_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991815PMC
November 2020

Exposure to the Chinese Great Famine in Early Life and Thyroid Function and Disorders in Adulthood: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Thyroid 2021 04 23;31(4):563-571. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, P.R. China.

Malnutrition in early life may permanently change the structure and function of the body, which lead to a number of diseases in adulthood. The effect of famine exposure during the early life on thyroid function and disorders remains unclear. This study investigated the association between exposure to the Great Chinese Famine (1959-1961) in early life and thyroid function and disorders in adulthood. Nine thousand eight hundred eighty-one subjects with appropriate birth dates derived from the Thyroid disorders, Iodine status, and Diabetes Epidemiological survey were included. Thyroid function and disorders were defined by the test results of blood sample and ultrasonography of all participants. Associations between famine exposure in early life and thyroid function and disorders in adulthood were assessed with binary logistic regression and linear regression. Participants exposed to the Great Chinese Famine during the fetal stage was associated with a higher thyrotropin (TSH) level in adulthood ( = 0.024;  = 0.038), compared with the nonexposed participants. The association was significant among rural participants ( = 0.039;  = 0.02) but not in urban participants ( = 0.005;  = 0.77). Fetal-exposed group did not show a higher risk of thyroid disorders than the age-matched balanced control group, including overt hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, and thyroid nodules ( > 0.05). Famine exposure during the fetal stage was associated with a higher TSH level in adulthood. The fetal stage could be the critical period for programming the pituitary-thyroid axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2020.0325DOI Listing
April 2021

Age at menarche, ideal cardiovascular health metrics, and risk of diabetes in adulthood: Findings from the REACTION study.

J Diabetes 2021 Jun 29;13(6):458-468. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Central Hospital of Shanghai Jiading District, Shanghai, China.

Background: Age at menarche was reported to be associated with the risk of diabetes. However, the impact of ideal cardiovascular health metrics (ICVHMs) on the association between age at menarche and adulthood diabetes risk was unclear.

Methods: We included 121 431 women from the nationwide, population-based cohort of the REACTION study (Risk Evaluation of Cancers in Chinese Diabetic Individuals: a Longitudinal Study). The diagnosis of diabetes was based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement. Logistic regression and multiplicative interaction analysis were conducted to investigate the potential interaction effect between age at menarche and ICVHMs on the development of diabetes.

Results: The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of diabetes across categories of age at menarche (<14, 14-17, and > 17 years) were 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17, 1.28), 1.00 (reference), and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.93), respectively. In subgroup analysis, significant interactions were detected between total cholesterol/blood pressure levels and age at menarche regarding the risk of diabetes (P for interaction = .0091 and .0019, respectively). The increased risk associated with age at menarche <14 years was observed in participants with three or fewer ICVHMs, but not in women with four or more ICVHMs (P for interaction = .0001).

Conclusions: Age at menarche was inversely associated with the risk of diabetes in adulthood in Chinese women, and it appeared to be modified by the presence of ICVHMs. Further studies are needed to clarify the precise interrelationship and the generalizability of our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.13128DOI Listing
June 2021

Insertion of Metal-Substituted Silylene into Naphthalene's Aromatic Ring and Subsequent Rearrangement for Silaspiro-Benzocycloheptenyl and Cyclobutenosilaindan Derivatives.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Feb 10;60(6):3189-3195. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

State Key Laboratory of Organometallic Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai, 200032, P. R. China.

Synthesis of silacycle compounds are of fundamental and application importance. Herein we report the first example of insertion of metal-substituted silylene fragment into naphthalene's aromatic ring. More significantly, this insertion is followed by interesting rearrangements to yield silaspiro-benzocycloheptenyl and cyclobutenosilaindan derivatives. The formation of cyclobutenosilaindan derivative includes the C-C bond cleavage and 4π electrocyclization steps; the formation of silaspiro-benzocycloheptenyl derivative is more complicated, including the C-C bond cleavage, reversible 4π electrocyclization, C-H bond activation and C-Si bond cleavage. DFT investigations were carried out to shed light on the mechanistic aspects of these two rearrangements. The formed cyclobutenosilaindan potassium can readily react with PhOH, MeOTf, EtOTf, PhCH Cl or PhCOCl at room temperature to afford the hydrogen, alkyl, benzyl or benzoyl substituted cyclobutenosilaindans in high yields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202012649DOI Listing
February 2021
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