Publications by authors named "Zhen Li"

3,590 Publications

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X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy caused by maternal ABCD1 mutation and paternal X chromosome inactivation.

Exp Ther Med 2022 Sep 12;24(3):565. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004, P.R. China.

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most common peroxisomal disorder. It is caused by defects in the ATP-binding cassette subfamily D member 1 (ABCD1) gene, resulting in impaired peroxisomal β-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). As an X-linked recessive disease, female X-ALD carriers are typically asymptomatic. In the present study, a 7-year-old girl was diagnosed with cerebral ALD. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed asymmetric demyelination of bilateral white matter. Plasma VLCFAs level showed a substantial increase. Whole exome and Sanger sequencing revealed an ABCD1 c.919C>T (p.Q307X) heterozygous pathogenic mutation, which was inherited from the asymptomatic mother. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) analysis revealed that the normal paternal X chromosome was almost completely inactivated. Thus, the maternal ABCD1 mutation and paternal XCI were responsible for causing the disease in the patient. XCI may be one reason female X-ALD carriers can be symptomatic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9366280PMC
September 2022

Toward the Next Generation of Spine Bioreactors: Validation of an Ex Vivo Intervertebral Disc Organ Model and Customized Specimen Holder for Multiaxial Loading.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2022 Aug 17. Epub 2022 Aug 17.

AO Research Institute Davos, Clavadelerstrasse 8, Davos 7270, Switzerland.

A new generation of bioreactors with integrated six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) aims to mimic more accurately the natural intervertebral disc (IVD) load. We developed and validated in a biological and mechanical study a specimen holder and corresponding ex vivo IVD organ model according to the bioreactor requirements for multiaxial loading and a long-term IVD culture. IVD height changes and cell viability were compared between the 6 DOF model and the standard 1 DOF model throughout the 3 weeks of cyclic compressive loading in the uniaxial bioreactor. Furthermore, the 6 DOF model and holder were loaded for 9 days in the multiaxial bioreactor under development using the same conditions, and the IVDs were evaluated for cell viability. The interface of the IVD model and specimen holder, enhanced with fixation screws onto the bone, was tested in compression, torsion, lateral bending, and tension. Additionally, critical motions such as tension and bending were assessed for a combination of side screws and top screws or side screws and adhesive. The 6 DOF model loaded in the uniaxial bioreactor maintained similar cell viability in the IVD regions as the 1 DOF model. The viability was high after 2 weeks throughout the whole IVD and reduced by more than 30% in the inner annulus fibrous after 3 weeks. Similarly, the IVDs remained highly viabile when cultured in the multiaxial bioreactor. In both models, IVD height changes after loading were in the range of typical physiological conditions. When differently directed motions were applied, the holder-IVD interface remained stable under hyper-physiological loading levels using a side screw approach in compression and torsion and the combination of side and top screws in tension and bending. We thus conclude that the developed holding system is mechanically reliable and biologically compatible for application in a new generation of multiaxial bioreactors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.2c00330DOI Listing
August 2022

A retrotransposon insertion in MUTL-HOMOLOG 1 affects wild rice seed set and cultivated rice crossover rate.

Plant Physiol 2022 Aug 17. Epub 2022 Aug 17.

National Center for Gene Research, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has a lower panicle seed setting rate (PSSR) and gamete fertility than domesticated rice (O. sativa), but the genetic mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unknown. Here, we cloned a null allele of OsMLH1, an orthologue of MutL-homolog 1 to yeast and mammals, from wild rice O. rufipogon W1943 and revealed a 5.4-kb retrotransposon insertion in OsMLH1 is responsible for the low PSSR in wild rice. In contrast to the wild type, a near isogenic line NIL-mlh1 exhibits defective crossover formation during meiosis, resulting in reduced pollen viability, partial embryo lethality and low PSSR. Except for the mutant of mismatch repair gene post-meiotic segregation 1 (Ospms1), all other MutL mutants from O. sativa indica subspecies displayed male and female semi-sterility similar to NIL-mlh1, but less severe than those from O. sativa japonica subspecies. MLH1 and MLH3 did not contribute in an additive fashion to fertility. Two types of MutL heterodimers, MLH1-PMS1 and MLH1-MLH3, were identified in rice, but only the latter functions in promoting meiotic crossover formation. Compared to japonica varieties, indica cultivars had greater numbers of crossover events per meiosis. Our results suggest that low fertility in wild rice may be caused by different gene defects, and indica and japonica subspecies have substantially different crossover rates responsible for the discrepancy between the fertility of mlh1 and mlh3 mutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiac378DOI Listing
August 2022

Reducing Chemo-/Radioresistance to Boost the Therapeutic Efficacy against Temozolomide-Resistant Glioblastoma.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Aug 16. Epub 2022 Aug 16.

Center for Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.

Chemo-/radioresistance is the most important reason for the failure of glioblastoma (GBM) treatment. Reversing the chemo-/radioresistance of GBM for boosting therapeutic efficacy is very challenging. Herein, we report a significant decrease in the chemo-/radioresistance of GBM by the generation of SO within a tumor, which was released on demand from the prodrug 5-amino-1,3-dihydrobenzo[]thiophene 2,2-dioxide (ATD) loaded on rare-earth-based scintillator nanoparticles (, NaYF:[email protected]:[email protected]@DSPE-PEG, ScNPs) under X-ray irradiation. Our novel X-ray-responsive ScNPs efficiently converted highly penetrating X-rays into ultraviolet rays for controlling the decomposition of ATD to generate SO, which effectively damaged the mitochondria of temozolomide-resistant U87 cells to lower the production of ATP and inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression to reduce drug efflux. Meanwhile, the O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) of drug-resistant tumor cells was also reduced to prevent the repair of damaged DNA and enhance cell apoptosis and the efficacy of chemo-/radiotherapy. The tumor growth was obviously suppressed, and the mice survived significantly longer than untreated temozolomide-resistant GBM-bearing mice. Our work demonstrates the potential of SO in reducing chemo-/radioresistance to improve the therapeutic effect against resistant tumors if it can be well controlled and generated in tumor cells. It also provides insights into the rational design of stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems for the controlled release of drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c12348DOI Listing
August 2022

Sirt2 promotes white matter oligodendrogenesis during development and in models of neonatal hypoxia.

Nat Commun 2022 Aug 15;13(1):4771. Epub 2022 Aug 15.

Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's National Research Institute, Children's National Hospital, Washington, DC, 20010, USA.

Delayed oligodendrocyte (OL) maturation caused by hypoxia (Hx)-induced neonatal brain injury results in hypomyelination and leads to neurological disabilities. Previously, we characterized Sirt1 as a crucial regulator of OL progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation in response to Hx. We now identify Sirt2 as a critical promoter of OL differentiation during both normal white matter development and in a mouse model of Hx. Importantly, we find that Hx reduces Sirt2 expression in mature OLs and that Sirt2 overexpression in OPCs restores mature OL populations. Reduced numbers of Sirt2 OLs were also observed in the white matter of preterm human infants. We show that Sirt2 interacts with p27/FoxO1, p21/Cdk4, and Cdk5 pathways, and that these interactions are altered by Hx. Furthermore, Hx induces nuclear translocation of Sirt2 in OPCs where it binds several genomic targets. Overall, these results indicate that a balance of Sirt1 and Sirt2 activity is required for developmental oligodendrogenesis, and that these proteins represent potential targets for promoting repair following white matter injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32462-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9378658PMC
August 2022

Magnetic solid-phase extraction method with modified magnetic ferroferric oxide nanoparticles in a deep eutectic solvent and high-performance liquid chromatography used for the analysis of pharmacologically active ingredients of Epimedium folium.

J Chromatogr A 2022 Aug 1;1679:463395. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

A novel magnetic adsorption nanomaterial was synthesized by the copolymerization of a deep eutectic solvent (DES) and chitosan (CS)-modified FeO particles. This material was proposed for the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of flavonoids from an aqueous extract solution of herbal Epimedium folium without pretreatment. Coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a rapid, environmentally friendly, and efficacious method was established and successfully applied for the enrichment, separation, and quantification of five quality marker flavonoids (viz. icariin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, and baohuoside Ⅰ, respectively) in herbal E. folium collected from four species and 18 habitats. In addition, the physicochemical properties and morphology of FeO-CS-DES were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Furthermore, key parameters, including adsorbent amount, elution solvent, and desorption factor, were optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the five flavonoids were adsorbed rapidly on MSPE, which were released easily using methanol-acidified formic acid. A reversed-phase C column with gradient mobile phases comprising acetonitrile and formic acid water was used for analyte separation and elution. Limits of detection for the five analytes ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 ng mL. Coefficients of determination in analyses ranged from 0.99994 to 0.99999. Intra-day and inter-day precision ranged from 0.75 to 5.18% (n = 6) and from 2.88 to 7.52% (n = 3), respectively. Recoveries of the five analytes ranged from 80 to 110%, with relative standard deviation values of less than 10%. To the best of our knowledge, as a new adsorbent, FeO-CS-DES nanoparticles were synthesized and used for the first time for the preconcentration and separation of flavonoids. This study provided a new approach for the enrichment and detection of Epimedium flavonoids in real samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2022.463395DOI Listing
August 2022

Effects of Xinjiang wild cherry plum ( Ledeb) anthocyanin-rich extract on the plasma metabolome of atherosclerotic apoE-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet.

Front Nutr 2022 25;9:923699. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Department of Pharmacy, Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

It is well-known that many vegetables and fruits have abundant polyphenols, such as anthocyanins, which benefit many cardiovascular diseases due to their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. To explore the protective effect of anthocyanin on atherosclerosis from a metabolic perspective, alterations in plasma metabolic profiling of apoE-deficient (apoE) mice in response to treatment with anthocyanin extracts derived from Xinjiang wild cherry plum ( Ledeb) peel was investigated through UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS. The mice were fed with a normal diet or high-fat diet supplementation with or without anthocyanin extracts (ACNE, 75, 150, 250 mg/kg body weight) for 18 weeks, corresponding to control (Con), model (Mod), and treatment group (LD, low dose; MD, medium dose; HD, high dose), respectively, along with a positive control group (posCon, treatment with Atorvastatin, 0.003 mg/kg body weight). The results showed that ACNE could significantly enhance the antioxidant capacity and lower the plasma lipid, but have no evident influence on the body weight of apoE mice. A series of differential metabolites, predominantly related to lipid metabolism, were identified, including docosahexaenoic acid, palmitoyl ethanolamide, stearoylcarnitine, L-palmitoylcarnitine, indoxyl sulfate (IS), 1-palmitoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine, phenylacetylglycine (PAGly), and so on. Among these, both IS and PAGly were host-microbial metabolites. These differential metabolites were mainly enriched in the pathway of glycerophospholipid metabolism and linoleic acid metabolism. Several important enzymes related to glycerophospholipid metabolisms such as LCAT, LPCAT, GPCPD1, PLA2G1B, PPARG, LIPE, PNPLA2, AGPAT1, and ENPP2 were recognized as underlying targets for anti-atherogenic effects of ACNE. These findings suggest that ACNE derived from Xinjiang wild cherry plum exhibits protective effects against atherosclerosis via modulating glycerophospholipid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.923699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9358619PMC
July 2022

Efficient and Stable 3D/2D Perovskite Solar Cells through Vertical Heterostructures with (BA) AgBiBr Nanosheets.

Adv Mater 2022 Aug 11:e2204661. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, 999077, Hong Kong.

Perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) have drawn great attention due to their high processability and superior photovoltaic properties. However, their further development is often hindered by severe non-radiative recombination at interfaces that decreases power conversion efficiency (PCE). To this end, we developed a facile strategy to construct a 3D/2D vertical heterostructure to reduce the energy loss in PVSCs. The heterostructure was contrived through the van der Waal integration of 2D perovskite ((BA) AgBiBr ) nanosheets onto the surface of 3D FAPbI -based perovskites. The large bandgap of (BA) AgBiBr enables the formation of type I heterojunction with 3D FAPbI -based perovskites, which serves as a barrier to suppress the trap-assisted recombination at the interface. As a result, a satisfying PCE of 24.48% was achieved with an improved open-circuit voltage (V ) from 1.13 V to 1.17 V. Moreover, the 2D perovskite nanosheets could effectively mitigate the iodide ion diffusion from perovskite to the metal electrode, hence enhancing the device stability. 3D/2D architectured devices retained ∼90% of their initial PCE under continuous illumination or heating after 1000 hours, which are superior to 3D-based devices. This work provides an effective and controllable strategy to construct 3D/2D vertical heterostructure to simultaneously boost the efficiency and stability of PVSCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202204661DOI Listing
August 2022

Designing an Illumination-Aware Network for Deep Image Relighting.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2022 17;31:5396-5411. Epub 2022 Aug 17.

Lighting is a determining factor in photography that affects the style, expression of emotion, and even quality of images. Creating or finding satisfying lighting conditions, in reality, is laborious and time-consuming, so it is of great value to develop a technology to manipulate illumination in an image as post-processing. Although previous works have explored techniques based on the physical viewpoint for relighting images, extensive supervisions and prior knowledge are necessary to generate reasonable images, restricting the generalization ability of these works. In contrast, we take the viewpoint of image-to-image translation and implicitly merge ideas of the conventional physical viewpoint. In this paper, we present an Illumination-Aware Network (IAN) which follows the guidance from hierarchical sampling to progressively relight a scene from a single image with high efficiency. In addition, an Illumination-Aware Residual Block (IARB) is designed to approximate the physical rendering process and to extract precise descriptors of light sources for further manipulations. We also introduce a depth-guided geometry encoder for acquiring valuable geometry- and structure-related representations once the depth information is available. Experimental results show that our proposed method produces better quantitative and qualitative relighting results than previous state-of-the-art methods. The code and models are publicly available on https://github.com/NK-CS-ZZL/IAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2022.3195366DOI Listing
August 2022

Success rates and safety of a modified percutaneous PD catheter placement technique: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters using a multifunctional bladder paracentesis trocar.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Aug;101(31):e29694

Department of Nephrology, The people's hospital of Banan District, ChongQing, China.

Background: We modified the blind Seldinger technique by incorporating ultrasound guidance and the use of a multifunctional bladder paracentesis trocar for PD catheter (PDC) placement, which can be easily performed by a nephrologist and is a feasible technique. To compare success rates and safety of our modified percutaneous PD catheter placement technique to open surgery.

Methods: Two hundred and twelve stage-5 chronic kidney disease(CKD) patients receiving PD therapy from June 2016 to June 2019 were included, 105 patients treated by ultrasound-guided percutaneous placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters using a multifunctional bladder paracentesis trocar (Group A) and 107 patients receiving open surgical placement (Group B). Outcomes of patients via either catheter placement technique were retrospectively compared. The clinical success rate as defined by proper catheter drainage within 4 weeks after placement, complication rates (both technical complications and infections), and 1-year catheter survival were compared.

Results: There was no significant difference in sex ratio, age, or previous abdominal surgery history between groups (P > .05). Both surgical time and incision length were significantly shorter in Group A than in Group B (P < .05). Clinical success rate was also higher inGroup A (P < .05). Moreover, Group A demonstrated lower overall complication rates (P < .05) and lower incidence rates of early peritonitis, initial drainage disorder, and peritubular leakage (all P < .05). One-year catheter survival was also higher in Group A (P < .05).

Conclusion: Percutaneous placement of PD catheters using our modified technique demonstrates superior success rates and safety compared to open surgery. In addition, our modified technique can be a better alternative to traditional Seldinger percutaneous catheterization for its higher success rate and safety, more accurate positioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000029694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9351854PMC
August 2022

A creatinine-based model for predicting recurrent bleeding after modified percutaneous transhepatic variceal embolization in patients with cirrhosis.

J Interv Med 2022 May 26;5(2):95-102. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China.

Background: Patients who survive initial esophagogastric variceal bleeding (EVB) are at an increased risk of recurrent bleeding and death; however, a reliable predictive model is lacking. We aimed to develop a model for rebleeding prediction in patients with EVB after modified percutaneous transhepatic variceal embolization (PTVE) with cyanoacrylate.

Methods: A total of 122 patients with EVB who underwent PTVE from January 2015 to November 2020 were enrolled. Multivariate logistic analyses were conducted to determine independent risk factors for nomogram construction. The discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility of the nomogram were compared with the Model for End-stage Liver Disease score (MELD) and the Child-Pugh model. Risk stratification was performed according to the nomogram.

Results: Rebleeding within 3 months of PTVE occurred in 32 patients (26.2%). Independent rebleeding indicators included prior history of endoscopic therapy, Child-Pugh score, partial splenic embolization, and creatinine level. The nomogram incorporating these four predictors achieved excellent calibration and discriminatory abilities, with a concordance index of 0.85, which was confirmed to be 0.83 through bootstrapping validation. The nomogram demonstrated superior discrimination and clinical applicability than the MELD and Child-Pugh models. As shown in the Kaplan-Meier curves, high-risk patients had a high probability of rebleeding (P ​< ​0.001).

Conclusions: The creatinine-based nomogram had a superior ability to predict rebleeding after PTVE in patients with EVB. Risk stratification may help identify high-risk patients and lead to the earlier implementation of aggressive treatments and formulation of intensive follow-up plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jimed.2022.03.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9348999PMC
May 2022

Metabolomic profiling for drug-induced liver injury with autoantibodies.

Int Immunopharmacol 2022 Aug 3;111:109084. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Hepatology, Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100039, China. Electronic address:

Backgrounds: Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is sometimes similar to autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in serology and histology. Clinicians empirically screened DILI with significant autoimmune characteristics to implement clinical intervention. We tried to characterize DILI with autoantibodies by metabolomics.

Methods: Untargeted metabolomics coupled with pattern recognition approaches were performed on sera samples including AIH (n = 59), DILI with autoantibodies (DILI, n = 68), and DILI without autoantibodies (DILI, n = 75). The differential metabolites and fingerprint metabolites between AIH and DILI were screened by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis and hierarchical clustering respectively.

Results: Of the 388 annotated differential metabolites between AIH and DILI, 74 fingerprint metabolites were screened. The eigenmetabolite compressed from the fingerprint possessed high discrimination efficacy (AUC:0.891; 95 %CI, 0.838-0.944). In the fingerprint-based PCA model, AIH and DILI were separated into three regions: the "pure region" of AIH (Region 1), the "pure region" of DILI (Region 3), the mixture region of AIH and DILI (Region 2). After incorporated into the PCA model, DILI samples were distributed into the three regions, indicating that DILI samples had different etiological tendencies. Moreover, the fingerprint-based radar model verified the results of PCA model characterizing DILI. Notably, the antibody titers of DILI in the three regions did not differ significantly, while the response rates for glucocorticoids were obviously different. The metabolic difference among DILI in different regions mainly lies in energy metabolism.

Conclusions: In terms of metabolic signature, DILI may not be a community of same pathogenesis, including AIH-inclined parts. Which deserves further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2022.109084DOI Listing
August 2022

[Analysis of clinical phenotype and variant of SLC2A1 gene in a Chinese pedigree affected with glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2022 Aug;39(8):884-888

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Anyang Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Anyang Children's Hospital, Anyang, Henan 455002, China.

Objective: To analyze the clinical phenotype and variant of SLC2A1 gene in a Chinese pedigree affected with glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS).

Methods: Clinical data of a child who was treated due to delayed motor and language development and his family members were collected. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and subjected to high-throughput medical exome sequencing. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing of his parents and sister. The genotype-phenotype correlation was explored.

Results: The child, his mother and sister had common manifestations such as delayed mental and motor development, poor exercise tolerance, easy fatigue and paroxysmal dystonia, but the difference was that the child and his mother had microcephaly and seizures, while his sister did not. A heterozygous missense SLC2A1 c.191T>C (p.L64P) variant was identified in all affected members, which was unreported previously.

Conclusion: The missense SLC2A1 c.191T>C (p.L64P) variant probably underlay the disease in the proband and his mother and sister. Variability of the clinical phenotypes has reflected the genetic and phenotypic diversity of GLUT1-DS. Detection of the novel variant has enriched the spectrum of GLUT1-DS mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20210422-00271DOI Listing
August 2022

Rational Design of Synergistic Structure Between Single-Atoms and Nanoparticles for CO Hydrogenation to Formate Under Ambient Conditions.

Front Chem 2022 19;10:957412. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Institute of Molecular Sciences and Engineering, Institute of Frontier and Interdisciplinary Science, Shandong University, Qingdao, China.

Single-atom catalysts (SACs) as the new frontier in heterogeneous catalysis have attracted increasing attention. However, the rational design of SACs with high catalytic activities for specified reactions still remains challenging. Herein, we report the rational design of a Pd-Pd synergistic structure on -pyridinedicarbonitrile-derived covalent triazine framework () as an efficient active site for CO hydrogenation to formate under ambient conditions. Compared with the catalysts mainly comprising Pd and Pd, this hybrid catalyst presented significantly improved catalytic activity. By regulating the ratio of Pd to Pd, we obtained the optimal catalytic activity with a formate formation rate of 3.66 mol·mol ·h under ambient conditions (30°C, 0.1 MPa). Moreover, as a heterogeneous catalyst, this hybrid catalyst is easily recovered and exhibits about a 20% decrease in the catalytic activity after five cycles. These findings are significant in elucidating new rational design principles for CO hydrogenation catalysts with superior activity and may open up the possibilities of converting CO under ambient conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.957412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9343707PMC
July 2022

Acute kidney injury and its association with mortality in Asian COVID-19 patients: A meta-analysis.

Clin Nephrol 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Background: Previous evidence suggests that acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with COVID-19 and associated with adverse outcomes. Moreover, the incidence and mortality of AKI in Asia are ambiguous.

Objective: Evaluating the risk factors and risk of death from AKI in COVID-19 patients in Asia.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical observational studies of COVID-19 patients in Asia. Outcome measures included: AKI in COVID-19 patients, overall mortality in COVID-19 patients, and mortality assessment in patients with AKI. The random-effects model was adopted, with heterogeneity and sensitivity analysis.

Results: 27 clinical studies (18,216 Asian patients with COVID-19) have been included in the study. The pooled incidence of AKI was 0.19 (95% CI 16 - 23%; I2 = 98.9%, p < 0.001); the pooled incidence of total mortality was 0.19 (95% CI 17 - 22%; I2 = 98.9%, p < 0.001). No publication bias was found (Egger's test, p = 0.396, 0.213). The pooled mortality in AKI patients with COVID-19 was 50% (95% CI 33 - 67%; I2 by random-effects model = 98.4%, p < 0.001). AKI was found to be a risk factor for death in stepwise regression analysis; age, diabetes, and hypertension were influencing factors for AKI risk in COVID-19 patients.

Conclusion: AKI is a common complication in Asian COVID-19 patients, and it is associated with an increase in mortality of Asian COVID-19 patients. Any treatment that protects the kidney may be a practical intervention to reduce the mortality of COVID-19 patients in Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CN110899DOI Listing
August 2022

Targeting HECTD3-IKKα axis inhibits inflammation-related metastasis.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2022 Aug 3;7(1):264. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, KIZ-CUHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, China.

Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related death. The interactions between circulating tumor cells and endothelial adhesion molecules in distant organs is a key step during extravasation in hematogenous metastasis. Surgery is a common intervention for most primary solid tumors. However, surgical trauma-related systemic inflammation facilitates distant tumor metastasis by increasing the spread and adhesion of tumor cells to vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Currently, there are no effective interventions to prevent distant metastasis. Here, we show that HECTD3 deficiency in ECs significantly reduces tumor metastasis in multiple mouse models. HECTD3 depletion downregulates expression of adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin, in mouse primary ECs and HUVECs stimulated by inflammatory factors and inhibits adhesion of tumor cells to ECs both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that HECTD3 promotes stabilization, nuclear localization and kinase activity of IKKα by ubiquitinating IKKα with K27- and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains at K296, increasing phosphorylation of histone H3 to promote NF-κB target gene transcription. Knockout of HECTD3 in endothelium significantly inhibits tumor cells lung colonization, while conditional knockin promotes that. IKKα kinase inhibitors prevented LPS-induced pulmonary metastasis. These findings reveal the promotional role of the HECTD3-IKKα axis in tumor hematogenous metastasis and provide a potential strategy for tumor metastasis prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-022-01057-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9345961PMC
August 2022

Transformer based tooth classification from cone-beam computed tomography for dental charting.

Comput Biol Med 2022 Jul 22;148:105880. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Stomatology, Shenzhen University General Hospital, Shenzhen University, 1098 Xueyuan Avenue, Nanshan District, Shenzhen, 518055, Guangdong, China; Institute of Stomatological Research, Shenzhen University, 1098 Xueyuan Avenue, Nanshan District, Shenzhen, 518055, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Dental charting is a useful tool in physical examination, dental surgery, and forensic identification. However, manual dental charting faces some difficulties, such as inaccuracy and psychiatric burden in forensic identification. As a critical step of dental charting, tooth classification can be completed on dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) automatically to solve the above difficulties. In this paper, we build a deep neuron network which accepts a 3D CBCT image patch that contains the region of interest (ROI) of a tooth as input and then outputs the type of the tooth. Although Transformer-based neural networks outperform CNN-based neural networks in many natural image processing tasks, they are difficult to apply to 3D medical images. Therefore, we combine the advantages of CNN and Transformer structure to improve the existing methods and propose the Grouped Bottleneck Transformer to overcome the drawbacks of the Transformer, namely the requirement of large training dataset and high computational complexity. We conducted an experiment on a clinical data set containing 450 training samples and 104 testing samples. Experiments show that our network can achieve a classification accuracy of 91.3% and an AUC score of 99.7%. To further evaluate the effectiveness of our method, we tested our network on the publicly available medical image classification dataset MedMNIST3D. The result shows that our network outperforms other networks on 5 out of 6 3-dimensional medical image subsets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105880DOI Listing
July 2022

Scalable fabrication of Solvent-Free composite solid electrolyte by a continuous Thermal-Extrusion process.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Jul 19;628(Pt A):64-71. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Advanced Membranes and Porous Materials Centre, Chemical Engineering Program, Division of Physical Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Composite solid-state electrolytes (CSEs) are regarded as a promising alternative for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries because they integrate the advantages of inorganic electrolytes and organic electrolytes. However, there are two issues faced by current CSEs: 1) a green and feasible approach to prepare CSEs in large scales is desired; and 2) the trace solvents, remaining from the preparation processes, lead to some serious concerns, such as safety hazard issues, electrolyte-electrode interfacial issues, and reduced durability of batteries. Here, a continuous thermal-extrusion process is presented to realize the large-scale fabrication of solvent-free CSE. A 38.7-meter CSE membrane was prepared as a demonstration in this study. Thanks to the elimination of residual solvents, the electrolyte membrane exhibited a high tensile strength of 3.85 MPa, satisfactory lithium transference number (0.495), and excellent electrochemical stability (5.15 V). Excellent long-term stability was demonstrated by operating the symmetric lithium cell at a stable current density of 0.1 mA cm for over 3700 h. Solvent-free CSE lithium metal batteries showed a discharge capacity of 155.7 - 25.17 mAh g at 0.1 - 2.0C, and the discharge capacity remained 78.1% after testing for 380cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2022.07.099DOI Listing
July 2022

Structural integrity is essential for the protective effect of mitochondrial transplantation against UV-induced cell death.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2022 Jul 23;234:112534. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial transplantation (MT) is a new technology developed in recent years, which injects healthy mitochondria directly into damaged tissues or blood vessels to play a therapeutic role. This technology has been studied in many animal models of various diseases including myocardial ischemia, cerebral stroke, liver and lung injury, and even has been successfully used in the treatment of childhood heart disease. MT can quickly improve tissue function within a few minutes after injection. The speed with which MT improves tissue function is frequently questioned, for it is hard to understand how the whole mitochondrion transports to the damaged sites, enters cells and functions within such a short period of time. Are there small molecules of mitochondrial component responsible for the function of MT? To test this hypothesis, we established an ultra-violet (UV)-irradiated HeLa cell model. The results of colony formation, sulforhodamine B (SRB), and Hoechst 33342/PI double staining assay strongly indicated that MT exhibited a significant protective effect against UV irradiation damage. The UV irradiation-induced cell cycle arresting at S phase, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decreasing, and the related apoptosis signaling factors p-IKKα, p-p65, I-κB and the activation of caspase3 were all reversed by MT treatments to some extent. The mechanisms of MT were evaluated through comparing the effect of thermal inactivation, ultrasonic crushing, and repeated freezing and thawing treatments on MT function. These results denied the above hypothesis that mitochondrial component may be responsible for MT, excluded the function of ATP, mtDNA and other small molecules, and indicated that the mitochondria structural integrity is essential. We also evaluated the effect of Ca concentrations (1 and 1.8 mM) on MT, and the results showed no effect was found in this UV-irradiated HeLa cell model. Our data support a potent anti-UV irradiation effect of MT, and that structural integrity of the mitochondria is critical for its function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2022.112534DOI Listing
July 2022

Burden of lung cancer along with attributable risk factors in China from 1990 to 2019, and projections until 2030.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Objective: This study aimed to identify and project the epidemiological trends and the burden of lung cancer in China.

Methods: We extracted incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and age-standardized rates of lung cancer in China, between 1990 and 2019, from the Global Burden of Disease Study (2019). The estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was applied to quantify the trends of lung cancer burden. Furthermore, we used the Bayesian age-period-cohort model to project the incidence and mortality in the next decade.

Results: From 1990 to 2019, the estimated national number of lung cancer incident cases increased by 224.0% to 832,920, deaths increased by 195.4% to 757,170 and DALYs increased by 146.1% to 17,128,580, respectively. Meanwhile, the ASIR, ASMR and ASDR showed an upward trend (EAPC of 1.33, 0.94 and 0.42, respectively). The ASIR and ASMR among males were about 2 times more than females, but the increase in ASIR in females (EAPC = 2.24) was more obvious than those in males (EAPC = 0.10) from 2020 to 2030. In China, smoking remained responsible for the highest burden of lung cancer, but the contribution of ambient particulate matter pollution to DALYs increased from 10.6% in 1990 to 22.5% in 2019 in total population. Moreover, we predicted that the number of deaths from lung cancer will increase by 42.7% in China by 2030.

Conclusion: In China, the burden of lung cancer has been increasing over the past three decades, which highlights more targeted intervention measures are needed to reduce the burden of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-022-04217-5DOI Listing
July 2022

Association of Plasma and Electroencephalography Markers With Motor Subtypes of Parkinson's Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 12;14:911221. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Neurology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations of plasma neurodegenerative proteins and electroencephalography (EEG) dynamic functional network (DFN) parameters with disease progression in early Parkinson's disease (PD) with different motor subtypes, including tremor-dominant (TD) and postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD).

Methods: In our study, 33 patients with PD (21 TD and 12 PIGD) and 33 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Plasma neurofilament light chain (NfL), α-synuclein (α-syn), total-tau (t-tau), β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42), and β-amyloid 40 (Aβ40) levels were measured using an ultrasensitive single-molecule array (Simoa) immunoassay. All the patients with PD underwent EEG quantified by DFN analysis. The motor and non-motor performances were evaluated by a series of clinical assessments. Subsequently, a correlation analysis of plasma biomarkers and EEG measures with clinical scales was conducted.

Results: In the TD group, plasma NfL exhibited a significant association with MDS-UPDRS III and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). A higher Aβ42/40 level was significantly related to a decrease in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) in the PIGD group. In terms of the correlation between EEG characteristic parameters and clinical outcomes, trapping time () delta was positively correlated with MDS-UPDRS III and MoCA scores in the TD group, especially in the prefrontal and frontal regions. For other non-motor symptoms, there were significant direct associations of theta with HAMD and HAMA, especially in the prefrontal region, and gamma was particularly correlated with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ) scores in the prefrontal, frontal, and parietal regions in the TD group. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between plasma t-tau and , and pairwise correlations were found among plasma NfL, theta , and MoCA scores in the TD group.

Conclusion: These results provide evidence that plasma neurodegenerative proteins and EEG measures have great potential in predicting the disease progression of PD subtypes, especially for the TD subtype. A combination of these two kinds of markers may have a superposition effect on monitoring and estimating the prognosis of PD subtypes and deserves further research in larger, follow-up PD cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.911221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9314775PMC
July 2022

Systematic screening and validation of reliable reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.).

Sci Rep 2022 Jul 28;12(1):12913. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive and widely used technique for quantifying gene expression levels, and its accuracy depends on the reference genes used for data normalization. To date, no reference gene has been reported in the nutritious and functional vegetable okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Herein, 11 candidates of reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability in okra in different tissues at different developmental stages by using three software algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper) and a web-based tool (RefFinder). Among them, eukaryotic initiation factor 4 alpha (eIF4A) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) showed the highest stability, while TUA5 had the lowest stability. The combined usage of these two most stable reference genes was sufficient to normalize gene expression in okra. Then, the above results were further validated by normalizing the expression of the cellulose synthase gene CesA4. This work provides appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in okra, which will facilitate subsequent functional gene research on this vegetable crop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-16124-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334609PMC
July 2022

SCFAs Ameliorate Chronic Postsurgical Pain-Related Cognition Dysfunction via the ACSS2-HDAC2 Axis in Rats.

Mol Neurobiol 2022 Jul 28. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, China.

Patients with chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) frequently exhibit comorbid cognitive deficits. Recent observations have emphasized the critical effects of gut microbial metabolites, like short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), in regulating cognitive function. However, the underlying mechanisms and effective interventions remain unclear. According to hierarchical clustering and 16S rRNA analysis, over two-thirds of the CPSP rats had cognitive impairment, and the CPSP rats with cognitive impairment had an aberrant composition of gut SCFA-producing bacteria. Then, using feces microbiota transplantation, researchers identified a causal relationship between cognitive-behavioral and microbic changes. Similarly, the number of genera that generated SCFAs was decreased in the feces from recipients of cognitive impairment microbiota. Moreover, treatment with the SCFAs alleviated the cognitive-behavioral deficits in the cognitively compromised pain rats. Finally, we observed that SCFA supplementation improved histone acetylation and abnormal synaptic transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampal CA1, and central amygdala (CeA) area via the ACSS2 (acetyl-CoA synthetase2)-HDAC2 (histone deacetylase 2) axis. These findings link pain-related cognition dysfunction, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acids, shedding fresh insight into the pathogenesis and therapy of pain-associated cognition dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-022-02971-8DOI Listing
July 2022

Comparison of reproductive outcomes in subclinical hypothyroidism women with high-normal versus low-normal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels after treatment with levothyroxine.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2022 Jul 28. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Reproductive Medicine, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Objective: Reproductive outcomes in euthyroid women with high-normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels are comparable to those in euthyroid women with low TSH levels; however, few studies have investigated whether strictly controlled TSH levels after levothyroxine (LT4) treatment impair reproductive outcomes in infertile women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). This study aimed to investigate the impact of high-normal versus low-normal TSH levels on reproductive outcomes in women undergoing their first in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycle.

Design: This was a retrospective cohort study. Patients were divided into low-normal (TSH < 2.5 mIU/L, and ≥0.27 mIU/L) and high-normal (TSH ≥ 2.5 mIU/L, and <4.2 mIU/L) groups based on TSH levels after LT4 treatment. TSH levels after LT4 treatment and before ovarian stimulation were recorded. Reproductive outcomes were compared between the low-normal and high-normal TSH groups and between the euthyroid and LT4-treated groups.

Results: A total of 6002 women, 548 of whom were LT4-treated women, were finally included in this study. Among the LT4-treated women, 129 women had low-normal TSH levels, and 167 women had high-normal TSH levels. The clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, and live birth rate were comparable between the low-normal and high-normal groups (all p > .05). When adjusted by age, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels, infertility duration, transferred embryos, and dose and duration of LT4 treatment, high-normal TSH levels neither significantly decreased miscarriage (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77-6.69, p = .14) nor increased clinical pregnancy (aOR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.70-1.89, p = .57 or live birth (aOR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.60-1.59, p = .92). Similar obstetric outcomes were observed between the low-normal and high-normal TSH groups after LT4 treatment and between the euthyroid and LT4-treated groups (all p ≥ .05).

Conclusions: High-normal TSH levels did not have adverse effects on clinical and obstetric outcomes when compared with low-normal TSH levels after LT4 treatment. However, whether it is appropriate to set 2.5 mIU/L as the goal of treatment before IVF/ICSI remains to be determined in further well-designed studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14802DOI Listing
July 2022

Construction of the Skeleton of Lucidumone.

Org Lett 2022 Aug 27;24(30):5541-5545. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P. R. China.

The skeleton of lucidumone was constructed through oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, Cu-mediated remote C-H hydroxylation, allyl oxidation, acid-promoted dynamic kinetic resolution cyclization, and benzylic oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.2c02023DOI Listing
August 2022

Does Aerobic plus Machine-Assisted Resistance Training Improve Vascular Function in Type 2 Diabetes? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials with Trial Sequential Analysis.

J Clin Med 2022 Jul 22;11(15). Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of General Surgery, Yangpu Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, No. 450 Tengyue Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai 200090, China.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and pancreatic B cell dysfunction. Hyperglycemia can cause several complications, including nephrological, neurological, ophthalmological, and vascular complications. Many modalities, such as medication, physical therapies, and exercise, are developed against vascular disorders. Among all exercise forms, aerobic plus machine-assisted resistance training is widely applied. However, whether this intervention can significantly improve vascular conditions remains controversial. In this study, an electronic search was processed for the Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane libraries for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of aerobic plus machine-assisted resistance training with no exercise (control) on patients with T2DM. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), the index of arterial stiffness, was chosen as primary outcome. The reliability of the pooled outcome was tested by trial sequential analysis (TSA). Secondary outcomes included systolic blood pressure (SBP) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Finally, five RCTs with a total of 328 patients were included. Compared with control, aerobic plus machine-assisted resistance training failed to provide significant improvement on PWV (MD -0.54 m/s, 95% CI [-1.69, 0.60], = 0.35). On the other hand, TSA indicated that this results till needs more verifications. Additionally, this training protocol did not significantly decrease SBP (MD -1.05 mmHg, 95% CI [-3.71, 1.61], = 0.44), but significantly reduced the level of HbA1c (MD -0.55%, 95% CI [-0.88, -0.22], = 0.001). In conclusion, this meta-analysis failed to detect a direct benefit of aerobic plus machine-assisted resistance training on vascular condition in T2DM population. Yet the improvement in HbA1c implied a potential of this training method in mitigating vascular damage. More studies are needed to verify the benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11154257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9331013PMC
July 2022

Resveratrol Attenuates Heat Stress-Induced Impairment of Meat Quality in Broilers by Regulating the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway.

Animals (Basel) 2022 Jul 25;12(15). Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Department of Animal Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China.

Studies have indicated that dietary resveratrol (RES) improves the meat quality of broilers subjected to heat stress (HS), but the mechanism of action remains unclear. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RES on meat quality, muscle antioxidant status, and its mechanism of action in broilers under HS. A total of 162 male AA broilers at 21 days old with similar weight were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups with 6 replicates each. The control group (ambient temperature: 22 ± 1 °C) and HS group (ambient temperature: 33 ± 1 °C for 10 h a day from 8:00 to 18:00 and 22 ± 1 °C for the remaining time) were fed a basal diet and the HS + RES group was fed a basal diet with 400 mg/kg RES. The feeding was conducted for 21 continuous days. The results indicated that HS decreased final body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), breast and leg muscle yield, a*, pH, the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and mRNA levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (), heme oxygenase-1 (), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (), and ( < 0.05). HS also increased b*, L*, drip loss, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and kelch-like epichlorohydrin-associated protein 1 () mRNA level ( < 0.05). Compared with the HS group, the HS + RES group exhibited a higher ADG, breast and leg muscle yield, a*, pH, activities of GST and GSH-Px, and mRNA levels of , and but had lower drip loss and Keap1 mRNA level ( < 0.05). RES can improve meat quality and the muscle antioxidant ability of heat-stressed broilers by activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani12151889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9330235PMC
July 2022

Antigenicity Alternations of Variant PEDV S Protein Disclosed by Linear B Cell Epitope Mapping.

Viruses 2022 06 23;14(7). Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Agricultural Genetics and Breeding, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Breeding Pig, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences (SAAS), Shanghai 201106, China.

The spike protein (S) plays a crucial role in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection and induces neutralizing antibodies. Mutations of the S protein are supposed to provide the main antigenic shift leading to the antigenic escape of PEDVs. It is therefore a significant question how much accumulation of antigenic shift could lead to the antigenic escape of the variant PEDV. To provide an answer in the study, B cell epitopes (BCEs) on the S protein of the PEDV vaccine strain CV777 (S) and variant strain SD2014 (S) were mapped using biosynthetic peptides and rabbit anti-PEDV S serum. Seventy-nine and 68 linear BCEs were identified from S and S, respectively. While 66.2% of the BCEs of S could be recognized by anti-S serum and 67.1% of S BCEs could be recognized by anti-S serum, more than 40% of the BCEs identified using anti-S serum on S could not be recognized by anti-S serum and vice versa. The completely shared BCEs took low percentages of 29.4% and 25.3% for S and S, respectively. These results indicate a low conservation of antigenicity of the S protein compared to a relatively high amino acid sequence similarity of 92.2% between the two strains. The study provided a BCE shift reference of PEDV antigenic escape and surveillance control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v14071371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9322158PMC
June 2022

Quantifying on-road vehicle emissions during traffic congestion using updated emission factors of light-duty gasoline vehicles and real-world traffic monitoring big data.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 23;847:157581. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, College of Environment and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

Light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) have made up >90 % of vehicle fleets in China since 2019, moreover, with a high annual growth rate (> 10 %) since 2017. Hence, accurate estimates of air pollutant emissions of these fast-changing LDGVs are vital for air quality management, human healthcare, and ecological protection. However, this issue is poorly quantified due to insufficient reserves of timely updated LDGV emission factors, which are dependent on real-world activity levels. Here we constructed a big dataset of explicit emission profiles (e.g., emission factors and accumulated mileages) for 159,051 LDGVs based on an official I/M database by matching real-time traffic dynamics via real-world traffic monitoring (e.g., traffic volumes and speeds). Consequently, we provide robust evidence that the emission factors of these LDGVs follow a clear heavy-tailed distribution. The top 10 % emitters contributed >60 % to the total fleet emissions, while the bottom 50 % contributed <10 %. Such emission factors were effectively reduced by 75.7-86.2 % as official emission standards upgraded gradually (i.e., from China 2 to China 5) within 13 years from 2004 to 2017. Nevertheless, such achievements would be offset once traffic congestion occurred. In the real world, the typical traffic congestions (i.e., vehicle speed <5 km/h) can lead to emissions 5- 9 times higher than those on non-congested roads (i.e., vehicle speed >50 km/h). These empirical analyses enabled us to propose future traffic scenarios that could harmonize emission standards and traffic congestion. Practical approaches on vehicle emission controls under realistic conditions are proposed, which would provide new insights for future urban vehicle emission management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157581DOI Listing
July 2022

[Effects of pre-moxibustion on expression of phosphorylated Tau protein and related protein kinases in hippocampal CA3 region of AD rats].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2022 Jul;47(7):573-9

College of Acupuncture and Massage, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230031.

Objective: To observe the effect of pre-moxibustion at "Baihui"(GV20), "Shenshu"(BL23) and "Zusanli"(ST36) on expression of Tau protein and related protein kinases as glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), etc. in the hippocampal CA3 region of Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats, so as to explore its mechanism underlying prevention and treatment of AD cognitive impairment.

Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control, sham operation, model and pre-moxibustion,with 9 rats in each group. Rats of the pre-moxibustion group received moxibustion of GV20, BL23 and ST36 for 15 min, once a day, 6 days a week for 3 weeks. After completion of moxibustion, the AD model was reproduced by injection of amyloid beta-peptide 25-35(Aβ 25-35) aggregation solution 1 μL (5 μg/μL) into the bilateral hippocampus, rats of the sham operation group received injection of the same dose of normal saline into the hippocampus. The spatial learning-memory ability was detected using Morris water maze test, and changes of the ultrastructure of hippocampal neurons were observed using electron microscope, and those of histopathological changes of hippocampus tissue observed using hematoxylin eosin (H.E.) staining. The expression levels of hippocampal GSK-3β, p-Tau, CDK5 and Synapsin I proteins were detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively.

Results: No significances were found between the normal control and sham groups in all the indexes (>0.05). Compared with the control group, the escape latency of place navigation test of Morris water maze test, expression of GSK-3β and CDK5 and the immunoactivity of GSK-3β, CDK5 and p-Tau were significantly increased (<0.01), and the residence time in the platform quadrant and the number of platform crossing of spatial prob test and the expression of Synapsin Ⅰ significantly reduced in the model group (<0.01). Following the intervention, the increase of escape latency, expression of GSK-3β and CDK5 and the immunoactivity of GSK-3β, CDK5 and p-Tau, and the decrease of residence time in the platform quadrant, number of platform crossing and the expression of Synapsin Ⅰ were reversed in the pre-moxibustion group (<0.05, <0.01). Outcomes of ultrastructure and histopathological observations respectively showed edema of hippocampal nerve cells at varying degrees, moderate edema of the cytoplasma, chromatin condensation at the edge of the nucleus, partial mitochondrial vacuole-like degeneration, fracture of tubular crest, edema and expansion of Golgi body, disappearance of polarity, fracture of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, degeneration of ribosome and partial myelin axon and reduced synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic capsule; and reduced number of neurons with shrank body, disappearance of nucleolus and blurred nuclear boundary and vacuole-like degeneration in some of them in the model group, which were relatively milder in the pre-moxibustion group.

Conclusion: Pre-moxibustion at GV20, BL23 and ST36 plays a role in slowing down the occurrence and development of cognitive impairment in AD rats, which may be related to its functions in inhibiting tau protein hyperphosphorylation and reducing the expression of some related protein kinases in the hippocampus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.20211346DOI Listing
July 2022
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