Publications by authors named "Zhen Li"

2,994 Publications

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A novel HLA-C*15 allele, HLA-C*15:192, identified by next generation sequencing in a Chinese individual.

HLA 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Shenzhen Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Shenzhen Blood Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Identification of the novel HLA-C*15:192 allele that differs from HLA-C*15:02:01:01 at one position in exon 2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tan.14388DOI Listing
August 2021

SUMOylation of IGF2BP2 promotes vasculogenic mimicry of glioma via regulating OIP5-AS1/miR-495-3p axis.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 13;17(11):2912-2930. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Glioma is the most common primary malignant tumor of human central nervous system, and its rich vascular characteristics make anti-angiogenic therapy become a therapeutic hotspot. However, the existence of glioma VM makes the anti-angiogenic therapy ineffective. SUMOylation is a post-translational modification that affects cell tumorigenicity by regulating the expression and activity of substrate proteins. The binding and modification of IGF2BP2 and SUMO1 were identified using Ni-NTA agarose bead pull-down assays, CO-IP and western blot; and in vitro SUMOylation assays combined with immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining were performed to explore the detail affects and regulations of the SUMOylation on IGF2BP2. RT-PCR and western blot were used to detect the expression levels of IGF2BP2, OIP5-AS1, and miR-495-3p in glioma tissues and cell lines. CCK-8 assays, cell transwell assays, and three-dimensional cell culture methods were used for evaluating the function of IGF2BP2, OIP5-AS1, miR-495-3p, HIF1A and MMP14 in biological behaviors of glioma cells. Meantime, RIP and luciferase reporter assays were used for inquiring into the interactions among IGF2BP2, OIP5-AS1, miR-495-3p, HIF1A and MMP14. Eventually, the tumor xenografts in nude mice further as certained the effects of IGF2BP2 SUMOylation on glioma cells. This study proved that IGF2BP2 mainly binds to SUMO1 and was SUMOylated at the lysine residues K497, K505 and K509 sites, which can be reduced by SENP1. SUMOylation increased IGF2BP2 protein expression and blocked its degradation through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, thereby increasing its stability. The expressions of IGF2BP2 and OIP5-AS1 were up-regulated and the expression of miR-495-3p was down-regulated in both glioma tissues and cells. IGF2BP2 enhances the stability of OIP5-AS1, thereby increasing the binding of OIP5-AS1 to miR-495-3p, weakening the binding of miR-495-3p to the 3'UTR of HIF1A and MMP14 mRNA, and ultimately promoting the formation of VM in glioma. This study first revealed that SUMOylation of IGF2BP2 regulated OIP5-AS1/miR-495-3p axis to promote VM formation in glioma cells and xenografts growth in nude mice, providing a new idea for molecular targeted therapy of glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.58035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326132PMC
July 2021

Evaluation of a fractional-order calculus diffusion model and bi-parametric VI-RADS for staging and grading bladder urothelial carcinoma.

Eur Radiol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Center for MR Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, MC-707, Suite 1A, 1801 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA.

Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for distinguishing non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) from muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and low- from high-grade bladder urothelial carcinoma using a fractional-order calculus (FROC) model as well as a combination of FROC DWI and bi-parametric Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS).

Methods: Fifty-eight participants with bladder urothelial carcinoma were included in this IRB-approved prospective study. Diffusion-weighted images, acquired with 16 b-values (0-3600 s/mm), were analyzed using the FROC model. Three FROC parameters, D, β, and μ, were used for delineating NMIBC from MIBC and for tumor grading. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed based on the individual FROC parameters and their combinations, followed by comparisons with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and bi-parametric VI-RADS based on T2-weighted images and DWI.

Results: D and μ were significantly lower in the MIBC group than in the NMIBC group (p = 0.001 for each), and D, β, and μ all exhibited significantly lower values in the high- than in the low-grade tumors (p ≤ 0.011). The combination of D, β, and μ produced the highest specificity (85%), accuracy (78%), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC, 0.782) for distinguishing NMIBC and MIBC, and the best sensitivity (89%), specificity (86%), accuracy (88%), and AUC (0.892) for tumor grading, all of which outperformed the ADC. The combination of FROC parameters with bi-parametric VI-RADS improved the AUC from 0.859 to 0.931.

Conclusions: High b-value DWI with a FROC model is useful in distinguishing NMIBC from MIBC and grading bladder tumors.

Key Points: • Diffusion parameters derived from a FROC diffusion model may differentiate NMIBC from MIBC and low- from high-grade bladder urothelial carcinomas. • Under the condition of a moderate sample size, higher AUCs were achieved by the FROC parameters D (0.842) and μ (0.857) than ADC (0.804) for bladder tumor grading with p ≤ 0.046. • The combination of the three diffusion parameters from the FROC model can improve the specificity over ADC (85% versus 67%, p = 0.031) for distinguishing NMIBC and MIBC and enhance the performance of bi-parametric VI-RADS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08203-2DOI Listing
August 2021

promotes M2-like polarization of human macrophages by downregulating SOCS3 expression and activating the TLR9 pathway.

Virulence 2021 Dec;12(1):1997-2012

Guangxi Key Laboratory of AIDS Prevention and Treatment, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Little is known about how , a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Southeast Asia, evades the human immune system. Polarization of macrophages into fungal-inhibiting M1-like and fungal-promoting M2-like types has been shown to play an important role in the innate immune response against fungal pathogens. This mechanism has not been defined for . Here, we demonstrated that promotes its survival in human macrophages by inducing them toward M2-like polarization. Our investigations of the mechanism revealed that infection led to SOCS3 protein degradation by inducing tyrosine phosphorylation, thereby relieving the inhibitory effect of SOCS3 on p-STAT6, a key factor for M2-like polarization. Our SOCS3-overexpression experiments showed that SOCS3 is a positive regulator of M1-like polarization and plays an important role in limiting M2-like polarization. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of the TLR9 pathway partially blocked -induced M2-like polarization and significantly enhanced the killing activity of macrophages against . Collectively, these results reveal a novel mechanism by which evades the immune response of human macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2021.1958470DOI Listing
December 2021

Translocator Protein-Targeted Photodynamic Therapy for Direct and Abscopal Immunogenic Cell Death in Colorectal Cancer.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA; Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA; Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA. Electronic address:

Abscopal effect is an attractive cancer therapeutic effect referring to tumor regression at a location distant from the primary treatment site. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) offers a mechanistic link between the primary and remote therapeutic effects by activating favorable anti-tumor immune responses. In this study, we induced ICD in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines in vitro and in vivo by targeting the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a mitochondrial receptor overexpressed in CRC. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using a TSPO-targeted photosensitizer, IR700DX-6T, caused effective apoptotic cell death in fourteen CRC cell lines. In a syngeneic immunocompetent CRC mouse model, the growth of tumors subjected to TSPO-PDT was greatly suppressed. Remarkably, untreated tumors in the opposing flank also showed marked growth suppression. Dendritic and CD8 T cells were activated after TSPO-PDT treatment, accompanied by decreased Treg cells in both treated and non-treated tumors. In addition, a cancer vaccine developed from TSPO-PDT produced a significant tumor inhibition effect. These results indicate that TSPO-PDT could not only directly suppress tumor growth but also dramatically provoke host anti-tumor immunity, highlighting the potential of TSPO-PDT as a successful therapeutic for CRC that exhibits systemic effects. Statement of Significance: Abscopal effect is an attractive cancer therapeutic effect referring to tumor regression at a location distant from the primary treatment site. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) offers a mechanistic link between the primary and remote therapeutic effects by activating favorable anti-tumor immune responses. In this study, we report a new therapeutic approach that can reduce the growth of multiple CRC cell lines by inducing ICD. Notably, a direct and abscopal effect was observed in mouse tumor-derived MC38 cells when injected into syngeneic immunocompetent mice. If comparable effects could be achieved in humans, it would establish a novel paradigm for treating micro- and macro-metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.07.052DOI Listing
July 2021

Association between the inclination angle of the proximal tibiofibular joint surface and medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

PLA Institute of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Fibular support for the lateral tibial plateau through the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) results in nonuniform settlement of the tibial plateau in middle-aged and elderly persons and may lead to medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. However, the inclination angle of the PTFJ surface varies widely and may affect nonuniform settlement. The purpose of this case-control study was to assess the association between the inclination angle of the PTFJ surface and medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.

Methods: The fibular inclination angle (FIA) and tibial inclination angle (TIA) of the PTFJ surface were measured using radiographs. Differences of FIA and TIA among groups were assessed with t tests and the odds ratios (ORs) for risk factors of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis were calculated with binary logistic regression analysis.

Results: Forty patients and 40 control participants were included in this case-control study. Patients had both a lower FIA (P=0.005) and TIA (P=0.000) than the controls, and logistic regression analysis showed that FIA (OR =7.000) and TIA (OR =17.000) were risk factors for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.

Conclusions: A lower inclination angle of the PTFJ surface is associated with a risk of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Clinically, early prevention of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis should be considered for middle-aged and elderly persons with low PTFJ inclination angles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-1348DOI Listing
July 2021

Coping with job stress for hospital nurses during the Covid-19 crisis: The joint roles of micro-breaks and psychological detachment.

J Nurs Manag 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Business Administration, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

Aim: To examine a mediated moderation of the effects of micro-break activity and psychological detachment on the relationship between job stress and work engagement among hospital nurses.

Background: Nursing burnout, compassion fatigue, and job stress have been relatively constant issues in nursing for at least the past decade - and the pervasiveness of the COVID-19 pandemic is intensifying them, which may lead to new challenges to work engagement.

Methods: We tested our model using a time-lagged design to collect data from supervisor-subordinate dyads in seven public hospitals located in southern China, and 263 nurses and 58 head nurses in this survey. Confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson's correlation and hierarchical multiple regression were carried out.

Results: The results showed that the adverse impact of job stress on work engagement disappeared when nurses engaged in high levels of micro-break activity. Moreover, the moderating role of micro-break activity was mediated by psychological detachment.

Conclusions: Micro-break activity and psychological detachment play joint roles in helping nurses to cope with job stress.

Implications For Nursing Management: Nurse managers should change their negative attitude toward micro-break activity (if it exists) and help nurses find opportunities for detachment under high-pressure environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13431DOI Listing
July 2021

Efficient mercury removal in chlorine-free flue gas by doping Cl into CuO nanocrystals.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 22;419:126423. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213001, PR China. Electronic address:

The low content of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in flue gas is difficult to meet the request of Hg removal. Here, a small amount of Cl was doped into the crystal lattice of CuO nanocrystals (Cl-CuO), presenting excellent Hg removal efficiency in chlorine-free coal combustion flue gas. SEM, XRD, BET, and XPS characterizations revealed well crystal morphology and structure of Cl-CuO catalyst. Besides, Cl-CuO had smaller sizes and higher BET surface area compared with CuO. Hg removal behaviors were studied using a lab-scale fixed-bed reactor. After doping Cl, Hg removal efficiency was improved obviously and could reach nearly 100% above 150 ℃, indicating chlorine incorporated into the catalyst lattice had a better role for Hg removal. Besides, gas composition effect on Hg removal was analyzed. Cl-CuO had high sulfur resistance capacity, and Hg removal efficiency can still reach above 90% even at 2000 ppm SO. O played a critical role in the Hg removal reaction. Furthermore, a plausible mechanism for Hg removal was analyzed. Doping Cl into the lattice of CuO nanocrystals was beneficial for the activation of molecular oxygen, and generated reactive oxygen species can further activate Cl to participate in the Hg removal reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126423DOI Listing
June 2021

[Clinical analysis of the vascular pulsatile tinnitus associated with sigmoid sinus-mastoid].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 May;35(5):410-415

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,the 980th Hospital of Joint Logistics Support Force of PLA,Shijiazhuang,050082,China.

To probe the clinical characteristics of diagnosis and therapy of vascular pulsatile tinnitus(PT) associated with sigmoid sinus-mastoid. Retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of the hospitalized 45 PT patients of an ear surgeon in one hospital between January 2013 to January 2020, and observed the effectiveness with surgery and non-surgery therapy. Surgical procedures include reconstruction the bone wall of sigmoid sinus by transmastoid approach and ligation of mastoid emissary vein. Non-surgery therapy includes anti-anemia therapy and observation. All patients have been followed-up in ENT outpatient. Results: Of 45 cases, female:male was 43:2, the mean age was 42.7 years old. The other PT patients were the subjective tinnitus except two females were the objective tinnitus. Of 40 cases, 38 patients underwent transmastoid approach to reconstructed sigmoid sinus bone wall, including 6 patients with the ligated mastoid emissary vein at the same period.The other 2 cases with the ligated mastoid emissary vein only.Five cases were treated by non-surgery therapies, including 2 cases anti-anemia therapy and 3 cases observation. The longest follow-up period was seven and a half years, the shortest was six months. One case was lost to follow up. The total cure rate was 80.0%(36/45),the surgery cure rate was 82.5%(33/40), the non-surgery cure rate was 60.0% (3/5). The pathophysiologic mechanism of the PT is still complex and unclear until now. However, the following conditions probably play an important role in the etiology: female, common features of anatomy anomalies, hemodynamic variations. It is a key point to confirm the responsible site or the main cause of the PT . Although the surgery is relatively simple, the effect is remarkable and no major postoperative complications,surgery could not be a only choice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2021.05.006DOI Listing
May 2021

The dissolution of fluorapatite by phosphate-solubilizing fungi: a balance between enhanced phosphorous supply and fluorine toxicity.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu, China.

Fluorapatite (FAp) is the largest phosphorous (P) reservoir on Earth. However, due to its low solubility, dissolved P is severely deficient in the pedosphere. Fungi play a significant role in P dissolution via excretion of organic acids, and in this regard, it is important to understand their impact on P cycling. The object of this study was to elucidate the balance between P release and F toxicity during FAp dissolution. The bioweathering of FAp was assisted by a typical phosphate-solubilizing fungus, Aspergillus niger. The release of elements and microbial activities were monitored during 5-day incubation. We found that the release of fluorine (F) was activated after day 1 (~90 mg/L), which significantly lowered the phosphate-solubilizing process by day 2. Despite P release from FAp being enhanced over the following 3 days, decreases in both the amount of biomass (52% decline) and the respiration rate (81% decline) suggest the strong inhibitory effect of F on the fungus. We thus concluded that F toxicity outweighs P supply, which in turn inhibits fungi growth and prevents further dissolution of FAp. This mechanism might reflect an underappreciated cause for P deficiency in soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15551-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Prognostic Values of E2F1/2 Transcriptional Expressions in Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients: Evidence from Bioinformatics Analysis.

Int J Gen Med 2021 16;14:3593-3609. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China.

Background: Numerous studies on the E2F transcription factors have led to increasing insights that E2Fs could be an important driver of the formation and progression of many human cancers. Little is known about the function of distinct E2Fs in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC).

Methods: We utilized the UALCAN, GEPIA, Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, cBioPortal, Metascape, STRING, Cytoscape, GeneMANIA, TIMER, TISIDB, GSCALite, and MEXPRESS databases to investigate the transcription level, genetic alteration, methylation, and biological function of E2Fs in chRCC patients, and its association with the occurrence, progress, prognosis, and immune cell infiltration in patients with chRCC.

Results: We found that E2F1/2/4/7/8 were more expressed in chRCC tissues than in normal tissues, while the expression of E2F5/6 was lower in the former than in the latter, and the expression levels of E2F1/2/4/5/6//7/8 were also associated with the histological parameters of chRCC, including T-stage and N-stage. Higher expression of E2F1/2/7/8 was found to be significantly correlated with worse overall survival (OS) in chRCC patients. Cox regression and time-dependent ROC analysis further suggested that E2F1/2 could be the potential independent biomarkers for chRCC prognosis. Besides, a moderate mutation rate of E2Fs (34%) was noticed in chRCC, and the genetic mutations in E2Fs were associated with poor survival of chRCC patients. We noticed that the expression of E2Fs was statistically correlated with the immune cell infiltration in chRCC. Moreover, we also found that the expression of E2F1 was significantly correlated with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and immunomodulators, E2F7 expression was associated with MHC molecules, and the expression of E2F1/8 was correlated to their methylation levels.

Conclusion: Our results provide novel insights for selecting the prognostic biomarkers for chRCC and suggest that E2F1/2 could act as potential prognostic biomarkers for the survival of chRCC patients. However, more in-depth experiments are required to identify the underlying mechanisms and verify the clinical value of E2F1/2 in the prognosis of chRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S321585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291967PMC
July 2021

MicroRNA-488 serves as a diagnostic marker for atherosclerosis and regulates the biological behavior of vascular smooth muscle cells.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):4092-4099

Department of Cardiology, Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital, Shandong, China.

Atherosclerosis (AS) is one of the main causes of cerebral infarction. Researches on AS mainly focus on the gene level, among which microRNA is the research hotspot nowadays. This study investigated the diagnostic value of aberrant serum miR-488 in AS patients, and further explored the effect of abnormally expressed miR-488 on the biological behavior of vascular smooth muscle (VSMCs) cells by cell transfection. The qRT-PCR was used to investigate the expression level of miR-488 in 125 AS patients and 60 healthy controls. The diagnostic value of miR-488 was analyzed by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. CCK-8 and Transwell assays were used to detect the ability of miR-488 on the proliferation and migration ability of VSMCs cells. Serum expression of miR-488 in AS patients was higher than that in healthy controls. The expression level of miR-488 was significantly positively correlated with the Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) value. The AUC of the ROC curve was 0.892, specificity was 99.3%, and sensitivity was 77.6%. In VSMCs cells, overexpression of miR-488 significantly promoted the proliferation and migration ability. The high expression of miR-488 is a good diagnostic marker for AS. The upregulation of miR-488 promotes VSMCs cell proliferation, and migration, which may provide a new theory for the treatment of AS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1953212DOI Listing
December 2021

Early Increased Physical Activity, Cardiac Rehabilitation, and Survival After Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2021 Jul 21:CIRCOUTCOMES120007580. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Population Health Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (Z.L., J.P., M.A.G., B.G.H.).

Background: Increased physical activity (PA) through cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves outcomes in patients with heart failure and coronary disease, but CR referral remains infrequent. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) can provide daily PA measurements to patients that may motivate them to increase PA, but it remains unclear if increased ICD measured PA is associated with improved outcomes with and without CR.

Methods: This is a retrospective observational study of 41 731 Medicare beneficiaries with ICD implantation between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2016. We linked daily ICD PA measurements and Medicare claims data to determine if increased PA is associated with a reduction in the likelihood of death or heart failure hospitalization. To determine if CR participation altered the effect of PA on outcomes, we performed two additional analyses matching CR participants and nonparticipants using propensity scores. The first match included demographics, comorbidities, and baseline PA measurements. The second match also included the change in PA measured during CR or the same time frame after ICD implant among nonparticipants.

Results: The mean age was 75 (SD, 10) years, 30 182 beneficiaries (72.3%) were male, and 1324 (3%) participated in CR. Increased ICD detected PA was associated with improved survival. CR participants had a mean PA change of +9.7 (SD, 57.8) min/d, whereas nonparticipants had a mean change of -1.0 (SD, 59.7) min/d (<0.001). After matching for demographics, comorbidities and baseline PA, CR participants had significantly lower 1- to 3-year mortality (hazard ratio, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.69-0.85], =0.03). After additionally matching for the ICD measured change in PA during CR there were no differences in mortality with and without CR (hazard ratio, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.82-1.21], =0.87). Every 10 minutes of increased daily PA was associated with a 1.1% reduction in all-cause mortality in both groups.

Conclusions: Among Medicare beneficiaries with ICDs, small increases in PA were associated with significant reductions in all-cause mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.120.007580DOI Listing
July 2021

Transformable upconversion metal-organic frameworks for near-infrared light-programmed chemotherapy.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Aug;57(63):7826-7829

State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

A transformable upconversion MOF comprising a UCNP core and an azobenzene-based MOF shell is designed for NIR light-modulated chemotherapy. The dual Förster resonance energy transfers (FRETs) involved in this delivery system trigger the transformation of the MOF for drug release and prodrug activation, thus significantly inhibiting the tumor growth and metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02670dDOI Listing
August 2021

A research on the mechanism of NSAID-related gastric ulcer treated by jia wei wu qi san based on the p38mapk signal pathway.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Mar;34(2):585-589

Gastroenterology Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China / Gastroenterology Department, Jiangsu Second Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

This study aims to explore the mechanism of NSAID-related gastric ulcer treated by JIA WEI WU QI SAN. Clean-grade SD rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group A was assigned as the control group. Groups B, C and D were intragastrically administered with 2.5mg/kg of indomethacin solution QD after 48 hours. After 15 days of treatment, group B was administered with 0.9% sodium chloride, group C was given rabeprazole (2mg/kg), and group D was administered with JIA WEI WU QI SAN (2g/kg). Abdominal aorta sampling was performed, and gastric tissues were isolated on the 29th day. The protein expression of p-P38MAPK and COX-2 were detected by western blot, while the concentration of PGE2 and IL-1 were determined by ELISA. (1) The expression of IL-1ingroup B dramatically declined in group D (P<0.01). (2)The expression of PGE-2dramatically increased in group D(P<0.01). (3) The expression of COX-2 increased in group D (P<0.05). (4) The expression of p-P38MAPK decreased in group D (P<0.05). JIA WEI WU QI SAN has multiple functions, including the activation of the p-P38MAPK signaling pathway, which promote the activation of COX-2, induce the arachidonic acid to increase the level of PG, and decrease the concentration of IL-1, thereby inducing an inflammatory reaction, and promote gastric mucosa repair.
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March 2021

A novel fluorescent probe for the detection of peroxynitrite and its application in acute liver injury model.

Redox Biol 2021 Jul 10;46:102068. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, No.163 Xianlin Road, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

Realizing the early diagnosis of acute liver injury has become a hotspot in recent years. Since the current indexes are not specific, developing novel probes with new recognition group remains a necessity. In this work, we developed a novel fluorescent probe, NNP, for the detection of ONOO in acute liver injury (ALI). The in vitro evaluation of NNP indicated the advantages including high sensitivity (LOD = 0.13 μM), rapid response (<25 s), naked-eye (red to yellow), and stability under various pH (4-10) and time (>48 h) conditions. Accordingly, NNP achieved the dose-dependent detection of ONOO in human hepatic stellate LX-2 cells. Further, in the ALI model mice, NNP could monitor the ONOO level in the occurrence of ALI in situ (in the liver region) with a steady performance. Subsequent immunohistochemical and imaging studies confirmed that NNP could achieve the detection of endogenous ONOO in ALI liver tissues. This work introduced a practical implement for the ONOO detection in ALI as well as a referable example for the establishment of molecular indexes in pre-clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.102068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287230PMC
July 2021

Coordinated transcriptomics and peptidomics of central nervous system identify neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors in the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2021 Jul 10;40:100882. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Entomology and MOA Key Lab of Pest Monitoring and Green Management, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a cosmopolitan pest of orchard, which causes serious economic losses to the fruit production. Neuropeptides and their specific receptors (primarily G protein-coupled receptors, GPCRs) regulate multiple biological functions in insects and represent promising next-generation pest management strategy. Here, we generated a transcriptome of the central nervous system (CNS) of G. molesta. Overall, 57 neuropeptide precursor genes were identified and 128 various mature peptides were predicted from these precursors. Using peptidomic analysis of CNS of G. molesta, we identified total of 28 mature peptides and precursor-related peptides from 16 precursors. A total of 41 neuropeptide GPCR genes belonging to three classes were also identified. These GPCRs and their probable ligands were predicted. Additionally, expression patterns of these 98 genes in various larval tissues were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. Taken together, these results will benefit further investigations to determine physiological functions and pharmacological characterization of neuropeptides and their GPCRs in G. molesta; and to develop specific neuropeptide-based agents for this tortricid fruit pest control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbd.2021.100882DOI Listing
July 2021

Association of DYNC1H1 gene SNP/CNV with disease susceptibility, GCs efficacy, HRQOL, anxiety, and depression in Chinese SLE patients.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Jul 17:e23892. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by multi-system injuries and overproduction of autoantibodies. There are many genetic studies on SLE, but no report has considered the relationship between cytoplasmic dynein and SLE susceptibility.

Objectives: Our study intends to investigate whether DYNC1H1 gene SNP/CNV is related to SLE susceptibility, GCs efficacy, HRQOL, anxiety, and depression in Chinese SLE patients.

Methods: A total of 502 cases and 544 healthy controls were recruited into the case-control study, and 472 subjects from the case group were followed up for 12 weeks to evaluate GCs efficacy, HRQOL, anxiety, and depression. Multiplex SNaPshot technique was applied to genotype the seven SNPs of DYNC1H1, and AccuCopy method was conducted to quantify the copy number of DYNC1H1. Anxiety and depression were evaluated using HAMA and HAMD-24 scales, respectively. The SF-36 scale was used to assess HRQOL.

Results: The significant association between SNP rs1190606 and SLE susceptibility was displayed in the dominant model (P = 0.004) as well as its allele model (P = 0.004). We also found that SNP rs2273440 was related to photosensitization symptom in SLE patients (P = 0.032). In the follow-up study, SNP rs11160668 was connected with the improvement of BP in male patients (P = 0.011). However, no association of DYNC1H1 gene with GCs efficacy, anxiety, and depression was found. No CNV in DYNC1H1 was detected.

Conclusions: The study suggests that DYNC1H1 gene polymorphisms may have an effect on SLE susceptibility and BP improvement of HRQOL in Chinese SLE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23892DOI Listing
July 2021

The Role of FTO in Tumors and It's Research Progress.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

College of Pharmacy of Liaoning University, Shenyang, Liaoning 10036. China.

Background: A malignant tumor is a disease that seriously threatens human health. At present, more and more research results show that the pathogenesis of different tumors is very complicated, and the methods of clinical treatment are also diverse. This review analyzes and summarizes the role of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) genes in different tumors and provides a reference value for research and drug treatment methods.

Method: We conducted a comprehensive literature search using the database. According to the article's primary purpose, irrelevant articles were excluded from the research summary and included in the relevant articles. Finally, the relevant information of the article was summarized.

Result: In this article, the relationship between malignant tumors and FTO is introduced by citing many documents. In addition, the inhibitors that act on FTO are listed.

Conclusion: This article has shown that FTO protein is a demethylase that can regulate N6-methyladenosine (m6A) levels in mRNA and plays a crucial role in the progression and resistance of various tumors such as leukemia, breast cancer, and lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867328666210714153046DOI Listing
July 2021

Aberrant Development of Cross-Frequency Multiplex Functional Connectome in First-Episode, Drug-Naive Major Depressive Disorder and Schizophrenia.

Brain Connect 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

South China Normal University, 12451, ZhongShan Street West NO.55, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, 510631;

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SCH) are both characterized by neurodevelopmental abnormalities; however, transdiagnostic and diagnosis-specific patterns of such abnormalities have rarely been examined, particularly in large-scale functional brain networks via advanced multilayer network models.

Methods: Here we collected resting-state functional MRI data from 45 MDD patients, 64 SCH patients and 48 healthy controls (13-45 years old), and constructed functional networks in different frequency intervals. The frequency-dependent networks were then fused by multiplex network models, followed by graph-based topological analyses.

Results: We found that functional networks of the patients showed common neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the right ventromedial parietooccipital sulcus (opposite correlations with age to healthy controls), while functional networks of the MDD patients exhibited specific alterations in the left superior parietal lobule and right precentral gyrus with respect to cross-frequency interactions. These findings were quite different from those from brain networks within each frequency interval, which revealed SCH-specific neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the right superior temporal gyrus (opposite correlations with age to the other two groups) in 0.027-0.073 Hz, and SCH-specific alterations in the left superior temporal gyrus and bilateral insula in 0.073-0.198 Hz. Finally, multivariate analysis of age prediction revealed that the subcortical network lost predict ability in both patient groups, while the visual network exhibited additional prediction ability in the MDD patients.

Discussion And Conclusion: Altogether, these findings demonstrate transdiagnostic and diagnosis-specific neurodevelopmental abnormalities and alterations in large-scale functional brain networks between MDD and SCH, which have important implications for understanding shared and unique neural mechanisms underlying the diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/brain.2021.0088DOI Listing
July 2021

The Role of Pulmonary Surfactants in the Treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in COVID-19.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:698905. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

School of Chinese Medicine, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, China.

Lung alveolar type-II (AT-II) cells produce pulmonary surfactant (PS), consisting of proteins and lipids. The lipids in PS are primarily responsible for reducing the air-fluid surface tension inside the alveoli of the lungs and to prevent atelectasis. The proteins are of two types: hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Hydrophilic surfactants are primarily responsible for opsonisation, thereby protecting the lungs from microbial and environmental contaminants. Hydrophobic surfactants are primarily responsible for respiratory function. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters the lungs through ACE-2 receptors on lungs and replicates in AT-II cells leading to the etiology of Coronavirus disease - 2019 (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV-2 virus damages the AT-II cells and results in decreased production of PS. The clinical symptoms of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients are like those of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). The PS treatment is first-line treatment option for NRDS and found to be well tolerated in ARDS patients with inconclusive efficacy. Over the past 70°years, a lot of research is underway to produce natural/synthetic PS and developing systems for delivering PS directly to the lungs, in addition to finding the association between PS levels and respiratory illnesses. In the present COVID-19 pandemic situation, the scientific community all over the world is searching for the effective therapeutic options to improve the clinical outcomes. With a strong scientific and evidence-based background on role of PS in lung homeostasis and infection, few clinical trials were initiated to evaluate the functions of PS in COVID-19. Here, we connect the data on PS with reference to pulmonary physiology and infection with its possible therapeutic benefit in COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.698905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276044PMC
June 2021

Heterostructured CuO-Au nanowire as a dual-functional nanocomposite for environmental pollutant degradation and hydrogen peroxide sensing.

Appl Opt 2021 Jul;60(20):5936-5941

Materials engineering is generally regarded as one of the most effective methods in the construction of photocatalysts, but it still faces many challenges. In this context, we designed and prepared a three-dimensional (3D) heterostructure of nanowires (NWs) formed by core and an Au shell. The - NWs not only show fine photocatalytic ability but also proved to have Fenton-like chemical properties and can be used as a hydrogen peroxide sensor. Moreover, this heterostructure realizes an integration of catalytic efficiency, retrievability, and versatility. In further consideration of the facile preparation process and low-cost material source of the structure, the - NWs show a promising application prospect in the field of multifunctional photocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.425645DOI Listing
July 2021

Valproic acid Suppresses Breast Cancer Cell Growth Through Triggering Pyruvate Kinase M2 Isoform Mediated Warburg Effect.

Cell Transplant 2021 Jan-Dec;30:9636897211027524

Department of Pathology, Medical School, 74547Dalian University, Dalian, Liaoning, China.

Energy metabolism programming is a hallmark of cancer, and serves as a potent target of cancer therapy. Valproic acid (VPA), a broad Class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitor, has been used as a therapeutic agent for cancer. However, the detail mechanism about the potential role of VPA on the Warburg effect in breast cancer remains unclear. In this study, we highlight that VPA significantly attenuates the Warburg effect by decreasing the expression of pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2), leading to inhibited cell proliferation and reduced colony formation in breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Mechanistically, Warburg effect suppression triggered by VPA was mediated by inactivation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation through reduced HDAC1 expression, resulting in suppressing breast cancer growth. In summary, we uncover a novel mechanism of VPA in regulating the Warburg effect which is essential for developing the effective approach in breast cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09636897211027524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287349PMC
July 2021

A natural single-nucleotide polymorphism variant in sulfite reductase influences sulfur assimilation in maize.

New Phytol 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100094, China.

Plants absorb sulfur from the environment and assimilate it into suitable forms for the biosynthesis of a broad range of molecules. Although the biochemical pathway of sulfur assimilation is known, how genetic differences contribute to natural variation in sulfur assimilation remains poorly understood. Here, using a genome-wide association study, we uncovered a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant in the sulfite reductase (SiR) gene that was significantly associated with SiR protein abundance in a maize natural association population. We also demonstrated that the synonymous C to G base change at SNP69 may repress translational activity by altering messenger RNA secondary structure, which leads to reduction in ZmSiR protein abundance and sulfur assimilation activity. Population genetic analyses showed that the SNP69C allele was likely a variant occurring after the initial maize domestication and accumulated with the spread of maize cultivation from tropical to temperate regions. This study provides the first evidence that genetic polymorphisms in the exon of ZmSiR could influence the protein abundance through a posttranscriptional mechanism and in part contribute to natural variation in sulfur assimilation. These findings provide a prospective target to improve maize varieties with proper sulfur nutrient levels assisted by molecular breeding and engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17616DOI Listing
July 2021

The Welwitschia genome reveals a unique biology underpinning extreme longevity in deserts.

Nat Commun 2021 07 12;12(1):4247. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis belongs to the ancient, enigmatic gnetophyte lineage. It is a unique desert plant with extreme longevity and two ever-elongating leaves. We present a chromosome-level assembly of its genome (6.8 Gb/1 C) together with methylome and transcriptome data to explore its astonishing biology. We also present a refined, high-quality assembly of Gnetum montanum to enhance our understanding of gnetophyte genome evolution. The Welwitschia genome has been shaped by a lineage-specific ancient, whole genome duplication (~86 million years ago) and more recently (1-2 million years) by bursts of retrotransposon activity. High levels of cytosine methylation (particularly at CHH motifs) are associated with retrotransposons, whilst long-term deamination has resulted in an exceptionally GC-poor genome. Changes in copy number and/or expression of gene families and transcription factors (e.g. R2R3MYB, SAUR) controlling cell growth, differentiation and metabolism underpin the plant's longevity and tolerance to temperature, nutrient and water stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24528-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275611PMC
July 2021

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma Inducing Spontaneous Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome, Treatment Using Fertilization and Embryo Transfer: A Case Report.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 24;12:621456. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Reproductive Medicine Center, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Objective: To describe the management of a patient with a pituitary adenoma secreting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) associated with spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (sOHSS) who was treated with fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET).

Methods: We report a clinical case of a woman of reproductive age with menstrual irregularity, infertility and ovarian hyperstimulation due to recurrent pituitary adenoma secreting FSH, which persisted after transsphenoidal surgery.She underwent the diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and laboratory tests,and finally she was treated with IVF-ET.

Results: The patient was plagued by a recurrent pituitary adenoma for many years and tried various treatments. After complete transsphenoidal surgery, sOHSS decreased, as shown by a reduction in oestradiol levels and an improvement in the ultrasonography parameters; however, secondary amenorrhea occurred. Finally, pregnancy was achieved through IVF-ET and the symptoms of ovarian hyperstimulation were relieved.

Conclusions: IVF-ET was found to be effective for the treatment of recurrent pituitary adenoma, thus representing a therapeutic option that should be taken into consideration in such cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.621456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264655PMC
June 2021

Soil properties and microbial community in the rhizosphere of Populus alba var. pyramidalis along a chronosequence.

Microbiol Res 2021 Sep 3;250:126812. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Key Laboratory of State Forestry and Grassland Administration on Forest Ecosystem Protection and Restoration of Poyang Lake Watershed, College of Forestry, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, 330045, Jiangxi, China.

By maintaining soil structure and quality, soil microbial communities usually play important role in many forest ecosystem processes, including ecological succession. Understanding changes in the microbial communities of areas afforested with stands of different ages is of interest in ecology. Populus alba var. pyramidalis Bunge has been widely planted in Northwest China for ecological restoration. Rhizospheric soil samples were collected from 4-, 9-, 15-, 25- and 30-year-old plantations of P. alba to measure soil characteristics and soil microbial community diversity using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The soil nutrition concentration and enzymatic activities decreased with depth of soil layer increased. In terms of stand age, alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase and the contents of nitrate N, available P and soil organic content (SOC) increased gradually. According to Illumina MiSeq sequencing results, the fungal and bacterial community structure varied with stand age, and diversity of fungi was less than bacteria. With increasing stand age, fungal community diversity indexes first increased and then decreased, peaked at 25y or 30y. RDA results suggested that soil available P and nitrate N were the most important factors governing fungal community structure, while available P contributed significantly to the variance of the bacterial community. Structural equation modelling (SEM) results indicated soil available P, nitrate N and SOC contents largely explained the shift in the microbial community structure along the cultivation chronosequence, and soil enzyme activities were related with changes in microbial community. Our results illustrated that the successional changes in microbial communities in the P. alba plantations can largely be attributed to changes in soil nutrition level along the chronosequence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2021.126812DOI Listing
September 2021

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism is associated with breast cancer subtype susceptibility in southwestern China.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(7):e0254267. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of Chinese Academy of Sciences & Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a folate-dependent enzyme, is reportedly involved in several cancer types. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism influences many biological processes, including tumorigenesis. However, the association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and breast cancer (BC) subtypes is not fully understood. In this study, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was genotyped in 490 individuals with or without BC from southwestern China. Analysis of the association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and BC revealed that there was a significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (OR = 2.83, 95% CI: 1.12-9.51, P = 0.0401). Furthermore, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism can also serve as a protective factor in luminal A breast cancer (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34-0.94, P = 0.0258). Evaluation of the association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and clinical characteristics indicated that people who suffered from hypertension had an increased risk for BC (OR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.08-4.6; P = 0.0264), especially TNBC (OR = 215.38; 95% CI: 2.45-84430.3; P = 0.0317). Our results suggest that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism is significantly associated with susceptibility to luminal B breast cancer and TNBC.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254267PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270429PMC
July 2021

An Online Cross-Sectional Survey on Oral Healthcare Among School-Age Children During COVID-19 Epidemic in Wuhan, China.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 22;8:572217. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Since the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the government of China adopted many measures which changed people's lifestyle including oral health-related lifestyle to control the transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate oral health status, oral healthcare behaviors, and parental attitudes toward oral healthcare among school-age children in Wuhan during the COVID-19 outbreak and what the status would be when the outbreak is under control. This study was an online cross-sectional survey facing elementary school students in Wuhan. The questionnaire was completed by children's parents or other family members. The information on demographic data, oral health status, oral healthcare behaviors, and parental attitudes toward oral healthcare was collected at the end of school closure. The chi-square test was used to test the association of different questionnaire items. A total of 18,383 subjects aged 6-13 years with complete data were included in this investigation, and 44.2% of them suffered pain or discomfort related to teeth and gums during the epidemic. While there might be an increasing need and concern of oral healthcare during the outbreak and even when the outbreak was controlled, the worry of infection made it difficult for people to meet their demands of dental attendance. The risk of cross-infection during the treatment had a negative influence on parental attitudes toward dental attendance. Effective measures should be taken to meet people's demands of dental attendance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.572217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258385PMC
June 2021

Genome-wide analysis of MYB transcription factors and their responses to salt stress in Casuarina equisetifolia.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jul 8;21(1):328. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou, 510520, China.

Background: MYB transcription factors are a kind of DNA binding protein that can specifically interact with the promoter region. Members of MYB TFs are widely involved in plant growth and development, secondary metabolism, stress response, and hormone signal transduction. However, there is no report of comprehensive bioinformatics analysis on the MYB family of Casuarina equisetifolia.

Results: In this study, bioinformatics methods were used to screen out 182 MYB transcription factors from the Casuarina equisetifolia genome database, including 69 1R-MYB, 107 R2R3-MYB, 4 R1R2R3-MYB, and 2 4R-MYB. The C. equisetifolia R2R3-MYB genes were divided into 29 groups based on the phylogenetic topology and the classification of the MYB superfamily in Arabidopsis thaliana, while the remaining MYB genes (1R-MYB, R1R2R3-MYB, and 4R-MYB) was divided into 19 groups. Moreover, the conserved motif and gene structure analysis shown that the members of the CeqMYBs were divided into the same subgroups with mostly similar gene structures. In addition, many conserved amino acids in the R2 and R3 domains of CeqMYBs by WebLogo analysis, especially tryptophan residues (W), with 3 conserved W in R2 repeat and 2 conserved W in R3 repeat. Combining promoter and GO annotation analysis, speculated on the various biological functions of CeqMYBs, thus 32 MYB genes were selected to further explore its response to salt stress by using qPCR analysis technique. Most CeqMYB genes were differentially regulated following multiple salt treatments.

Conclusions: Seven genes (CeqMYB164, CeqMYB4, CeqMYB53, CeqMYB32, CeqMYB114, CeqMYB71 and CeqMYB177) were assigned to the "response to salt stress" by GO annotation. Among them, the expression level of CeqMYB4 was up-regulated under various salt treatments, indicating CeqMYB4 might participated in the response to salt stress. Our results provide important information for the biological function of C. equisetifolia, as well as offer candidate genes for further study of salt stress mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03083-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265015PMC
July 2021
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