Publications by authors named "Zhen Huang"

990 Publications

Correlation between Parenting Style by Personality Traits and Mental Health of College Students.

Occup Ther Int 2022 18;2022:6990151. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

School of Economics and Management, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832000, China.

At present, the mental health of college students in China is relatively poor. This work is aimed at analyzing the correlation between family parenting style and college students' mental health and providing a realistic basis for improving the mental health level of college students. Firstly, this work detailed the family parenting style, the influencing factors of family parenting style, and the theoretical basis of personality traits. Then, 300 college students in Anhui Province were selected as the research objects who answered the questionnaire on parenting style and the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short for Chinese. Finally, statistical software was used to visually analyze the personality characteristics of college students, the overall situation of mental health, the impact of parents' education on college students' mental health, and the family parenting style of college students. According to the score of anxiety, the top 27% of the research objects are classified as the high-anxiety group, while the bottom 27% are classified as the low-anxiety group. The results show significant gender differences in the psychoticism and neuroticism dimensions of personality traits ( < 0.05). Besides, the educational level of parents has a certain influence on the mental health of college students, and the influence of mothers is even greater. College students feel more rejection, emotional warmth, and overprotection from mothers. Meanwhile, college students with mothers of different educational levels have significant differences in the scores of various dimensions of the mother's rearing style. However, there is no difference in this respect among college students with fathers of different educational levels. The average scores of emotional warmth from parents of the high-anxiety group are significantly lower than those of the low-anxiety group ( < 0.001). Moreover, the high-anxiety group has much lower average scores than the low-anxiety group in severe punishment, overprotection, and rejection of father and excessive interference, severe punishment, and rejection of mother ( < 0.001). There is no significant difference in their average scores of the partiality of father or mother between the high-anxiety group and the low-anxiety group. The results show that the parenting style based on personality traits has an impact on college students' mental health. This signifies that parenting style based on personality traits has an effect on college students' mental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6990151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9314183PMC
July 2022

SARS-CoV-2 Epitopes following Infection and Vaccination Overlap Known Neutralizing Antibody Sites.

Research (Wash D C) 2022 9;2022:9769803. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Center for Cellular and Molecular Diagnostics, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Ave., New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

Identification of epitopes targeted following virus infection or vaccination can guide vaccine design and development of therapeutic interventions targeting functional sites, but can be laborious. Herein, we employed peptide microarrays to map linear peptide epitopes (LPEs) recognized following SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. LPEs detected by nonhuman primate (NHP) and patient IgMs after SARS-CoV-2 infection extensively overlapped, localized to functionally important virus regions, and aligned with reported neutralizing antibody binding sites. Similar LPE overlap occurred after infection and vaccination, with LPE clusters specific to each stimulus, where strong and conserved LPEs mapping to sites known or likely to inhibit spike protein function. Vaccine-specific LPEs tended to map to sites known or likely to be affected by structural changes induced by the proline substitutions in the mRNA vaccine's S protein. Mapping LPEs to regions of known functional importance in this manner may accelerate vaccine evaluation and discovery of targets for site-specific therapeutic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34133/2022/9769803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9297724PMC
July 2022

Use of failure mode and effect analysis to reduce patient safety risks in purchasing prescription drugs from online pharmacies in China.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 19;9:913214. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Administration for Market Regulation of Chengdu, Chengdu, China.

Background: Online pharmacies have gradually penetrated the market, but pose risks to patients' health. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is an effective and reliable method for reducing pharmacy and medication risks. The purpose of this study was to conduct a prospective risk analysis of the process of purchasing prescription drugs from online pharmacies in China to guarantee drug quality and patient safety.

Methods: The FMEA was performed at Sichuan University, China. A multidisciplinary team was assembled comprising a leader, four regulators, four pharmacists, two experts, etc. The process was composed of eight subprocesses: searching for prescription drugs, submitting medication requirements, completing patient information forms, dispensing, delivering, etc. Brainstorming was used to identify and prioritize failure modes, propose corrective actions, and reduce risks. Risk priority numbers were the main criterion and were obtained by multiplying three scores: severity, occurrence and detectability, which were scored by the team The team proposed corrective actions for each selected failure mode.

Results: A total of forty-one potential failure modes were identified, and the causes, effects, and corrective actions of the 30 top failure modes were analyzed. The highest risk value was assigned to "photocopies of paper prescriptions uploaded were reused by patients." Three failure modes for the S value of 5 were: "drugs are eroded and polluted by moisture or insects in the process of transportation," "the qualification information of the pharmacies were absent or fake," and "pharmacists fail to check prescriptions in accordance with Prescription Administrative Regulation." Of the top failure modes, 36.67% were from Step 5, delivering the drug. After taking corrective measures to control risks, the risks reduced by 69.26%.

Conclusion: The results of this study proves that the FMEA is a valuable tool for identifying and prioritizing the risks inherent in online pharmacies. This study shows that there are many potential risks in the process of purchasing prescription drugs from online pharmacies, especially in the drug delivery stage. Enhanced training and the introduction of smart devices may minimize risks. Online pharmacies and Chinese regulators should consider these findings for risk mitigation and the improvement of regulations pertaining to online pharmacies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.913214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9343844PMC
July 2022

Lenvatinib Combined With Transarterial Chemoembolization as First-Line Treatment for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Phase III, Randomized Clinical Trial (LAUNCH).

J Clin Oncol 2022 Aug 3:JCO2200392. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Cancer Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: Lenvatinib (LEN) is a first-line therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, it has shown modest survival benefits. Therefore, we aimed to compare clinical outcomes of LEN combined with transarterial chemoembolization (LEN-TACE) versus LEN monotherapy in patients with advanced HCC.

Materials And Methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel group, phase III trial. Patients with primary treatment-naive or initial recurrent advanced HCC after surgery were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive LEN plus on-demand TACE (LEN-TACE) or LEN monotherapy. LEN was initiated within 3 days after random assignment (initial dose: 12 mg once daily for patients ≥ 60 kg; 8 mg once daily for patients < 60 kg). TACE was initiated one day after LEN initiation. The primary end point was overall survival (OS).

Results: Between June 2019 and July 2021, a total of 338 patients underwent random assignment at 12 centers in China: 170 to LEN-TACE and 168 to LEN. At a prespecified event-driven interim analysis after a median follow-up of 17.0 months, the median OS was significantly longer in the LEN-TACE group (17.8 11.5 months; hazard ratio, 0.45; < .001). The median progression-free survival was 10.6 months in the LEN-TACE group and 6.4 months in the LEN group (hazard ratio, 0.43; < .001). Patients in the LEN-TACE group had a higher objective response rate according to the modified RECIST (54.1% 25.0%, < .001). Multivariable analysis revealed that portal vein tumor thrombus and treatment allocation were independent risk factors for OS.

Conclusion: The addition of TACE to LEN improves clinical outcomes and is a potential first-line treatment for patients with advanced HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.22.00392DOI Listing
August 2022

Gas Emergence Characteristics of the Upper Corner on the 215101 Mining Working Face of the Yue Nan Coal Mine.

ACS Omega 2022 Jul 14;7(29):25663-25674. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

College of Safety Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454003, China.

To prevent the gas over limit in the upper corner of the 215101 working face of the Yue Nan coal mine, a numerical simulation method was used to analyze the gas concentration in the upper corner of the working face at different air intake volumes and mining velocities. The research results show that the gas concentration in the upper corner is 0.78, 0.52, 0.39, and 0.32% when the wind speed of the intake airflow roadway is 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 m/s, respectively, and an optimal wind speed of the intake airflow roadway is selected as 2 m/s. When the wind speed of the intake airflow roadway is 2 m/s, the working face mining velocity is 1, 2, 3, and 4 m/d, and the gas concentration in the upper corner is 0.27, 0.39, 0.58, and 0.83%, respectively, and an optimal working face mining velocity of 3 m/d is selected. Under the optimal mining conditions, the working face wind leakage area is divided, with 0∼30 m of the working face as the main leakage area and 150-180 m as the wind flow compensation area. According to the wind speed in the gob, the wind flow disturbance area is divided, the gob 0-50 m is the wind flow intense disturbance area, which is the main area of the upper corner gas source; the gob 50-62 m is the wind flow medium disturbance area, which is the secondary area of the upper corner gas source; the gob 62-75 m is the slight disturbance area, which has less influence on the upper corner gas concentration; the gob after 75 m is the wind flow undisturbed area, and the upper corner gas concentration is almost unaffected by it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c02898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9330210PMC
July 2022

Research on Forward Problem of Rail Detection Based on Magnetoacoustic Coupling.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Jul 25;22(15). Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Field Centre, Shandong Provincial Agricultural Machinery Scientific Research Institute, Jinan 252100, China.

According to the characteristics of rail defects, a rail microcrack detection method based on magnetoacoustic coupling effect is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the basic principle of a rail microcrack detection method based on magnetoacoustic coupling effect is described, and then the model is analyzed theoretically. Through simulation calculation, the current density distribution and Lorentz force distribution generated by electromagnetic excitation, the motion characteristics of particles under Lorentz force and the sound field distribution characteristics of magnetoacoustic signals generated by Lorentz force are obtained. Finally, an experimental platform was set up and the steel ring model was preliminarily tested. The magnetic and acoustic signals of the two steel ring boundaries excited by an electromagnetic field were collected. These signals correspond to the position distribution of the steel ring. The state change of rail microstructure will cause a change in the conductivity characteristics of rail materials, and will affect the characteristics and distribution of sound pressure in the detection. Therefore, the detection method based on the magnetoacoustic coupling effect can detect the surface microcracks of high-speed rail. This method has great feasibility and development potential in the field of rail flaw detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22155539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9330390PMC
July 2022

Ethylene Plays a Dual Role during Infection by of .

Genes (Basel) 2022 Jul 22;13(8). Epub 2022 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

infection leads to hypertrophy of host roots and subsequent formation of galls, causing huge economic losses to agricultural producers of plants. Ethylene (ET) has been reported to play a vital role against necrotrophic pathogens in the classic immunity system. More clues suggested that the defense to pathogens in roots may be different from the acrial. The ET pathway may play a positive role in the infection of . , as shown by recent transcriptome profiling. However, the molecular basis of ET remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the potential role of ethylene against . infection in an double-mutant of (). After infection, (Disease Index/DI: 93) showed more susceptibility compared with wild type (DI: 75). Then, we inoculated () with . by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and pyrazinamide (PZA), respectively. It was found that the symptoms of infected roots with ACC were more serious than those with PZA at 20 dpi (day post infection). However, the DI were almost the same in different treatments at 30 dpi. can be directly regulated by ET and was upregulated at 7 dpi with ACC, as shown by qRT-PCR. The mutant of (DI: 93.75) was more susceptible than the wild type in . Thus, our work reveals the dual roles of ET in infection of and provides evidence of ET in root defense against pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes13081299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9329982PMC
July 2022

Letter to the editor: "The impact of synchronous liver resection on the risk of anastomotic leakage following elective colorectal resection. A propensity score match analysis on behalf of the iCral study group".

Eur J Surg Oncol 2022 Jul 9. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2022.06.037DOI Listing
July 2022

The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus).

Trends Genet 2022 Jul 9. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Developmental and Neural Biology, College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350117, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2022.06.010DOI Listing
July 2022

Rapidly developable therapeutic-grade equine immunoglobulin against the SARS-CoV-2 infection in rhesus macaques.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2022 07 7;7(1):219. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

State Key Laboratory for Zoonotic Diseases, Key Laboratory for Zoonosis Research of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, and College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 130062, Changchun, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-022-01095-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9261890PMC
July 2022

3,3'-Diindolylmethane improves antitumor immune responses of PD-1 blockade via inhibiting myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

Chin Med 2022 Jun 30;17(1):81. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 210023, Nanjing, China.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors that target programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have obtained encouraging results, but a fraction of tumor patients failed to respond to anti-PD-1 treatment due to the existence of multiple immune suppressive elements such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Traditional Chinese medicine or natural products from medicinal plants could enhance immunity and may be helpful for cancer immunotherapy. As a digestive metabolite from cruciferous plants, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) has been widely used in chemotherapy, but its influence on cancer immunotherapy remains unclear. Here we investigate the function of DIM on MDSCs and examine the therapeutic effects of DIM in conjunction with PD-1 antibody against mouse tumors.

Methods: Flow cytometry analysis, Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR assay were used to examine the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of DIM on MDSCs in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic effects of DIM on cancer immunotherapy by PD-1 antibody were evaluated in mouse models of breast cancer and melanoma tumor.

Results: DIM exerted the inhibitory effect on MDSCs via downregulating miR-21 level and subsequently activating PTEN/PIAS3-STAT3 pathways. Adoptive transfer of MDSCs impaired the therapeutic effects of DIM, indicating that the antitumor activity of DIM might be due to the suppression of MDSCs. Furthermore, in mouse models of breast cancer and melanoma tumor, the addition of DIM can enhance the therapeutic effect of PD-1 antibody through promoting T cells responses, and thereby inhibiting tumor growth.

Conclusions: Overall, the strategy based on the combination treatment of anti-PD-1 antibody and DIM may provide a new approach for cancer immunotherapy. Cruciferae plants-rich diet which contains high amount of DIM precursor may be beneficial for cancer patients that undergo the anti-PD-1 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-022-00638-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9245307PMC
June 2022

Adaptive binary multi-objective harmony search algorithm for channel selection and cross-subject generalization in motor imagery-based BCI.

J Neural Eng 2022 Jul 26;19(4). Epub 2022 Jul 26.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

Multi-channel electroencephalogram data containing redundant information and noise may result in low classification accuracy and high computational complexity, which limits the practicality of motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. Therefore, channel selection can improve BCI performance and contribute to user convenience. Additionally, cross-subject generalization is a key topic in the channel selection of MI-based BCI.In this study, an adaptive binary multi-objective harmony search (ABMOHS) algorithm is proposed to select the optimal set of channels. Furthermore, a new adaptive cross-subject generalization model (ACGM) is proposed. Three public MI datasets were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed on the test accuracies, and the results indicated that the ABMOHS method significantly outperformed all channels (< 0.001), the C3-Cz-C4 channels (< 0.001), and 20 channels (< 0.001) in the sensorimotor cortex. The ABMOHS algorithm based on Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers greatly reduces the number of selected channels, especially for larger channel sizes (Dataset 2), and obtains a comparative classification performance. Although there was no significant difference in test classification performance between ABMOHS and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) when FLDA and SVM were used, ABMOHS required less computational time than NSGA-II. Furthermore, the number of channels obtained by ABMOHS algorithm were significantly smaller than those obtained by common spatial pattern-Rank and correlation-based channel selection algorithm. Additionally, the generalization of ACGM to untrained subjects shows that the mean test classification accuracy of ACGM created by a small sample of trained subjects is significantly better than that of Special-16 and Special-32.The proposed method can reduce the calibration time in the training phase and improve the practicability of MI-BCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ac7d73DOI Listing
July 2022

Integrating Metabolomics and Network Analysis for Exploring the Mechanism Underlying the Antidepressant Activity of Paeoniflorin in Rats With CUMS-Induced Depression.

Front Pharmacol 2022 13;13:904190. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Paeoniflorin (PF) represents the major bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese medicine plant (Ranunculaceae), which has a long history as a folk medicine in Asian. Paeoniflorin, a bitter pinene monoterpene glycoside, has antidepressant effects, but its potential therapeutic mechanism has not been thoroughly explored. Experimental depression in rats was established by the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) combined with orphan method, and the efficacy of paeoniflorin on depression was evaluated by the sucrose preference test and open field test. The antidepressant mechanism of paeoniflorin was investigated by metabolomic and network pharmacology. The relevant pathways of biomarkers highlighted in metabolomics were explored, and the possible targets of paeoniflorin in the treatment of depression were further revealed through network analysis. The binding activity of paeoniflorin to key targets was verified by molecular docking. Metabolomics showed that rats with CUMS-induced depression had urine metabolic disorders, which were reversed by paeoniflorin through the regulation of metabolic pathways. Metabolites that play a key role in the function of paeoniflorin include citric acid, thiamine monophosphate, gluconolactone, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and stachyose. Key predicted targets are , , and . An important metabolic pathway is the Citrate cycle (TCA cycle). Network integrative analysis in this study showed that paeoniflorin could improve depressive-like symptoms in model rats with CUMS-induced depression and overall correct the disordered metabolic profile through multiple metabolic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.904190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9234202PMC
June 2022

Integrated Methylome and Transcriptome Analysis Provides Insights into the DNA Methylation Underlying the Mechanism of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Kenaf ( L.).

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 20;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Key Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding, College of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is widely exploited in hybrid seed production. Kenaf is an important fiber crop with high heterosis. The molecular mechanism of kenaf CMS remains unclear, particularly in terms of DNA methylation. Here, using the anthers of a kenaf CMS line (P3A) and its maintainer line (P3B), comparative physiological, DNA methylation, and transcriptome analyses were performed. The results showed that P3A had considerably lower levels of IAA, ABA, photosynthetic products and ATP contents than P3B. DNA methylome analysis revealed 650 differentially methylated genes (DMGs) with 313 up- and 337 down methylated, and transcriptome analysis revealed 1788 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with 558 up- and 1230 downregulated genes in P3A compared with P3B. Moreover, 45 genes were characterized as both DEGs and DMGs, including , , , and . Many DEGs may be regulated by related DMGs based on methylome and transcriptome studies. These DEGs were involved in carbon metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, the TCA cycle and the MAPK signaling pathway and were shown to be important for CMS in kenaf. These results provide new insights into the epigenetic mechanism of CMS in kenaf and other crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9224340PMC
June 2022

Joint profiling of gene expression and chromatin accessibility during amphioxus development at single-cell resolution.

Cell Rep 2022 Jun;39(12):110979

State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiangan District, Xiamen, Fujian 361102, China. Electronic address:

Vertebrate evolution was accompanied by two rounds of whole-genome duplication followed by functional divergence in terms of regulatory circuits and gene expression patterns. As a basal and slow-evolving chordate species, amphioxus is an ideal paradigm for exploring the origin and evolution of vertebrates. Single-cell sequencing has been widely used to construct the developmental cell atlas of several representative species of vertebrates (human, mouse, zebrafish, and frog) and tunicates (sea squirts). Here, we perform single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) and single-cell assay for transposase accessible chromatin sequencing (scATAC-seq) for different stages of amphioxus (covering embryogenesis and adult tissues). With the datasets generated, we constructed a developmental tree for amphioxus cell fate commitment and lineage specification and characterize the underlying key regulators and genetic regulatory networks. The data are publicly available on the online platform AmphioxusAtlas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2022.110979DOI Listing
June 2022

Municipal solid wastes pyro-gasification using high-temperature flue gas as heating resource and gasifying agent.

Waste Manag 2022 Jul 18;149:114-123. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, CAS, China.

With the implementation of municipal solid wastes (MSW) source segregation collection policy, the combustible waste components are suitable for pyrolysis treatment to recover value-added energy such as gas or oil. In this research, the volatile compounds from MSW pyrolysis were reformed by the char obtained from the same process and the high-temperature flue gas (HTFG) of 1200 °C was supplying as heating resource and gasifying agent in a tailor-made experimental set-up. The final yields and properties of the syngas, char, and oil after reforming were investigated. Experimental studies showed that the composition of HTFG had a significant influence on the products. As the HTFG being CO and its flowrate increased from 0 to 4 L/min/(kg), the energy share in the gas first increased from 8.29 to 15.1 MJ/(kg) with a higher heat value (HHV) of 19.9 MJ/Nm, then it decreased slightly with a further increase in the flowrate. However, as the HTFG was HO or the model flue gas (consisting of CO, HO, O and N), the higher flowrate always increased the energy share and cold gasification efficiency (CGE) in the gas products. Both CO and HO participated the volatiles' reforming reactions and enhanced char gasification; while the volatiles' reforming inhibited char gasification. When the flowrate of the model flue gas increased from 0 to 12.04 L/min/(kg), the oil and char yields decreased and the CGE increased to more than 75%, which was much higher than that from direct air gasification of MSW; moreover, the gas products had much higher HHVs. This research provides a guidance for producing high-quality syngas from the MSW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2022.06.010DOI Listing
July 2022

Impact of COVID-19 on nationwide pediatric otolaryngology practice: Adenotonsillectomies (TA) and tonsil-related diagnoses trends.

Am J Otolaryngol 2022 Jun 11;43(5):103526. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, United States of America. Electronic address:

Objectives/hypothesis: To determine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on Adenotonsillectomies (TA), Tonsil Related Cases (TC), and Peritonsillar Abscess (PTA) Trends.

Study Design: Retrospective Cohort Study.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study using the Pediatric Health Information System® (PHIS) database, which consists of 51 children's hospitals. Regions were defined according to PHIS rules with at least five children's hospitals per region. We compared monthly total TA, TC, TC as a proportion of all hospital visits, and PTA from all encounters at each hospital from January 1, 2019, through December 31, 2021.

Results: Compared to 2019, April 2020 saw mean TC drop significantly from 371.62 to 68.37 (p < 0.001). Interestingly, June, September, and December 2020 had significantly higher mean TC compared to 2019. TC as a proportion of all hospital visits decreased significantly throughout the majority of 2021. Similarly, TA significantly decreased during 2020 and 2021 across all regions in the US, starting in March 2020 and this reduction in TA extended through the end of 2021 without any signs of recovery. PTA rates did not change significantly over the three years.

Conclusions: The pandemic-plagued 2020 saw a noticeable decrease in overall TC and TA but then rebounded quickly to even higher than pre-pandemic levels. However, this rebound halted for the majority of 2021 and subsequently decreased to lower than pre-pandemic levels, which differs from other communicable pathologies such as otitis media which decreased initially then recovered to pre-pandemic levels by Summer of 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2022.103526DOI Listing
June 2022

Safety and superior immunogenicity of heterologous boosting with an RBD-based SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in Chinese adults.

Cell Res 2022 Aug 14;32(8):777-780. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-022-00681-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9197092PMC
August 2022

RING finger 138 deregulation distorts NF-кB signaling and facilities colitis switch to aggressive malignancy.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2022 06 13;7(1):185. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005, China.

Prolonged activation of nuclear factor (NF)-кB signaling significantly contributes to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). New therapeutic opportunities are emerging from targeting this distorted cell signaling transduction. Here, we discovered the critical role of RING finger 138 (RNF138) in CRC tumorigenesis through regulating the NF-кB signaling, which is independent of its Ubiquitin-E3 ligase activity involved in DNA damage response. RNF138 mice were hyper-susceptible to the switch from colitis to aggressive malignancy, which coincided with sustained aberrant NF-кB signaling in the colonic cells. Furthermore, RNF138 suppresses the activation of NF-кB signaling pathway through preventing the translocation of NIK and IKK-Beta Binding Protein (NIBP) to the cytoplasm, which requires the ubiquitin interaction motif (UIM) domain. More importantly, we uncovered a significant correlation between poor prognosis and the downregulation of RNF138 associated with reinforced NF-кB signaling in clinical settings, raising the possibility of RNF138 dysregulation as an indicator for the therapeutic intervention targeting NF-кB signaling. Using the xenograft models built upon either RNF138-dificient CRC cells or the cells derived from the RNF138-dysregulated CRC patients, we demonstrated that the inhibition of NF-кB signaling effectively hampered tumor growth. Overall, our work defined the pathogenic role of aberrant NF-кB signaling due to RNF138 downregulation in the cascade events from the colitis switch to colonic neoplastic transformation and progression, and also highlights the possibility of targeting the NF-кB signaling in treating specific subtypes of CRC indicated by RNF138-ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-022-00985-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9192753PMC
June 2022

Krüppel-like factor 15 integrated autophagy and gluconeogenesis to maintain glucose homeostasis under 20-hydroxyecdysone regulation.

PLoS Genet 2022 06 13;18(6):e1010229. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Cells and Developmental Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao, China.

The regulation of glycometabolism homeostasis is vital to maintain health and development of animal and humans; however, the molecular mechanisms by which organisms regulate the glucose metabolism homeostasis from a feeding state switching to a non-feeding state are not fully understood. Using the holometabolous lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera, cotton bollworm, as a model, we revealed that the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) upregulated the expression of transcription factor Krüppel-like factor (identified as Klf15) to promote macroautophagy/autophagy, apoptosis and gluconeogenesis during metamorphosis. 20E via its nuclear receptor EcR upregulated Klf15 transcription in the fat body during metamorphosis. Knockdown of Klf15 using RNA interference delayed pupation and repressed autophagy and apoptosis of larval fat body during metamorphosis. KLF15 promoted autophagic flux and transiting to apoptosis. KLF15 bound to the KLF binding site (KLF bs) in the promoter of Atg8 (autophagy-related gene 8/LC3) to upregulate Atg8 expression. Knockdown Atg8 reduced free fatty acids (FFAs), glycerol, free amino acids (FAAs) and glucose levels. However, knockdown of Klf15 accumulated FFAs, glycerol, and FAAs. Glycolysis was switched to gluconeogenesis, trehalose and glycogen synthesis were changed to degradation during metamorphosis, which were accompanied by the variation of the related genes expression. KLF15 upregulated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) expression by binding to KLF bs in the Pepck promoter for gluconeogenesis, which utilised FFAs, glycerol, and FAAs directly or indirectly to increase glucose in the hemolymph. Taken together, 20E via KLF15 integrated autophagy and gluconeogenesis by promoting autophagy-related and gluconeogenesis-related genes expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1010229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9191741PMC
June 2022

Naringin Promotes Osteogenic/Odontogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells via Wnt/-Catenin.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 29;2022:4505471. Epub 2022 May 29.

The Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Nanchang City, Jiangxi Province 330006, China.

Purpose: This investigation intended to unravel the effect and mechanism of naringin on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs).

Methods: hDPSCs were induced to differentiate, and the degree of cell differentiation was observed by alizarin red staining, Oil Red O staining, and Alcian blue staining. hDPSCs were treated with 0, 20, 40, and 80 mol/L naringin for 48 h, respectively. The proliferation rate and chemotaxis of the cells were measured by MTT and transwell assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteogenic differentiation degree by ALP staining and alizarin red staining, and gene expression of osteogenic markers by qRT-PCR. Additionally, western blot was performed to test the levels of Wnt/-catenin signaling-related proteins in hDPSCs.

Results: The isolated hDPSCs with spindle-shaped morphology had good differentiation capability. Further experiments confirmed naringin-caused increases in the proliferation rate and migration ability of hDPSCs. In addition, compared with the control group, naringin-treated cells had strong ALP activity and ossification levels and higher expression of Runx2, OPN, DSPP, and DMP1. The western blot results showed that naringin significantly activated Wnt/-catenin signaling in hDPSCs.

Conclusion: Taken together, naringin enhances the proliferation, migration, and osteogenesis of hDPSCs through stimulating Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/4505471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9168102PMC
May 2022

Incorporating Near-Pseudocapacitance Insertion Ni/Co-Based Hexacyanoferrate and Low-Cost Metallic Zn for Aqueous K-Ion Batteries.

ChemSusChem 2022 Jun 3:e202200706. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 430070, Wuhan, Hubei, P. R. China.

The limited availability of cathode materials with high specific capacity and significant cycling stability for aqueous K-ion batteries (AKIBs) hinder their further development owing to the large radius of K (1.38 Å). Prussian blue and its analogs with a three-dimensional frame structure possessing special energy storage mechanism are promising candidates as cathode materials for AKIBs. In this study, K Ni Co Fe(CN)  ⋅ 1.8H O (KNCHCF) was prepared as a cathode material for AKIBs. Both the electrochemical activity of Co ions and the near-pseudocapacitance intercalation of KNCHCF enhance K storage. Therefore, KNCHCF exhibits a superior capacity maintenance rate of 86 % after 1000 cycles at a high current density of 3.0 A g . The storage mechanism of K in AKIBs was revealed through ex situ X-ray diffraction, ex situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Moreover, the assembled K-Zn hybrid battery showed good cycling stability with 93.1 % capacity maintenance at 0.1 A g after 50 cycles and a high energy density of 96.81 W h kg . Hence, KNCHCF may be a potential material for the development of AKIBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202200706DOI Listing
June 2022

CRISPR detection of circulating cell-free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in adults and children, including children with HIV: a molecular diagnostics study.

Lancet Microbe 2022 Jul 31;3(7):e482-e492. Epub 2022 May 31.

Center for Cellular and Molecular Diagnostics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of global mortality, especially for adults and children living with HIV (CLHIV) underdiagnosed by sputum-based assays. Non-sputum-based assays are needed to improve tuberculosis diagnosis and tuberculosis treatment monitoring. Our aim in this study was to determine whether ultrasensitive detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell-free DNA (Mtb-cfDNA) in blood can diagnose tuberculosis and evaluate tuberculosis treatment responses.

Methods: In this molecular diagnostics study we analysed archived serum from two patient populations evaluated for tuberculosis in Eswatini and Kenya to detect Mtb-cfDNA, analysing serum from all individuals who had both sufficient serum volumes and clear diagnostic results. An optimised CRISPR-mediated tuberculosis (CRISPR-TB) assay was used to detect Mtb-cfDNA in serum at enrolment from adults and children with presumptive tuberculosis and their asymptomatic household contacts, and at enrolment and during tuberculosis treatment from a cohort of symptomatic CLHIV at high risk for tuberculosis, who provided longitudinal serum at enrolment and during tuberculosis treatment.

Findings: CRISPR-TB identified microbiologically and clinically confirmed tuberculosis cases in the predominantly HIV-negative Eswatini adult cohort with 96% sensitivity (27 [96%] of 28, 95% CI 80-100) and 94% specificity (16 [94%] of 17, 71-100), and with 83% sensitivity (5 [83%] of 6, 36-100) and 95% specificity (21 [95%] of 22, 77-100) in the paediatric cohort, including all six cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In the Kenyan CLHIV cohort, CRISPR-TB detected all (13 [100%] of 13, 75-100) confirmed tuberculosis cases and 85% (39 [85%] of 46, 71-94) of unconfirmed tuberculosis cases diagnosed by non-microbiological clinical findings. CLHIV who were CRISPR-TB positive at enrolment had a 2·4-times higher risk of mortality by 6 months after enrolment. Mtb-cfDNA signal decreased after tuberculosis treatment initiation, with near or complete Mtb-cfDNA clearance by 6 months after tuberculosis treatment initiation.

Interpretation: CRISPR-mediated detection of circulating Mtb-cfDNA shows promise to increase the identification of paediatric tuberculosis and HIV-associated tuberculosis, and potential for early diagnosis and rapid monitoring of tuberculosis treatment responses.

Funding: US Department of Defense, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington Center for AIDS Research, and the Weatherhead Presidential Endowment fund.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2666-5247(22)00087-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9300929PMC
July 2022

Targeting C3b/C4b and VEGF with a bispecific fusion protein optimized for neovascular age-related macular degeneration therapy.

Sci Transl Med 2022 06 1;14(647):eabj2177. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Innovent Biologics Inc., Suzhou 215000, China.

Antiangiogenesis therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have revolutionized the treatment of neovascular ocular diseases, including neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Compelling evidence has implicated the vital role of complement system dysregulation in AMD pathogenesis, implying it as a potential therapeutic strategy for geographic atrophy in dry AMD and to enhance the efficacy of anti-VEGF monotherapies in nAMD. This study reports the preclinical assessment and phase 1 clinical outcomes of a bispecific fusion protein, efdamrofusp alfa (code: IBI302), which is capable of neutralizing both VEGF isoforms and C3b/C4b. Efdamrofusp alfa showed superior efficacy over anti-VEGF monotherapy in a mouse laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) model after intravitreal delivery. Dual inhibition of VEGF and the complement activation was found to further inhibit macrophage infiltration and M2 macrophage polarization. Intravitreal efdamrofusp alfa demonstrated favorable safety profiles and exhibited antiangiogenetic efficacy in a nonhuman primate laser-induced CNV model. A phase 1 dose-escalating clinical trial (NCT03814291) was thus conducted on the basis of the preclinical data. Preliminary results showed that efdamrofusp alfa was well tolerated in patients with nAMD. These data suggest that efdamrofusp alfa might be effective for treating nAMD and possibly other complement-related ocular conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abj2177DOI Listing
June 2022

Immunogenicity and Safety of a Novel 13-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine in Healthy Chinese Infants and Toddlers.

Front Microbiol 2022 9;13:870973. Epub 2022 May 9.

Walvax Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Kunming, China.

Background: To determine the non-inferiority of the seven common serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) with each serotype conjugated to a tetanus toxoid carrier protein and adsorbed on aluminum phosphate and the superiority of its six additional serotypes (1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, and 19A) to the serotypes in the PCV7.

Methods: Participants were evenly randomized in a 1:1 ratio into either the PCV13 or PCV7 groups, to receive three doses of the vaccine at the age of 3, 4, and 5 months, respectively, and a booster dose between 12 and 15 months of age. Serotype-specific antibodies were measured using a standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) microcolony assay method.

Results: A total of 1,040 healthy infants were enrolled. All the seven common serotypes in the PCV13 were non-inferior to those in the PCV7 in terms of the serotype-specific IgG production induced; however, non-inferiority was not shown for serotype 6B after the infant series. The proportion of subjects who reached OPA antibody titers ≥ 1:8 in the PCV13 group was 89.25% or higher. Local reactions and systemic events were mild or moderate in severity and similar between the two groups. No new safety signals were observed.

Conclusion: The newly developed PCV13 was immunogenic for all serotypes and had a comparable safety profile to the marketed PCV7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.870973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9125316PMC
May 2022

OTUB2 Promotes Proliferation and Migration of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by PJA1 Deubiquitylation.

Cell Mol Bioeng 2022 Jun 1;15(3):281-292. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Department of General Surgery, Strategic Support Force Characteristic Medical Center, 9# Anxiang Beili, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101 China.

Introduction: Recent studies have revealed that several deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) play important roles in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression, but the roles of Otubain 2 (OTUB2) in HCC remain obscure.

Methods: In this study, we investigated the expression of OTUB2 in HCC based on clinical samples and a public online database (ENCORI), and its roles and working mechanisms were further explored by experiments.

Results: It was found that the expression of OTUB2 was significantly up-regulated in HCC tissues, and correlated with poor prognosis of HCC patients. Functionally, the overexpression of OTUB2 could promote malignant proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells, while knockdown of OTUB2 exerted the opposite results. Using two bioinformatics tools, PJA1 was identified as a potential gene regulated by OTUB2. Mechanistically, it was found that OTUB2 promoted the stabilization of PJA1 by deubiquitylation, based on immunoprecipitation (IP) and cycloheximide (CHX) assays. Moreover, the suppressive effects of OTUB2 depletion on the malignant phenotypes of HCC cells could be reversed by overexpressing PJA1.

Conclusion: In conclusion, our study indicated that OTUB2 could promote the malignant proliferation and migration of HCC cells by increasing the stability of PJA1 deubiquitylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12195-022-00720-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9124278PMC
June 2022

Outcomes of simultaneous resection for elderly patients with colorectal liver metastasis: A propensity score matching analysis.

Cancer Med 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Evidence on simultaneous resection for elderly patients (age ≥ 70 years) with colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) is lacking.

Methods: Four hundred and eighty-two CRLM patients treated by simultaneous resection were categorised into young group (age < 70 years) and elderly group (age ≥ 70 years). Propensity score matching (PSM1) was performed to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics and compare short-term outcomes. An additional propensity score matching (PSM2) including short-term outcomes was performed to analyse survival. Subgroup analysis was performed in patients stratified by the Clinical Risk Score (CRS).

Results: After PSM1, 87 young group patients were matched to 50 elderly group patients. Patients in the elderly group had a significantly higher rate of overall post-operative complications (68.0% vs. 46.0%, p = 0.013). After PSM2, 89 young group patients were matched to 47 elderly group patients. Progression-free survival (PFS) was comparable between the two groups (median 11.0 months vs. 9.8 months, p = 0.346). Age ≥ 70 independently predicted worse overall survival (OS) (Hazard ratio, HR = 2.57, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.37-4.82) in multivariate analysis. In the subgroup multivariate analysis of patients with CRS score 3-5, age ≥ 70 was independently associated with worse PFS (HR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.01-2.62) and OS (HR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.26-4.35).

Conclusions: Simultaneous resection for elderly CRLM patients is acceptable. Further studies are required to determine the optimal treatment for elderly CRLM patients with high CRS scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4826DOI Listing
May 2022

Effect of PM exposure on Vitamin D status among pregnant women: A distributed lag analysis.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Jul 16;239:113642. Epub 2022 May 16.

International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Embryo Original Diseases, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Serum vitamin D levels are associated with exposure to air pollution, however, the lagged effect of exposure to air pollution remains unknown in pregnant women.

Methods: Pregnant women who delivered at a maternity center in Shanghai, China, from 2015 to 2019 were included in the present study. The concentration of particulate matter 2.5 (PM) before 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] detection was estimated using the satellite-based grid models. The distributed lag non-linear models were performed to examine the lagged association between weekly-specific PM exposure and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) or serum 25(OH)D levels.

Results: Among the 58,025 pregnant women included in the study (mean age at conception, 30.77 ± 3.75 years; mean prepregnancy BMI, 21.09 ± 2.55 kg/m), 61.32% were diagnosed with VDD. Weekly-specific PM exposure at weeks 1-10 before the detection of 25(OH)D was significantly associated with an increased incidence of VDD (p < 0.05). For every 10 μg/m increase in PM exposure, the serum 25(OH)D level decreased by 1.346 nmol/L (95%CI: 1.183-1.508 nmol/L). The association between average PM exposure and VDD at 1-10 weeks was more significant in weather conditions with low mean sunshine hours (OR: 1.246, 95%CI: 1.221-1.271).

Conclusion: Our study provided suggestive evidence that PM exposure at 1-10 weeks before the 25(OH)D detection may decrease the circulating 25(OH)D levels in pregnant women and increase VDD risk in pregnant women. More attention should be paid to the long-term impact of PM, in particular, during weather conditions with a relatively short duration of sunshine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113642DOI Listing
July 2022

Xihuang pills induce apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma by suppressing phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase-B/mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway.

World J Gastrointest Oncol 2022 Apr;14(4):872-886

College of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Hunan Key Laboratory of Translational Research in Formulas and Zheng of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, Hunan Province, China.

Background: The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase-B/mechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signalling pathway is crucial for cell survival, differentiation, apoptosis and metabolism. Xihuang pills (XHP) are a traditional Chinese preparation with antitumour properties. They inhibit the growth of breast cancer, glioma, and other tumours by regulating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway. However, the effects and mechanisms of action of XHP in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway effectively inhibits the progression of HCC. However, no study has focused on the XHP-associated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway. Therefore, we hypothesized that XHP might play a role in inhibiting HCC through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway.

Aim: To confirm the effect of XHP on HCC and the possible mechanisms involved.

Methods: The chemical constituents and active components of XHP were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Cell-based experiments and xenograft tumour experiments were utilized to evaluate the effect of XHP on HCC tumorigenesis. First, SMMC-7721 cells were incubated with different concentrations of XHP (0, 0.3125, 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/mL) for 12 h, 24 h and 48 h. Cell viability was assessed using the CCK-8 assay, followed by an assessment of cell migration using a wound healing assay. Second, the effect of XHP on the apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells was evaluated. SMMC-7721 cells were stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate and annexin V/propidium iodide. The number of apoptotic cells and cell cycle distribution were measured using flow cytometry. The cleaved protein and mRNA expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were detected using Western blotting and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), respectively. Third, Western blotting and RT-qPCR were performed to confirm the effects of XHP on the protein and mRNA expression of components of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway. Finally, the effects of XHP on the tumorigenesis of subcutaneous hepatocellular tumours in nude mice were assessed.

Results: The following 12 compounds were identified in XHP using high-resolution mass spectrometry: Valine, 4-gingerol, myrrhone, ricinoleic acid, glycocholic acid, curzerenone, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid, oleic acid, germacrone, 3-acetyl-9,11-dehydro-β-boswellic acid, 5β-androstane-3,17-dione, and 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid. The cell viability assay results showed that treatment with 0.625 mg/mL XHP extract decreased HCC cell viability after 12 h, and the effects were dose- and time-dependent. The results of the cell scratch assay showed that the migration of HCC cells was significantly inhibited in a time-dependent manner by the administration of XHP extract (0.625 mg/mL). Moreover, XHP significantly inhibited cell migration and resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, XHP downregulated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway, which activated apoptosis executioner proteins (, caspase-9 and caspase-3). The inhibitory effects of XHP on HCC cell growth were determined by analysing the tumour xenograft volumes and weights.

Conclusion: XHP inhibited HCC cell growth and migration by stimulating apoptosis the downregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway, followed by the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Our findings clarified that the antitumour effects of XHP on HCC cells are mediated by the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway, revealing that XHP may be a potential complementary therapy for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4251/wjgo.v14.i4.872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9048534PMC
April 2022
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