Publications by authors named "Zhe Zhu"

150 Publications

Quantitative assessment and determinants of the papillary microvasculature in healthy subjects.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 20;21(1):140. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 515282, China.

Background: It is critical to monitor the optic disc's vessel density using Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and evaluate its determinants. In the current study, we investigate the superficial vessel density (VD) of the papillary microvasculature and its determinants in healthy subjects of Southern China.

Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. Superficial VD in healthy individuals' optic disc region was measured by OCTA. The factors associated with ocular and systemic parameters were analyzed using a generalized estimation equation (GEE) model.

Results: A total of 510 eyes of 260 healthy subjects were analyzed in the study. The total VD in the optic disc area was 17.21 ± 2.15 mm (95% CI, 17.02-17.40 mm). The VD in the inner ring and the outer ring of the optic disc were significantly higher compared with the central ring, while the VD of the superior quadrant and inferior quadrant was significantly higher compared with the temporal and nasal quadrant. After adjusting for the ocular factors and systemic factors, AL (β = - 0.4917, P = 0.0003), disc area (β = - 0.3748, P = 0.0143), CMT (β = - 0.0183, P = 0.0003) and SSI (β = 1.0588, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with total VD of the optic disc.

Conclusion: The mean total VD in the optic disc area was 17.21 ± 2.15 mm in healthy subjects, and the superior and inferior VD was significantly higher than the temporal and nasal VD. AL, disc area, CMT, and SSI may affect the total VD in the optic disc area and should be considered in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-021-01896-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7981900PMC
March 2021

Open-Structured Nanotubes with Three-Dimensional Ion-Accessible Pathways for Enhanced Li Conductivity in Composite Solid Electrolytes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 9;13(11):13183-13190. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, P. R. China.

Composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) hold great promise toward safe lithium metal batteries with high energy density, due to integration of the merits of polymer matrixes and fillers. Rational design of filler nanostructures has attracted increasing attention for improving the ionic transport of CSEs in solid batteries. In this work, we fabricated open-structured LiLaTiO (LLTO) nanotubes (NTs) as ion-conductive fillers in CSEs by a gradient electrospinning method for the first time. Different from nanoparticles (NPs) and nanowires (NWs), our nanotubes are composed of connected small NPs, which offer three-dimensional (3D) Li-accessible pathways, large polymer/filler interfacial ionic conduction regions, and enhanced wettability against the polymer matrix. As a result, the solid electrolytes based on LLTO NTs and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) can display a high ionic conductivity of up to 3.6 × 10 S cm and a wide electrochemical window of 5 V at room temperature (RT). Furthermore, Li-Li symmetric cells using the LLTO NTs/PAN CSE can work stably over 1000 h with a polarization of 20 mV. LiFePO-Li full cells exhibit a high capacity of 142.5 mAh g with a capacity retention of 90% at 0.5 C after 100 cycles. All of these results demonstrate that the design of open-structured nanotubes as fillers is a promising strategy for high-performance solid electrolytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22635DOI Listing
March 2021

is a Potential Biomarker for Radiochemotherapy Sensitivity in Colorectal Cancer.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 2;14:1605-1611. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Hepatological Surgery, General Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200120, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of malignancies, and radiochemotherapy (RCT) followed by surgery is the recommended approach for CRC treatment. However, some cases do not respond to first-line conventional chemotherapy or even progress further after treatment. Moreover, there is a risk of severe side effects, such as radiodermatitis. Therefore, identifying predictors for RCT sensitivity is an essential step toward predicting and eventually overcoming resistance.

Materials And Methods: We used integrative bioinformatics analysis and experimental validation to show that regenerating family member 4 () may be a potential biomarker for RCT sensitivity in CRC.

Results: , whose expression is upregulated in some CRC tissues and downregulated in RCT-sensitive CRC cells, was identified as a potential genetic marker for RCT sensitivity in CRC. Immunohistochemistry-based tissue microarray of human CRC was used to experimentally validate data obtained from the bioinformatics analysis.

Conclusion: Collectively, these results indicate that may be a potential biomarker for RCT sensitivity in CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S296031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936684PMC
March 2021

Prognostic significance of pretreatment controlling nutritional status score in urological cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Feb 19;21(1):126. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Urinary Surgery, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, No. 2901 Caolang Road, 201508, Shanghai, China.

Background: Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score is a novel nutrition-based biomarker that has been reported for predicting survival in various cancers. However, the relationship between CONUT score and prognosis of urological cancers remains unclear. Hence, we performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic significance of CONUT score for patients with urological cancers.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were systematically searched up to October 2020. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association of CONUT score with overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and recurrence/disease/progress-free survival (RFS/DFS/PFS) in urological cancers.

Results: A total of 12 articles with 13 studies were included in the analysis. Pooled results indicated that increased CONUT score predicted poor OS (HR: 1.78, 95% CI 1.51-2.09, p < 0.001), CSS (HR: 2.14, 95% CI 1.55-2.97, p < 0.001) and RFS/DFS/PFS (HR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.35-1.84, p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis by cancer type revealed that high CONUT score associated with worse OS in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and urothelial cancer (UC) (HR: 3.05, 95% CI 2.07-4.50, p < 0.001; HR: 1.58, 95% CI 1.32-1.89, p < 0.001). Similar results could be found in CSS (RCC HR: 2.67, 95% CI 1.87-3.81, p < 0.011; UC HR: 1.68, 95% CI 1.09-2.59, p = 0.011) and in RFS/DFS/PFS (RCC HR: 1.96, 95% CI 1.44-2.66, p < 0.001; UC HR: 1.42, 95% CI 1.18-1.71, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: These results illustrated that the high CONUT score may predict worse survival for patients suffering from urological cancers. Therefore, the CONUT score may represent an effective prognostic indicator in urological cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01813-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893866PMC
February 2021

ACE2 Is a Prognostic Biomarker and Associated with Immune Infiltration in Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma: Implication for COVID-19.

J Oncol 2021 28;2021:8847307. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Urinary Surgery, The Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 201508, China.

Background: KIRC is one of the most common cancers with a poor prognosis. ACE2 was involved in tumor angiogenesis and progression in many malignancies. The role of ACE2 in KIRC is still ambiguous.

Methods: Various bioinformatics analysis tools were investigated to evaluate the prognostic value of ACE2 and its association with immune infiltration in KIRC.

Results: ACE2 was shown to be downregulated in KIRC at the mRNA and protein level. Low expression of ACE2 protein in KIRC patients was observed in subgroup analyses based on gender, age, weight, tumor grade, and cancer stage. Upregulation of ACE2 in KIRC was associated with a favorable prognosis. ACE2 mRNA expression showed a positive correlation with the abundance of immune cells (B cells, CD8+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells) and the level of immune markers of different immune cells in KIRC. ACE2 expression could affect, in part, the immune infiltration and the advanced cancer stage. Moreover, enrichment analysis revealed that ACE2 in KIRC were mainly involved in translation factor activity, immunoglobulin binding, metabolic pathways, transcriptional misregulation in cancerous cells, cell cycle, and ribosomal activity. Several ACE2-associated kinases, miRNA, and transcription factor targets in KIRC were also identified.

Conclusion: ACE2 was downregulated in KIRC and served as a prognostic biomarker. It was also shown to be associated with immune infiltration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8847307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7849311PMC
January 2021

Electron cloud migration effect-induced lithiophobicity/lithiophilicity transformation for dendrite-free lithium metal anodes.

Nanoscale 2021 Feb 29;13(5):3027-3035. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, 430070, P. R. China.

Enabling stable lithium metal anodes is significant for developing electrochemical energy storage systems with higher energy density. However, safety hazards, infinite volume expansion, and low coulombic efficiency (CE) of lithium metal anodes always hinder their practical application. Herein, a nano-thickness lithiophilic Cu-Ni bimetallic coating was synthesized to prepare dendrite-free lithium metal anodes. The electron cloud migration effect caused by the different electronegativities of Cu and Ni can achieve lithiophobicity/lithiophilicity transformation and thus promote uniform Li deposition/dissolution. By changing the ratio of Cu to Ni, the electron cloud migration can be reasonably adjusted for obtaining dendrite-free lithium anodes. As a result, the as-obtained Cu-Ni bimetallic coating is able to guarantee dendrite-free lithium metal anodes with a stable long cycling time (>1500 hours) and a small voltage hysteresis (∼26 mV). In addition, full cells with LiFePO as a cathode present excellent cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency. This work can open a new avenue for optimizing the lithiophilicity of materials and realizing dendrite-free anodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr08343gDOI Listing
February 2021

Downregulation of miR-423-5p Contributes to the Radioresistance in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

Front Oncol 2020 11;10:582239. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of General Surgery and Colorectal Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Resistance to radiotherapy is the main reason causing treatment failure in locally advanced rectal cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been well demonstrated to regulate cancer development and progression. However, how miRNAs regulate radiotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer remains unknown. Herein, we established two human colorectal cancer cell lines resistant to radiotherapy, named HCT116-R and RKO-R, using the strategy of fractionated irradiation. The radioresistant phenotypical changes of the two cell lines were validated by cell viability assay, colony formation assay and apoptosis assay. The miRNA expression profilings of HCT116-R and RKO-R were determined using RNA-seq analyses, and further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Multiple miRNAs, including miR-423-5p, miR-7-5p, miR-522-3p, miR-3184-3p, and miR-3529-3p, were identified with altered expression in both of the radiotherapy-resistant cells, compared to the parental cells. The downregulation of miR-423-5p was further validated in the rectal cancer tissues from radiotherapy-resistant patients. Silencing of miR-423-5p in parental HCT116 and RKO cells decreased the sensitivity to radiation treatment, and inhibited the radiation-induced apoptosis. In consistence, overexpression of miR-423-5p in HCT116-R and RKO-R cells partially rescued their sensitivity to radiotherapy, and promoted the radiation-induced apoptosis. Bcl-xL (Bcl-2-like protein 1) was predicted to be a potential target gene for miR-423-5p, and miR-423-5p/Bcl-xL axis could be a critical mediator of radiosensitivity in colorectal cancer cells. The current finding not only revealed a novel role of miR-423-5p in regulating the radiosensitivity in colorectal cancer, but also suggested miR-423-5p as a molecular candidate for combination therapy with radiation to treat colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.582239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832584PMC
January 2021

Bone graft versus non-bone graft for treatment of calcaneal fractures: A protocol for meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jan;100(2):e24261

Department of Hand Surgery, The Second Hospital of Jilin University.

Background: Calcaneal fractures are a prevalent form of injury caused by high-energy trauma. This study aimed at investigating whether bone graft and non-bone graft are essential for the internal fixation of calcaneal fractures. A meta-analysis of relevant clinical studies evaluated radiographic parameters, functional outcomes, and complications that offer practical recommendations on the suitability of bone grafts for the management of Calcaneal fractures.

Methods And Analysis: This study performed a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane electronic to retrieve related clinical studies. The studies incorporated in our meta-analysis were identified after doing a preliminarily screening, reading of the full-text articles, and eliminating repeated studies. After quality assessment and data extraction, the standardized mean difference and risk ratio were selected as effect sizes. The data on Böhler angle, Gissane angle, calcaneal height, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot scores, Maryland Foot Evaluation, and rate of wound infection were analyzed using Revman 5.3 software (Cochrane Collaboration).

Results And Conclusions: This study did not reveal any significant differences (P < .05) in both Böhler and Gissane angles, calcaneal height, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot scores, Maryland foot evaluation, and rate of wound infection between the 2 groups. Due to the lack of a large sample of comparative studies, the use of bone grafting for the management of calcaneal fractures requires additional substantiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808454PMC
January 2021

Land-Cover Changes to Surface-Water Buffers in the Midwestern USA: 25 Years of Landsat Data Analyses (1993-2017).

Remote Sens (Basel) 2020 Feb;12(5):754

Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

To understand the timing, extent, and magnitude of land use/land cover (LULC) change in buffer areas surrounding Midwestern US waters, we analyzed the full imagery archive (1982-2017) of three Landsat footprints covering ~100,000 km. The study area included urbanizing Chicago, Illinois and St. Louis, Missouri regions and agriculturally dominated landscapes (i.e., Peoria, Illinois). The Continuous Change Detection and Classification algorithm identified 1993-2017 LULC change across three Landsat footprints and in 90 m buffers for ~110,000 surface waters; waters were also size-binned into five groups for buffer LULC change analyses. Importantly, buffer-area LULC change magnitude was frequently much greater than footprint-level change. Surface-water extent in buffers increased by 14-35x the footprint rate and forest decreased by 2-9x. Development in buffering areas increased by 2-4x the footprint-rate in Chicago and Peoria area footprints but was similar to the change rate in the St. Louis area footprint. The LULC buffer-area change varied in waterbody size, with the greatest change typically occurring in the smallest waters (e.g., <0.1 ha). These novel analyses suggest that surface-water buffer LULC change is occurring more rapidly than footprint-level change, likely modifying the hydrology, water quality, and biotic integrity of existing water resources, as well as potentially affecting down-gradient, watershed-scale storages and flows of water, solutes, and particulate matter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs12050754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7784704PMC
February 2020

Zika virus is transmitted in neural progenitor cells via cell-to-cell spread and infection is inhibited by the autophagy inducer trehalose.

J Virol 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne human pathogen that causes congenital Zika syndrome and neurological symptoms in some adults. There are currently no approved treatments or vaccines for ZIKV, and exploration of therapies targeting host processes could avoid viral development of drug resistance. The purpose of our study was to determine if the non-toxic and widely used disaccharide trehalose, which showed antiviral activity against Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in our previous work, could restrict ZIKV infection in clinically relevant neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Trehalose is known to induce autophagy, the degradation and recycling of cellular components. Whether autophagy is proviral or antiviral for ZIKV is controversial and depends on cell type and specific conditions used to activate or inhibit autophagy. We show here that trehalose treatment of NPCs infected with recent ZIKV isolates from Panama and Puerto Rico significantly reduces viral replication and spread. In addition, we demonstrate that ZIKV infection in NPCs spreads primarily cell-to-cell as an expanding infectious center, and NPCs are infected via contact with infected cells far more efficiently than by cell-free virus. Importantly, ZIKV was able to spread in NPCs in the presence of neutralizing antibody. Zika virus causes birth defects and can lead to neurological disease in adults. While infection rates are currently low, ZIKV remains a public health concern with no treatment or vaccine available. Targeting a cellular pathway to inhibit viral replication is a potential treatment strategy that avoids development of antiviral resistance. We demonstrate in this study that the non-toxic autophagy-inducing disaccharide trehalose reduces spread and output of ZIKV in infected neural progenitor cells (NPCs), the major cells infected in the fetus. We show that ZIKV spreads cell-to-cell in NPCs as an infectious center and that NPCs are more permissive to infection by contact with infected cells than by cell-free virus. We find that neutralizing antibody does not prevent the spread of the infection in NPCs. These results are significant in demonstrating anti-ZIKV activity of trehalose and in clarifying the primary means of Zika virus spread in clinically relevant target cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02024-20DOI Listing
December 2020

The potential role of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme in coronavirus disease 2019.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Nov 25;20(1):883. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Ningbo Institute of Life and Health Industry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, P.R. China.

Background: To explore the clinical significance of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: In this retrospective study, a total of 136 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 were recruited. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. The serum ACE activity was measured at baseline and during the recovery phase, and its relationship with clinical condition was analyzed.

Results: Of the 136 patients with confirmed COVID-19, the 16 severe patients were older and had a higher body mass index (BMI) and proportion of hypertension than the 120 nonsevere patients. In comparison to those of normal controls, the baseline serum ACE activities of subjects in the severe group and nonsevere group were decreased, with the lowest level in the severe group. However, the serum ACE activity increased in the recovery phase, and there were no significant differences among the severe group, nonsevere group and normal control group.

Conclusion: Serum ACE activity could be used as a marker to reflect the clinical condition of COVID-19 since low activity was associated with the severity of COVID-19 at baseline, and the activity increased with the remission of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05619-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686943PMC
November 2020

Nomogram for predicting the feasibility of natural orifice specimen extraction after laparoscopic rectal resection.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Nov 5. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Background And Aim: The goal of this study was to develop a preoperative nomogram for predicting the feasibility of trans-anal natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) for rectal cancer.

Methods: The analysis included 201 patients who underwent trans-anal NOSE and 457 patients who failed to undergo trans-anal NOSE in Shanghai East Hospital. The data collected included age, gender, body mass index, presence of tumor obstruction, distance from anal verge; maximum tumor diameter and anteroposterior thickness of mesorectum (AP) measured by magnetic resonance imaging; interspinous diameter, intertuberous diameter (IT), anteroposterior diameter of the inlet (API), anteroposterior diameter of the midplane, anteroposterior diameter of the outlet (APO), sacral length and pelvic depth (PD) measured by computed tomography.

Results: The multivariate analysis suggested that a lower body mass index (P < 0.001), no tumor obstruction (P = 0.005), a shorter distance from anal verge (P < 0.001), a smaller tumor size (P < 0.001), a thinner AP (P < 0.001), a wider and shallower bony pelvis (API/PD, P < 0.001), and a wider and shorter pelvic outlet (IT/APO, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with an increased probability of trans-anal NOSE. Successful NOSE patients had a decreased time to liquid intake (P < 0.001), a shorter postoperative hospital stay (P < 0.001), and fewer wound infections (P = 0.045). No significant difference in the rate of mortality or recurrence was observed. The nomogram model presented an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.85) and good calibration.

Conclusion: We developed a nomogram model that has some predicative value for the feasibility of laparoscopic rectal resection with trans-anal NOSE, utilizing clinical and radiologic parameters, available in most institutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15333DOI Listing
November 2020

3D Pyramid Pooling Network for Abdominal MRI Series Classification.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2020 Oct 28;PP. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Recognizing and organizing different series in an MRI examination is important both for clinical review and research, but it is poorly addressed by the current generation of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACSs) and post-processing workstations. In this paper, we study the problem of using deep convolutional neural networks for automatic classification of abdominal MRI series to one of many series types. Our contributions are three-fold. First, we created a large abdominal MRI dataset containing 3717 MRI series including 188,665 individual images, derived from liver examinations. 30 different series types are represented in this dataset. The dataset was annotated by consensus readings from two radiologists. Both the MRIs and the annotations were made publicly available. Second, we proposed a 3D pyramid pooling network, which can elegantly handle abdominal MRI series with varied sizes of each dimension, and achieved state-of-the-art classification performance. Third, we performed the first ever comparison between the algorithm and the radiologists on an additional dataset and had several meaningful findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2020.3033990DOI Listing
October 2020

Additive Manufacturing of Nerve Guidance Conduits for Regeneration of Injured Peripheral Nerves.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2020 25;8:590596. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Hand Surgery, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

As a common and frequent clinical disease, peripheral nerve defect has caused a serious social burden, which is characterized by poor curative effect, long course of treatment and high cost. Nerve autografting is first-line treatment of peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) but can result in loss of function of the donor site, neuroma formation, and prolonged operative time. Nerve guidance conduit (NGC) serves as the most promising alternative to autologous transplantation, but its production process is complicated and it is difficult to effectively combine growth factors and bioactive substances. In recent years, additive manufacturing of NGCs has effectively solved the above problems due to its simple and efficient manufacturing method, and it can be used as the carrier of bioactive substances. This review examines recent advances in additive manufacture of NGCs for PNIs as well as insight into how these approaches could be improved in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.590596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7546374PMC
September 2020

Myostatin regulates fatty acid desaturation and fat deposition through MEF2C/miR222/SCD5 cascade in pigs.

Commun Biol 2020 Oct 23;3(1):612. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering and Molecular Breeding of Hubei Province, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 430064, Wuhan, China.

Myostatin (MSTN), associated with the "double muscling" phenotype, affects muscle growth and fat deposition in animals, whereas how MSTN affects adipogenesis remains to be discovered. Here we show that MSTN can act through the MEF2C/miR222/SCD5 cascade to regulate fatty acid metabolism. We generated MSTN-knockout (KO) cloned Meishan pigs, which exhibits typical double muscling trait. We then sequenced transcriptome of subcutaneous fat tissues of wild-type (WT) and MSTN-KO pigs, and intersected the differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs to predict that stearoyl-CoA desaturase 5 (SCD5) is targeted by miR222. Transcription factor binding prediction showed that myogenic transcription factor 2C (MEF2C) potentially binds to the miR222 promoter. We hypothesized that MSTN-KO upregulates MEF2C and consequently increases the miR222 expression, which in turn targets SCD5 to suppress its translation. Biochemical, molecular and cellular experiments verified the existence of the cascade. This novel molecular pathway sheds light on new targets for genetic improvements in pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01348-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584575PMC
October 2020

The RNA m6A Reader YTHDF2 Maintains Oncogene Expression and Is a Targetable Dependency in Glioblastoma Stem Cells.

Cancer Discov 2021 Feb 6;11(2):480-499. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Division of Regenerative Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California.

Glioblastoma is a universally lethal cancer driven by glioblastoma stem cells (GSC). Here, we interrogated -methyladenosine (m6A) mRNA modifications in GSCs by methyl RNA immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing and transcriptome analysis, finding transcripts marked by m6A often upregulated compared with normal neural stem cells (NSC). Interrogating m6A regulators, GSCs displayed preferential expression, as well as and dependency, of the m6A reader YTHDF2, in contrast to NSCs. Although YTHDF2 has been reported to destabilize mRNAs, YTHDF2 stabilized and transcripts in GSCs in an m6A-dependent manner. We identified IGFBP3 as a downstream effector of the YTHDF2-MYC axis in GSCs. The IGF1/IGF1R inhibitor linsitinib preferentially targeted YTHDF2-expressing cells, inhibiting GSC viability without affecting NSCs and impairing glioblastoma growth. Thus, YTHDF2 links RNA epitranscriptomic modifications and GSC growth, laying the foundation for the YTHDF2-MYC-IGFBP3 axis as a specific and novel therapeutic target in glioblastoma. SIGNIFICANCE: Epitranscriptomics promotes cellular heterogeneity in cancer. RNA m6A landscapes of cancer and NSCs identified cell type-specific dependencies and therapeutic vulnerabilities. The m6A reader YTHDF2 stabilized mRNA specifically in cancer stem cells. Given the challenge of targeting MYC, YTHDF2 presents a therapeutic target to perturb MYC signaling in glioblastoma..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0331DOI Listing
February 2021

Non-typhoidal Salmonella infections among children in a tertiary hospital in Ningbo, Zhejiang, China, 2012-2019.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 10 5;14(10):e0008732. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Blood Transfusion, HwaMei Hospital, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), a common cause of diarrheal enterocolitis, may also cause severe invasive diseases. Limited information on NTS infections in children is available in China.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of children admitted to the Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital with culture-confirmed NTS infections between January 2012 and December 2019. Clinical and microbiological information were collected. We compared demographic, clinical and antibiotic resistance variables of invasive NTS (iNTS) infections and non-invasive NTS (non-iNTS) infections, and explored associations between hospitalizations for pediatric NTS infections and temperature and rainfall.

Results: A total of 166 pediatric hospitalizations due to NTS infection were identified during the 8-year study period. Most of the 166 children were <5 years old (93.4%). The primary serotype was Salmonella Typhimurium (62.6%). Of 166 children with NTS infections, 11 had invasive infection. Compared to 155 children with non-iNTS infections, we found that iNTS infections were more likely to occur in infants ≤6 months or children with an underlying medical condition of leukemia at admission, but iNTS infections less often presented with a symptom of diarrhea (P <0.05 in all cases). The resistance rates of non-iNTS isolates to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, and aztreonam were significantly higher than those of iNTS isolates (P <0.05 in all cases). In addition, compared with iNTS isolates, non-iNTS isolates were significantly associated with resistance to ≥4 CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute) classes (P = 0.041, OR: 0.089, 95% CI: 0.009-0.901) and ≥2 first-line treatment agents (P = 0.040, OR: 0.159, 95% CI: 0.028-0.916). On the other hand, we found that seasonal NTS hospitalizations were positively associated with average seasonal temperature (r = 0.961, P = 0.039) and average monthly rainfall (r = 0.921, P <0.001).

Conclusion: Non-iNTS accounts for the majority of infections in this study; infants ≤6 months and children with underlying medical conditions of leukemia are more likely to have invasive infection. The rates of antibiotic resistance in the iNTS isolates are generally lower than those in the non-iNTS isolates. On the other hand, high temperatures and heavy rainfall are positively associated with NTS hospitalizations among children in Ningbo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7561262PMC
October 2020

Enhancement of the Load Capacity of High-Energy Laser Monocrystalline Silicon Reflector Based on the Selection of Surface Lattice Defects.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Sep 19;13(18). Epub 2020 Sep 19.

College of Intelligence Science and Technology, National University of Defense Technology, 109 Deya Road, Changsha 410073, Hunan, China.

Various defects during the manufacture of a high-energy laser monocrystalline silicon reflector will increase the energy absorption rate of the substrate and worsen the optical properties. Micron-scale or larger manufacturing defects have been inhibited by mechanism study and improvement in technology, but the substrate performance still fails to satisfy the application demand. We focus on the changes in the optical properties affected by nanoscale and Angstrom lattice defects on the surface of monocrystalline silicon and acquire the expected high reflectivity and low absorptivity through deterministic control of its defect state. Based on the first principles, the band structures and optical properties of two typical defect models of monocrystalline silicon-namely, atomic vacancy and lattice dislocation-were analyzed by molecular dynamics simulations. The results showed that the reflectivity of the vacancy defect was higher than that of the dislocation defect, and elevating the proportion of the vacancy defect could improve the performance of the monocrystalline silicon in infrared (IR) band. To verify the results of simulations, the combined Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) and Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) technologies were applied to introduce the vacancy defect and reduce the thickness of defect layer. After the process, the reflectivity of the monocrystalline silicon element increased by 5% in the visible light band and by 12% in the IR band. Finally, in the photothermal absorption test at 1064 nm, the photothermal absorption of the element was reduced by 80.5%. Intense laser usability on the monocrystalline silicon surface was achieved, and the effectiveness and feasibility of deterministic regulation of optical properties were verified. This concept will be widely applied in future high-energy laser system and X-ray reflectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13184172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7560473PMC
September 2020

Recent Advances in High-Performance Microbatteries: Construction, Application, and Perspective.

Small 2020 10 1;16(39):e2003251. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, International School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, P. R. China.

High-performance miniaturized energy storage devices have developed rapidly in recent years. Different from conventional energy storage devices, microbatteries assume the main responsibility for micropower supply, functionalization, and characterization platforms. Evolving from the essential goals for battery design of high power density, high energy density, and long lifetime, further practical demands for microbatteries (MBs) have been raised for the microfabrication technique and device design. Numerous studies have generally focused on specific aspects of the microelectrode structures or certain microfabrication techniques, while the connection from techniques to functional applications is rarely involved. This Review generally fills such blanks from an application-oriented perspective. First, some basic micromachining techniques with different compatible features are summarized. Afterward, device designs including diversified battery reaction types, configuration, and assembly are highlighted, as well as microbatteries serving powering resources or further complicated functional systems. Finally, through providing the overall design concept based on requirements in application, this Review offers innovative insights for further development of microbatteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202003251DOI Listing
October 2020

Interaction between Schwann cells and other cells during repair of peripheral nerve injury.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Jan;16(1):93-98

Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Group, Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Department of Neurological Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is common and, unlike damage to the central nervous system injured nerves can effectively regenerate depending on the location and severity of injury. Peripheral myelinating glia, Schwann cells (SCs), interact with various cells in and around the injury site and are important for debris elimination, repair, and nerve regeneration. Following PNI, Wallerian degeneration of the distal stump is rapidly initiated by degeneration of damaged axons followed by morphologic changes in SCs and the recruitment of circulating macrophages. Interaction with fibroblasts from the injured nerve microenvironment also plays a role in nerve repair. The replication and migration of injury-induced dedifferentiated SCs are also important in repairing the nerve. In particular, SC migration stimulates axonal regeneration and subsequent myelination of regenerated nerve fibers. This mobility increases SC interactions with other cells in the nerve and the exogenous environment, which influence SC behavior post-injury. Following PNI, SCs directly and indirectly interact with other SCs, fibroblasts, and macrophages. In addition, the inter- and intracellular mechanisms that underlie morphological and functional changes in SCs following PNI still require further research to explain known phenomena and less understood cell-specific roles in the repair of the injured peripheral nerve. This review provides a basic assessment of SC function post-PNI, as well as a more comprehensive evaluation of the literature concerning the SC interactions with macrophages and fibroblasts that can influence SC behavior and, ultimately, repair of the injured nerve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.286956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818858PMC
January 2021

Thromboelastography maximum amplitude predicts short-term mortality in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Sep 13;20(3):2657-2664. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Ningbo Institute of Life and Health Industry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315010, P.R. China.

Patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) exhibit complex hemostatic defects. Thromboelastography (TEG) can be used to reveal global hemostasis in patients with liver disease; however, little is known about the association between TEG and the outcome of patients with HBV-related ACLF. The present study aimed to investigate the value of TEG for predicting 90 day mortality in patients with HBV-related ACLF. A total of 51 patients with HBV-related ACLF, 26 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 26 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in the present study. TEG, standard coagulation tests, routine blood tests, biochemical markers and demographic variables were recorded and assessed for prognostic value. The results indicated that a prolonged reaction and kinetics (K) time, a shortened α angle and a decreased maximum amplitude (MA) and coagulation index (CI) were observed in patients with HBV-related ACLF, compared with CHB and HC subjects. Patients with HBV-related ACLF in the mortality group exhibited a decrease in α angle, MA, lysis at 30 min, CI, fibrinogen and platelet count, and an increase in K time, international normalized ratio (INR) and the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in comparison with the survival group. MA and INR were two independent predictors of 90 day mortality in patients with HBV-related ACLF, with hazard ratios of 0.918 (95% CI, 0.867-0.971; P=0.003) and 3.141 (95% CI, 1.843-5.354; P<0.001) respectively. When predicting 90 day mortality, MA + INR exhibited the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, followed by INR, MELD score and MA. Patients with ACLF and MA ≤51.5 mm exhibited a poorer outcome than those with MA >51.5 mm, as revealed via the Kaplan-Meier analysis. In summary, the findings of the present study suggested that TEG MA was associated with 90 day mortality in patients with HBV-related ACLF, and a combination of MA and INR was superior to MA, INR and MELD score in terms of prognostic value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7401745PMC
September 2020

Absent immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in a 3-month recurrence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case.

Infection 2021 Feb 28;49(1):57-61. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Central Laboratory, Ningbo City First Hospital, Zhejiang Province, Ningbo, China.

Background: The viral persistence in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains to be investigated.

Methods: We investigated the viral loads, therapies, clinical features, and immune responses in a 70-year patient tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 for 3 months.

Findings: The patient exhibited the highest prevalence of abnormal indices of clinical features and immune responses at the first admission, including fever (38.3 ℃), decreased lymphocytes (0.83 × 10/L) and serum potassium (3.1 mmol/L), as well as elevated serum creatinine (115 µmol/L), urea (8.6 mmol/L), and C-reactive protein (80 mg/L). By contrast, at the second and the third admission, these indices were all normal. Through three admissions, IL-2 increased from 0.14 pg/mL, 0.69 pg/mL, to 0.91 pg/mL, while IL-6 decreased from 11.78 pg/mL, 1.52 pg/mL, to 0.69 pg/mL, so did IL-10 from 5.13 pg/mL, 1.85 pg/mL, to 1.75 pg/mL. The steady declining trend was also found in TNF-α (1.49, 1.15, and 0.85 pg/mL) and IFN-γ (0.64, 0.42, and 0.27 pg/mL). The threshold cycle values of RT-PCR were 26.1, 30.5, and 23.5 for ORFlab gene, and 26.2, 30.6, and 22.7 for N gene, showing the patient had higher viral loads at the first and the third admission than during the middle term of the disease. The patient also showed substantially improved acute exudative lesions on the chest CT scanning images.

Conclusions: The patient displayed declining immune responses in spite of the viral shedding for 3 months. We inferred the declining immune responses might result from the segregation of the virus from the immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-020-01485-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7386381PMC
February 2021

The Meningioma Enhancer Landscape Delineates Novel Subgroups and Drives Druggable Dependencies.

Cancer Discov 2020 Nov 23;10(11):1722-1741. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Division of Regenerative Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor with current classification offering limited therapeutic guidance. Here, we interrogated meningioma enhancer landscapes from 33 tumors to stratify patients based upon prognosis and identify novel meningioma-specific dependencies. Enhancers robustly stratified meningiomas into three biologically distinct groups (adipogenesis/cholesterol, mesodermal, and neural crest) distinguished by distinct hormonal lineage transcriptional regulators. Meningioma landscapes clustered with intrinsic brain tumors and hormonally responsive systemic cancers with meningioma subgroups, reflecting progesterone or androgen hormonal signaling. Enhancer classification identified a subset of tumors with poor prognosis, irrespective of histologic grading. Superenhancer signatures predicted drug dependencies with superior efficacy to treatment based upon the genomic profile. Inhibition of DUSP1, a novel and druggable meningioma target, impaired tumor growth . Collectively, epigenetic landscapes empower meningioma classification and identification of novel therapies. SIGNIFICANCE: Enhancer landscapes inform prognostic classification of aggressive meningiomas, identifying tumors at high risk of recurrence, and reveal previously unknown therapeutic targets. Druggable dependencies discovered through epigenetic profiling potentially guide treatment of intractable meningiomas..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0160DOI Listing
November 2020

Localised delivery of quercetin by thermo-sensitive PLGA-PEG-PLGA hydrogels for the treatment of brachial plexus avulsion.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2020 Dec;48(1):1010-1021

Department of Hand Surgery, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, P. R. China.

Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in brachial plexus avulsion (BPA). Quercetin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective properties. This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a temperature-sensitive poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene-glycol)-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) hydrogel sustained-release system of quercetin in BPA. injections of the hydrogel loaded with different concentrations of quercetin were conducted in a rat model of BPA. Significantly reduced reactive oxygen species and interleukin-6 levels in the injured spinal cord 24 h post-surgery, increased number of anterior horn motor and functional neurons in the spinal cord 6 weeks post-surgery, thickened biceps muscle fibres and enlarged endplate area with clear structure, reduced demyelinated peripheral nerves, and significantly increased Terzis grooming test scores were found in the groups with 50 or 100 mg/mL quercetin-loaded hydrogels compared with the control and blank hydrogel groups. In conclusion, the temperature-sensitive quercetin loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA hydrogel sustained-release system can alleviate oxidative damage and inflammation in the spinal cord, increase neuron survival rate, and promote nerve regeneration and motor function recovery in rats with early BPA. The findings suggest that this drug-loaded hydrogel has potential applications in the clinical treatment of BPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2020.1770265DOI Listing
December 2020

Factors influencing the application of transrectal natural orifice specimen extraction performed laparoscopically for colorectal cancer: A retrospective study.

Asian J Surg 2021 Jan 5;44(1):164-168. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of General Surgery and Colorectal Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200120, China. Electronic address:

Background: A few factors influence the feasibility of transrectal natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) surgery for colorectal cancers. However, little is known about the underlying factors of NOSE surgery.

Methods: Consecutive patients with rectal and sigmoid colon cancers treated laparoscopically between January 2014 and April 2017 were enrolled in this study. The transrectal NOSE performed laparoscopically was the first choice of all patients. When NOSE failed, the specimen was removed through a midline abdominal wall incision. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify challenging factors influencing the intraoperative specimen extraction.

Results: Overall, 412 consecutive patients were included. NOSE performed laparoscopically was successful in 278 patients (75.5%) and unsuccessful in 90 patients (24.5%). The multivariate analyses indicated that body mass index (BMI; odds ratio [OR] = 3.510, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.333-9.243, p = 0.011), mesenteric thickness (OR = 1.069, 95% CI: 1.032-1.107, p < 0.001), maximum tumor diameter (OR = 2.827, 95% CI: 1.094-7.302, p = 0.032), and tumor T stage (OR = 2.831, 95% CI: 1.258-6.369, p = 0.012) were the factors influencing the feasibility of NOSE surgery.

Conclusion: A successful transrectal NOSE surgery was associated with a lower BMI, thinner mesentery, lesser tumor diameter, and earlier tumor T stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2020.04.008DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of red blood cell transfusion on the development of retinopathy of prematurity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2020 8;15(6):e0234266. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Ningbo Women & Children's Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China.

Background: The effect of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is difficult to establish, because ROP may also be influenced by other factors. Therefore, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relationship between RBC transfusion and the development of ROP.

Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases were searched from their inception to September 1, 2019. Observational studies that reported the relationship between RBC transfusion and ROP after adjusting for other potential risk factors were included. The combined result was analyzed by a random effect model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were tested, and sensitivity analysis was performed.

Results: Of the 2628 identified records, 18 studies including 15072 preterm infants and 5620 cases of ROP were included. A random effect model was used and revealed that RBC transfusion was significantly associated with ROP (pooled OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.27-1.76), with moderate heterogeneity among the included studies (I2 = 44.2%). Subgroup analysis indicated that RBC transfusion was more closely related to ROP in the group with a gestational age (GA) ≤32 weeks (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.29-2.43) but not in the groups with a GA ≤34 weeks (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.85-2.18) or a GA <37 weeks (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.86-1.82). No obvious publication bias was found based on the funnel plot and Egger's test. Removing any single study did not significantly alter the combined result in the sensitivity analysis.

Conclusions: Our study revealed that RBC transfusion is an independent risk factor for the development of ROP, especially in younger preterm infants. However, there seemed to be no evidence to support an effect of RBC transfusion on ROP in older groups. Further studies addressing this issue in older preterm neonates are warranted.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234266PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279893PMC
August 2020

Three-dimensional bioprinted glioblastoma microenvironments model cellular dependencies and immune interactions.

Cell Res 2020 10 4;30(10):833-853. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Division of Regenerative Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.

Brain tumors are dynamic complex ecosystems with multiple cell types. To model the brain tumor microenvironment in a reproducible and scalable system, we developed a rapid three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting method to construct clinically relevant biomimetic tissue models. In recurrent glioblastoma, macrophages/microglia prominently contribute to the tumor mass. To parse the function of macrophages in 3D, we compared the growth of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) alone or with astrocytes and neural precursor cells in a hyaluronic acid-rich hydrogel, with or without macrophage. Bioprinted constructs integrating macrophage recapitulate patient-derived transcriptional profiles predictive of patient survival, maintenance of stemness, invasion, and drug resistance. Whole-genome CRISPR screening with bioprinted complex systems identified unique molecular dependencies in GSCs, relative to sphere culture. Multicellular bioprinted models serve as a scalable and physiologic platform to interrogate drug sensitivity, cellular crosstalk, invasion, context-specific functional dependencies, as well as immunologic interactions in a species-matched neural environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-0338-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608409PMC
October 2020

Lipoma in the pronator quadratus: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(21):e20248

Hand Surgery, the Second Hospital of Jilin University, No. 218, Lane Ziqiang, Nanguan District, Changchun City, Jilin.

Rationale: Lipomas are common benign tumors, constituting 16% of soft tissue mesenchymal tumors. They usually occur under the skin or in the large muscles of the thigh, shoulder, or upper arm. There are few reported cases of lipomas located in the forearm and hand muscles, accounting for less than 1% of all lipomas.

Patient Concerns: A 47-year old man presented with a history of swelling and accompanying pain in the left wrist for 2 years.

Diagnoses: The patient was diagnosed with intramuscular lipoma in the pronator quadratus.

Interventions: The mass was resected completely with wide-awake technique.

Outcomes: The patient was followed up for 2 years with no recurrence. The symptoms of swelling and pain resolved within 3 weeks post-surgery, and there was no clear abnormality in wrist and finger movement and sensation. A satisfactory outcome was achieved.

Lessons: Intramuscular lipoma in the pronator quadratus is a rare benign tumor which should be distinguished from malignant tumors. Especially for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome presenting with wrist swelling, ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to assess deep tissue masses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249885PMC
May 2020

Comparison of single-dose fosfomycin tromethamine and other antibiotics for lower uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women and asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020 Jul 15;56(1):106018. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Urology, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the efficacy and safety of single-dose fosfomycin tromethamine (FT) versus other antibiotic agents in women suffering from lower uncomplicated urinary tract infection (uUTI) and pregnant women with uUTI or asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB).

Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library were searched to identify relevant literature. Twenty-one studies were identified. Nine of the 21 studies enrolled 21 22 patients and were used to compare the clinical resolution of uUTI between non-pregnant and pregnant women. Given that uUTI and ASB are assessed using similar microbiological evaluation methods, all 3103 patients in the identified 21 studies were pooled to determine microbiological resolution between uUTI or ASB patients. Safety outcomes of the treatments were analysed in 15 studies.

Results: The results showed that single-dose FT was comparable with other antibiotic agents in clinical resolution of uUTI (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.71-1.10; P = 0.41) in non-pregnant (P = 0.32) and pregnant women (P = 0.64). Moreover, single-dose FT was equal to other antibiotics in microbiological resolution, and there was no difference in overall microbiological resolution (OR 1.11; 95% CI 0.92-1.34; P = 0.29) among non-pregnant women with uUTI (P = 0.48), pregnant women with uUTI (P = 0.81) and pregnant women with ASB (P = 0.30). There were no serious fosfomycin-related adverse events and most frequent adverse events were mainly gastrointestinal.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that single-dose fosfomycin tromethamine produces equivalent clinical outcomes to comparator antibiotics in terms of clinical efficacy and microbiological efficacy. It is therefore clinically effective and safe for women with uUTI and pregnant women with uUTI or ASB, and has higher patient compliance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106018DOI Listing
July 2020

Transrectal Natural Orifice Specimen Extraction (NOSE) With Oncological Safety: A Prospective and Randomized Trial.

J Surg Res 2020 10 8;254:16-22. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of General Surgery and Colorectal Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: In the present paper, we introduce our experience with the novel method during laparoscopic anterior resection of upper rectal or sigmoid colon cancer by transrectal natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE).

Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was performed from June 2016 to May 2019. Patients with upper rectal or sigmoid colon cancer were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the NOSE group and the non-NOSE group. Preoperative and postoperative clinical variables were analyzed and compared between groups. Postoperative pain was analyzed utilizing a visual analog scale. Postoperative overall survival was analyzed using a Kaplan-Meier curve.

Results: A total of 276 patients were enrolled, of whom 254 were randomly divided into the NOSE group (n = 122) and the conventional laparoscopic group (n = 119). NOSE failed in 22 cases, which were converted to transabdominal specimen extraction. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed, and these 22 cases were included in the NOSE group. The incidence of postoperative complications was significantly lower in the NOSE group (11/122, 9%) than in the non-NOSE group (25/119, 21%). The NOSE group had a longer operation time, less blood loss, and a lower postoperative visual analog scale score than the non-NOSE group. The time for intestinal function recovery (ventilation) and the length of hospital stay were significantly longer in the non-NOSE group. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed no statistically significant difference in the disease-free survival rate between the NOSE group and the non-NOSE group.

Conclusions: The novel NOSE method is safe and feasible to use in patients having colorectal cancer. Compared with traditional laparoscopic surgery, the postoperative complication rates of NOSE surgery were lower with an improved short-term clinical recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.03.064DOI Listing
October 2020