Publications by authors named "Zhe Liu"

986 Publications

Interleukin-17D promotes lung cancer progression by inducing tumor-associated macrophage infiltration via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

Aging (Albany NY) 2022 Aug 5;14(undefined). Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Immunology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2011 Collaborative Innovation Center of Tianjin for Medical Epigenetics, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China.

Cancer immunoediting is defined as the integration of the immune system's dual host-protective and tumor-promoting roles, including three phases: elimination, equilibrium, and escape. Immune selective pressure causes tumor cells to lose major histocompatibility complex expression or acquire immunosuppressive gene expression, which promotes tumor immune evasion and tumor progression. Interleukin-17D (IL-17D), a member of the IL-17 family of cytokines, plays an important role in the host defense against infection and inflammation. However, the role of IL-17D in the progression of lung cancer remains unclear. In this study, we found that IL-17D was highly expressed in human lung cancer, and increased IL-17D expression was associated with tumor stage and short overall survival. IL-17D overexpression significantly promoted tumor growth in subcutaneous xenograft mouse models but only slightly affected cell proliferation . Using flow cytometry, we found that IL-17D overexpression enhances the recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages to the tumor microenvironment. Based on the expression profile of -overexpressing A549 cells, we found that IL-17D increased the expression levels of macrophage polarization- and recruitment-related genes through the MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, inhibition of the p38 pathway blocked macrophage infiltration induced by IL-17D. These results suggest that IL-17D regulates the tumor immune microenvironment via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, highlighting IL-17D as a potential therapeutic target for lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.204208DOI Listing
August 2022

Editorial: Metals in medicine.

Front Chem 2022 22;10:979466. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Institute of Chemistry, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.979466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355371PMC
July 2022

Cooperation of heterotrophic bacteria enables stronger resilience of halophilic assimilation biosystem than nitrification system under long-term stagnation.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Aug 3:157806. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

School of Civil Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250002, China. Electronic address:

Long-term stagnation of biosystems (with no or very little wastewater) owing to seasonal downtime or failure maintenance brings great challenges to the performance recovery after system restart. In particular, the reduction of microbial activity and change of dissolved organic matter (DOM) affect the effluent quality and subsequent treatment procedures. Monitoring the dynamics and resilience of biosystems after long-term stagnation is important to formulate targeted countermeasures for system stability. However, the influence of long-term stagnation on autotrophic nitrification (AN) and heterotrophic assimilation (HA) biosystems has not been systematically explored. Here, we used halophilic AN and HA systems to study the stability and resilience of two nitrogen removal consortia after long-term stagnation. The results showed that 97.5 % and 93 % of ammonium and 47.0 % and 90.1 % of total nitrogen were removed using the halophilic AN and HA systems, respectively, in the stable period. After four weeks of stagnation, the HA system showed stronger resilience than AN system, in terms of faster recovery of treatment performance, and less fluctuations in sludge settleability and extracellular polymeric substances. In addition, after the stagnation period, the DOM of AN system was rich in low-molecular refractory humic acid, whereas that of HA system was rich in high-molecular proteins. The stagnation period led to the replacement of the dominant heterotrophic functional microorganisms, Paracoccus and Halomonas, with Muricauda and Marinobacterium in the HA system. The microbial network results revealed that the cooperation of heterotrophic bacteria enables stronger resilience of the HA system from prolonged stagnation than the AN system. In addition, the nitrogen removal efficiency, protein to polysaccharide ratio of EPS and fluorescence intensity of DOM were significantly correlated with the microbial community composition. These results suggest that AN system has greater risks in terms of treatment performance and sludge stability than the system after long-term stagnation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157806DOI Listing
August 2022

How does public environmental supervision affect the industrial structure optimization?

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

School of Economics and Trade, Guangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanning, China.

Based on the panel data of 278 prefecture-level cities in China from 2005 to 2017, this study takes the environmental information disclosure policy implemented in 2008 as a quasi-natural experiment and uses the difference-in-difference method to examine the impact of public environmental supervision on industrial structure upgrading. This study found that public environmental supervision has indeed significantly promoted the industrial structure optimization. It is noteworthy that, the impact of public environmental supervision on industrial structure optimization is heterogeneous across regions and corresponding to the intensity of environmental regulations. Public environmental supervision in the eastern region has significantly promoted the optimization of the industrial structure, while the promotion effect in the central and western regions is not obvious. Besides, the effect of public environmental supervision is more significant in the cities with relatively tight traditional environmental regulations. The mechanism analysis shows that public environmental supervision promotes industrial structure upgrading mainly by influencing the level of urban technological innovation, and the level of technological innovation plays an intermediary role between public environmental supervision and industrial structure optimization. This study has important reference significance for further improving the environmental information disclosure system and constructing an environmental governance system with the government as the leading body, enterprises as the main body, and the public as the common participation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-22163-0DOI Listing
August 2022

Comprehensive characterization of ingredients in Crocus sativus L. from different origins based on the combination of targeted and nontargeted strategies.

Food Chem 2022 Jul 25;397:133777. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China; Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacodynamic Material Basis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ganjiang Chinese Medicine Innovation Center, Nanchang 330000, China. Electronic address:

As a valuable medicinal and edible plant, Crocus sativus L. has had wide applications since ancient times. Herein, a comprehensive approach for characterization of constituents in saffron was established based on the combination of targeted and non-targeted strategies. A targeted UPLC-ESI/MS strategy was applied for in-depth identification of crocins, and a non-targeted UPLC-ESI/MS approach characterized other components. This integration strategy was used to analyze ingredients in 21 batches of saffrons from 6 origins. Forty-seven crocins belonging to 8 types were identified including 32 new crocins. Among them, 6 new compounds with specific structures were reported for the first time, i.e. trans-6(G, 2G), trans-4(GT, g), trans-3(GT), cis-3(GT), methyl ester-trans-2(G) and methyl ester-cis-2(G). Besides, 91 non-crocin components were identified including 43 new compounds. Based on systematic investigation of crocins and non-crocins, we found that crocins were the critical components to distinguish saffrons from different origins, especially between domestic and foreign samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133777DOI Listing
July 2022

Effects of autotoxicity and allelopathy on seed germination and seedling growth in .

Front Plant Sci 2022 15;13:908426. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Key Laboratory of National Forestry and Grassland Administration on Grassland Resources and Ecology in the Yellow River Delta, College of Grassland Science, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China.

Autotoxicity is a form of intraspecific allelopathy, in which a plant species inhibits the establishment or growth of the same species through the release of toxic chemical compounds into the environment. The phenomenon of autotoxicity in crops is best traced in alfalfa (). A close relative of alfalfa, has been developed into an excellent model species for leguminous plants. However, it is not known whether has autotoxicity. In this study, root exudates showed a negative impact on the growth of seedlings, indicating autotoxicity. Detailed analyses with plant extracts from and alfalfa revealed varying degrees of suppression effects in the two species. The extracts negatively affected seed germination potential, germination rate, radicle length, hypocotyl length, synthetic allelopathic effect index, plant height, root growth, fresh weight, dry weight, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance in both and alfalfa. The results demonstrated that autotoxicity and allelopathic effects exist in . This opens up a new way to use as a model species to carry out in-depth studies of autotoxicity and allelopathy to elucidate biochemical pathways of allelochemicals and molecular networks controlling biosynthesis of the chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.908426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9335049PMC
July 2022

Biodegradation time series characteristics and metabolic fate of different aromatic compounds in the biochemical treatment process of coal chemical wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jul 25:127688. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Yan Ta Road. No.13, Xi'an 710055, China; Key Lab of Northwest Water Resource, Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China.

In this study, the biochemical treatment system of coal chemical wastewater (CCW) was constructed to degrade aromatic compounds. The biodegradation time series characteristics of 8 benzene series (BTEX), 6 phenols, 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 3 nitrogen heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) were detected. The aim was to clarify the storage characteristics and dynamic transformation in water, EPS, and cells of these aromatic compounds. The results showed that BTEX and NHCs were more easily degraded than PAHs and phenols. Furthermore, aromatic compounds were initially adsorbed into EPS from water by microorganisms. Then, some were degraded, and others were transferred into the cell. Finally, they were completely degraded. The percentage of surplus content with them in EPS and cells were PAHs > phenols > NHCs = BTEX. The study could lay a theoretical foundation for the regulation and harmless treatment of the CCW in the stable operation of the biochemical treatment system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127688DOI Listing
July 2022

Blending Technology Based on HPLC Fingerprint and Nonlinear Programming to Control the Quality of Ginkgo Leaves.

Molecules 2022 Jul 25;27(15). Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China.

The breadth and depth of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) applications have been expanding in recent years, yet the problem of quality control has arisen in the application process. It is essential to design an algorithm to provide blending ratios that ensure a high overall product similarity to the target with controlled deviations in individual ingredient content. We developed a new blending algorithm and scheme by comparing different samples of ginkgo leaves. High-consistency samples were used to establish the blending target, and qualified samples were used for blending. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used as the sample screening method. A nonlinear programming algorithm was applied to calculate the blending ratio under different blending constraints. In one set of calculation experiments, the result was blended by the same samples under different conditions. Its relative deviation coefficients (RDCs) were controlled within ±10%. In another set of calculations, the RDCs of more component blending by different samples were controlled within ±20%. Finally, the near-critical calculation ratio was used for the actual experiments. The experimental results met the initial setting requirements. The results show that our algorithm can flexibly control the content of TCMs. The quality control of the production process of TCMs was achieved by improving the content stability of raw materials using blending. The algorithm provides a groundbreaking idea for quality control of TCMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27154733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9332425PMC
July 2022

MiR-382 Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis via Targeting dct in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Mar Biotechnol (NY) 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, 730070, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small noncoding RNAs that are involved in a diverse collection of biological processes as important post-transcriptional regulators. However, little is known about the molecular regulatory mechanism of miRNAs in fish skin pigmentation. In this study, we first confirmed that dopachrome tautomerase (dct), a key gene of melanogenesis, is a target of miR-382 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using luciferase reporter assay. The analysis of different developmental stages and tissue expression patterns between wild-type and yellow mutant rainbow trout suggested that miR-382 is a potential regulator during the process of skin pigmentation. In vitro, miR-382 mimics in rainbow trout primary liver cells significantly downregulated dct expression and resulted in decreased expression of key melanogenic genes including tyrosine-related protein 1 (tyrp1) and premelanosome protein (pmel), whereas the expression level of dct was markedly increased after transfected with miR-382 inhibitor. In vivo, overexpression of miR-382 by injection of miR-382 agomir significantly depressed the expression of dct in dorsal skin, tail fin, and liver and then reduced the expression levels of tyrp1 and pmel. Furthermore, transfection of miR-382 mimics inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results identified a functional role of miR-382 in rainbow trout skin pigmentation through targeting dct, which facilitate understanding the regulatory mechanism of rainbow trout skin color at the post-transcriptional level and provide a theoretical basis for molecular breeding with skin color as the target trait.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10126-022-10143-xDOI Listing
July 2022

Design, Fabrication, Structure Optimization and Pressure Sensing Demonstration of COC Piezoelectret Sensor and Sensor Array.

Micromachines (Basel) 2022 Jul 26;13(8). Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Industrial and Manufacturing, High-Performance Materials Institute, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA.

This study reported on the design and fabrication of a pseudo-piezoelectric material (piezoelectret) from cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) based on a micropillar structure. The fabrication feasibility of such structure was explored and piezoelectret with the good piezoelectric activity (characterized by quasi-static piezoelectric coefficient ) was demonstrated. Response surface method with a central composite design was employed to investigate the effects of the structure parameter on the piezoelectric coefficient . An optimal structure design was obtained and was validated by experiments. With the optimal design, can reach an exceptional high value of ~9000 pC/N under low pressure. The charging process and the electrical and electromechanical characteristics were further investigated by experimentation and modeling. We further demonstrated the scalability of the fabrication process and demonstrated the application of these sensors in position specific pressure sensing (pressure mapping).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi13081177DOI Listing
July 2022

Temporal Dynamic Analysis of Alternative Splicing During Embryonic Development in Zebrafish.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 8;10:879795. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

The Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Functional Genome Bioinformatics, School of Life Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, China.

Alternative splicing is pervasive in mammalian genomes and involved in embryo development, whereas research on crosstalk of alternative splicing and embryo development was largely restricted to mouse and human and the alternative splicing regulation during embryogenesis in zebrafish remained unclear. We constructed the alternative splicing atlas at 18 time-course stages covering maternal-to-zygotic transition, gastrulation, somitogenesis, pharyngula stages, and post-fertilization in zebrafish. The differential alternative splicing events between different developmental stages were detected. The results indicated that abundance alternative splicing and differential alternative splicing events are dynamically changed and remarkably abundant during the maternal-to-zygotic transition process. Based on gene expression profiles, we found splicing factors are expressed with specificity of developmental stage and largely expressed during the maternal-to-zygotic transition process. The better performance of cluster analysis was achieved based on the inclusion level of alternative splicing. The biological function analysis uncovered the important roles of alternative splicing during embryogenesis. The identification of isoform switches of alternative splicing provided a new insight into mining the regulated mechanism of transcript isoforms, which always is hidden by gene expression. In conclusion, we inferred that alternative splicing activation is synchronized with zygotic genome activation and discovered that alternative splicing is coupled with transcription during embryo development in zebrafish. We also unveiled that the temporal expression dynamics of splicing factors during embryo development, especially co-orthologous splicing factors. Furthermore, we proposed that the inclusion level of alternative splicing events can be employed for cluster analysis as a novel parameter. This work will provide a deeper insight into the regulation of alternative splicing during embryogenesis in zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.879795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9304896PMC
July 2022

HPM-Net: Hierarchical progressive multiscale network for liver vessel segmentation in CT images.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2022 Jul 7;224:107003. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

School of Computer Science and Communication Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

Background And Objective: The segmentation and visualization of liver vessels in 3D CT images are essential for computer-aided diagnosis and preoperative planning of liver diseases. Due to the irregular structure of liver vessels and image noise, accurate extraction of liver vessels is difficult. In particular, accurate segmentation of small vessels is always a challenge, as multiple single down-sampling usually results in a loss of information.

Methods: In this paper, we propose a hierarchical progressive multiscale learning network (HPM-Net) framework for liver vessel segmentation. Firstly, the hierarchical progressive multiscale learning network combines internal and external progressive learning methods to learn semantic information about liver vessels at different scales by acquiring receptive fields of different sizes. Secondly, to better capture vessel features, we propose a dual-branch progressive 3D Unet, which uses a dual-branch progressive (DBP) down-sampling strategy to reduce the loss of detailed information in the process of network down-sampling. Finally, a deep supervision mechanism is introduced into the framework and backbone network to speed up the network convergence and achieve better training of the network.

Results: We conducted experiments on the public dataset 3Dircadb for liver vessel segmentation. The average dice coefficient and sensitivity of the proposed method reached 75.18% and 78.84%, respectively, both higher than the original network.

Conclusion: Experimental results show that the proposed hierarchical progressive multiscale network can accurately segment the labeled liver vessels from the CT images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2022.107003DOI Listing
July 2022

Untangling an AGS Outbreak Caused by the Recombinant GII.12[P16] Norovirus With Nanopore Sequencing.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 5;12:911563. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

For a rapidly spreading virus such as NoV (norovirus), pathogen identification, genotype classification, and transmission tracing are urgent for epidemic control. Here, we applied the Nanopore metatranscriptomic sequencing to determine the causative pathogen of a community AGS (Acute gastroenteritis) outbreak. The results were also confirmed by RT-PCR. The NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) library was constructed within 8 hours and sequence analyses were carried out in real-time. NoV positive reads were detected in 13 of 17 collected samples, including two water samples from sewage treatment tank and cistern. A nearly complete viral genome and other genome fragments could be generated from metatranscriptomic sequencing of 13 samples. The NoV sequences from water samples and cases are identical suggesting the potential source of the outbreak. The sequencing results also indicated the outbreak was likely caused by an emerging recombinant GII.12[P16] virus, which was only identified in the United States and Canada in 2017-2018. This is the first report of this emerging variant in mainland China, following the large outbreaks caused by the recombinant GII.17[P17] and GII.2[P16] in 2014 and 2016, respectively. Closely monitoring of the prevalence of this recombinant strain is required. Our data also highlighted the importance of real-time sequencing in emerging pathogens' surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2022.911563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9294139PMC
July 2022

Application of Graphene and its Derivatives in Detecting Hazardous Substances in Food: A Comprehensive Review.

Front Chem 2022 1;10:894759. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Graphene and its derivatives have been a burning issue in the last 10 years. Although many reviews described its application in electrochemical detection, few were focused on food detection. Herein, we reviewed the recent progress in applying graphene and composite materials in food detection during the past 10 years. We pay attention to food coloring materials, pesticides, antibiotics, heavy metal ion residues, and other common hazards. The advantages of graphene composites in electrochemical detection are described in detail. The differences between electrochemical detection involving graphene and traditional inherent food detection are analyzed and compared in depth. The results proved that electrochemical food detection based on graphene composites is more beneficial. The current defects and deficiencies in graphene composite modified electrode development are discussed, and the application prospects and direction of graphene in future food detection are forecasted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.894759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9295186PMC
July 2022

Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes of Icotinib in Patients With Clinically Diagnosed Advanced Lung Cancer With EGFR-Sensitizing Variants Assessed by Circulating Tumor DNA Testing: A Phase 2 Nonrandomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2022 Jul 21. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Importance: The inability to obtain a pathological diagnosis in a certain proportion of patients with clinically diagnosed advanced lung cancer impedes precision treatment in clinical practice.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome of first-line icotinib in patients with clinically diagnosed advanced lung cancer with unknown pathological status and positive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-sensitizing variants assessed by circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA).

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Efficiency of Icotinib in Plasma ctDNA EGFR Mutation-Positive Patients Diagnosed With Lung Cancer (CHALLENGE) trial is a prospective, multicentered, open-label, single-arm phase 2 nonrandomized clinical trial conducted between July 1, 2017, and July 31, 2019. Patients with systemic treatment-naive, clinically diagnosed advanced peripheral lung cancer, unknown pathological status, and positive pretreatment plasma EGFR-sensitizing variants were eligible. A total of 391 potentially eligible Chinese patients from 19 centers in China were screened for ctDNA EGFR variants by 3 independent detection platforms (Super amplification refractory mutation system [SuperARMS] polymerase chain reaction, droplet digital polymerase chain reaction, and next-generation sequencing), and those with EGFR variants tested by any platform were included. Analyses were conducted from September 9 to December 31, 2021.

Interventions: Enrolled patients were treated with oral icotinib tablets (125 mg 3 times daily) until disease progression, death, or treatment discontinuation due to various reasons, such as toxic effects and withdrawing consent.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR). The secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), disease control rate (DCR), and the concordance among the 3 detection platforms.

Results: Of 116 included patients, 76 (65.5%) were female, and the median (range) age was 64 (37-85) years. The median (IQR) follow-up duration was 36.3 (30.2-40.7) months. The ORR was 52.6% (95% CI, 43.1%-61.9%). The median PFS and OS were 10.3 months (95% CI, 8.3-12.2) and 23.2 months (95% CI, 17.7-28.0), respectively, and the DCR was 84.5% (95% CI, 76.6%-90.5%). The concordance rate among the 3 detection platforms was 80.1% (313 of 391), and the clinical outcomes in patients identified as positive by any platform were comparable.

Conclusions And Relevance: This prospective phase 2 nonrandomized clinical trial suggests that for patients with clinically diagnosed advanced lung cancer with unknown pathological status, ctDNA-based EGFR genotyping could help decision-making in particular clinical situations, while still warranting future larger-scaled real-world exploration.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03346811.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.2719DOI Listing
July 2022

Electro-Acupuncture for Bladder Pain Syndrome: A Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial and Study for Central Mechanism.

J Pain Res 2022 13;15:1959-1970. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hang Zhou City, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The efficacy of conventional treatments for treating bladder pain syndrome (BPS) remains unsatisfactory. Electro-acupuncture (EA) is one of the complementary treatments with great analgesic effect and minimal side effect, but evidence of the efficacy of EA on BPS is limited. Thus, this study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of EA for treating BPS and study on central mechanism of patients with BPS.

Methods/design: The study is a randomized controlled and assessor-blinded design trial. A total of 84 participants will be randomly assigned to medication group (n=21), EA group (n=42) and sham electro-acupuncture (SA) group (n=21) in a 1:2:1 allocation ratio. This trial will include baseline period, 4-week treatment period and 4-week follow-up period. Participants in medication group will undergo treatment of amitriptyline for a period of 4 weeks. Participants in EA and SA groups will receive a 30 min EA or SA treatment for a total of 12 sessions over 4 weeks. The primary outcome is the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The secondary outcomes include the O'Leary-Sant questionnaire, 24-hour voiding diary, Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The VAS will be collected at baseline, week 2, week 4, and week 8 after randomization. The O'Leary-Sant questionnaire, HAMA and HAMD will be assessed at baseline, week 4 and week 8 after randomization. The 24-hour voiding diary will be assessed every single day. The fMRI data will be collected at baseline and week 4.

Discussion: The results will provide evidence on the efficacy and safety of EA in the management of BPS and investigate the central mechanism of EA in treating patients with BPS.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05279963. Registered on 15 March 2022.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S370751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9289574PMC
July 2022

Highly Efficient and Controlled Fabrication of Supraparticles by Leidenfrost Phenomenon.

Langmuir 2022 Aug 20;38(30):9157-9165. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

State Key Laboratory of NBC Protection for Civilian, Beijing 102205, P. R. China.

Supraparticles (SPs) are agglomerates of smaller particles, which show promising applications in catalysis, sensing, and so forth. Preparation of SPs with controlled sizes, components, and structures in an efficient, scalable, and environmentally friendly way has become an urgent demand for the development of SPs. Herein, a method to fabricate SPs based on the Leidenfrost phenomenon is described. By dropping a nano-/microparticle dispersion on a metal plate at the Leidenfrost temperature () or higher, the solvent evaporates quickly, and SPs can be formed within 1 min. To understand the influence of various factors on the properties of SPs, and also to optimize the fabrication of SPs, the effects of metal surface roughness and primary particle concentration on were carefully observed. Plates with a higher roughness as well as a higher primary particle concentration could trigger a lower . Combining the regulation of composition and volume of the droplets, SPs with different sizes, compositions, and structures were precisely fabricated. Furthermore, highly porous titanium dioxide (TiO) SPs with enhanced photocatalytic performance were fabricated via this method, showing the merits of the method in practical applications. This simple, efficient, and green method provides a new approach for controlled and large-scale fabrication of SPs with various functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c00709DOI Listing
August 2022

Mechanism of Oxidization of Graphite to Graphene Oxide by the Hummers Method.

ACS Omega 2022 Jul 28;7(27):23503-23510. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yulin University, Yulin 719000, Shaanxi, P. R. China.

The mechanism of oxidizing reaction in the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) by a chemical oxidation method remains unclear. The main oxidant of graphite oxide has not been determined. Here, we show a new mechanism in which MnO, the main oxidant, is heated to decompose oxygen atoms and react with graphite. The whole preparation process constitutes of four distinct independent steps, different from the three steps of literature registration, and each step has its own chemical oxidation reaction. In the first step, concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid are intercalated between graphite layers in the form of a molecular thermal motion to produce HNO-HSO-GIC. In the second step, MnO is intercalated between graphite layers in the molecular convection-diffusion to MnO-HSO-GIC. In the third step, MnO is decomposed by heat. Oxygen atoms are generated to oxidize the defects in the graphite layer to PGO. This discovery is the latest and most important. In the fourth step, PGO is purified with deionized water, hydrogen peroxide, and hydrochloric acid to GO. Optical microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy analytical evidence was used for confirming MnO as the main oxidant and the structure of GO. This work provides a more plausible explanation for the mechanism of oxidizing reaction in the preparation of GO by a chemical oxidation method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c01963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9280770PMC
July 2022

Quantitative proteomic analysis shows involvement of the p38 MAPK pathway in bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 replication.

Virol J 2022 07 13;19(1):116. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, 163319, China.

Background: Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) infection often causes respiratory tissue damage and immunosuppression and further results in bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), one of the major diseases in dairy cattle, caused huge economical losses every year. However, the pathogenetic and immunoregulatory mechanisms involved in the process of BPIV3 infection remain unknown. However, the pathogenetic and immunoregulatory mechanisms involved in the process of BPIV3 infection remain unknown. Proteomics is a powerful tool for high-throughput identification of proteins, which has been widely used to understand how viruses interact with host cells.

Methods: In the present study, we report a proteomic analysis to investigate the whole cellular protein alterations of MDBK cells infected with BPIV3. To investigate the infection process of BPIV3 and the immune response mechanism of MDBK cells, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation analysis (iTRAQ) and Q-Exactive mass spectrometry-based proteomics were performed. The differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) involved in the BPIV3 invasion process in MDBK cells were identified, annotated, and quantitated.

Results: A total of 116 proteins, which included 74 upregulated proteins and 42 downregulated proteins, were identified as DEPs between the BPIV3-infected and the mock-infected groups. These DEPs included corresponding proteins related to inflammatory response, immune response, and lipid metabolism. These results might provide some insights for understanding the pathogenesis of BPIV3. Fluorescent quantitative PCR and western blotting analysis showed results consistent with those of iTRAQ identification. Interestingly, the upregulated protein MKK3 was associated with the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

Conclusions: The results of proteomics analysis indicated BPIV3 infection could activate the p38 MAPK pathway to promote virus replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-022-01834-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9281021PMC
July 2022

Hematopoietic transcription factor GFI1 promotes anchorage independence by sustaining ERK activity in cancer cells.

J Clin Invest 2022 Jul 12. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Immunology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

The switch from anchorage-dependent to anchorage-independent growth is essential for epithelial metastasis. The underlying mechanism, however, is not fully understood. Here in this study, we identified growth factor independent-1 (GFI1), a transcription factor that drives transition from adherent endothelial cells to suspended hematopoietic cells during hematopoiesis, as a critical regulator of anchorage-independence in lung cancer cells. GFI1 elevated the numbers of circulating and lung infiltrating tumor cells in xenograft models and predicted poor prognosis of lung cancer patients. Mechanistically, GFI1 inhibited the expression of multiple adhesion molecules and facilitated substrate detachment. Concomitantly, GFI1 reconfigured chromatin structure of the RASGRP2 gene and increased its expression, causing Rap1 activation and subsequent sustained ERK activation upon detachment, and this leaded to ERK signaling dependency in tumor cells. Our studies unveiled a mechanism by which carcinoma cells hijacked a hematopoietic factor to gain anchorage independence and suggested that the intervention of ERK signaling may suppress metastasis and improve the therapeutic outcome of GFI1-positive lung cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI149551DOI Listing
July 2022

-crosslinked hydrogel-induced experimental glaucoma model with persistent ocular hypertension and neurodegeneration.

Biomater Sci 2022 Jul 11. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Guangzhou 510060, China.

A reliable animal model providing chronic and persistent ocular hypertension and characteristic neurodegeneration is essential to recapitulate human glaucoma and understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms behind this disease. Many approaches have been tried to establish persistently elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), while no efficient model and no systematic evaluation has been widely accepted yet. Herein, we developed a novel approach to reliably induce persistent IOP elevation using an injectable hydrogel formulated by hyperbranched macromolecular poly(ethylene glycol) (HB-PEG) and thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA-SH) under physiological conditions and established a systematic system for model evaluation. By formulation screening, an appropriate hydrogel with proper mechanical property, non-swelling profile and cytocompatibility was selected for further experiment. By intracameral injection, a persistent IOP elevation over 50% above baseline was obtained and it led to progressive retinal ganglion cell loss and ganglion cell complex thickness reduction. The evaluation of the efficacy of the model was thoroughly analyzed by whole-mounts retina immunostaining, optical coherence tomography, and hematoxylin-eosin staining for histological changes and by electroretinography for visual function changes. The N35-P50 amplitude of the pattern electroretinography and the N2-P2 amplitude of the flash visual-evoked potential were decreased, while the scotopic electroretinography showed no statistically significant changes. The -forming HB-PEG/HA-SH hydrogel system could be an appropriate strategy for developing a reliable experimental glaucoma model without any confounding factors. We expect this model would be conducive to the development of neuroprotective and neuro-regenerative therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2bm00552bDOI Listing
July 2022

Potential Use of Emerging Technologies for Preservation of Rice Wine and Their Effects on Quality: Updated Review.

Front Nutr 2022 23;9:912504. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Acadamy of Science, Xining, China.

Rice wine, a critical fermented alcoholic beverage, has a considerable role in different cultures. It contains compounds that may have functional and nutritional health benefits. Bacteria, yeasts, and fungi commonly found in rice wines during fermentation can induce microbial spoilage and deterioration of the quality during its distribution and aging processes. It is possible to control the microbial population of rice wines using different preservation techniques that can ultimately improve their commercial shelf life. This paper reviews the potential techniques that can be used to preserve the microbial safety of rice wines while maintaining their quality attributes and further highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.912504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9261873PMC
June 2022

Gene ssa-miR-301a-3p improves rainbow trout () resistance to heat stress by targeting .

PeerJ 2022 5;10:e13476. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China.

Rainbow trout () is a cold-water fish that is commonly harmed by high temperatures. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are being investigated intensively because they act as essential metabolic regulators and have a role in the heat stress response. Although there have been numerous studies on rainbow trout heat stress, research on miRNA implicated in rainbow trout heat stress is quite restricted. Rainbow trout were sampled at 18 and 24 °C, respectively, to examine the mechanism of miRNA under heat stress, and we identified a heat stress-induced miRNA, ssa-miR-301a-3p, for further investigation based on our bioinformatics analysis of rainbow trout small RNA sequencing data. Bioinformatics research suggested that is a probable target gene for ssa-miR-301a-3p. QRT-PCR was used to confirm the expression levels of ssa-miR-301a-3p and . Meanwhile, the dual-luciferase reporter assay was employed to validate the ssa-miR-301a-3p targeted connection. The results indicated that at 24 °C, the relative expression of ssa-miR-301a-3p was considerably lower than at 18 °C. On the other hand, expression, followed the opposite pattern. The binding of ssa-miR-301a-3p to the 3'-UTR of resulted in a substantial decrease in luciferase activity. The findings showed that ssa-miR-301a-3p was implicated in heat stress, and our findings provide fresh insights into the processes of miRNA in response to heat stress in rainbow trout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.13476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9266697PMC
July 2022

Rapid Discrimination and Prediction of Ginsengs from Three Origins Based on UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS Combined with SVM.

Molecules 2022 Jun 30;27(13). Epub 2022 Jun 30.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China.

Ginseng, which contains abundant ginsenosides, grows mainly in the Jilin, Liaoning, and Heilongjiang in China. It has been reported that the quality and traits of ginsengs from different origins were greatly different. To date, the accurate prediction of the origins of ginseng samples is still a challenge. Here, we integrated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with a support vector machine (SVM) for rapid discrimination and prediction of ginseng from the three main regions where it is cultivated in China. Firstly, we develop a stable and reliable UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS method to obtain robust information for 31 batches of ginseng samples after reasonable optimization. Subsequently, a rapid pre-processing method was established for the rapid screening and identification of 69 characteristic ginsenosides in 31 batches ginseng samples from three different origins. The SVM model successfully distinguished ginseng origin, and the accuracy of SVM model was improved from 83% to 100% by optimizing the normalization method. Six crucial quality markers for different origins of ginseng were screened using a permutation importance algorithm in the SVM model. In addition, in order to validate the method, eight batches of test samples were used to predict the regions of cultivation of ginseng using the SVM model based on the six selected quality markers. As a result, the proposed strategy was suitable for the discrimination and prediction of the origin of ginseng samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9268438PMC
June 2022

Assessing the Views and Needs of People at High Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus for the Development of Mobile Health Apps: Descriptive Qualitative Study.

JMIR Form Res 2022 Jul 8;6(7):e36392. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Beijing Youyi Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Early prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can reduce the incidence of not only GDM, but also adverse perinatal pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, it is of great significance to prevent or reduce the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. Mobile health (mHealth) apps can help pregnant women effectively prevent GDM by providing risk prediction, lifestyle support, peer support, professional support, and other functions. Before designing mHealth apps, developers must understand the views and needs of pregnant women, and closely combine users' needs to develop app functions, in order to better improve user experience and increase the usage rate of these apps in the future.

Objective: The objective of this study was to understand the views of the high-risk population of gestational diabetes mellitus on the development of mobile health apps and the demand for app functions, so as to provide a basis for the development of gestational diabetes mellitus prevention apps.

Methods: Fifteen pregnant women with at least one risk factor for gestational diabetes were recruited from July to September 2021, and were interviewed via a semistructured interview using the purpose sampling method. The transcribed data were analyzed by the traditional content analysis method, and themes were extracted.

Results: Respondents wanted to develop user-friendly and fully functional mobile apps for the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. Pregnant women's requirements for app function development include: personalized customization, accurate information support, interactive design, practical tool support, visual presentation, convenient professional support, peer support, reasonable reminder function, appropriate maternal and infant auxiliary function, and differentiated incentive function.These function settings can encourage pregnant women to improve or maintain healthy living habits during their use of the app.

Conclusions: This study discusses the functional requirements of target users for gestational diabetes mellitus prevention apps, which can provide reference for the development of future applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/36392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9308070PMC
July 2022

Ag-enhanced CeF-O: highly enhanced photocatalytic performance under NIR light irradiation.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jul 6. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

CeF-O with intermediate band showed improved synergic photodegradation activity toward HCl-TC and RhB under NIR light irradiation when enhanced by Ag as a cocatalyst. Ag ions take electrons from the second transition in CeF-O's intermediate band, which are then reduced to Ag as cocatalyst. The photodegradation efficiencies of HCl-TC by various Ag/CeF-O nanoparticles in 180-min increase from 26.5 to 73.1%. The optimal Ag/CeF-O-100 is about 2.76 times that of pure CeF-O. Ag/CeF-O-100 has an apparent rate constant of 4.5 × 10 min, which is 3.0 times that of pure CeF-O. Similarly, Ag/CeF-O-10 achieves a superior photodegradation efficiency of RhB at 96.7% under NIR light within 120 min. Its apparent rate constant of 27.7 × 10 min is 12.0 times that of pure CeF-O (2.3 × 10 min). Further, the turnover frequencies of Ag/CeF-O nanoparticles are greatly higher than that of the corresponding pure CeF-O nanoparticles. Ag-enhanced CeF-O has a unique metal-semiconductor interface where Ag acts as a bridge for facilitating charge transfer and the separation efficiency of photogenerated carries. The synergic effect between CeF-O and Ag provides a practical technique for enhancing the wastewater treatment with NIR light irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21808-4DOI Listing
July 2022

A survey on the interpretability of deep learning in medical diagnosis.

Multimed Syst 2022 Jun 25:1-21. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

School of Computer Science, Jilin Normal University, Siping, 136000 China.

Deep learning has demonstrated remarkable performance in the medical domain, with accuracy that rivals or even exceeds that of human experts. However, it has a significant problem that these models are "black-box" structures, which means they are opaque, non-intuitive, and difficult for people to understand. This creates a barrier to the application of deep learning models in clinical practice due to lack of interpretability, trust, and transparency. To overcome this problem, several studies on interpretability have been proposed. Therefore, in this paper, we comprehensively review the interpretability of deep learning in medical diagnosis based on the current literature, including some common interpretability methods used in the medical domain, various applications with interpretability for disease diagnosis, prevalent evaluation metrics, and several disease datasets. In addition, the challenges of interpretability and future research directions are also discussed here. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that various applications of interpretability methods for disease diagnosis have been summarized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00530-022-00960-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9243744PMC
June 2022

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in gas, PM, and frost samples in a severely polluted rural site of the North China Plain: Distribution, source, and risk assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 24;844:156919. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP(3)), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.

The process of frost formation has been studied as an important deposition pathway for removing atmospheric pollutants. However, the removal of organic species during frost formation remains unknown. Gas, PM and frost samples were collected in Wangdu, a severely polluted rural site in the North China Plain, during the winter of 2018. The concentrations, distributions, sources, and ecological and health risks of the 16 PAHs in the samples were determined. The 24 h-averaged concentrations of PAHs in the air (gas + PM) reached 719 ng m, indicating that the local atmosphere was heavily contaminated by PAHs in winter. The average concentrations of PAHs in the frost insoluble reached 27.5 μg g, indicating the strong ambient PAHs deposition during the frost process. The distribution patterns of individual PAH species indicated that the PAHs in the gas influenced the frost samples, and the sources of PAHs in frost samples were highly similar to those in PM samples. The calculated lifetime lung cancer risk (LLCR) via inhalation of ambient PAHs was classified as high risks. The average total Benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalent quotient (TEQ) of PAHs in the frost samples was estimated as 2.50 μg TEQ g, posing a high threat to the ecological environment and health. After the melting of frost, the PAHs are released into the soil. Although the concentrations are diluted, the PAH concentrations could adversely affect the growing vegetation or agricultural activities. The extremely high PAH concentrations and their ecological and health risks require special attention and strict regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156919DOI Listing
June 2022

Adsorption behaviors of triclosan by non-biodegradable and biodegradable microplastics: Kinetics and mechanism.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 26;842:156832. Epub 2022 Jun 26.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090, PR China.

Microplastics (MPs) pollution has been becoming serious and widespread in the global environment. Although MPs have been identified as vectors for contaminants, adsorption and desorption behaviors of chemicals with non-biodegradable and biodegradable MPs during the aging process is limited. In this work, the adsorption behaviors of triclosan (TCS) by non-biodegradable polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP), and biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) were investigated. The differences in morphology, chemical structures, crystallization, and hydrophilicity were investigated after the ultraviolet aging process and compared with the virgin MPs. The results show that the water contact angles of the aged MPs were slightly reduced compared with the virgin MPs. The aged MPs exhibited a stronger adsorption capacity for TCS because of the physical and chemical changes in MPs. The virgin biodegradable PLA had a larger adsorption capacity than the non-biodegradable PE and PP. The adsorption capacity presented the opposite trend after aging. The main adsorption mechanism of MPs relied on hydrophobicity interaction, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interaction. The work provides new insights into TCS as hazardous environmental contaminants, which will enhance the vector potential of non-biodegradable and biodegradable MPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156832DOI Listing
June 2022
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