Publications by authors named "Zhaoxi Li"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

High Frequency 0.36BiScO3-0.64PbTiO3 Ultrasonic Transducer for High Temperature Imaging Application.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 Oct 27;PP. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

(1-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3 (BS-PT) ceramics have excellent piezoelectricity and high Curie temperature at its morphotropic phase boundary (x=0.64), so it is a promising piezoelectric material for fabricating high temperature ultrasonic transducer (HTUT). Electric properties of 0.36BS-0.64PT ceramics were characterized at different temperature, and a HTUT with the center frequency of about 15 MHz was designed by PiezoCAD based on the measuring results. The prepared HTUT was tested in a silicone oil bath at different temperature systematically. The test results show that the HTUT can maintain a stable electrical resonance until 290 °C, and get a clear echo response until 250 °C with slight changes of the center frequency. Then a stepped metal block submerged in silicone oil was imaged by the HTUT until 250 °C. Velocity of silicone oil and axial resolution of the HTUT at different temperature were calculated. The results verify the capability of 0.36BS-0.64PT based HTUT for high temperature ultrasonic imaging applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2021.3123331DOI Listing
October 2021

FOXD3-induced miR-133a blocks progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer through regulating UBA2.

J Cancer 2021 25;12(20):6145-6154. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Zhengzhou Central Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000, China.

Some studies have verified that miR-133a played an inhibitory role in several cancers. Whereas, the effect of miRNA-133a in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been fully elucidated. Our study aims to confirm UBA2 as a direct target gene of miRNA-133a and explore the upstream modulatory molecules of miR-133a. In addition, their impacts on the biological characteristics of CRC cells were assessed. QRT-PCR analyzed miR-133a expression levels in colorectal cells including HCT116, SW48 cells and human normal colorectal cell line NCM460. A serial biological experiment assessed miR-133a effects on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis capacities in HCT116 and SW48 cells. MiRNA targeting gene prediction and a dual luciferase assay were employed to confirm miR-133a-targeted UBA2. Transcription factors (TFs) FOXD3 was identified as an upstream regulator of miR-133a via JASPAR. The influence of miR-133a and FOXD3 on UBA2 expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR or western blot. miR-133a was lowly expressed in CRC cells. High miRNA-133a expression suppressed the proliferation, migration, invasion and enhanced apoptosis capacities of CRC cells. MiR-133a targeted the UBA2 mRNA 3'UTR area and reduced UBA2 protein expression. We also unveiled that FOXD3 high-expression significantly raised miR-133a expression and diminished UBA2 expression. We also discovered that high miR-133a expression augmented the effects of elevated FOXD3 expression on CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas, low miR-133a expression generated the opposite outcomes. FOXD3 induced miRNA-133a directly targeting UBA2 could affect the progression and growth of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.60647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425194PMC
August 2021

Construction of methylation-associated nomogram for predicting the recurrence-free survival risk of stage I-III lung adenocarcinoma.

Future Oncol 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Sanquan College of Xinxiang Medical University/Experimental Teaching Center of Biology & Basic Medicine, Xinxiang 453514, China.

The aim of our study was to investigate a methylation-associated predictor for prognosis in patients with stage I-III lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). A DNA methylation-based signature was developed via univariate, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and multivariate Cox regression models. We identified a 14-site methylation signature that was correlated with recurrence-free survival of stage I-III lung adenocarcinoma patients. By receiver operating characteristic analysis, we showed the high ability of the 14-site methylation signature for predicting recurrence-free survival. In addition, the nomogram result showed a satisfactory predictive value. We successfully identified a DNA methylation-associated nomogram which can predict recurrence-free survival in patients with stage I-III lung adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-1270DOI Listing
September 2021

Adjustable acoustic field controlled by "ultrasonic projector" on ultrasound application.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 Sep 1;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

The controlling of acoustic field has great potential in many applications such as medical treatment, neuro-modulation, and bio-imaging. Recently, acoustic lenses and phased arrays have become common ways of controlling acoustic fields. However, the shortcomings of the two ways are obvious. Acoustic lenses are lack of flexibility after design, phased arrays have complicated structures and need to adjust the parameters of each array element. In this work, we propose an alternative for sound field control by using a flexible and adjustable "acoustic projector", two symmetric mirrors are used to change the direction of propagation of an acoustic wave produced by a piezoelectric element and realize acoustic focusing in the target region. The 2D "acoustic projector" model was built in finite element simulation, and the feasibility was verified with an actual prototype. The sound intensity produced by the piezoelectric element at different horizontal and vertical positions along the target area can be accurately controlled by two adjustable mirrors. When the angle of the mirror ranging from 30° to 40°, the focal depth can change from 39 mm to 140 mm. Furthermore, the focus can be controlled in a sector with an angle of 60°. The "acoustic projector" demonstrates simple but precise control of acoustic fields and may broaden their applicability. In order to show its imaging ability, the three groups of target balls at different positions were imaged and given their position information by scanning the mirrors in simulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2021.3106712DOI Listing
September 2021

Optimized Backing Layers Design for High Frequency Broad Bandwidth Ultrasonic Transducer.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 Jul 21;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Ultrasonic transducers with broad bandwidth are considered to have high axial resolution and good ultrasound scanning flexibility for the clinical applications. The limitations of spatial resolution due to bandwidth are of great concern in ultrasound medical imaging. The method of acoustic impedance matching between the piezoelectric element and medium is commonly used to obtain broad bandwidth and high resolution. In this study, an optimized backing layer design was proposed to broaden the bandwidth by adding a tunable acoustic impedance matching layer of backing (AIMLB) between the backing layer and the piezoelectric ceramic element. The Mason equivalent circuit method was used to analyze the effect of the backing material composition and its structure on the bandwidth of the transducer. The optimized transducer was simulated using the finite-element method with the PZFlex software. Based on the PZFlex simulations, a 20-MHz ultrasonic transducer using the AIMLB with a bandwidth of approximately 92.29% was fabricated. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulations. The ultrasonic imaging indicated that the designed ultrasonic transducer with an additional AIMLB had high performance with good imaging capability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2021.3098567DOI Listing
July 2021

Sediment carbon short-term response to water carbon content change in a large floodplain-lake system.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 19;28(24):31497-31510. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

After carbon (C) enters a lake through surface runoff and atmospheric deposition, most of it, being influenced by the environmental conditions of the basin, is deposited into lake sediment, thus, becoming one of the most important C pools in the world. Therefore, it is critical to understand sediment response characteristics under the context of increasing C concentrations in lake water. Based on the changes of sediment C concentration at different depths in Poyang Lake, belonging to China's large floodplain-lake system, we revealed the sediment C short-term response characteristics to changes in lake water C concentrations as well as their associated impacting factors. We found that dissolved total carbon (DTC) concentrations increased by 25.78% in winter compared to spring, while total carbon (TC) sediment concentrations increased by only 4.37% during the corresponding period. Specifically, we found that there was a hysteresis effect in the response of sediment C to the increase of water C concentration in the short term. When DTC concentrations in water were below a threshold value (12.50 mg/L), sediment TC concentrations were generally maintained at approximately 5.79 mg/kg. We also believed that biological and environmental factors and sediment stratification characteristics collectively resulted in this sediment C hysteresis effect. Among these factors and characteristics, phytoplankton can affect sediment C response by changing C absorption and utilization in water or cause a synergistic effect along with environmental factors, which is the key link that causes this C sediment hysteresis effect to occur. Furthermore, we found that the combined effect of sediment C from different depths also resulted in a hysteresis effect in C deposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13016-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Optimization Design of Ultrasonic Transducer With Multimatching Layer.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 06 25;68(6):2202-2211. Epub 2021 May 25.

An optimization design strategy is developed for ultrasonic transducer (UT) with multimatching layer to improve its performance. The piezoelectric equivalent circuit model is used to determine the optimization interval of matching layer, and the PiezoCAD software is used to simulate the performance of UT with multimatching layer. The neural network (NN) models are trained by the simulation data to characterize the relationship between the thickness of matching layer and performance of UT. Then, the multiobjective optimality criteria for UT is established based on its performance parameters, including center frequency (CF), -6 dB bandwidth (BW) and pulsewidth (PW). The thickness of matching layer is optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. According to the designed performance, the optimized copper thickness and parylene thickness are about 17.76 and [Formula: see text], respectively. The simulation results of UT with the optimized multimatching layer well agree with the designed targets. Also, CF, -6 dB BW, and PW of the fabricated UT with the optimized multimatching layer are 5.672 MHz, 50.08%, and [Formula: see text], respectively, which nearly achieve the designed performance. In addition, the performance of UT with the optimized multimatching layer is much better than that of UT without matching layer. Moreover, compared with UT with single or double matching layers determined by the quarter wavelength theory, the UT with the optimized multimatching layer has better comprehensive performance. Finally, the fabricated UT with the optimized multimatching layer is used to measure the thickness of testing block, and the relative errors are all less than 1.0%, which implies that the optimized UT has excellent performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2021.3059671DOI Listing
June 2021

The forbidden band and size selectivity of acoustic radiation force trapping.

iScience 2021 Jan 26;24(1):101988. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi'an, China.

Acoustic micro-beams produced by highly focused ultrasound transducer have been investigated for micro-particle and cell manipulation. Here we report the selective trapping of microspheres via the acoustic force using the single acoustical beam. The forbidden band theory of acoustic radiation force trapping is proposed, which indicates that the trapping of particles via the acoustic beam is directly related to the particle diameter-to-beam wavelength ratio as well as excitation frequency of the ultrasonic acoustic tweezers. Three tightly focused LiNbO transducers with different center frequencies were fabricated for use as selective single beam acoustic tweezers (SBATs). These SBATs were capable of selectively manipulating microspheres of sizes 5-45 μm by adjusting the wavelength of acoustic beam. Our observations could introduce new avenues for research in biology and biophysics by promoting the development of a tool for selectively manipulating microspheres or cells of certain selected sizes, by carefully setting the acoustic beam shape and wavelength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809519PMC
January 2021

An Efficient Optimization Design of Liquid Lens for Acoustic Pattern Control.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 05 26;68(5):1546-1554. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

In order to effectively and flexibly control acoustic pattern, an efficient optimization design method of acoustic liquid lens (ALL) is developed by the frame of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The ALL is composed of ethanol and dimethicone, and its parameters include ethanol concentration (EC), volume fraction of dimethicone (VFD), and total volume (TV). Based on the established finite element model and orthogonal design method, the data of acoustic pattern and ALL can be obtained by using COMSOL Multiphysics. Based on the simulation data, the neural network models are constructed to characterize the relationship between the parameters of ALL and the performance of acoustic pattern. The optimization design criteria of ALL are constructed based on the performance parameters of acoustic pattern, including focal distance (FD), transverse resolution (TR), and longitudinal resolution (LR). Based on the optimization criteria, the modified PSO algorithm is utilized to optimize the design parameters of ALL in the developed method. According to the desired FD, TR, and LR of acoustic pattern (20, 1, and 17 mm), the optimized EC, VFD, and TV of ALL are about 0.838, 0.165, and 164.4 [Formula: see text]. The performance parameters of acoustic pattern verified by simulation and experiments agree with the desired ones. In addition, using 6 MHz ultrasonic transducer with the optimized ALL, the ultrasonic imaging of tungsten wires and porcine eyeball further demonstrates the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2020.3040174DOI Listing
May 2021

Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm-Based Design Method for Ultrasonic Transducers.

Micromachines (Basel) 2020 Jul 23;11(8). Epub 2020 Jul 23.

School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071, China.

In order to improve the fabrication efficiency and performance of an ultrasonic transducer (UT), a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm-based design method was established and combined with an electrically equivalent circuit model. The relationship between the design and performance parameters of the UT is described by an electrically equivalent circuit model. Optimality criteria were established according to the desired performance; then, the design parameters were iteratively optimized using a PSO algorithm. The Pb(ZrTi)O (PZT) ceramic UT was designed by the proposed method to verify its effectiveness. A center frequency of 6 MHz and a bandwidth of -6 dB (70%) were the desired performance characteristics. The optimized thicknesses of the piezoelectric and matching layers were 255 μm and 102 μm. The experimental results agree with those determined by the equivalent circuit model, and the center frequency and -6 dB bandwidth of the fabricated UT were 6.3 MHz and 68.25%, respectively, which verifies the effectiveness of the developed optimization design method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi11080715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465307PMC
July 2020

Arc Adjacency Matrix-Based Fast Ellipse Detection.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2020 Jan 28. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Fast and accurate ellipse detection is critical in certain computer vision tasks. In this paper, we propose an arc adjacency matrix-based ellipse detection (AAMED) method to fulfill this requirement. At first, after segmenting the edges into elliptic arcs, the digraph-based arc adjacency matrix (AAM) is constructed to describe their triple sequential adjacency states. Curvature and region constraints are employed to make the AAM sparse. Secondly, through bidirectionally searching the AAM, we can get all arc combinations which are probably true ellipse candidates. The cumulative-factor (CF) based cumulative matrices (CM) are worked out simultaneously. CF is irrelative to the image context and can be pre-calculated. CM is related to the arcs or arc combinations and can be calculated by the addition or subtraction of CF. Then the ellipses are efficiently fitted from these candidates through twice eigendecomposition of CM using Jacobi method. Finally, a comprehensive validation score is proposed to eliminate false ellipses effectively. The score is mainly influenced by the constraints about adaptive shape, tangent similarity, distribution compensation. Experiments show that our method outperforms the 12 state-of-the-art methods on 9 datasets as a whole, with reference to recall, precision, F-measure, and time-consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2020.2967601DOI Listing
January 2020

Trace metal effects on gross primary productivity and its associative environmental risk assessment in a subtropical lake, China.

Environ Pollut 2020 Apr 20;259:113848. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, PR China.

The transport of trace metals in river-lake systems can potentially increase or decrease primary productivity in some basins and subsequently affect the carbon cycle of watersheds. In this study, we investigated a variety of trace metal concentrations and transport flux in the Poyang Lake basin during four seasons. Results show that the Gan River transports 78% of selenium (Se) and 42% of lead (Pb) into Poyang Lake each year, resulting in heavy metal pollution dominated by Pb and Se in 30%-75% of its water. Although toxic heavy metals, such as Pb, chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu), inhibit phytoplankton growth and decrease its gross primary productivity (GPP), excessive Se could effectually promote productivity. However, the negative effect of Pb on GPP is more significant than the positive effect of Se on GPP; hence, their interaction effectuates a decrease in total primary productivity. Additionally, under high nutrients level, the synergistic effect of heavy metals and nutrients will reduce GPP. Agricultural fertilizer is likely the source of both Pb, Cu, Se and N. Gan River contributes 35%-80% of the heavy metal inputs to Poyang Lake. It is therefore necessary to improve the ecological environment of phytoplankton and promote productivity in the Poyang Lake basin by reducing the application of agricultural chemical fertilizers to control pollution. Our results indicate that the role of certain, less studied trace elements (e.g., Pb, Cr, Cu, and Se) in regulating primary productivity of watershed ecosystems is more important than previously thought. This study also discusses potential impacting mechanisms associated with these metals on phytoplankton, whose biological functions need to be verified in future experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113848DOI Listing
April 2020

A Feature Extraction Method of Ship-Radiated Noise Based on Fluctuation-Based Dispersion Entropy and Intrinsic Time-Scale Decomposition.

Entropy (Basel) 2019 Jul 15;21(7). Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Computer & Information of Science & Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

To improve the feature extraction of ship-radiated noise in a complex ocean environment, fluctuation-based dispersion entropy is used to extract the features of ten types of ship-radiated noise. Since fluctuation-based dispersion entropy only analyzes the ship-radiated noise signal in single scale and it cannot distinguish different types of ship-radiated noise effectively, a new method of ship-radiated noise feature extraction is proposed based on fluctuation-based dispersion entropy (FDispEn) and intrinsic time-scale decomposition (ITD). Firstly, ten types of ship-radiated noise signals are decomposed into a series of proper rotation components (PRCs) by ITD, and the FDispEn of each PRC is calculated. Then, the correlation between each PRC and the original signal are calculated, and the FDispEn of each PRC is analyzed to select the Max-relative PRC fluctuation-based dispersion entropy as the feature parameter. Finally, by comparing the Max-relative PRC fluctuation-based dispersion entropy of a certain number of the above ten types of ship-radiated noise signals with FDispEn, it is discovered that the Max-relative PRC fluctuation-based dispersion entropy is at the same level for similar ship-radiated noise, but is distinct for different types of ship-radiated noise. The Max-relative PRC fluctuation-based dispersion entropy as the feature vector is sent into the support vector machine (SVM) classifier to classify and recognize ten types of ship-radiated noise. The experimental results demonstrate that the recognition rate of the proposed method reaches 95.8763%. Consequently, the proposed method can effectively achieve the classification of ship-radiated noise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e21070693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7515196PMC
July 2019

MAR characteristic motifs mediate episomal vector in CHO cells.

Gene 2015 Apr 15;559(2):137-43. Epub 2015 Jan 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003, Henan, China.

An ideal gene therapy vector should enable persistent transgene expression without limitations in safety and reproducibility. Recent researches' insight into the ability of chromosomal matrix attachment regions (MARs) to mediate episomal maintenance of genetic elements allowed the development of a circular episomal vector. Although a MAR-mediated engineered vector has been developed, little is known on which motifs of MAR confer this function during interaction with the host genome. Here, we report an artificially synthesized DNA fragment containing only characteristic motif sequences that served as an alternative to human beta-interferon matrix attachment region sequence. The potential of the vector to mediate gene transfer in CHO cells was investigated. The short synthetic MAR motifs were found to mediate episomal vector at a low copy number for many generations without integration into the host genome. Higher transgene expression was maintained for at least 4 months. In addition, MAR was maintained episomally and conferred sustained EGFP expression even in nonselective CHO cells. All the results demonstrated that MAR characteristic sequence-based vector can function as stable episomes in CHO cells, supporting long-term and effective transgene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2015.01.032DOI Listing
April 2015

The pulse wave analysis of normal pregnancy: investigating the gestational effects on photoplethysmographic signals.

Biomed Mater Eng 2014 ;24(1):209-19

Obstetrics and Gynecology Dept., Shenzhen People's Hospital, Shenzhen 518020, China.

Objective: Normal pregnancy is associated with profound alterations in the maternal cardiovascular system and PPG represents a sensitive and convenient technique capable of tracking changes in the pulsatile function of arteries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal cardiovascular alterations on the finger tip photoplethysmography (PPG) during normal gestation.

Methods: Thirty five healthy pregnant women were studied at each trimester of pregnancy and again on gestational age using PPG signals, peripheral blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR).

Results: Comparing with nonpregnant controls, several characteristic differences in PPG derived parameters and morphologies occurred in the pregnant. PAI, RI, PTT as well as AUC1 and Y1 of bcAUC1 were different and significant difference had been found in second and third trimester, despite little change in the peripheral blood pressure. The mean heart rate increased linearly with gestational age.

Conclusion: This study has confirmed that normal pregnancy is associated with profound alterations in PPG signals occurred principally as a result of maternal cardiovascular adaptation and PPG-based noninvasive assessment of cardiovascular activities is feasible throughout pregnancy. Using this technique we demonstrated a delay in wave reflection within the arterial tree and a reduction in magnitude of arterial wave reflections in normal pregnancy which is consistent with previous observations and the known cardiovascular changes of pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BME-130801DOI Listing
June 2014

Screening of a protein that interacts with the matrix attachment region-binding protein from Dunaliella salina.

Biomed Res Int 2013 4;2013:862450. Epub 2013 Sep 4.

Department of Life Science and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, China.

We isolated the matrix attachment region-binding protein (MBP) DMBP-1 from Dunaliella salina in our previous studies. MBPs are part of the cis-acting protein family cluster. The regulatory function possibly works through the interaction of the MBPs with each other. In the present study, DMBP-1 was used as the bait in screening the D. salina cDNA library for DMBP-1 interactors that could potentially mediate the DMBP-1-regulated functions. A novel MBP, namely, DMBP-2, was identified as a DMBP-1 binding partner. The cDNA of DMBP-1 was 823 bp long and contained a 573 bp open reading frame, which encoded a polypeptide of 191 amino acids. The interaction between DMBP-2 and DMBP-1 was further confirmed through glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/862450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3777206PMC
June 2014

[Effect of baicalin on pharmacokinetics of chlorogenic acid in rabbits].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2010 Dec;35(24):3291-3

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing university of Chinese medicine, Beijing 100102, China.

Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the pharmacokinetics of Chlorogenic acid (CA)and CA-Baicalin compound after intravenous injection (iv) in rabbits.

Method: Ten rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. One group were administered CA (6 mg x kg(-1)) by iv, while the other were treated with CA (6 mg x kg(-1))-baicalin (90 mg x kg(-1)) compound by iv. administration. The concentration of CA in plasma was determined by HPLC. The key parameters of pharmacokinetics were calculated and analyzed by kinetic software.

Result: Both Concentration-time courses of CA alone and CA-Baicalin compound were consistent with a two-compartment model after administration. The key pharmacokinetic parameters of CA alone were significantly different from that of CA-Baicalin compound (P < 0.05). Compared with the group treated with CA alone, the group treated with CA-Baicalin compound had dramatic increased in AUC(0-infinity), MRT and T1/2alpha.

Conclusion: There are significant difference between the pharmacokinetics of CA and CA-Baicalin compound in rabbits. Baicalin has impact on the pharmacokinetics of CA in rabbits.
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December 2010
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