Publications by authors named "Zhaohui Wang"

605 Publications

Corrigendum: The GABA Receptor Influences Pressure Overload-Induced Heart Failure by Modulating Macrophages in Mice.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:753404. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Institution of Cardiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.670153.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.753404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8491479PMC
September 2021

The Effect of Combination Therapy on Mortality and Adverse Events in Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Pharmacy, People's Hospital of Ningxiang City Affiliated to Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: The findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), observational studies, and meta-analyses vary regarding the effectiveness and safety of combination therapy for patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). We aimed to identify the effectiveness and safety of combination therapy in patients with SAB compared with those of monotherapy.

Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare combination therapy versus monotherapy in patients with SAB. Two authors independently searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library of clinical trials until 17 February 2021. Any RCT comparing mortality or adverse events (AEs) of combination therapy versus monotherapy for patients with SAB was eligible. Summary risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were evaluated using a random-effects model. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at any time point. This meta-analysis is registered with the PROSPERO database (CRD42020188176) and reported according to PRISMA guidelines.

Results: In total, 1906 articles were identified and screened, and 14 studies (2367 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference in the risk of all-cause mortality between the two groups (RR = 1.00; 95% CI 0.83-1.20; P = 0.99; I = 0%). Similar results were obtained by subgroup analysis of mortality recording time, endocarditis, pathogen resistance, article publication time, number of patients, and adjuvant antibiotics. Notably, combination treatment might significantly increase the risk of drug-related AEs (RR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.06-2.66; P = 0.03; I = 67%) and nephrotoxicity (RR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.68-3.16; P < 0.00001; I = 0%), although the occurrences of AEs leading to treatment discontinuation and serious AEs were not significantly different between the two groups.

Conclusions: The meta-analysis suggested that combination therapy could not reduce mortality but might increase the risk of drug-related AEs and nephrotoxicity and should be applied very cautiously. Future studies on combined drug therapy for SAB need careful and rigorous design for specific antibiotic combinations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-021-00539-yDOI Listing
October 2021

Allosteric Modulators Enhancing GLP-1 Binding to GLP-1R via a Transmembrane Site.

ACS Chem Biol 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China.

The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a well-established drug target for the treatment of type II diabetes. The development of small-molecule positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of GLP-1R is a promising therapeutic strategy. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of PAMs with distinct chemotypes, binding to a cryptic pocket formed by the cytoplasmic half of TM3, TM5, and TM6. Molecular dynamic simulations and mutagenesis studies indicate that the PAM enlarges the orthosteric pocket to facilitate GLP-1 binding. Further signaling assays characterized their probe-dependent signaling profiles. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into fine-tuning GLP-1R via this allosteric pocket and open up new avenues to design small-molecule drugs for class B G-protein-coupled receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.1c00552DOI Listing
September 2021

Selecting High Zinc Wheat Cultivars Increases Grain Zinc Bioavailability.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 16;69(38):11196-11203. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

Improving the concentration and bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in cereal grains is an important way to solve the problem of Zn deficiency in human body. The bioavailability of Zn is related to both its distribution and speciation in grains. In the current study, we examined the differences of Zn concentration, distribution, and speciation within grains among wheat cultivars with similar high grain yield but contrasting grain Zn concentration using synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). Results showed that compared to the low-Zn cultivar, the Zn concentration was 103, 50, 76, 33, and 64% higher in the crease region, aleurone layer, scutellum, embryonic axis, and endosperm of the high-Zn cultivar, respectively. Zinc mainly colocalized with phosphorus (P) in the aleurone layer and the scutellum, but less colocalization of Zn with P and a much lower concentration ratio of P/Zn were found in the high-Zn cultivar. Sulfur (S) is present in the form of scattered spots in the endosperm in accord with Zn, but the colocalization of Zn with S was predominant in the modified aleurone layer and the nucellar projection of the high-Zn cultivar. XANES results showed the lower proportion of Zn-phytate in the high-Zn cultivar. Findings indicated that it is possible to select the high-yield wheat cultivar with both high grain Zn concentration and high bioavailability, which provide a new perspective for genetic Zn biofortification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c03166DOI Listing
September 2021

Prevalence and distribution of domoic acid and cyclic imines in bivalve mollusks from Beibu Gulf, China.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Sep 6;423(Pt A):127078. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China; Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ocean University of China, Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266100, China. Electronic address:

Beibu Gulf is an important shellfish aquaculture area in the northwest of the South China Sea, China. In this study, the toxin profile and spatial-temporal distribution of domoic acid (DA) and 10 lipophilic phycotoxins were systematically analyzed in the bivalve mollusks collected in Beibu Gulf from October 2018 to October 2020. Neurotoxin DA was first detected in the mollusks from the investigative regions with a prevalence of 17.7%, peaking at 401 µg kg. Cyclic imines (CIs) including gymnodimine-A (GYM-A, 46.6%) and 13-desmethyl-spirolide-C (SPX1, 15.8%) predominated the lipophilic phycotoxins in shellfish, peaking at 10.1 µg kg and 19.6 µg kg, respectively. Gymnodimine-A partially accompanied by SPX1 was detected in all batches of shellfish samples, suggesting that Alexandrium ostenfeldii and Karenia selliformis were possible sources of CIs-group toxins in Beibu Gulf. During the investigative period, relatively higher levels of DA occurred in shellfishes from March to August, while slightly higher contents of CIs in mollusks appeared in October and December. Spatial distribution of the targeted phycotoxins demonstrated that shellfishes tended to accumulate relatively higher contents of toxins in Lianzhou, Qinzhou and Tieshan bays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127078DOI Listing
September 2021

Classification of unlabeled cells using lensless digital holographic images and deep neural networks.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Sep;11(9):4137-4148

Engineering Research Center of Molecular and Neuro Imaging, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Image-based cell analytic methodologies offer a relatively simple and economical way to analyze and understand cell heterogeneities and developments. Owing to developments in high-resolution image sensors and high-performance computation processors, the emerging lensless digital holography technique enables a simple and cost-effective approach to obtain label-free cell images with a large field of view and microscopic spatial resolution.

Methods: The holograms of three types of cells, including MCF-10A, EC-109, and MDA-MB-231 cells, were recorded using a lensless digital holography system composed of a laser diode, a sample stage, an image sensor, and a laptop computer. The amplitude images were reconstructed using the angular spectrum method, and the sample to sensor distance was determined using the autofocusing criteria based on the sparsity of image edges and corner points. Four convolutional neural networks (CNNs) were used to classify the cell types based on the recovered holographic images.

Results: Classification of two cell types and three cell types achieved an accuracy of higher than 91% by all the networks used. The ResNet and the DenseNet models had similar classification accuracy of 95% or greater, outperforming the GoogLeNet and the CNN-5 models.

Conclusions: These experiments demonstrated that the CNNs were effective at classifying two or three types of tumor cells. The lensless holography combined with machine learning holds great promise in the application of stainless cell imaging and classification, such as in cancer diagnosis and cancer biology research, where distinguishing normal cells from cancer cells and recognizing different cancer cell types will be greatly beneficial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-21-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339649PMC
September 2021

Exploration of resting cysts (stages) and their relevance for possibly HABs-causing species in China.

Harmful Algae 2021 07 29;107:102050. Epub 2021 May 29.

Research Center of Red Tide and Marine Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Ji'nan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

The studies on the species diversity, distribution, environmental implications, and molecular basis of resting cysts (stages) of dinoflagellates and a few species of other groups conducted in China during the last three decades are reviewed. The major achievements are summarized as the following five aspects: 1) The continual efforts in detecting the species diversity of resting cysts (spores) in dinoflagellates and other classes using either morphological or molecular approaches, or both, in the four seas of China, which led to identifications of 106 species of dinoflagellate resting cysts and 4 species of resting stages from other groups of microalgae, with a total of 64 species of dinoflagellate cysts and the resting stage of the brown tide-causing Aureococcus anophagefferens being unequivocally identified via molecular approaches from the sediments of Chinese coastal waters; 2) The well-known toxic and HABs-causing dinoflagellates Karenia mikimotoi, Karlodinium veneficum, Akashiwo sanguinea and the pelagophyte A. anophagefferens were proven to be resting cyst (stage) producers via laboratory studies on their life cycles and field detections of resting cysts (resting stage cells). And, via germination experiment and subsequent characterization of vegetative cells, numerous dinoflagellate species that had never been described or found to form cysts were discovered and characterized; 3) The distributions of the resting cysts of Alexandrium catenella, A. pacificum, Gymnodinium catenatum, K. mikimotoi, K. veneficum and Azadinium poporum and the resting stage cells of A. anophagefferens were morphologically and molecularly mapped in all four seas of China, with A. anophagefferens proven to have been present in the Bohai Sea for at least 1,500 years; 4) Obtaining important insights into the 'indicator' values of the dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in sediment cores for tracking eutrophication, environmental pollution and other anthropological influences in coastal waters; 5) Studies on the cyst-pertinent processes and genetic basis (transcriptomics together with physiological and chemical measurements) of resting cyst dormancy not only revealed the regulating patterns of some environmental factors in cyst formation and germination, but also identified many characteristically active or inactive metabolic pathways, differentially expressed genes, and the possibly vital regulating function of the phytohormone abscisic acid and a group of molecular chaperones in resting cysts. We also identified seven issues and three themes that should be addressed and explored by Chinese scientists working in the area in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2021.102050DOI Listing
July 2021

Safety Analysis of Apatinib Combined with Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Advanced Gastric Carcinoma: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

J Oncol 2021 9;2021:5177140. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Weifang People's Hospital, Weifang 261041, China.

Objective: To study the safety of apatinib combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma (GCA).

Methods: 74 patients with advanced GCA treated in the oncology department of Weifang People's Hospital (January 2019-January 2020) were enrolled in this study and equally split into study group (SG) and reference group (RG) according to the odd and even admission numbers. RG underwent chemotherapy alone, while SG received apatinib combined with chemotherapy. The clinical indicators of serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), serum interleukin-2 receptor (SIL-2R), and immune cell level were detected in the two groups before and after treatment to analyze the therapeutic effect of different treatment methods on patients with advanced gastric carcinoma.

Results: No obvious differences in gender ratio, average age, average BMI, pathological staging, pathological types, organ metastasis types, and residence were observed between the two groups ( > 0.05). The short-term follow-up results showed that the disease control rate (DCR) in SG was markedly higher compared with RG ( < 0.05). The MMP-9 and SIL-2R levels in both groups after treatment decreased ( < 0.05), and the levels in SG after treatment were notably lower compared with RG ( < 0.001). Compared with RG, CD3, CD4, and CD4/CD8 levels in SG after treatment were notably higher ( < 0.001), while the CD8 level was notably lower ( < 0.001). The median progression-free survival (MPFS) and overall survival (OS) in SG were markedly higher compared with RG ( < 0.001). The GQOLI-74 scores in both groups after treatment increased ( < 0.001), and the GQOLI-74 score in SG after treatment was markedly higher compared with RG ( < 0.001). The total incidence of adverse reactions was lower in SG than in RG ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Apatinib combined with chemotherapy is superior to chemotherapy alone in effectively improving treatment outcomes in patients with advanced GCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5177140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371638PMC
August 2021

Simultaneously Enhanced Reverse Intersystem Crossing and Radiative Decay in Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorophors with Multiple Through-space Charge Transfers.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics & Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials with through-space charge transfers (CT) have attracted particularly interest recently. However, the slow reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) and radiative decay always limit their electroluminescence performances. Herein, TADF molecules with ortho-linked multiple donors-acceptor (ortho-D -A) motif are developed to create near-degenerate excited states for the reinforcement of spin-orbit coupling. The incorporation of both through-bond and through-space CT enlarges oscillator strength. The optimal ortho-D -A compound exhibits a photoluminescence quantum yield of ca. 100 %, a high RISC rate of 2.57×10  s and a high radiative decay rate of 1.00×10  s simultaneously. With this compound as the sensitizer, a TADF-sensitized-fluorescent organic light-emitting diode shows a maximum external quantum efficiency of 31.6 % with an ultrapure green Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage y coordinate value of 0.69.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202109041DOI Listing
August 2021

Atorvastatin causes oxidative stress and alteration of lipid metabolism in estuarine goby Mugilogobius abei.

Environ Pollut 2021 Nov 3;289:117879. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Ecology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China; Key Laboratory of Eutrophication and Red Tide Prevention of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China. Electronic address:

The potential effects of the environmental residues of Atorvastatin (ATV) as a widely used antilipemic agent on aquatic organisms deserve more investigations because of its high detection frequency in environment. The responses of Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway (including the transcriptional expression of Nrf2, Keap1, GCLC, GPx, GST, SOD, CAT, Trx2, TrxR, HMG-CoAR and PGC-1α) in Mugilogobius abei were investigated under acute and sub-chronic exposure of ATV in the simulated laboratory conditions. The changes of related enzymatic activity (GST, GPx, SOD, CAT and TrxR) and the content of GSH and MDA combining with the observation of histology sections of liver in M. abei were also addressed. The results show Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant genes were induced to different degrees under ATV exposure. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were inhibited at 24 h and 72 h but induced/recovered at 168 h. Correspondingly, negatively correlated to GSH, MDA increased first but reduced then. Notably, with the increase of exposure concentration/time, the volume of lipid cells in liver decreased, suggesting more lipid decomposition. Therefore, lipid metabolism was suppressed (down-regulation of PGC-1α) and cholesterol biosynthesis was induced (up-regulation of HMG-COAR) at 168 h. In short, ATV brings oxidative stress to M. abei in the initial phase. However, with the increase of exposure time, ATV activates Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway and improves the antioxidant capacity of M. abei to reverse this adverse effect. ATV also affects lipid metabolism of M. abei by reducing cholesterol content and accelerating lipid decomposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117879DOI Listing
November 2021

Achieving enhanced solid-state photochromism and mechanochromism by introducing a rigid steric hindrance group.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 12;23(33):17939-17944. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

For photochromic molecules, effective isomerization usually requires conformational freedom, which is usually unavailable under solvent-free conditions. In this work, we report a new method, which can realize the reversible switching of spiropyran molecules by introducing a rigid aromatic ring group and this method can provide the required free volume to transform from a closed-ring to an open-ring form. This new molecule can quickly change color in the solid state under ultraviolet light, and can be erased after being heated at 60 °C for about 5 minutes. Furthermore, this new compound presents mechanochromicity when a mechanical force is applied. What is more, it can be used for at least 30 cycles of print-erase operations without apparent fatigue. This new molecule exhibits improved photochromic and anti-fatigue properties in the solid state, which can promote its application in both ultraviolet printing and anti-counterfeiting materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp02983eDOI Listing
September 2021

Curcumin attenuates prostatic hyperplasia caused by inflammation up-regulation of bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):1026-1035

Department of Urology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Context: Inflammation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) play important roles in the occurrence and development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); curcumin exerts anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-EMT effects.

Objective: To explore the anti-inflammatory and anti-EMT mechanisms of curcumin in BPH.

Materials And Methods: Ten-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 µg/kg) in the prostate lobules to establish an inflammatory BPH model (LPS group), and curcumin (120 mg/kg) was administered into the abdominal cavity for 2 weeks (three times a week, curcumin-treated group). A group of healthy mice served as the control group. The expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI), EMT markers, inflammatory cytokines, and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) was detected by PCR and western blotting. TGF-β1 (0.1 ng/mL) and LPS (100 ng/mL) were used to induce EMT in benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cells (BPH-1).

Results: , curcumin reduced the size of the prostate, suppressed the expression of vimentin and TLR4, and increased the expression of E-cadherin and BAMBI in the LPS-induced BPH mouse model. Moreover, curcumin decreased the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α by 44.52 and 46.17%, respectively. , curcumin attenuated cell proliferation, suppressed the expression of vimentin and TLR4, and increased the expression of E-cadherin and BAMBI in BPH-1 cells. Furthermore, BAMBI knockdown reversed the expression of vimentin and E-cadherin induced by curcumin.

Discussion And Conclusion: This study demonstrated that curcumin alleviated hyperplasia, EMT, and inflammation . Furthermore, curcumin suppressed EMT by targeting BAMBI via the TLR4/BAMBI/TGF-β1 signalling pathway , demonstrating its potential utility in BPH treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2021.1953539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354175PMC
December 2021

Oral SMEDDS promotes lymphatic transport and mesenteric lymph nodes target of chlorogenic acid for effective T-cell antitumor immunity.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 07;9(7)

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China

Background: Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) are critical draining lymph nodes of the immune system that accommodate more than half of the body's lymphocytes, suggesting their potential value as a cancer immunotherapy target. Therefore, efficient delivery of immunomodulators to the MLNs holds great potential for activating immune responses and enhancing the efficacy of antitumor immunotherapy. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) have attracted increasing attention to improving oral bioavailability by taking advantage of the intestinal lymphatic transport pathway. Relatively little focus has been given to the lymphatic transport advantage of SMEDDS for efficient immunomodulators delivery to the MLNs. In the present study, we aimed to change the intestinal lymphatic transport paradigm from increasing bioavailability to delivering high concentrations of immunomodulators to the MLNs.

Methods: Chlorogenic acid (CHA)-encapsulated SMEDDS (CHA-SME) were developed for targeted delivery of CHA to the MLNs. The intestinal lymphatic transport, immunoregulatory effects on immune cells, and overall antitumor immune efficacy of CHA-SME were investigated through in vitro and in vivo experiments.

Results: CHA-SME enhanced drug permeation through intestinal epithelial cells and promoted drug accumulation within the MLNs via the lymphatic transport pathway. Furthermore, CHA-SME inhibited tumor growth in subcutaneous and orthotopic glioma models by promoting dendritic cell maturation, priming the naive T cells into effector T cells, and inhibiting the immunosuppressive component. Notably, CHA-SME induced a long-term immune memory effect for immunotherapy.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that CHA-SME have great potential to enhance the immunotherapeutic efficacy of CHA by activating antitumor immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2021-002753DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287630PMC
July 2021

Wheat Rhizosphere Metagenome Reveals Newfound Potential Soil Zn-Mobilizing Bacteria Contributing to Cultivars' Variation in Grain Zn Concentration.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:689855. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

An effective solution to global human zinc (Zn) deficiency is Zn biofortification of staple food crops, which has been hindered by the low available Zn in calcareous soils worldwide. Many culturable soil microbes have been reported to increase Zn availability in the laboratory, while the status of these microbes in fields and whether there are unculturable Zn-mobilizing microbes remain unexplored. Here, we use the culture-independent metagenomic sequencing to investigate the rhizosphere microbiome of three high-Zn (HZn) and three low-Zn (LZn) wheat cultivars in a field experiment with calcareous soils. The average grain Zn concentration of HZn was higher than the Zn biofortification target 40 mg kg, while that of LZn was lower than 40 mg kg. Metagenomic sequencing and analysis showed large microbiome difference between wheat rhizosphere and bulk soil but small difference between HZn and LZn. Most of the rhizosphere-enriched microbes in HZn and LZn were in common, including many of the previously reported soil Zn-mobilizing microbes. Notably, 30 of the 32 rhizosphere-enriched species exhibiting different abundances between HZn and LZn possess the functional genes involved in soil Zn mobilization, especially the synthesis and exudation of organic acids and siderophores. Most of the abundant potential Zn-mobilizing species were positively correlated with grain Zn concentration and formed a module with strong interspecies relations in the co-occurrence network of abundant rhizosphere-enriched microbes. The potential Zn-mobilizing species, especially and , may contribute to the cultivars' variation in grain Zn concentration, and they deserve further investigation in future studies on Zn biofortification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.689855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261137PMC
June 2021

Transcriptome and metabolome analyses of cold and darkness-induced pellicle cysts of Scrippsiella trochoidea.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 10;22(1):526. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Subtropical Biodiversity and Biomonitoring, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Healthy and Safe Aquaculture, School of Life Science, South China Normal University, West 55 of Zhongshan Avenue, 510631, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Dinoflagellates are a group of unicellular organisms that are a major component of aquatic eukaryotes and important contributors to marine primary production. Nevertheless, many dinoflagellates are considered harmful algal bloom (HAB) species due to their detrimental environmental and human health impacts. Cyst formation is widely perceived as an adaptive strategy of cyst-forming dinoflagellates in response to adverse environmental conditions. Dinoflagellate cysts play critical roles in bloom dynamics. However, our insight into the underlying molecular basis of encystment is still limited. To investigate the molecular processes regulating encystment in dinoflagellates, transcriptome and metabolome investigations were performed on cold and darkness-induced pellicle cysts of Scrippsiella trochoidea.

Results: No significant transcriptional response was observed at 2 h; however, massive transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming occurred at 5 h and in pellicle cysts. The gene-to-metabolite network demonstrated that the initial transformation from vegetative cells into pellicle cysts was highly energy demanding through the activation of catabolism, including glycolysis, β-oxidation, TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, to cope with cold-darkness-induced stress. However, after transformation into pellicle cysts, the metabolism was greatly reduced, and various sugars, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids accumulated to prolong survival. The identification of 56 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to signal transduction indicated that S. trochoidea received a cold-darkness signal that activated multiple signal transduction pathways, leading to encystment. The elevated expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in ROS stress suggested that pellicle cysts respond to increased oxidative stress. Several cell cycle-related genes were repressed. Intriguingly, 11 DEGs associated with sexual reproduction suggested that pellicle cysts (or some portion thereof) may be a product of sexual reproduction.

Conclusions: This study provides the first transcriptome and metabolome analyses conducted during the encystment of S. trochoidea, an event that requires complex regulatory mechanisms and impacts on population dynamics. The results reveal comprehensive molecular regulatory processes underlying life cycle regulation in dinoflagellates involving signal transduction, gene expression and metabolite profile, which will improve our ability to understand and monitor dinoflagellate blooms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07840-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8272339PMC
July 2021

Enabling simultaneous redox transformation of toxic chromium(VI) and arsenic(III) in aqueous media-A review.

J Hazard Mater 2021 09 7;417:126041. Epub 2021 May 7.

Shanghai Key Lab for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco-Restoration, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China; Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Biotransformation of Organic Solid Waste, Shanghai 200241, China; Technology Innovation Center for Land Spatial Eco-Restoration in Metropolitan Area, Ministry of Natural Resources, 3663 N. Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062, China. Electronic address:

Simultaneous conversion of most harmful As(III) and Cr(VI) to their less toxic counterparts is environmentally desirable and cost-effective. It has been confirmed that simultaneous oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) can occur via free radical or mediated electron transfer processes. While Cr(VI) is reduced by reacting with H, e, photoelectron directly or undergoing ligand exchange with HO and SO, As(III) is oxidized by HO, SO, O, and holes (h) in free radical process. The ability to concentrate Cr and As species on heterogeneous interface and conductivity determining the co-conversion efficiency in mediated electron transfer process. Acidity has positive effect on these co-conversion, while mediated electron transfer process is not much affected by dissolved oxygen (O). Organic compounds (e.g., oxalate, citrate and phenol) commonly favor Cr(VI) reduction and inhibit As(III) oxidation. To better understand the trends in the existing data and to identify the knowledge gaps, this review elaborates the complicated mechanisms for co-conversion of As(III) and Cr(VI) by various methods. Some challenges and prospects in this active field are also briefly discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126041DOI Listing
September 2021

Nitrogen removal through oyster cultivation: Integration with artificial fertilization makes it more efficient.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 29;792:148057. Epub 2021 May 29.

Jiaozhou Bay National Marine Ecosystem Research Station, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, PR China; Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), 1 Wenhai Road, Qingdao 266237, PR China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

The use of bivalve aquaculture to mitigate eutrophication in coastal waters has been proposed for years. As nitrogen overenrichment is usually accompanied by comparative shortages in silicate and phosphate, bivalve cultivation integrated with artificial fertilization may exhibit better nitrogen removal performance than bivalve cultivation alone. During a 15-day mesocosm experiment in a nitrogen-eutrophicated, phosphate-limited coastal pond, the nitrogen fixation in oyster tissue under rice husk ash (RHA) fertilized conditions was 10 times higher than that in the oyster-only treatments with the same density. Meanwhile, the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and particulate nitrogen (PN) in the combined oyster-fertilization treatments decreased by 87.0% and 57.2%, respectively. Compared with the RHA fertilization treatments, the net DIN consumption was significantly lower and decreased with the oyster density in the oyster-only treatments. The dissolved N/Si ratio decreased from 1.44 to 1.01 and 0.93 in the control and fertilization treatments, respectively, whereas in the oyster-only treatments, it increased to 3.74 at low density and 29.15 at high density. Our results indicate that oyster cultivation can stimulate the regeneration of nitrogen in dissolved forms and intensify relative silicate shortages. The integration of RHA fertilization mediated silicate shortage and helped maintain a balanced dissolved N/Si ratio. Moreover, the combined oyster-RHA fertilization enhanced nitrogen removal efficiency and biomass accumulation and increased the feasibility of oyster cultivation as a cost-effective nitrogen reduction measure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148057DOI Listing
October 2021

The GABA Receptor Influences Pressure Overload-Induced Heart Failure by Modulating Macrophages in Mice.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:670153. Epub 2021 May 31.

Institution of Cardiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Myocardial macrophages have key roles in cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. The gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype A (GABA) receptor was recently found to be distributed in macrophages, allowing regulation of inflammatory responses to various diseases. This study aimed to clarify the role of GABA receptor-mediated macrophage responses in pressure overload-induced heart failure.

Methods And Results: C57BL/6J mice underwent transverse aortic constriction for pressure-overload hypertrophy (POH) and were intraperitoneally treated with a specific GABA receptor agonist (topiramate) or antagonist (bicuculline). Echocardiography, histology, and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate the causes and effects of myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis. Activation of the GABA receptor by topiramate reduced ejection fraction and fractional shortening, enlarged the end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular internal diameter, aggravated myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, and accelerated heart failure in response to pressure overload. Mechanistically, topiramate increased the number of Ly6C macrophages in the heart during POH and circulating Ly6C classic monocyte infiltration in late-phase POH. Further, topiramate drove Ly6C macrophages toward MHCII macrophage polarization. As a result, Ly6C macrophages activated the amphiregulin-induced AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and Ly6CMHCII macrophage polarization increased expression levels of osteopontin and TGF-β, which led to myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis. Conversely, GABA receptor blockage with bicuculline reversed these effects.

Conclusions: Control of the GABA receptor activity in monocytes/macrophages plays an important role in myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis after POH. Blockade of the GABA receptor has the potential to improve pressure overload-induced heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.670153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201502PMC
May 2021

Spatial distribution and source of biotoxins in phytoplankton from the South China Sea, China.

J Hazard Mater 2021 09 3;418:126285. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China; Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ocean University of China, Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266100, China. Electronic address:

Marine phycotoxins severely threaten ecosystem health and mariculture. This study investigates the spatial distribution and source of diverse phycotoxins in the South China Sea (SCS), during four 2019/2020 cruises. Saxitoxin (STX) and okadaic acid (OA) -groups, azaspiracids, cyclic imines, pectenotoxins (PTX), yessotoxins, and domoic acid (DA) toxins were analyzed in microalgal samples. PTX2 occurred with the highest (93.5%) detection rate (DR) during all cruises, especially in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) in June 2019. Homo-yessotoxin (hYTX) and DA were found during three cruises in August 2020, and high DR of hYTX (67.7%, 29.3%) and DA (29.0%, 29.3%) in the PRE and Guangdong coast, respectively, in June 2019 and 2020, peaking at concentrations of 777 pg hYTX L and 38514 pg DA L. The phycotoxin distribution demonstrated that DA-producing microalgae gathered close to the PRE and Guangdong coast, while hYTX-producing microalgae distributed relatively far offshore. Microalgae producing PTX2- and STX-group toxins were more widely living in the SCS. High-throughput sequencing results suggested that Alexandrium pacificum and Gonyaulax spinifera were responsible for STX-group toxins and hYTX, respectively, while Pseudo-nitzschia cuspidata was the main source of DA. Widely distributed PTX2, hYTX, and DA were reported for the first time in the SCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126285DOI Listing
September 2021

Strong Anisotropy and Bipolar Conduction-Dominated Thermoelectric Transport Properties in the Polycrystalline Topological Phase of ZrTe.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jun 10;60(12):8890-8897. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

ZrTe has unique features of a temperature-dependent topological electronic structure and anisotropic crystal structure and has obtained intensive attention from the thermoelectric community. This work revealed that the sintered polycrystalline bulk ZrTe possesses both (020) and (041) preferred orientations. The transport properties of polycrystalline bulk p-type ZrTe exhibits an obvious anisotropic characteristic, that is, the room-temperature resistivity and thermal conductivity, possessing anisotropy ratios of 0.71 and 1.49 perpendicular and parallel to the pressing direction, respectively. The polycrystalline ZrTe obtained higher values in the direction perpendicular to the pressing direction, as compared to that in the other direction. The highest value of 0.11 is achieved at 350 K. Depending on the temperature-dependent topological electronic structure, the electronic transport of p-type ZrTe is dominated by high-mobility electrons from linear bands and low-mobility holes from the valence band, which, however, are merely influenced by valence band holes at around room temperature. Furthermore, external magnetic fields are detrimental to thermoelectric properties of our ZrTe, mainly arising from the more prominent negative effects of electrons under fields. This research is instructive to understand the transport features of ZrTe and paves the way for further optimizing their s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00781DOI Listing
June 2021

Soluble fibrinogen‑like protein 2 levels are decreased in patients with ischemic heart failure and associated with cardiac function.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Aug 10;24(2). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Geriatrics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430022, P.R. China.

Soluble fibrinogen‑like protein 2 (sFGL2), as a novel effector of regulatory T cells (Tregs), exhibits immune regulatory activity in several inflammatory diseases. Immune activation and persistent inflammation participate in the progression of ischemic heart failure (IHF). The present study aimed to determine serum sFGL2 levels in patients with IHF and explore the relationship between sFGL2 levels and cardiac function. A total of 104 patients with IHF and 32 healthy controls were enrolled. patients with IHF were further split into subgroups according to the New York Heart Association functional classification or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Serum sFGL2 levels and peripheral Tregs frequencies were analyzed by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. The suppressive function of Tregs was measured by proliferation and functional suppression assays. Serum levels of sFGL2 and circulating Tregs frequencies were significantly decreased in patients with IHF compared with healthy controls. In patients with IHF, sFGL2 levels and Tregs frequencies were decreased with the deterioration of cardiac function. Tregs from patients with IHF exhibited compromised ability to suppress CD4CD25 T cells proliferation and inflammatory cytokines secretion. Specifically, sFGL2 levels and Tregs frequencies positively correlated with LVEF, whereas negatively correlated with left ventricular end‑diastolic dimension and N‑terminal pro‑brain natriuretic peptide. sFGL2 levels were positively correlated with Tregs frequencies. In conclusion, the reduction of serum sFGL2 levels are associated with the progression of IHF and sFGL2 could be used as a potential indicator for predicting disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188637PMC
August 2021

Monocyclic and Dicyclic Dehydro[20]annulenes Integrated with Perylene Diimide.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Aug 20;60(35):19018-19023. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, P. R. China.

A novel kind of monocyclic and dicyclic dehydro[20]annulenes exhibiting specific sizes and topologies from regioselective unilateral ortho-diethynyl PDI, is developed by Cu-catalyzed Glaser-Hay homo-coupling and cross-coupling. Through the integration of electron-deficient PDI chromophores into the dehydroannulene scaffolding, these macrocycles exhibit intense and characteristic absorption properties and the degenerated LUMO levels. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis unambiguously revealed unique porous supramolecular structures, which display micropore characteristics with surface area of 120.74 m  g . A moderate electron mobility of 0.05 cm  V  s for chlorine-free dehydro[20]annulene based on micrometer-sized single-crystalline transistors was witnessed. The porous and yet semiconducting features signify the prospects of PDI-integrated dehydroannulenes in organic optoelectronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202105044DOI Listing
August 2021

Interspecies competition between Scrippsiella acuminata and three marine diatoms: Growth inhibition and allelopathic effects.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Aug 28;237:105878. Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Electronic address:

Interactions between Scrippsiella acuminata and three diatoms, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Skeletonema dohrnii, were investigated using bi-algal co-cultures and cell-free and sonicated-cell filtrates in this study. Volatile aldehydes in sonicated filtrates of the three diatoms were analyzed by GC/MS. Furthermore, effects of 2E, 4E-decadienal (2,4-D) on the growth and the photosynthetic efficiency of the four microalgal species were studied. The growth of Sc. acuminata was significantly inhibited by the three diatoms in all co-cultures, and the inhibitory effects were higher under nutrient-rich conditions. Both cell-free and sonicated-cell filtrates of the three diatoms showed significant inhibitions on the growth of Sc. acuminata, which highlighted that diatoms produce allelopathic compounds not only to the surrounding environments but also inside the cells. Fifteen aldehydes were detected in the sonicated-cell filtrates of the three diatoms, and 5, 5, and 12 types of aldehydes were detected in C. curvisetus, P. tricornutum, and Sk. dohrnii, respectively. Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) composition differed among the three diatom species. Phenylglyoxal (CHO) dominated in C. curvisetus, 2,4-D (CHO) predominated in P. tricornutum, and high proportions of 2-hexenal (CHO), 2E, 4E-heptadienal (CHO), and 2,4-D were detected in Sk. dohrnii. 2,4-D showed significantly inhibitory effects on the growth of algal cells including diatoms themselves in a dose-dependent manner, and photosynthetic efficiency was significantly decreased as well. Sc. acuminata was the most sensitive species. The 96 h EC values of 2,4-D on the growth of the four microalgae were 1.64 μmol/L for Sc. acuminata, 3.09 μmol/L for C. curvisetus, 4.93 μmol/L for P. tricornutum, and 8.54 μmol/L for Sk. dohrnii, respectively. The results suggest that PUAs produced by diatoms may help them to take the competitive advantages in phytoplankton community, and thus to sustain diatom-dominated community structure in nutrient rich coastal waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105878DOI Listing
August 2021

Assessment of the efficacy of tuina on treating cervicogenic headache: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(22):e26224

Department of Acupuncture and Tuina, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun.

Background: Cervicogenic headache is a secondary headache characterized by unilateral headache, symptoms, and signs of neck involvement. It is often worsened by neck movement, sustained awkward head position, or external pressure over the upper cervical or occipital region on the symptomatic side. In this systematic review, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of massage therapy for the treatment of cervicogenic headache.

Methods: We searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Wanfang Database, China Doctoral Dissertations Full-Text Database, China Master's Theses Full-Text Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and Embase. We will select all eligible studies published on or before April 1, 2021. We will use Review Manager 5.4, provided by the Cochrane Collaborative Network for statistical analysis. We then assessed the quality and risk of the included studies and observed the outcome measures.

Results: This meta-analysis further confirmed the benefits of tuina in the treatment of cervicogenic headache.

Conclusion: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore the effect of tuina on patients with cervicogenic headache and to provide more options for clinicians and patients to treat cervicogenic headache.

Ethics And Dissemination: This systematic review will evaluate the efficacy and safety of tuina in the treatment of cervicogenic headache. Since all the data included were published, the systematic review did not require ethical approval.

Registration Number: INPLASY202150053.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183763PMC
June 2021

High phosphorus fertilization changes the speciation and distribution of manganese in wheat grains grown in a calcareous soil.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 8;787:147608. Epub 2021 May 8.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China; State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

The physiological disorders in humans resulting from the excess dietary intake of manganese (Mn) via whole-grain food has attracted considerable attention. However, the speciation and bioavailability of Mn in wheat grains and their response to different phosphorus (P) fertilization rates are still unclear. In the current study, using a long-term field trial with P application rates of 0, 21.8, 43.6, 65.5 and 87.3 kg/ha, we examined changes in the concentration, distribution, and speciation of Mn of wheat grains using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The total Mn concentration in grains was found to be increased by phosphorus fertilization, especially in embryo in the form of Mn(II), but this phosphorus fertilization also decreased Mn concentrations in the nucellar projection. In this study, the speciation of Mn in different wheat grain tissues was examined, and results indicate that in calcareous soils, high rates of P fertilizers can increase Mn concentrations in wheat grain, including Mn which is likely to be of high bioavailability, and thus may increase the risk for human to expose to high Mn intake via whole-grain food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147608DOI Listing
September 2021

Fibrinogen-like protein 2 contributes to normal murine cardiomyocyte maturation and heart development.

Exp Physiol 2021 Jul 27;106(7):1559-1571. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Geriatrics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? What is the role of fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) in murine cardiomyocyte maturation? What is the main finding and its importance? This is the first study showing both global Fgl2 knockout and cardiac-specific FGL2 deletion trigger early death and dilated cardiomyopathy. By using an adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated CRISPR/Cas9-based somatic mutagenesis system, it was demonstrated that cardiac-specific FGL2 depletion induces ventricular dilatation and remodelling, and disrupts the normal hypertrophic growth and polyploidization of cardiomyocytes. In addition, it was shown that modulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and fibroblast growth factor 2 signalling is associated with loss-of-FGL2-mediated cardiac dysfunction. These results suggest FGL2 is an important determinant of cardiomyocyte maturation.

Abstract: In the first few weeks after birth in altricial mammals, postnatal cardiomyocytes (CMs) undergo dramatic changes, including cell volume enlargement, cell cycle withdrawal and polyploidization to become mature CMs. Aberrations in this process could disrupt the essential contractility and synchronization of adult CMs, leading to various heart diseases. However, the mechanism of CM maturation is poorly understood. Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) is an immune coagulant which participates in maturation of multiple cell types. However, little evidence exists regarding a role of FGL2 in CM maturation. In this study, we observed that global Fgl2 pups had high lethality and suffered from cardiac dysfunction before P28. To further confirm the phenotype and study the mechanisms upon FGL2 deficiency, we used an adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated CRISPR/Cas9-based somatic mutagenesis system to generate loss-of-function mutations of Fgl2 specifically in CMs. We designed two guide RNAs (gRNAs) exclusively targeting Fgl2 exon1 and produced Fgl2-gRNA AAV9 to deliver to neonatal Cas9 mice. Here, we demonstrated the efficient FGL2 depletion in the heart after Fgl2-gRNA AAV9 delivery. Consistent with the findings in global Fgl2 mice, we observed AAV9-mediated FGL2 depletion triggered early death and dilated cardiomyopathy. In addition, FGL2 depletion perturbed the normal hypertrophic growth and polyploidization of maturing CMs. Furthermore, we found modulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and fibroblast growth factor 2 signalling was associated with FGL2 deficiency-mediated cardiac dysfunction. Here, we demonstrate the successful depletion of FGL2 in maturing CMs in vivo and show FGL2 is an important determinant for normal CM maturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP089450DOI Listing
July 2021

Michelson interferometer based phase demodulation for stable time transfer over 1556 km fiber links.

Opt Express 2021 May;29(10):14505-14512

Time transfer based on phase modulation schemes has attracted extensive attention in recent years. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an adjustable and stable Michelson interferometer (MI) with a DC phase tracking algorithm for two-way time transfer. Time signal with one pulse per second (1 PPS) is loaded on an optical carrier modulated in phase and demodulated by a Michelson interferometer. The whole compact and cost-effective demodulator is symmetrical with a single coupler to split and recombine optical waves, flexible with one photodetector and a bias tee to separate the DC signal and recovery pulses and stable with a phase modulator to compensate for the drift-phase noise. We show the implementation of modulation and demodulation of the time signal and obtain the stability of 2.31 × 10 at 1000 s averaging time. We then demonstrate two-way time transfer over 1556 km lab fibers. The experimental result shows time interval stability of 1 PPS with 5.62 × 10 at 1000 s averaging time. It has the potential to transfer time signals in long-distance fiber optic links.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.420712DOI Listing
May 2021

Modification strategies to improve the membrane hemocompatibility in extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO).

Adv Compos Hybrid Mater 2021 May 3:1-18. Epub 2021 May 3.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, 210009 Nanjing, China.

Abstract: Since extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) has been utilized to save countless lives by providing continuous extracorporeal breathing and circulation to patients with severe cardiopulmonary failure. In particular, it has played an important role during the COVID-19 epidemic. One of the important composites of ECMO is membrane oxygenator, and the core composite of the membrane oxygenator is hollow fiber membrane, which is not only a place for blood oxygenation, but also is a barrier between the blood and gas side. However, the formation of blood clots in the oxygenator is a key problem in the using process. According to the study of the mechanism of thrombosis generation, it was found that improving the hemocompatibility is an efficient approach to reduce thrombus formation by modifying the surface of materials. In this review, the corresponding modification methods (surface property regulation, anticoagulant grafting, and bio-interface design) of hollow fiber membranes in ECMO are classified and discussed, and then, the research status and development prospects are summarized.

Graphical Abstract:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42114-021-00244-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091652PMC
May 2021

Author Correction: Prolonged activation of innate immune pathways by a polyvalent STING agonist.

Nat Biomed Eng 2021 May;5(5):483

Department of Pharmacology, Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-021-00741-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126515PMC
May 2021

RNA kinase CLP1/Cbc regulates meiosis initiation in spermatogenesis.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Aug;30(17):1569-1578

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BeiChenXiLu#1, Beijing 100101, P.R. China.

CLP1, TSEN complex, and VCP are evolutionarily conserved proteins whose mutations are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we have found that they are also involved in germline differentiation. To optimize both quantity and quality in gametes production, germ cells expand themselves through limited mitotic cycles prior to meiosis. Stemming from our previous findings on the correlation between mRNA 3'-processing and meiosis entry, here we identify that the RNA kinase Cbc, the Drosophila member of the highly conserved CLP1 family, is a component of the program regulating the transition from mitosis to meiosis. Using genetic manipulations in Drosophila testis, we demonstrate that nuclear Cbc is required to promote meiosis entry. Combining biochemical and genetic methods, we reveal that Cbc physically and/or genetically intersects with Tsen54 and TER94 (VCP ortholog) in this process. The C-terminal half of Tsen54 is both necessary and sufficient for its binding with Cbc. Further, we illustrate the functional conservation between Cbc and mammalian CLP1 in the assays of subcellular localization and Drosophila fertility. As CLP1, TSEN complex, and VCP have also been identified in neurodegenerations of animal models, a mechanism involving these factors seems to be shared in gametogenesis and neurogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369837PMC
August 2021
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