Publications by authors named "Zeinab Hosseini"

28 Publications

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Radiation-Induced Macrophage Senescence Impairs Resolution Programs and Drives Cardiovascular Inflammation.

J Immunol 2021 Oct 30;207(7):1812-1823. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

The Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY;

Radiation is associated with tissue damage and increased risk of atherosclerosis, but there are currently no treatments and a very limited mechanistic understanding of how radiation impacts tissue repair mechanisms. We uncovered that radiation significantly delayed temporal resolution programs that were associated with decreased efferocytosis in vivo. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), a known proresolving ligand, promoted swift resolution and restored efferocytosis in sublethally irradiated mice. Irradiated macrophages exhibited several features of senescence, including increased expression of p16 and p21, heightened levels of SA-β-gal, COX-2, several proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and oxidative stress (OS) in vitro, and when transferred to mice, they exacerbated inflammation in vivo. Mechanistically, heightened OS in senescent macrophages led to impairment in their ability to carry out efficient efferocytosis, and treatment with RvD1 reduced OS and improved efferocytosis. Sublethally irradiated mice exhibited increased plaque necrosis, p16 cells, and decreased lesional collagen compared with nonirradiated controls, and treatment with RvD1 significantly reduced necrosis and increased lesional collagen. Removal of p16 hematopoietic cells during advanced atherosclerosis with p16-3MR mice reduced plaque necrosis and increased production of key intraplaque-resolving mediators. Our results demonstrate that sublethal radiation drives macrophage senescence and efferocytosis defects and suggest that RvD1 may be a new therapeutic strategy to limit radiation-induced tissue damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2100284DOI Listing
October 2021

Adiposity and the role of diverse social supports: an observational, gender-sensitive study using the baseline Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Aug 31:1-10. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Collaboration for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (CORE), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2405 Wesbrook Mall, Office 4623, Vancouver, BCV6T 1Z3, Canada.

Objective: To quantify associations between four types of social support and measured adiposity among women and men.

Design: The cross-sectional sample from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA, 2012-2015). Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were clinically measured, and perceived availability of informational, tangible, emotional and belonging social supports was self-reported.

Setting: Canada.

Participants: 28 779 adults aged 45-85 years from the CLSA.

Results: All social support types were associated with WC and BMI among women but not among men. Women reporting the lowest informational support had significantly higher mean BMI (28·84 kg/m2 (95 % CI 28·63, 29·05)) and WC (90·81 cm (95 % CI 90·31, 91·30)) compared with women reporting maximum support (respectively, 28·09 kg/m2 (95 % CI 27·88, 28·30) and 88·92 cm (95 % CI 88·43, 89·4)). Women's abdominal obesity was associated with low levels of informational, emotional and belonging support, and women's general obesity with informational and emotional support. Notably, informational and emotional support were associated with both obesity outcomes independent of other supports among women. Only a low level of informational support was significantly independently associated with higher odds of obesity among men.

Conclusions: Our study provides novel insights into gender-specific associations between different types of social support and adiposity. Prospective studies are needed to further investigate potential causality of these associations between the specific social supports and future weight status, especially among women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980021003724DOI Listing
August 2021

Is eating a mixed diet better for health and survival?: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal observational studies.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 27:1-17. Epub 2021 May 27.

Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

The role of dietary diversity in chronic disease or survival is controversial. This meta-analysis quantified the health impact of dietary diversity. Random-effects models pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 20 longitudinal studies. Total dietary diversity was associated with a 22% lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR 0.78 [95%CI: 0.64, 0.96]), and was inversely associated with incident cancer- or CVD-specific mortality only in subgroup analyses (RR range: 0.53 to 0.90, p < 0.05). Similarly, diversity across healthy foods was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (RR 0.84 [95%CI: 0.73, 0.96]). An inverse association between total diet diversity and incident CVD was significant in non-European populations consuming diets with diverse food groups (RR: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.86-0.99]). Effects on cancer risk are unstudied. Diversity within fruits and/or vegetables showed null associations for all outcomes, except potentially for squamous cell-type carcinomas. More robust research is warranted. Findings indicated greater dietary diversity may benefit overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1925630DOI Listing
May 2021

The Effect of Impact Exercise (Alone or Multicomponent Intervention) on Health-Related Outcomes in Individuals at Risk of Fractures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Sports Med 2021 Jun 29;51(6):1273-1292. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Background: Exercise is commonly recommended to prevent and manage osteoporosis. High magnitude strains at rapid rate and short bouts should theoretically elicit an osteogenic response; however, the effects of different levels of impact exercises on several outcomes in people at risk of fracture are still unknown.

Objective: To report the effect of impact exercise on falls, fractures, adverse events, mortality, bone mineral density (BMD), physical functioning, and health-related quality of life (QoL).

Methods: We included randomized controlled trials testing the effect of impact exercise compared with a non-exercise control on outcomes in adults ≥ 50 years with low BMD or fragility fractures. Two reviewers selected studies and extracted data. Where possible, we pooled outcomes using mean difference (MD) with a fixed-effects model and 95% confidence interval (CI). We reported risk of bias using Cochrane and certainty of evidence using GRADE.

Results: We included 29 trials; 19 studies evaluated impact exercise alone, and the remaining trials combined impact with resistance or balance training. Impact exercise alone or combined with resistance training improved Timed Up-and-Go values (MD - 0.95 s, 95% CI - 1.09 to - 0.81, low certainty evidence) and lumbar spine (MD 0.04 g/cm, 95% CI 0.02-0.06, low certainty evidence) and femoral neck BMD (MD 0.04 g/cm, 95% CI 0.02-0.07, low certainty evidence). Impact exercise did not improve health-related QoL assessed with QUALEFFO-41 (MD 0.06, 95% CI - 2.18 to 2.30, moderate certainty evidence). The effects of impact exercise on falls, fractures, and mortality are uncertain due to insufficient data. Many trials had a high risk of bias for two or more items.

Conclusions: There is low certainty evidence that impact exercise may improve physical function and BMD in people at risk of fracture. The effect of impact exercises on falls, fractures, and mortality remains unclear. Our findings should be interpreted with caution due to risk of bias and small sample sizes.

Trial Registration: Registered in Prospero (CRD42018115579) on January 30, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-021-01432-xDOI Listing
June 2021

RMI-DBG algorithm: A more agile iterative de Bruijn graph algorithm in short read genome assembly.

J Bioinform Comput Biol 2021 04 16;19(2):2150005. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Software Engineering, University of Isfahan, Iran.

The de Bruijn Graph algorithm (DBG) as one of the cornerstones algorithms in short read assembly has extended with the rapid advancement of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies and low-cost production of millions of high-quality short reads. Erroneous reads, non-uniform coverage, and genomic repeats are three major problems that influence the performance of short read assemblers. To encounter these problems, the iterative DBG algorithm applies multiple [Formula: see text]-mers instead of a single [Formula: see text]-mer, by iterating the DBG graph over a range of [Formula: see text]-mer sizes from the minimum to the maximum. However, the iteration paradigm of iterative DBG deals with complex graphs from the beginning of the algorithm and therefore, causes more potential errors and computational time for resolving various unreal branches. In this research, we propose the Reverse Modified Iterative DBG graph (named RMI-DBG) for short read assembly. RMI-DBG utilizes the DBG algorithm and String graph to achieve the advantages of both algorithms. We present that RMI-DBG performs faster with comparable results in comparison to iterative DBG. Additionally, the quality of the proposed algorithm in terms of continuity and accuracy is evaluated with some commonly-used assemblers via several real datasets of the GAGE-B benchmark.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219720021500050DOI Listing
April 2021

The role of dietary diversity in preventing metabolic-related outcomes: Findings from a systematic review.

Obes Rev 2021 Jun 21;22(6):e13174. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Dietary diversity has been linked to insulin resistance; however, studies are inconsistent on whether dietary diversity protects against metabolic-related outcomes. We aimed to comprehensively assess metabolic-related outcomes of greater diversity across the diet and within major food groups. A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature was done in bibliographic databases (Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science) for longitudinal studies that reported on original research. Data extraction and quality appraisal used predefined criteria; reported findings were synthesized through a narrative approach. Fourteen studies were identified as eligible. Greater dietary diversity across major food groups, and diversity within fruits and/or vegetables, was associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Effects varied based on exposure definition and adjustment for known confounders. While diversity of less healthy foods was associated with greater adiposity, diversity of all foods and healthy foods was associated with reduced incidence of depression and cognitive decline. Evidence supports the protective effect of dietary diversity against cognitive decline and T2D. The association between dietary diversity and adiposity may be dependent on the healthiness of foods. Public health efforts to prevent metabolic-related diseases should include an emphasis on a varied diet as a healthy eating strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13174DOI Listing
June 2021

Resolvin D1 Enhances Necroptotic Cell Clearance Through Promoting Macrophage Fatty Acid Oxidation and Oxidative Phosphorylation.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 03 21;41(3):1062-1075. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

The Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Albany Medical College, NY (Z.H., M.M., C.D., S.S., B.D.G., R.B.R., A.P.A., G.F.).

Objective: Plaque necrosis is a key feature of defective resolution in atherosclerosis. Recent evidence suggests that necroptosis promotes plaque necrosis; therefore, we sought to determine how necroptotic cells (NCs) impact resolution programs in plaques. Approach and Results: To investigate the role(s) of necroptosis in advanced atherosclerosis, we used mice deficient of , an effector of necroptosis. mice that were injected with a gain-of-function mutant PCSK9 (AAV8-gof-PCSK9) and fed a Western diet for 16 weeks, showed significantly less plaque necrosis, increased fibrous caps and improved efferocytosis compared with AAV8-gof-PCSK9 injected wt controls. Additionally, hypercholesterolemic mice had a significant increase in proresolving mediators including resolvin D1 (RvD1) and a decrease in prostanoids including thromboxane in plaques and in vitro. We found that exuberant thromboxane released by NCs impaired the clearance of both apoptotic cells and NCs through disruption of oxidative phosphorylation in macrophages. Moreover, we found that NCs did not readily synthesize RvD1 and that exogenous administration of RvD1 to macrophages rescued NC-induced defective efferocytosis. RvD1 also enhanced the uptake of NCs via the activation of p-AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), increased fatty acid oxidation, and enhanced oxidative phosphorylation in macrophages.

Conclusions: These results suggest that NCs derange resolution by limiting key SPMs and impairing the efferocytic repertoire of macrophages. Moreover, these findings provide a molecular mechanism for RvD1 in directing proresolving metabolic programs in macrophages and further suggests RvD1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to limit NCs in tissues. Graphic Abstract: A graphic abstract is available for this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.120.315758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174560PMC
March 2021

Progressive Resistance Training for Improving Health-Related Outcomes in People at Risk of Fracture: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Phys Ther 2021 02;101(2)

University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.

Objective: Osteoporosis clinical practice guidelines recommend exercise to prevent fractures, but the efficacy of exercise depends on the exercise types, population studied, or outcomes of interest. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) on health-related outcomes in people at risk of fracture.

Methods: Multiple databases were searched in October 2019. Eligible articles were randomized controlled trials of PRT interventions in men and women ≥50 years with low bone mineral density (BMD) or fracture history. Descriptive information and mean difference (MD) and SD were directly extracted for included trials. A total of 53 studies were included.

Results: The effects of PRT on the total number of falls (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.05; 95% CI = 0.91 - 1.21; 7 studies) and on the risk of falling (risk ratio [RR] = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.00 - 1.51; 5 studies) are uncertain. PRT improved performance on the Timed "Up and Go" test (MD = -0.89 seconds; 95% CI = -1.01 to -0.78; 13 studies) and health-related quality of life (standardized MD = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.22-0.42; 20 studies). PRT may increase femoral neck (MD = 0.02 g/cm2; 95% CI = 0.01-0.03; 521 participants, 5 studies) but not lumbar spine BMD (MD = 0.02 g/cm2; 95% CI = -0.01-0.05; 4 studies), whereas the effects on total hip BMD are uncertain (MD = 0.00 g/cm2; 95% CI = 0.00-0.01; 435 participants, 4 studies). PRT reduced pain (standardized MD = -0.26; 95% CI = -0.37 to -0.16; 17 studies). Sensitivity analyses, including PRT-only studies, confirmed these findings.

Conclusion: Individuals at risk of fractures should be encouraged to perform PRT, as it may improve femoral neck BMD, health-related quality of life, and physical functioning. PRT also reduced pain; however, whether PRT increases or decreases the risk of falls, the number of people experiencing a fall, or the risk of fall-related injuries is uncertain.

Impact: Individuals at risk of fractures should be encouraged to perform PRT, as it may have positive effects on femoral neck BMD, health-related quality of life, physical functioning, and pain, and adverse events are rare.

Lay Summary: Exercise is recommended for people at risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our study showed that progressive resistance training improves physical functioning, quality of life, and reduces pain. The effects of progressive resistance training on the risk of falling are unclear. Adverse events are rare, and often minor (eg, soreness, pain, musculoskeletal injury). Considering the benefits and safety, people at risk of fractures should engage in progressive resistance training interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzaa221DOI Listing
February 2021

Social connections and hypertension in women and men: a population-based cross-sectional study of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

J Hypertens 2021 04;39(4):651-660

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Collaboration for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Background: Associations between social ties and hypertension are poorly understood in women and men. We investigated the association between marital status, living arrangement, social network size and social participation and hypertension by sex/gender.

Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 28 238 middle-age and old-age adults (45-85 years) was conducted using the baseline Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging Comprehensive cohort data. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using the automated BpTRU device and hypertension was defined as BP more than 140/90 mmHg, or more than 130/80 mmHg in participants with diabetes, self-reported history or receiving antihypertensive therapy.

Results: Being nonpartnered, having limited social participation (≤2 social activities per month) or a small social network size was associated with higher odds of having hypertension in women. Odds of hypertension were higher among widowed women [odds ratio 1.33 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.51)] compared with married women. The largest difference in adjusted mean SBP in women was between widowed [3.06 mmHg (95% CI: 2.01, 4.11)], vs. married women. For men, lone-living (vs. coliving) was linked to a lower odds of hypertension [odds ratio 0.85 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.96)] When considering two social ties simultaneously, the adverse associations between nonpartnership (mainly for singles and divorced) and BP were mitigated with increased social participation, especially among women.

Conclusion: Social ties appear to be more strongly associated with hypertension in middle and older aged women than men. Women who are nonpartnered or who engage in few social activities and men who are coliving represent at risk groups for having hypertension. Healthcare professionals may need to consider these social factors in addressing risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002688DOI Listing
April 2021

Association between the 10-year predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and dietary patterns among Canadian adults 40-79 years.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 04 10;75(4):636-644. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E5, Canada.

Background/objectives: Identifying groups at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and improving prevention strategies are important due to the high rates of these diseases in the world. We aimed to determine the 10-year ASCVD risk and cardiovascular age gap (CAG) of Canadians 40-79 and the association between prevalent dietary patterns and ASCVD risk, and CAG.

Subjects/methods: Health measures and dietary intake information were obtained from 2088 respondents representative of 13,655,671 Canadians 40-79 years in the cross-sectional Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 and 2 (2007-11). The estimated 10-year ASCVD risk and CAG were determined for 40-79 years adults across different levels of sociodemographic/lifestyle factors. Dietary patterns emerged using the principal component analysis from 32 food groups collected using food frequency questionnaire. The association between 10-year ASCVD risk, and CAG, with dietary patterns was investigated controlling for potential covariates. Survey data were weighted and bootstrapped to be nationally representative.

Results: The mean 10-year ASCVD risk of 40-79 years was 6.9%. The mean CAG for men was -4.1 years (older) and for females was +0.4 years (younger). Four dietary patterns emerged. Of note, the "High carbohydrate and protein" dietary pattern, which included potatoes, red meat, sausage, egg and ice-cream/frozen yoghurt was positively associated with 10-year ASCVD (P = 0.013). The "Healthy like" and "Fast food" dietary patterns had an inverse (p < 0.0001) and positive (p = 0.005) association, respectively, with CAG.

Conclusions: Dietary patterns prevalent among this population were associated with CAG and ASCVD risk. Interventions for promoting healthy dietary patterns may be beneficial to reduce ASCVD in Canada.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-00763-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Associations between social connections, their interactions, and obesity differ by gender: A population-based, cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(7):e0235977. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Collaboration for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Objectives: To quantify the link between four different types of social ties and objective measures of abdominal and general obesity, and to explore their inter-relationships in association with obesity using a gender-sensitive analysis.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 28,238 adults (45-85 years) from the baseline Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging Comprehensive cohort (2012-15). Social ties (marital status, living arrangement, social network size, and social participation) and measured anthropometry (body mass index, waist circumference) were analyzed using linear and logistic regression models with interaction terms conditioned on known confounders.

Results: We found that being single, widowed or divorced/separated was associated with worse anthropometric outcomes in women, including higher odds of both abdominal and general obesity, and that associations were enhanced when combined with limited social participation, lone-living and greater social network size. Few clear associations were observed in men. Limited social participation (no social activities at least once/month) among women was associated with larger waist circumference (+4.19 cm [95% CI: 1.86, 6.52]) and higher odds of both abdominal and general obesity. By contrast, associations appeared to be reversed in men: lone-living and smaller social networks were associated with lower odds of obesity, compared to co-living and larger social networks. We also found that more regular social participation can potentially mitigate the adverse associations between non-partnership (single, divorced) and obesity in women. Overall, the combined influence of two types of social tie deficits on excess weight measures was more pronounced in women than men.

Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of considering how the role of social ties for obesity prevention may differ for women and men. Frequent social participation and number of social contacts may matter for assessing whether divorced, single or lone-living older women are at risk of obesity while living arrangement and social contacts may matter for obesity in men.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235977PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7392536PMC
September 2020

Resolvin D1 promotes efferocytosis in aging by limiting senescent cell-induced MerTK cleavage.

FASEB J 2020 01 26;34(1):597-609. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

The Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, USA.

Inflammation-resolution is mediated by the balance between specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) like resolvin D1 (RvD1) and pro-inflammatory factors, like leukotriene B (LTB). A key cellular process of inflammation-resolution is efferocytosis. Aging is associated with defective inflammation-resolution and the accumulation of pro-inflammatory senescent cells (SCs). Therefore, understanding mechanism(s) that underpin this impairment is a critical gap. Here, using a model of hind limb ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) remote lung injury, we present evidence that aging is associated with heightened inflammation, impaired SPM:LT ratio, defective efferocytosis, and a decrease in MerTK levels in injured lungs. Treatment with RvD1 mitigated I/R lung injury in aging, promoted efferocytosis, and prevented the decrease of MerTK in injured lungs from old mice. Old MerTK cleavage-resistant mice (MerTK) exhibited less neutrophils or polymorpho nuclear cells infiltration and had improved efferocytosis compared with old WT controls. Mechanistically, macrophages that were treated with conditioned media (CM) from senescent cells had increased MerTK cleavage, impaired efferocytosis, and a defective RvD1:LTB ratio. Macrophages from MerTK mice were resistant to CM-induced efferocytosis defects and had an improved RvD1:LTB ratio. RvD1-stimulated macrophages prevented CM-induced MerTK cleavage and promoted efferocytosis. Together, these data suggest a new mechanism and a potential therapy to promote inflammation-resolution and efferocytosis in aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201902126RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6956736PMC
January 2020

ROCK inhibitor increases proacinar cells in adult salivary gland organoids.

Stem Cell Res 2019 12 15;41:101608. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Graduate program in Molecular, Cellular, Developmental and Neural Biology, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222, USA; RNA Institute, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, University at Albany, SUNY, 1400 Washington Ave., LSRB 1086, Albany, NY 12222, USA. Electronic address:

Salisphere-derived adult epithelial cells have been used to improve saliva production of irradiated mouse salivary glands. Importantly, optimization of the cellular composition of salispheres could improve their regenerative capabilities. The Rho Kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Y27632, has been used to increase the proliferation and reduce apoptosis of progenitor cells grown in vitro. In this study, we investigated whether Y27632 could be used to improve expansion of adult submandibular salivary epithelial progenitor cells or to affect their differentiation potential in different media contexts. Application of Y27632 in medium used previously to grow salispheres promoted expansion of Kit and Mist1 cells, while in simple serum-containing medium Y27632 increased the number of cells that expressed the K5 basal progenitor marker. Salispheres derived from Mist1; R26 mice grown in salisphere media with Y27632 included Mist1-derived cells. When these salispheres were incorporated into 3D organoids, inclusion of Y27632 in the salisphere stage increased the contribution of Mist1-derived cells expressing the proacinar/acinar marker, Aquaporin 5 (AQP5), in response to FGF2-dependent mesenchymal signals. Optimization of the cellular composition of salispheres and organoids can be used to improve the application of adult salivary progenitor cells in regenerative medicine strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2019.101608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7069099PMC
December 2019

An Exploratory Study of Units of Reporting Opium Usein Iran: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies.

Arch Iran Med 2019 10 1;22(10):541-545. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Measuring the amount of opium use is a challenge in epidemiologic studies. Self-report of amount of opium use at each consumption, widely used in the literature, usually fails to provide a good estimate. The purpose of this study is to systematically study the perceived weight units of reported opium use in Iran, and compare them to the standardized units of weight measurement.

Methods: An exploratory descriptive study was conducted in six major cities of Iran. Study participants were interviewed and asked to use a Play-Doh-like material to demonstrate the amount of opium they use. To obtain an estimate of the weight of the material used, we multiplied the volume by the density of the opium product. We experimentally determined the density of the commonly used opium products. We used medians and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) to report the typical amount of each unit.

Results: A total of 108 individuals participated in this study. The most frequently reported unit was "gram"; the median perceived weight for one gram (g) of opium was 0.24 (IQR: 0.16) g. The second most commonly used unit was nokhod with a median of 0.16 (IQR: 0.16) g, followed by mesghaal and hab/habeh, which were 1.28 (IQR: 0.81) and 0.16 (IQR: 0.16) g, respectively. The median perceived weight of mesghaal and gram in the studied cities was less than the expected standardized values.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the reported amount of opium use is highly inaccurate and unreliable, and is mainly subject to underestimation.
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October 2019

Type 2 diabetes prevalence among Canadian adults - dietary habits and sociodemographic risk factors.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2019 Oct 6;44(10):1099-1104. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Division of Nutrition and Dietetics, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada.

Patients with diagnosed diabetes receive recommendations by their healthcare providers about lifestyle modification, particularly on diet. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of type 2 diagnosed diabetes, undetected (undiagnosed) type 2 diabetes, and prediabetes of Canadian adults, and to evaluate whether individuals with diagnosed diabetes have different dietary intakes compared with the other groups. We used nationally representative data from Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 and 2 ( = 6807, representing estimated population of 23 022 890). We evaluated prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, undetected diabetes, and prediabetes and their distribution across sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. The intake from different food/food groups was compared between those with diagnosed diabetes and the rest of the population. Among Canadians 20-79 years of age, 12.4% had prediabetes, and 7.5% had diabetes. Among all diabetes cases, 37.3% were undiagnosed. All 3 diabetic categories were more prevalent among older age groups (60-79 years) compared with younger age (20-39 years) groups. Diagnosed diabetes and prediabetes were more prevalent among less educated individuals compared with the higher educated ones. Diagnosed diabetes was more common among individuals with lower-middle income level compared with the highest income level. Diagnosed diabetes individuals had lower intake from juice and ice cream and higher intake from potatoes and diet soft drinks compared with other groups. More than 600 000 adults were unaware of their diabetes status; the aware ones had lower intakes of sugar-containing foods. In evaluating the association between dietary intake and risk of chronic diseases in populations, diagnosed diabetes cases should be evaluated separately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2018-0567DOI Listing
October 2019

Rare P376L variant in the SR-BI gene associates with HDL dysfunction and risk of cardiovascular disease.

Clin Biochem 2019 Nov 25;73:44-49. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Student Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Metabolic syndrome Research center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI) encoded by SCARB1 gene serves as a multifunctional HDL receptor, facilitating the uptake of cholesteryl esters from HDL to the liver. Recent studies have identified the association between the P376L missense mutation of the SCARB1 gene with increased serum HDL-Cholesterol level. However, the contribution of this variant to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear.

Objective: We have investigated the association between the P376L polymorphism with the properties of HDL and CVD outcomes in a population sample recruited as part of the Mashhad-Stroke and Heart-Atherosclerotic-Disorders (MASHAD) cohort.

Methods: Six hundred and fifteen individuals who had a median follow-up period of 7 years were recruited as part of the MASHAD cohort. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters and HDL lipid peroxidation (HDLox) were assessed. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan-real-time-PCR based method. The association of P376L-rs74830766 with cardiovascular-risk-factors and CVD events were evaluated.

Results: Carriers of the P376L variant were significantly more likely than non-carriers to develop CVD using multivariate analyses adjusted for traditional CVD risk factors defined as: age, sex, BMI, presence of diabetes, or hypertension, positive smoking habit, and total cholesterol (OR: 3.75, 95%CI: 1.76-7.98, p = 0.001). In an adjusted model, there was a two fold increase in cardiovascular endpoints among individuals who were heterozygous for the P376L variant (hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.12-to 3.84, p = 0.02). Although there was no association between the presence of the P376L variant and HDL-C level, serum HDLox, measured as dysfunctional HDL, was 13% higher among carriers of the P376L variant than non-carriers.

Conclusion: We have found that carriers of the P376L variant possessed higher HDLox and were at increased risk of CVD in a representative population-based cohort, as compared to non-carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2019.06.014DOI Listing
November 2019

Resolvin D1 promotes the targeting and clearance of necroptotic cells.

Cell Death Differ 2020 02 20;27(2):525-539. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

The Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, 12208, USA.

Inflammation-resolution is a protective response that is mediated by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). The clearance of dead cells or efferocytosis is a critical cellular program of inflammation-resolution. Impaired efferocytosis can lead to tissue damage in prevalent human diseases, like atherosclerosis. Therefore understanding mechanisms associated with swift clearance of dead cells is of utmost clinical importance. Recently, the accumulation of necroptotic cells (NCs) was observed in human plaques and we postulated that this is due to defective clearance programs. Here we present evidence that NCs are inefficiently taken up by macrophages because they have increased surface expression of a well-known "don't eat me" signal called CD47. High levels of CD47 on NCs stimulated RhoA-pMLC signaling in macrophages that promoted "nibbling", rather than whole-cell engulfment of NCs. Anti-CD47 blocking antibodies limited RhoA-p-MLC signaling and promoted whole-cell NC engulfment. Treatment with anti-CD47 blocking antibodies to Ldlr mice with established atherosclerosis decreased necrotic cores, limited the accumulation of plaque NCs and increased lesional SPMs, including Resolvin D1 (RvD1) compared with IgG controls. Mechanistically, RvD1 promoted whole-cell engulfment of NCs by decreasing RhoA signaling and activating CDC42. RvD1 specifically targeted NCs for engulfment by facilitating the release of the well-known "eat me signal" called calreticulin from macrophages in a CDC42 dependent manner. Lastly, RvD1 enhanced the clearance of NCs in advanced murine plaques. Together, these results suggest new molecules and signaling associated with the clearance of NCs, provide a new paradigm for the regulation of inflammation-resolution, and offer a potential treatment strategy for diseases where NCs underpin the pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-019-0370-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206090PMC
February 2020

The interaction of high and low-risk human papillomavirus genotypes increases the risk of developing genital warts: A population-based cohort study.

J Cell Biochem 2019 08 13;120(8):12870-12874. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Cervical cancer is among the most common type of cancers in women and is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Genital warts are also reported to be linked with HPV infection types 11 and 6. In turn, clinical characteristics and morphological features of warts may be useful in the prediction of prognosis and in making treatment decisions. Thus, we have investigated the association of high and low-risk HPVs genotype with genital wart risk, as well as pathological and cytological information in cases recruited from a population-based cohort study of 1380 patients. Patients infected with HPV genotype 6 or 11 had an increased risk of having warts, with OR of 2.34 (95% CI: 0.955-5.737, P = 0.06). Also, this association was enhanced in the presence of high plus low-risk HPV for having genital wart (OR: 2.814; 95%: 1.208-6.55, P = 0.017) and cases having high-risk HPV (OR: 2.329; 95% CI: 1.029-5.269, P = 0.042). Moreover, we observed patients with genital warts having CIN2/3, indicating the importance of informing the physician to the patient to prevent more severe lesions. Our data demonstrated that patients with both low/high-risk HPV types had an increased risk of developing genital warts and persistent infection with HPV was a necessary precursor for the increase in cervical lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.28557DOI Listing
August 2019

Canadians' Dietary Intake from 2007 to 2011 and across Different Sociodemographic/Lifestyle Factors Using the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 and 2.

J Nutr Metab 2019 5;2019:2831969. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Division of Nutrition and Dietetics, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada.

Background: Nutrition is an important factor that impacts health, yet in Canada, there have been only a few surveys reflecting dietary intakes. The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) is a national survey that includes both food intake data as targeted questions and objective health measures. The aim of this research was to determine how food group intake data reported in CHMS is related to food group intakes from Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) (2004). A secondary objective was to examine the dietary status of Canadians across sociodemographic levels.

Methods: The CHMS Cycles 1 and 2 food group intake data (meat and alternatives; milk products; grains; vegetables and fruits; dietary fat consumption; and beverages) of Canadians (6-79 years, =11,387) were descriptively compared to previously reported intake of Canadians from CCHS 2.2 in 2004. Further, Canadians' food intakes were assessed across sociodemographic characteristics.

Results: The CHMS dietary intake data from vegetables and fruits and from milk products groups were similar to the dietary intake reported from CCHS 2.2. For the other food groups, the difference in intakes suggested CHMS data by FFQ were not complete. However, similar patterns in food intakes with regards to age/sex and income were observed in both surveys.

Conclusion: Not all food groups measured in CHMS provide complete dietary intake data as compared to CCHS 2.2, yet CHMS food group intakes provide valuable information when it comes to evaluating dietary intake across different population groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2831969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379838PMC
February 2019

MicroRNA-based Biosensors for Early Detection of Cancers.

Curr Pharm Des 2018 ;24(39):4675-4680

Advanced Materials Research Group, Center of Hydrogen Energy, Institute of Future Energy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 54100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are known as noninvasive biomarkers for early detection in various cancers. In fact, miRNAs have key roles in carcinogenicity process such as proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. After cardiovascular disease, cancer is the second cause of death in the world with an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. So, early diagnosis of cancer is critical for successful treatment. To date, several selective and sensitive laboratory-based methods have been applied for the detection of circulating miRNA, but a simple, short assay time and low-cost method such as a biosensor method as an alternative approach to monitor cancer biomarker is required. In this review, we have highlighted recent advances in biosensors for circulating miRNA detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612825666190111144525DOI Listing
November 2019

Generating Embryonic Salivary Gland Organoids.

Curr Protoc Cell Biol 2019 06 5;83(1):e76. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York.

Organoids are important research tools for studying organ morphogenesis and differentiation because they recapitulate ex vivo the native 3D organization of cells that is essential for proper cell and organ function. The composition of organoids can be manipulated to incorporate specific cell types to facilitate molecular interrogation of cell-cell interactions during organoid formation. A method for generating organoids derived from both embryonic salivary gland epithelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal support cells is described. Methods for isolating enriched populations of the epithelial cells as clusters and the mesenchyme cells as single cells from mouse embryonic submandibular salivary glands are also provided. Separating the epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations allows for independent molecular manipulation of each cell type. In addition, methods for lentiviral transduction of the mesenchyme cells and quantitative image analysis of organoids are provided. The methods described here are useful for exploring mechanisms driving organ formation. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpcb.76DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6948183PMC
June 2019

The potential prognostic and therapeutic application of tissue and circulating microRNAs in cervical cancer.

J Cell Physiol 2019 02 7;234(2):1289-1294. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Cervical cancer (CC) is a common malignancy in women and a major cause of cancer-related mortality globally. Some novel biomarkers may enable the early diagnosis and monitoring of CC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that control gene translation at a posttranscriptional level. Hence the deregulation of these molecules can cause many diseases. There appears to be an association between aberrant miRNA expression and CC, but the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of CC remain unknown. The upregulation of some circulating miRNAs, for example, miRNA-20a, miRNA-203, miRNA-21, miRNA-205, miRNA-218, and miR-485-5, as well as tissue-specific miRNAs, for example, miR-7, miR-10a, miR-17-5p, miR-135b, miR-149, and miR-203 have been found in patients with CC. There is also growing evidence for the importance of miRNAs in the development of drug resistance. This review therefore highlights recently published preclinical and clinical investigation performed on tissue specific and circulating miRNAs, as potential biomarkers for the detection of patients at early stages of CC, in the prediction of prognosis, and monitoring of their response to therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27160DOI Listing
February 2019

Mesenchymal Cells Affect Salivary Epithelial Cell Morphology on PGS/PLGA Core/Shell Nanofibers.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Mar 29;19(4). Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Albany, NY 12203, USA.

Engineering salivary glands is of interest due to the damaging effects of radiation therapy and the autoimmune disease Sjögren's syndrome on salivary gland function. One of the current problems in tissue engineering is that in vitro studies often fail to predict in vivo regeneration due to failure of cells to interact with scaffolds and of the single cell types that are typically used for these studies. Although poly (lactic co glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofiber scaffolds have been used for in vitro growth of epithelial cells, PLGA has low compliance and cells do not penetrate the scaffolds. Using a core-shell electrospinning technique, we incorporated poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) into PLGA scaffolds to increase the compliance and decrease hydrophobicity. PGS/PLGA scaffolds promoted epithelial cell penetration into the scaffold and apical localization of tight junction proteins, which is necessary for epithelial cell function. Additionally, co-culture of the salivary epithelial cells with NIH3T3 mesenchymal cells on PGS/PLGA scaffolds facilitated epithelial tissue reorganization and apical localization of tight junction proteins significantly more than in the absence of the mesenchyme. These data demonstrate the applicability of PGS/PLGA nanofibers for epithelial cell self-organization and facilitation of co-culture cell interactions that promote tissue self-organization in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5979364PMC
March 2018

FGF2-dependent mesenchyme and laminin-111 are niche factors in salivary gland organoids.

J Cell Sci 2018 02 20;131(4). Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222, USA

Epithelial progenitor cells are dependent upon a complex 3D niche to promote their proliferation and differentiation during development, which can be recapitulated in organoids. The specific requirements of the niche remain unclear for many cell types, including the proacinar cells that give rise to secretory acinar epithelial cells that produce saliva. Here, using cultures of E16 primary mouse submandibular salivary gland epithelial cell clusters, we investigated the requirement for mesenchymal cells and other factors in producing salivary organoids in culture. Native E16 salivary mesenchyme, but not NIH3T3 cells or mesenchymal cell conditioned medium, supported robust protein expression of the progenitor marker Kit and the acinar/proacinar marker AQP5, with a requirement for FGF2 expression by the mesenchyme. Enriched salivary epithelial clusters that were grown in laminin-enriched basement membrane extract or laminin-111 together with exogenous FGF2, but not with EGF, underwent morphogenesis to form organoids that displayed robust expression of AQP5 in terminal buds. Knockdown of FGF2 in the mesenchyme or depletion of mesenchyme cells from the organoids significantly reduced AQP5 levels even in the presence of FGF2, suggesting a requirement for autocrine FGF2 signaling in the mesenchyme cells for AQP5 expression. We conclude that basement membrane proteins and mesenchyme cells function as niche factors in salivary organoids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.208728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5868949PMC
February 2018

Frequency of Epstein Barr Virus Type 1 Among Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas in Iranian Patients

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2017 02 1;18(2):327-331. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Health Research Institute, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Around 95% of the world’s population are infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which can persist latent in B lymphocytes and epithelial cells life-long. EBV has been linked with lymphoid and epithelial cancers and persistence of EBV infection in lymphoid or epithelial cells may result in virus-associated B-cell tumors or nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). This study was conducted to determine the frequency of EBV DNA in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue of Iranian patients. Materials and methods: A total of 50 blocks of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of NPCs from 38 (76 %) male and 12 (24%) female patients were collected from archives of Ahvaz hospitals. Sections were cut at 5 μm and DNA was extracted for detection of EBV DNA and EBV typing by mested PCR. DNA sequencing was performed to confirm PCR results. The distribution of EBV DNA was compared among WHO histological subtypes of NPC. Results: Some 3 female and 11 (22%) male NPC samples showed positive for EBV DNA type 1, 2/14(22.2%)WHO histological type II and 12/41(29.3%) WHO histological type III. Conclusions: The frequency of EBV DNA among NPCs in Iranian patients was found to be 28%, EBV type I predominating. Both WHO histological type II and III NPC subtypes demonstrated approximately the same detection prevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.2.327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5454723PMC
February 2017

Current evidence on the association of the metabolic syndrome and dietary patterns in a global perspective.

Nutr Res Rev 2016 Dec;29(2):152-162

College of Pharmacy and Nutrition,University of Saskatchewan,Clinic Place,Saskatoon,SK S7N 2Z4,Canada.

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a key indicator of two main causes of death worldwide: CVD and diabetes. The present paper aimed to perform a review of the population-based research on the association of dietary patterns and the MetS in terms of methodology and findings. For the purpose of the present study, a scoping literature review was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and hand searching in Google Scholar. Thirty-nine population-based studies were selected. Most of these studies used the factor analysis method and the a priori dietary approach, which had been initially extracted via a posteriori methods such as using the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The main finding was that following the Mediterranean or similar 'healthy' pattern reduced risk of the MetS, while following a 'Western' pattern increased risk of the MetS. The methodological approach in determining the dietary pattern of a population, whether a priori or a posteriori, should be chosen based on the purpose of the research. Overall, evidence suggests a diet based on the components of the Mediterranean diet and the avoidance of the 'Western' diet can aid in preventing the MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095442241600007XDOI Listing
December 2016

Association of HHV-6 with Hodgkin and non Hodgkin lymphoma.

Iran J Microbiol 2016 Apr;8(2):153-8

Department of Pathology, Imam Khomaini Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Human Herpes 6 virus (HHV-6) could remain latent and chronic in the host cells after primary infection. HHV-6 genome encodes certain transactivation proteins which may results in development of malignant lymphoma. The association of human herpes six virus (HHV-6) infection and Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin lymphomas is strongly supported by epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HHV-6 among the patients with Hodgkin, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Materials And Methods: Overall 44 blocks of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded of the patients including 22(50%) Hodgkin and 22(50%) Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma were collected. Initially the section of 5μm-thickness were prepared from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. Then the deparaphinazation was carried out for each sample. The DNA was extracted, followed by nested PCR for detection of HHV-6. Based on PCR product size and sequencing, the HHV-6 A or B subtypes were characterized.

Results: 12/22(54.54%) cases of Hodgkin and 8/22 (36.36%) Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were shown as positive for HHV-6. Out of 12 positive HHV-6 in Hodgkin lymphoma, 10 patients (45.45%) belonged to variant A while 2 cases (9.09%) were found positive for both HHV-6A and HHV-6B. All the Non Hodgkin samples (n=8, 36.36%) showed positive for HHV-6 variant A.

Conclusion: High prevalence of HHV-6 was found among the patients with Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Two patients with Hodgkin lymphoma had mixed HHV-6A and HHV-6B infections. It is recommended patients with Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin should be screened for HHV-6 detection before chemotherapy.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4906723PMC
April 2016

Diffuse optical tomography: image reconstruction and verification.

J Lasers Med Sci 2014 ;5(1):13-8

Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University. G.C.,Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: In this study, we intend to use diffuse optical Tomography (DOT) as a noninvasive, safe and low cost technique that can be considered as a functional imaging method and mention the importance of image reconstruction in accuracy and procession of image. One of the most important and fastest methods in image reconstruction is the boundary element method (BEM). This method is introduced and employed in our works.

Method: Generally, to image a biological tissue we must obtain its optical properties. In order to reach this goal we benefit from diffusion equation because tissue is highly scattering medium. Diffusion equation is solved by boundary element equation (BEM) in our research. First, we assume a double layer phantom with different scattering and absorption coefficients to simulate and verify precession and accuracy of image reconstruction by BEM. Light absorption can be affected by volume fraction of blood in skin. For a specific skin species the volume fraction is calculated and then the results are compared with the reconstructed values obtained by BEM. Since the depth of tissue is important in light absorption a two layer phantom with known values is made and the depths of layers are reconstructed by BEM then they are compared with the expected values. A homogenous phantom with known scattering and absorption coefficients was made and then these coefficients were reconstructed by BEM. Finally, an inhomogeneous phantom (phantom with defect) whose defect was in a known position was made and the absorption and scattering coefficients were reconstructed and compared with real values.

Results: Comparison between real or simulated values and reconstructed values of scattering and absorption coefficients, volume fraction of blood and thickness of phantom layers by BEM shows maximum errors of 24%, 7% and 35%, respectively.

Conclusion: Comparison between BEM data and real or simulated values shows an acceptabl eagreement. Consequently, we can rely on BEM as a beneficial method in diffuse optical tomography image reconstruction.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4290522PMC
January 2015
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