Publications by authors named "Zeinab Hassan"

69 Publications

Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Primary Renal Tubular Acidosis in Patients With Autoimmune Hepatitis and Alcoholic Hepatitis.

Cureus 2021 May 28;13(5):e15287. Epub 2021 May 28.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Foundation Trust, Lancaster, GBR.

Renal and hepatic functions are often mingled through both the existence of associated primary organ diseases and hemodynamic co-relationship. The primary objective of this study was to sum up the relationship between autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) on renal tubular acidosis (RTA) and the stages of the disease. A systematic review was performed for 24 trials. A total of 3687 patients were included. The incidence of RTA occurring and short-term mortality reduction was seen in two groups; for an overall effect: Z = 2.85 (P = 0.004) a total 95% CI of 0.53 [0.34, 0.82]. Only one patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was found to have an incomplete type of RTA. Test for overall effect: Z = 2.28 (P = 0.02) 95% CI of 2.83 [1.16, 6.95]. A reduction in fatal infections with dual therapy of corticosteroid plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC) test for overall effect: Z = 3.07 (P = 0.002) with 95% CI of 0.45 [0.27, 0.75]. Autoimmune diseases are the most frequent underlying cause of secondary RTA in adults. The primary renal disease must be actively excluded in all patients with hepatic failure by aggressive clinical and laboratory evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.15287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161551PMC
May 2021

Functional characterization of an interleukin 20 like homologue in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 May 13;115:43-57. Epub 2021 May 13.

Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, 201306, China; International Research Center for Marine Biosciences at Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Science and Technology, China; National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

IL-20 is a pleiotropic cytokine that belongs to the IL-10 family and plays an important biological role in tissue homeostasis and regulation of host immune defenses. IL-20 homologues have recently been discovered in fish, but their functions have not been studied. In this study, an IL-20 like (IL-20L) cytokine was cloned in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and its bioactivities were investigated. Expression analysis showed that the CiIL-20L gene was constitutively expressed in tissues with the highest expression detected in the head kidney. It was upregulated in the head kidney after infection with Flavobactrium columnare (F. cloumnare) and grass carp reovirus II (GCRV II). The recombinant CiIL-20L produced in E. coli cells was shown to be effective in inducing the expression of Th cytokine genes (IFN-γ, IL-4/13A, IL-4/13B and IL-10), macrophage marker genes (arginase 2, IRF4, KLF4 and SOCS3) and inflammatory genes (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα) in the head kidney leukocytes when stimulated at 12 h. Long term culture (6 days) of head kidney macrophages in the presence of CiIL-20L leads to high expression of IRF4, TGFβ1 and arginase 2. Our data suggest that IL-20 may play regulatory roles in promoting Th responses, macrophage differentiation and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2021.05.009DOI Listing
May 2021

Y-Shaped Vesica Fellea Duplex Gallbladder Causing Acute Biliary Pancreatitis.

Cureus 2021 Apr 25;13(4):e14676. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay National Health Service Foundation Trust, Lancaster, GBR.

Gallbladder duplication refers to the splitting of "gallbladder primordium" during the early embryonic development in the fifth or early sixth week. Although it is a very rare congenital abnormality and most of the patients will be asymptomatic, yet the symptomatic cases present with abdominal complaints like nausea vomiting, abdominal pain leads to cholecystitis, cholangitis, biliary colic, or pancreatitis. Herein, we present a case report of duplication of the gallbladder, which was difficult to diagnose on radiology. We report a case of a 35-year-old female who was admitted with acute gallstone pancreatitis. The diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and blood tests. She underwent an inpatient endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) which cleared the bile duct and confirmed the diagnosis of the duplex gallbladder. The patient was then discharged home and an outpatient cholecystectomy is being planned.The duplex gallbladder may possibly be associated with other anomalies of the bile duct system. Biliary pancreatitis has been associated with such abnormality. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to achieving due to the possibility that gallbladder can be missed in imaging testing. Cholecystectomy required extreme care because these anomalies can lead to critical injuries of the bile duct and vascular system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071095PMC
April 2021

Identification and expression analysis of group II C-type lectin domain containing receptors in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

Gene 2021 Jul 18;789:145668. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China; International Research Center for Marine Biosciences at Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Science and Technology, China; National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

Group II C-type lectin domain (CTLD) containing receptors belong to a large family of pattern recognition receptors which mainly act on the innate immunity. They are structurally related and consist of a cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and a single extracellular CTLD. Although they have been described in teleost fish, their involvement in immune responses is not well understood. In this study, four immune-related lectin-like receptors (termed CiILLR1 and CiILLR5-7), belonging to the group II CTLD receptors, were identified in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). They contain a short cytoplasmic tail and a single CTLD in the extracellular region. The CiILLR1 has a WxHxxxxxY motif similar to the WxHxxxxY motif which is required for the recognition of β-glucans by some of the group II CTLD containing lectins in mammals. Further, a modified QPD motif (EPD) known to be involved in binding to carbohydrate ligands is present in the CiILLR1, 5 and 6. However, CiILLR7 lacks these motifs. Expression analysis revealed that they were constitutively expressed in the head kidney and spleen. Moreover, CiILLR1, 5 and 6 could be up-regulated in the head kidney and spleen of fish after infection with Flavobacterium columnare and in the primary head kidney leukocytes by LPS and PHA. Expression of CiILLR1, CiILLR5 and CiILLR6 were mainly detected in the enriched lymphocytes whilst CiILLR7 was expressed in the enriched monocytes/macrophages. The results expand existing knowledge on the immune responses of the C-type lectin receptors in teleost fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145668DOI Listing
July 2021

Charge Transport, Conductivity and Seebeck Coefficient in Pristine and TCNQ Loaded Preferentially Grown Metal-Organic Framework Films.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, 231 Kaufman Hall, Newport News, Virginia, 23529, UNITED STATES.

This investigation on Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) HUKUST-1 films focuses on comparing the undoped pristine state and with the case of doping by TCNQ infiltration of the MOF pore structure. We have determined the temperature dependent charge transport and p-type conductivity for HKUST-1 films. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity and the current-voltage characteristics have been characterized in detail. Because the most common forms of MOFs, bulk MOF powders, do not lend themselves easily to electrical characterization investigations, here in this study the electrical measurements were performed on dense, compact surface-anchored metal-organic framework (SURMOF) films. These monolithic, well-defined, and (001) preferentially oriented MOF thin films are grown using quasi-liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) on specially functionalized silicon or borosilicate glass substrates. In addition to the pristine SURMOF films also the effect of loading these porous thin films with TCNQ has been investigated. Positive charge carrier conduction and a strong anisotropy in electrical conduction was observed for highly oriented SURMOF films and corroborated with Seebeck Coefficient measurements. Van der Pauw four-point Hall sample measurements provide important insight into the electrical behavior of such porous and hybrid organic-inorganic crystalline materials, which renders them attractive for potential use in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices and thermoelectric applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/abe72fDOI Listing
February 2021

Genomic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 in Egypt.

J Adv Res 2021 05 26;30:123-132. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Systems and Biomedical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo 12613, Egypt.

Introduction: The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread throughout the globe, causing a pandemic. In Egypt over 115,000 individuals were infected so far.

Objective: In the present study, the objective is to perform a complete genome sequence of SAR-CoV2 isolated from Egyptian coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients.

Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 61 COVID-19 patients who attended at National Cancer Institute, Kasr Al-Aini Hospital and the army hospital. Viral RNA was extracted and whole genomic sequencing was conducted using Next Generation Sequencing.

Results: In all cases, the sequenced virus has at least 99% identity to the reference Wuhan 1. The sequence analysis showed 204 distinct genome variations including 114 missense mutations, 72 synonymous mutations, 1 disruptive in-frame deletion, 7 downstream gene mutations, 6 upstream gene mutations, 3 frame-shift deletions, and 1 in-frame deletion. The most dominant clades were G/GH/GR/O and the dominant type is B.

Conclusion: The whole genomic sequence of SARS-CoV2 showed 204 variations in the genomes of the Egyptian isolates, where the Asp614Gly (D614G) substitution is the most common among the samples (60/61). So far, there were no strikingly variations specific to the Egyptian population, at least for this set of samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.11.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688418PMC
May 2021

Biological Screening and Radiolabeling of Raptinal as a Potential Anticancer Novel Drug in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Model.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Mar 27;158:105653. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, P.O. Box 11795, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

New synthetic compound Raptinal (RAP) was investigated on different biological levels for its potential anticancer activity. RAP showed higher antiproliferative activity on HepG2 cell line with IC 0.62µM compared to MCF-7 and HCT-116 (4.03 and 92.3 µM) respectively. Moreover, RAP induces early stage of apoptosis in the most sensitive HepG2 treated cells after 24 hr with cell cycle arrest in both subG-G and G-G phases and minimal cell count in G/M mitotic phase with apoptotic index 9.25-fold higher than to control. RAP induces over-expression of key apoptotic genes such as Fas receptor, Caspase-8, Caspase-9, Bax and P53. Western blotting confirm the observation on protein level via over-expression of Caspase-9, Cytochrome-C and higher ration of Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, RAP was radiolabeled using one of the most important diagnostic radioactive isotopes, technetium-99m (Tc), with a radiochemical yield of 92.7 ± 0.41 %. Quality control and biological distribution of Tc-RAP in both healthy and HCC rat model were investigated. Biodistribution profile revealed the localization of RAP in liver tissues (20.5±2.6 %) of HCC models at half an hour post intravenous injection. Histopathological examination confirmed the biodistribution of RAP into liver tissue with induction of karyomegaly in the nuclei of hepatocytes as well as others that proceeded into apoptosis. Molecular docking suggested RAP binds in binding pocket of p53 cancer mutant Y220C making reactivation of the mutant form which is a promising strategy for further investigation on molecular level as a novel anticancer therapeutics. All the results support the use of RAP as a potential anticancer drug in HCC and its Tc complex as an imaging probe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105653DOI Listing
March 2021

Self-Treatment with Antibiotics: Knowledge level, Prevalence and Indications for Practicing Among University Students in Jordan.

Curr Drug Saf 2021 ;16(1):82-89

School of Nursing, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.

Background: Self-treatment with antibiotics involves obtaining medicines without a prescription, sharing medicines with members of one's social circle, or using leftover medicines stored at home.

Objective: Assess the prevalence, knowledge level, reasons for practicing self-treatment of antibiotic among undergraduate university students.

Methods: The study was conducted cross-sectional on a sample of 201 students. A pre-validated questionnaire called "self-treatment with antibiotics", containing 27 close-ended questions, was administered to each subject. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and the results were expressed as counts and percentages.

Results And Discussion: Knowledge about self-treatment with antibiotics was good in general, and health-related students had a better level of knowledge about self-treatment with antibiotics than non-health-related students. The majority of the participants had not used self-treatment with antibiotics. Gender, age, and the last time antibiotic taken affected self-treatment with antibiotics. The most common indication for self-treatment with antibiotics was flu, cold, and tonsillitis. The most common reason for practicing self-treatment with antibiotics was being considered as a convenient and rapid solution. Internet was the main source for university students regarding knowledge about antibiotic use and resistance.

Conclusion: Self-treatment with antibiotics is affected by several social and demographic variables, and the role of media, public policies, university curricula as well as physicians and pharmacists should be enforced and activated to eliminate inappropriate uses of antibiotics and to correct misconceptions that encourage self-treatment with antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574886315666200902153950DOI Listing
January 2021

Observation of reduced thermal conductivity in a metal-organic framework due to the presence of adsorbates.

Nat Commun 2020 Aug 11;11(1):4010. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Whether the presence of adsorbates increases or decreases thermal conductivity in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been an open question. Here we report observations of thermal transport in the metal-organic framework HKUST-1 in the presence of various liquid adsorbates: water, methanol, and ethanol. Experimental thermoreflectance measurements were performed on single crystals and thin films, and theoretical predictions were made using molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the thermal conductivity of HKUST-1 decreases by 40 - 80% depending on the adsorbate, a result that cannot be explained by effective medium approximations. Our findings demonstrate that adsorbates introduce additional phonon scattering in HKUST-1, which particularly shortens the lifetimes of low-frequency phonon modes. As a result, the system thermal conductivity is lowered to a greater extent than the increase expected by the creation of additional heat transfer channels. Finally, we show that thermal diffusivity is even more greatly reduced than thermal conductivity by adsorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17822-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7421542PMC
August 2020

An investigative study of antitumor properties of a novel thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine small molecule revealing superior antitumor activity with CDK1 selectivity and potent pro-apoptotic properties.

Bioorg Med Chem 2020 09 7;28(17):115633. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan 11795, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.

New thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine analogues were synthesized and biologically assessed in-vitro for their antineoplastic activity. The growth inhibitory effects of these compounds were assessed through the National Cancer Institute-United States of America (NCI-USA) anticancer screening program. Compound5(7-Chloro-3-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-methylthiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine-2(3H)-thione) was found to have a potent and broad-spectrum cytotoxic action against NCI panel with GI (50% growth inhibition concentration) mean graph midpoint (MG-MID) = 2.88 µM. MTT assay was used to determine IC values of the most potent agent against HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma and WI-38 human lung fibroblast cell lines; 5.33 µM ± 0.69 and 21.69 µM ± 1.04, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that compound5triggered apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest. The ability of compound5to inhibit CDK1 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1)/Cyclin B complex was evaluated, and its IC value was 97 nM ± 2.33. Moreover, according to the gene expression analysis, compound5up-regulated p53, BAX, cytochrome c, caspases-3,-8 and-9 besides down-regulated Bcl-2. In conclusion, compound5exerted a potent pro-apoptotic activity through the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2020.115633DOI Listing
September 2020

Histone H3K27M Mutation Overrides Histological Grading in Pediatric Gliomas.

Sci Rep 2020 05 20;10(1):8368. Epub 2020 May 20.

Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt 57357, Tumor Biology Research Program, Research Department, Cairo, Egypt.

Pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGG) are rare aggressive tumors that present a prognostic and therapeutic challenge. Diffuse midline glioma, H3K27M-mutant is a new entity introduced to HGG in the latest WHO classification. In this study we evaluated the presence of H3K27M mutation in 105 tumor samples histologically classified into low-grade gliomas (LGG) (n = 45), and HGG (n = 60). Samples were screened for the mutation in histone H3.3 and H3.1 variants to examine its prevalence, prognostic impact, and assess its potential clinical value in limited resource settings. H3K27M mutation was detected in 28 of 105 (26.7%) samples, and its distribution was significantly associated with midline locations (p-value < 0.0001) and HGG (p-value = 0.003). Overall and event- free survival (OS and EFS, respectively) of patients with mutant tumors did not differ significantly, neither according to histologic grade (OS p-value = 0.736, EFS p-value = 0.75) nor across anatomical sites (OS p-value = 0.068, EFS p-value = 0.153). Detection of H3K27M mutation in pediatric gliomas provides more precise risk stratification compared to traditional histopathological techniques. Hence, mutation detection should be pursued in all pediatric gliomas. Meanwhile, focusing on midline LGG can be an alternative in lower-middle-income countries to maximally optimize patients' treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65272-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239884PMC
May 2020

Genotoxicity and sperm defects induced by 5-FU in male mice and the possible protective role of Pentas lanceolata-iridoids.

Mutat Res 2020 Feb - Mar;850-851:503145. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Natural Compounds Chemistry Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a widely used antineoplastic drug. In this work, a comprehensive study was performed to detect the extent of chromosomal damage and morphological sperm defects induced by 5-FU in male mice and the possible protective role of the iridoids-rich fraction of Pentas lanceolata leaves (IFPL). Six main groups were examined in micronucleus and chromosomal assays: I- control negative, II- control positive (i.p. treated with single dose of 75 mg/kg 5-FU), III- control plant (orally administrated IFPL, 300 mg/kg, 5 consecutive days), and IV-VI- treated with IFPL (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, 5 consecutive days) plus 5-FU (i.p. treated at the last day). Samples were taken 24 h post treatment. The study of morphological sperm anomalies, single and repeated treatments were examined and samples were taken after 35 days from the 1 treatment. In bone marrow, 5-FU induced a significant increase in the micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, chromosome anomalies (CAs) and also cytotoxic effects. A significant percentage of CAs was recorded in spermatocytes after 5-FU treatment reached 22.80 ± 1.32 vs 4.20 ± 0.37 for control (mainly X-Y univalent, 90%). IFPL was recorded to be non-mutagenic in all tests examined. In addition, it alleviated the previous defects in a dose-dependent manner. A significant and dramatic increase in the percentage of morphological sperm defects was recorded after single and repeated treatments with 5-FU reached 13.24 ± 0.24, 30.42 ± 0.32 respectively vs 2.56 ± 0.14 for control. Amorphous head-sperm and sperm with coiled tail were the most pronounced types of abnormalities. Significant protection was detected with the highest tested dose of IFPL. In conclusion: 5-FU demonstrated to be a genotoxic agent. Its genotoxicity in germ cells is serious and may lead to reproductive toxicity, infertility or heritable defects. The results also demonstrated the biosafety of IFPL and its possible protective role in combined treatment with 5-FU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2020.503145DOI Listing
April 2020

Molecular detection of methicillin heat-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in pasteurized camel milk in Saudi Arabia.

Biosci Rep 2020 04;40(4)

Food Science and Nutrition Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Antibiotic- and heat-resistant bacteria in camel milk is a potential public health problem. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an opportunistic pathogen in humans, dairy cattle and camels. We characterized the phenotype and genotype of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains recovered from pasteurized and raw camel milk (as control) distributed in the retail markets of Saudi Arabia. Of the 100 samples assessed between March and May 2016, 20 S. aureus isolates were recovered from pasteurized milk, 10 of which were resistant to cefoxitin, and as such, were methicillin-resistant. However, raw camel milk did not contain methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that the resistance ratio for other antibiotics was 60%. We performed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using primers for the methicillin-resistant gene mecA and nucleotide sequencing to detect and verify the methicillin-resistant strains. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis of the gene sequences showed a 96-100% similarity between the resistant isolates and the S. aureus CS100 strain's mecA gene. Ten of the methicillin-resistant isolates were heat-resistant and were stable at temperatures up to 85°C for 60 s, and three of these were resistant at 90°C for 60 or 90 s. The mean decimal reduction time (D85-value) was 111 s for the ten isolates. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) showed that there was no difference in the total protein profiles for the ten methicillin heat-resistant S. aureus (MHRSA) isolates and for S. aureus ATCC 29737. In conclusion, a relatively high percentage of the tested pasteurized camel milk samples contained S. aureus (20%) and MHRSA (10%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20193470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7167254PMC
April 2020

Inhibitory activity of black mulberry (Morus nigra) extract against testicular, liver and kidney toxicity induced by paracetamol in mice.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Mar 25;47(3):1733-1749. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Genetics and Cytology Department, National Research Centre (NRC), 33 El-Bohouthst, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Black mulberry (Morus nigra) leaves is broadly used in traditional medicine worldwide. However, there are no scientific reports regarding testicular protection, hepato-and nephroprotective activities of M. nigra leaves. The present investigation was assessed the protective mechanism by which methanol extract from M. nigra leaves suppressed the damaging effects induced by paracetamol (APAP) in different mouse tissues. Male mice were orally given APAP (500 mg/kg) with or without M. nigra extract (150, 300, and 500 mg/kg) for four consecutive days. The results showed that crude extract possessed potent antioxidant activity (EC = 42.97 µg extract/mL) due to the presence of a high amount of polyphenol and flavonoid compounds. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, and rutin were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of M. nigra extract. Unexpectedly, oral administration of APAP did not induce chromosomal aberrations in mouse bone marrow; however, it produced damaging effects on testis, liver, and kidney tissues. Interestingly, M. nigra extract suppressed APAP-induced genotoxicity by lowering meiotic chromosomal aberrations in spermatocytes, morphological sperm abnormalities, and % DNA damage in comet tail in the liver and kidney tissues. The altered levels of glutathione S transferase activity, lipid peroxidation, liver, and kidney functions were significantly reversed when M. nigra was given to APAP group. The restoring of the histo-architectural distortions and decreasing over-expression of p53 protein as determined by immunohistochemistry in the liver, kidney, and testis sections were strengthened the protective activity of M. nigra extract. Conclusion, the bioactive components in the leaves of black mulberry appear to be a good candidate for genetic protection, treatment of oxidative stress-induced organotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05265-1DOI Listing
March 2020

Heat resistance and presence of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins evaluated by multiplex-PCR of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pasteurized camel milk.

Biosci Rep 2019 11;39(11)

Food Science and Nutrition Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Milk pasteurization eliminates vegetative pathogenic microorganisms and reduces microorganisms associated with spoilage. Camel milk is a well-accepted, traditionally consumed food in Arab countries. The present study aimed to investigate the microflora of pasteurized camel milk sold in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The heat resistance of the microflora was tested in culture medium and lab-sterilized milk, and its composition was verified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. Further verification was performed by using separate specific primers. The identified strain survived heat treatment at 65, 72, 80, 85, and 90°C for 30, 15, 10, 5, and 2 min, respectively. An unanticipated result was obtained when an enterotoxin producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus showed abnormal resistance to heat treatment. The enterotoxin gene within the PCR fragment was identified as enterotoxin C by DNA sequencing. During Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis, the isolated enterotoxin C genes showed >99% similarity to published database sequences of the Staphylococcus aureus strain SAI48 staphylococcal enterotoxin C variant v4 (sec) gene. The decimal reduction value (D-value) at 90°C (D90) was determined after 10 s. This is the first time to report this abnormally heat resistant and enterotoxin-producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The use of ultra-high temperatures (UHTs) is preferable for reducing or killing bacteria in camel milk, especially if this problem is encountered in many camel milk factories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20191225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6851523PMC
November 2019

Whole-genome sequencing of human Pegivirus variant from an Egyptian patient co-infected with hepatitis C virus: a case report.

Virol J 2019 11 11;16(1):132. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Cancer Biology Department, Virology and Immunology Unit, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, 11796, Egypt.

Background: Human pegivirus (HPgV) is structurally similar to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and was discovered 20 years ago. Its distribution, natural history and exact rule of this viral group in human hosts remain unclear. Our aim was to determine, by deep next-generation sequencing (NGS), the entire genome sequence of HPgV that was discovered in an Egyptian patient while analyzing HCV sequence from the same patient. We also inspected whether the co-infection of HCV and HPgV will affect the patient response to HCV viral treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for a newly isolated HPgV in an Egyptian patient who is co-infected with HCV.

Case Presentation: The deep Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technique was used to detect HCV sequence in hepatitis C patient's plasma. The results revealed the presence of HPgV with HCV. This co-infection was confirmed using conventional PCR of the HPgV 5' untranslated region. The patient was then subjected to direct-acting-antiviral treatment (DAA). At the end of the treatment, the patient showed a good response to the HCV treatment (i.e., no HCV-RNA was detected in the plasma), while the HPgV-RNA was still detected. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the detected HPgV was a novel isolate and was not previously published.

Conclusion: We report a new variant of HPgV in a patient suffering from hepatitis C viral infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-019-1242-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849219PMC
November 2019

Circulating microRNA-155 is associated with insulin resistance in chronic hepatitis C patients.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2019 Mar 7;20(1):1-7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Egypt. Electronic address:

Background And Study Aim: Hepatitis C represents a potential public health problem worldwide. Insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are among the serious metabolic complications for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNAs which are implicated in the modulation of almost all biological processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the levels of both miR-155 and miR-34a in sera of chronic HCV patients with or without T2D.

Patients And Methods: In this study, we investigated the expression of both miR-155 and miR-34a in 80 subjects (20 HCV, 19 HCV/T2D, 21 T2D and 19 healthy controls), using quantitative real-time PCR.

Results: Our results revealed significantly higher levels of both miR-155 and miR-34a in chronic HCV patients compared to healthy control subjects. However, only circulating miR-155 levels showed significant decline in diabetic HCV patients compared to non-diabetic HCV group. Intriguingly, the circulating levels of miR-155 were inversely correlated with HOMA-IR, fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the insulin resistance and T2D in HCV are strongly related to miR-155. This may suggest a role for miR-155 in the pathogenesis of IR caused by HCV. However, further large-scale studies are required to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2019.01.011DOI Listing
March 2019

MOF-templated synthesis of 3D BiO supracrystals with bcc packing.

Nanoscale 2018 Sep;10(36):17099-17104

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.

We describe a non-conventional, MOF-based approach with modified linkers to fabricate 3D Bi2O3 supracrystals. The nanoparticle (NP) assembly exhibits bcc-packing, which is difficult to achieve with other methods. The NPs possess a very narrow size distribution. The individual NPs were synthesized inside the pores of a surface-mounted metal-organic framework (SURMOF) template via a photo-decomposition procedure. The supracrystals were thoroughly characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and SAED (Selected Area Electron Diffraction). In order to achieve sharp size distributions of the NPs, the pores within the SURMOF were functionalized with amino (-NH2) functional groups acting as nucleation centers. MOFs lacking such additional functionalities, Cu3(BTC)2, yielded much broader size distributions. These findings provide a unique molecular design tool for creating nanometer-sized reaction compartments for the synthesis of supracrystals with packing types not accessible via self-assembly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8nr04204gDOI Listing
September 2018

Carbon tetrachloride induced hepato/renal toxicity in experimental mice: antioxidant potential of Egyptian Salvia officinalis L essential oil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Oct 28;25(28):27858-27876. Epub 2018 Jul 28.

Natural Compounds Department, National Research Centre (NRC), 33 El-Bohouth St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

The present research designed to assess the protective role of Salvia officinalis essential oil (SO) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl)-induced liver and kidney damage in mice. This is evidenced by estimation of antiradical scavenging activity of SO using DPPH assay, biochemical markers, histological investigation of liver and kidney sections, and comet assay. Mice were given CCl (1.2 mL/kg for 24 h or 0.8 mL/kg for 2 weeks, 3 times/week) and with or without SO (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mL/kg, for 2 week, 5 times/week). The findings demonstrated that both acute and subacute treatment with CCl alone had adverse side effects on liver and kidney of mice. These effects were evidenced by a significant increase in serum hepatic enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, and G-GT), bilirubin, and renal function markers (blood urea, creatinine). Toxic effect of CCl was accompanied by a decline in the serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and prothrombin (%). CCl induced oxidative stress as evidenced by increasing serum lipid peroxidation (LPO) along with decreasing serum total glutathione S transferase (GST). A remarkable increase in hepatic DNA strand breakages and histopathological distortion in liver and kidney specimens were observed in CCl-intoxicated groups. Ultrastructurally, hepatocytes exhibited irregular nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm, and distorted microorganelles. Essential oil form S. officinalis possessed antiradical scavenging (EC = 4602 μg/mL) lower than ascorbic acid (EC = 5.9 μg/mL). This oil was effectively exhibited hepato-nephroprotective activity especially at its higher concentrations in co-treated groups (SO plus CCl). The activity of SO was associated with lowering the liver enzymes, bilirubin, urea, and creatinine, along with increasing total protein, albumin, globulin, and prothrombin. The increase in GST content and the decrease in LPO and DNA breakage levels, alongside repairing the histo-architectural distortions further confirmed the protective activity of SO. SO is a potential candidate for counteracting hepato/renal injury associating CCl. This effect may occur via antioxidant defense mechanism which in part related to the complexity of its chemical constituents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2820-6DOI Listing
October 2018

ADRB3 polymorphism rs4994 (Trp64Arg) associates significantly with bodyweight elevation and dyslipidaemias in Saudis but not rs1801253 (Arg389Gly) polymorphism in ARDB1.

Lipids Health Dis 2018 Mar 27;17(1):58. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Senior Scientist, Central Laboratory, Center for Scientific and Medical Female Colleges, King Saud University, P.O. Box 22455, Riyadh, 11495, Saudi Arabia.

Background: In some populations, obesity and body weight related disorders show a correlation with polymorphisms in three subtypes of beta-adrenoceptor (β1, β2, and β3) [ADRB1, ADRB2 and ADRB3] genes. We scanned for the polymorphism of Arg389Gly (rs1801253) in ADRB1 and Trp64Arg (rs4994) in ADRB3 genes in Saudi population to determine association, if any, of these polymorphisms with obesity and related disorders.

Methods: We studied 329 non-related adults (33.1% men and 66.9% women), aged 18-36 years. Anthropometric measurements were recorded, and Body mass index (BMI) and waist/hip ratio were calculated; leptin, insulin, lipidogram, and glucose concentrations were determined. ADRB1 and ADRB3 polymorphisms (Arg389Gly and Trp64Arg, respectively) were screened by DNA sequencing. The subjects were divided into three groups according to BMI: normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m), overweight (BMI ≥25.1-29.9 kg/m) subjects, and obese (≥30 kg/m).

Results: In the age-matched groups of the normal weight, overweight and obese male and female subjects, all anthropometric parameters were found to be significantly higher, and in the obese group, all biochemical parameters were significantly elevated compared to the normal weight controls. The allelic frequency of Gly389 ADRB1 did not differ amongst the three groups, whereas the frequency of Arg64 of ADRB3 gene was significantly higher in the overweight and obese subjects, compared with the normal weight subjects. In addition, subjects carrying Arg64 allele regardless of their BMI had a greater waist and hip circumference, W/H ratio, plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, leptin, insulin, and glucose level compared to those with the wild-type Trp allele.

Conclusion: The results of this study have shown a significant association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism in ADRB3 gene and the development of overweight and obesity in Saudi populations. It also has an influence on the levels of lipid, insulin, leptin, and glucose, whereas, Arg389Gly polymorphism in ADRB1 is not associated with overweight, obesity or dyslipidaemias in Saudis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-018-0679-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5870215PMC
March 2018

Characterization of Apoptosis in a Breast Cancer Cell Line after IL-10 Silencing

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Mar 27;19(3):777-783. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

College of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Kind Saud University, Riyadh, kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Email:

Background: Breast cancer is affected by the immune system in that different cytokines play roles in its initiation and progression. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is an immunosuppressive factor involved in tumorigenesis. The present study was conducted to investigate the gene silencing effect of a small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting IL-10 on the apoptotic pathway in breast cancer cell line. Methods: The siRNA targeting IL-10 and a glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) clone were introduced into MDA-MB-231 cells. Real-time PCR assays were used to determine IL-10 and GAPDH gene expression levels, in addition to those for protein kinase B (AKT), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), caspase-3 and caspase-9 genes related to apoptosis. Results: Inhibition of IL-10 by the siRNA accelerated apoptosis and was accompanied by significant increase in caspase-3 and caspase-9 and a significant decrease in PI3K, AKT and Bcl2 expression levels compared to the non-transfected case. Conclusions: In conclusion, the production of IL-10 may represent a new escape mechanism by breast cancer cells to evade destruction by the immune system. IL-10 gene silencing causes down regulation of both PI3K/AKT and Bcl2 gene expression and also increases the Bbc3, BAX caspase3, and caspase 3 cleavage expression levels. IL–10 might represent a promising new target for therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.3.777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5980855PMC
March 2018

A versatile program for the calculation of linear accelerator room shielding.

J Radiol Prot 2018 Jun 22;38(2):666-677. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, 11796.

This work aims at designing a computer program to calculate the necessary amount of shielding for a given or proposed linear accelerator room design in radiotherapy. The program (Shield Calculation in Radiotherapy, SCR) has been developed using Microsoft Visual Basic. It applies the treatment room shielding calculations of NCRP report no. 151 to calculate proper shielding thicknesses for a given linear accelerator treatment room design. The program is composed of six main user-friendly interfaces. The first enables the user to upload their choice of treatment room design and to measure the distances required for shielding calculations. The second interface enables the user to calculate the primary barrier thickness in case of three-dimensional conventional radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and total body irradiation (TBI). The third interface calculates the required secondary barrier thickness due to both scattered and leakage radiation. The fourth and fifth interfaces provide a means to calculate the photon dose equivalent for low and high energy radiation, respectively, in door and maze areas. The sixth interface enables the user to calculate the skyshine radiation for photons and neutrons. The SCR program has been successfully validated, precisely reproducing all of the calculated examples presented in NCRP report no. 151 in a simple and fast manner. Moreover, it easily performed the same calculations for a test design that was also calculated manually, and produced the same results. The program includes a new and important feature that is the ability to calculate required treatment room thickness in case of IMRT and TBI. It is characterised by simplicity, precision, data saving, printing and retrieval, in addition to providing a means for uploading and testing any proposed treatment room shielding design. The SCR program provides comprehensive, simple, fast and accurate room shielding calculations in radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/aab8aaDOI Listing
June 2018

Attitudes, Social Norms, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Intention Toward Methicillin-Resistant Screening Among Health Care Workers.

Authors:
Zeinab M Hassan

Res Theory Nurs Pract 2017 Nov;31(4):321-333

Background: Screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represents a worldwide public health priority. Screening patients to detect colonization is considered an essential pillar of any MRSA control program.

Purpose: To (a) assess health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes, social norms, perceived behavioral control toward MRSA screening, and intention to perform the screening; (b) examine the predictors of HCWs intentions to perform screening; (c) identify HCWs' perception of barriers to and benefits of screening; and (d) identify HCWs' information sources about screening.

Methods: Data obtained from 870 HCWs using the MRSA Screening Survey (MRSASS) were analyzed. The MRSASS was divided into three parts. Part 1 assessed sociodemographic variables. Part 2 contained the following six sections: (a) attitudes and perceived risk of MRSA screening, (b) perceived social norms of screening, (c) perceived behavioral control factors, (d) intention, (e) barriers to screening, and (f) benefit of screening. Part 3 assessed HCWs' source of information about MRSA screening.

Results: HCWs had positive attitudes toward the intention to screen for MRSA. Many HCWs felt that they had little influence on policy makers to conduct MRSA screening. The most reported barriers for MRSA screening were a lack of isolation facilities and increased workload. Only 5.2% (n = 45) of respondents indicated that they had been given MRSA screening training.

Conclusion: Attitude was the only predictor for the intention to screen for MRSA. HCWs believed that the barriers to MRSA screening were inadequate facilities, primarily the lack of isolation facilities, and increased workload.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1541-6577.31.4.321DOI Listing
November 2017

Improving knowledge and compliance with infection control Standard Precautions among undergraduate nursing students in Jordan.

Authors:
Zeinab M Hassan

Am J Infect Control 2018 Mar 6;46(3):297-302. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

School of Nursing, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan. Electronic address:

Introduction: The recent emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases have made the knowledge and practice of standard infection control precautions in developing countries more important than ever. However, schools of nursing in Jordan do not have a prescribed curriculum in Standard Precautions.

Purpose: To test the effectiveness of using of an online education module and a learning contract on knowledge and compliance with infection control Standard Precautions among undergraduate nursing students in Jordan.

Methods: A sample of 256 undergraduate nursing students participated in an online education module in infection control Standard Precautions. A pretest-posttest design tested effectiveness using an online questionnaire (Questionnaires for Knowledge and Compliance with Standard Precautions) before and after the online instruction.

Results: Initially, subjects reported low levels of knowledge and compliance with Standard Precaution practices and relatively few (15.2%) had high scores. Compliance with Standard Precautions was somewhat better (27%). Significant differences in the mean scores of knowledge and compliance between pretest and posttest were found.

Conclusion: Online instruction offers a consistent and effective method to include Standard Precautions into nursing education. Organizations that oversee nursing in Jordan have the option to strengthen all nursing curricula by mandating a standardized infection control curricula across all schools of nursing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2017.09.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115283PMC
March 2018

Genotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride and the protective role of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. in mice using chromosomal aberration, micronuclei formation, and comet assay.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jan 3;25(2):1621-1636. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

Pathology Department, National Research Centre (NRC), 33 El-Bohouth st, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

The present work was conducted to evaluate the genotoxic effect of carbon tetrachloride (CCl) in mouse bone marrow and male germ cells. The safety and the modulating activity of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) essential oil (SEO) against the possible genotoxic effect of CCl were also evaluated. A combination of in vivo mutagenic endpoints was included: micronucleus (MN), apoptosis using dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, comet assay, chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and sperm abnormalities. Histological examination of testis tissues was also studied. The extracted SEO was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for identifying its chemical constituents. Safety/genotoxicity of SEO was determined after two consecutive weeks (5 days/week) from oral treatment with different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mL/kg). For assessing genotoxicity of CCl, both acute (once) and subacute i.p. treatment for 2 weeks (3 days/week) with the concentrations 1.2 mL/kg (for acute) and 0.8 mL/kg (for subacute) were performed. For evaluating the protective role of SEO, simultaneous treatment with SEO plus CCl was examined. In sperm abnormalities, mice were treated with the subject materials for five successive days and the samples were collected after 35 days from the beginning of treatment. Based on GC-MS findings, 22 components were identified in the chromatogram of SEO. The results demonstrated that the three concentrations of SEO were safe and non-genotoxic in all the tested endpoints. Negative results were also observed in bone marrow after acute and subacute treatment with CCl In contrast, CCl induced testicular DNA damage as evidenced by a significant increase of CAs in primary spermatocytes, sperm abnormalities, and histological distortion of testis. A remarkable reduction in these cells was observed in groups treated with SEO plus CCl especially with the two higher concentrations of SEO. In conclusion, SEO is safe and non-genotoxic under the tested conditions and can modulate genetic damage and histological alteration induced by CCl in the testes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0601-2DOI Listing
January 2018

Hyperglycemia Alters the Protein Levels of Prominin-1 and VEGFA in the Retina of Albino Rats.

J Histochem Cytochem 2018 01 27;66(1):33-45. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

Department of Anatomy, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia.

In this study, we addressed the potential relationship between prominin-1 (prom1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA) in diabetes-induced retinopathy. In total, we examined 28 retinas from 14 rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and 30 retinas from 15 untreated control rats. ELISA was used to measure the level of prom1 and VEGFA in retinal tissue homogenates. Immunohistochemical techniques were used with antibodies directed against prom1, VEGFA, and CASP-3. After 180 days of diabetes induction, we performed light and electron microscopy studies on rat eyes to evaluate histopathological changes and to estimate the de novo metric "Diabetic Retinopathy Histopathological Index" (DRHI). These changes were then correlated to the tissue and immunoexpression levels of prom1 and VEGFA. The data showed a significant upregulation of the tissue levels and optical densities (ODs) of VEGFA and prom1 immunoreactivity in diabetic retinas compared with controls. Both the tissue levels and OD values of prom1 and VEGFA correlated significantly with each other and to the diabetic structural changes as calculated by DRHI. Taken together, these data provide new insight into the potential role of prom1 and VEGFA in the development of diabetic retinopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1369/0022155417737484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5761945PMC
January 2018

Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Lymphocytic Mitochondrial DNA Deletion in Relation to Folic Acid Status in HCV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2017 09 27;18(9):2451-2457. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

Virology and Immunology Unit, Cancer Biology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Email:

Objective: We assessed the possibility of using mitochondrial (mt) DNA deletion as a molecular biomarker for disease progression in HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to identify its association with folic acid status. Methods: Serum folic acid and lymphocytic mtDNA deletions were assessed in 90 patients; 50 with HCC, 20 with liver cirrhosis (LC), and 20 with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) compared to 10 healthy control subjects. The diagnostic accuracy of mtDNA deletions frequency was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Differences in the survival rates were compared using log-rank test. Result: Our data revealed a significant elevation of mtDNA deletions frequency in the HCC group compared to the other groups (P-value <0.01). Also, our data showed a significant correlation between folate deficiency and high frequency of mtDNA deletions in patients with HCV-related HCC when compared to the other groups (r= -0.094 and P-value <0.05). Moreover, the size of the hepatic focal lesion in the HCC patients was positively correlated with mtDNA deletions (r= 0.09 and P-value <0.01). The median survival time for the HCC patients with high frequency of mtDNA deletions (ΔCt ≥3.9; 5.7+ 0.6 months) was significantly shorter than those with low mtDNA deletions frequency (ΔCt < 3.9; 11.9+ 0.04 months, P-value <0.01). Conclusion: Our data provided an evidence that lymphocytic mtDNA deletion could be used as non-invasive biomarker for disease progression and patients’ survival in HCV-related HCC. Also, our findings implied a causal relationship between the folate deficiency and the high mtDNA deletions frequency among Egyptian patients with HCV related HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.9.2451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5720650PMC
September 2017

The selective tyrosine kinase-inhibitor nilotinib alleviates experimentally induced cisplatin nephrotoxicity and heptotoxicity.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Oct 12;55:60-67. Epub 2017 Aug 12.

Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Taibah University, El-Madinah El-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia; Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt. Electronic address:

This work tested the action of nilotinib, selective inhibitor of tyrosine kinase on cisplatin (CP)-induced damage of kidney and liver in rats. Rats were assigned to 4 groups, control, nilotinib, CP, and CP plus nilotinib. Assessment of kidney and liver function, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant markers, anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2, nuclear factor- kappa B (NF-κB) immunoreactivity, and caspase 3 activity were done. CP-induced damage evidenced by histopathological changes, deterioration of renal and liver function, imbalance in oxidants/antioxidants markers, decreased Bcl2, increased caspase 3 activity, and NF-κB nuclear expression in both organs. Nilotinib treatment with CP restored kidney and liver oxidants/antioxidant levels also increased Bcl2 and decreased NF-κB immunoreactivity were evident with nilotinib treatment. In conclusions these results demonstrated a protective effect of nilotinib in experimentally induced CP kidney and liver damage that could be mediated through combating oxidative stress, reducing inflammation and anti-apoptosis in the two organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.08.008DOI Listing
October 2017

Morphological alterations in the jejunal mucosa of aged rats and the possible protective role of green tea.

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2017 16;55(3):124-139. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Zeinab A Hassan Department of Anatomy, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia and Department of Histology and cell biology, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Introduction: Gastrointestinal disorders become more prevalent with ageing. This study is aimed to describe morphological changes that occur in the jejunal mucosa of male albino rats as a result of ageing and the protec-tive effect of green tea (GT) extract.

Material And Methods: The experiment was performed on sixty rats: thirty young-adult (6-month old, body mass 200-220 g) and thirty old (24-month-old, body mass 220-260 g) animals. Each group was further divided into two subgroups (n = 15 each): control rats and GT-treated rats that received 1.5 mL (300 mg/kg/day) of GT extract for 14 weeks by oral gavage. Sections of the jejunum were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid Schiff, toluidine blue and Mallory trichrome methods. The presence of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)- and CD68-positive cells was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Ultrathin sections were prepared and examined by a transmission electron microscope (TEM).

Results: Jejunal sections of the old control rats showed distortion of submucosa and attenuated muscularis externa with decreased height of intestinal villi. The villi also showed partial loss of acidophilic brush border with wide spaces between enterocytes. Swollen, short, blunt or broad villi with abundant mononuclear cell infiltration of lamina propria and congested blood vessels were evident both by light and electron microscopy. The number of PCNA- and CD68-positive cells in jejunal mucosa of old rats was higher than in young rats. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the mucosa of old control rats were lower, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were higher in the jejunal homogenates of old rats as compared to young control rats. Administration of GT extract protected the jejunal mucosa from age-related changes by restoring its histological structure. The treatment of old rats with GT extract significantly decreased MDA levels in the jejunum and increased TAC and GPX activity.

Conclusions: The age-related changes of the morphology of rat jejunum could be ameliorated by prolonged supplementation of the green tea extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/FHC.a2017.0012DOI Listing
November 2018

Structural evaluation of the peritubular sheath of rat's testes after administration of ribavirin: A possible impact on the testicular function.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2017 Sep 11;30(3):282-296. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

1 Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia.

Effects of ribavirin on the structure of peritubular sheath (PS) of seminiferous tubules and on testicular functions were studied. We found that ribavirin at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks produced a significant reduction in testosterone level (6.3 ± 0.2; P < 0.001) and in spermatogenic score count (3.8 ± 0.2; P < 0.001) compared to control values. The thickness of PS (17.8 ± 1.13) and tubular lumen perimeter (1024.7 ± 67) was significantly increased compared to controls (10.7 ± 0.70; P < 0.001 and 808 ± 25; P = 0.004, respectively). The length of germinal epithelium (411.8 ± 39) and tubular external diameters (1661.8 ± 115) was significantly reduced compared to control values (708.4 ± 40; P < 0.001 and 2358.8 ± 169; P < 0.001, respectively). The basement membranes (BMs) were thickened with great deposition of collagen. Myoid cells showed altered structure and extracellular matrix revealed disorganization by excessive collagen I and IV accumulation. Testicular damage was established histologically. Evidence of apoptosis was detected in germ cells. There was a significant increase in integrated density of Casp-3 expression (38,121,743 ± 1,763,420; P < 0.001) in seminiferous tubules compared to control (24,788,409 ± 1,900,140). It is concluded that ribavirin can cause alterations of the testicular function and structure with increased apoptosis in the tissues after 4 weeks of administration. The damaging effect could be persuaded by destruction of the peritubular sheath.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0394632017726261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5815259PMC
September 2017