Publications by authors named "Zeinab Ghorbanoghli"

8 Publications

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Identification and management of Lynch syndrome in the Middle East and North African countries: outcome of a survey in 12 countries.

Fam Cancer 2020 Oct 24. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Lynch syndrome (LS), the most common inherited form of colorectal cancer (CRC), is responsible for 3% of all cases of CRC. LS is caused by a mismatch repair gene defect and is characterized by a high risk for CRC, endometrial cancer and several other cancers. Identification of LS is of utmost importance because colonoscopic surveillance substantially improves a patient's prognosis. Recently, a network of physicians in Middle Eastern and North African (ME/NA) countries was established to improve the identification and management of LS families. The aim of the present survey was to evaluate current healthcare for families with LS in this region.

Methods: A questionnaire was developed that addressed the following issues: availability of clinical management guidelines for LS; attention paid to family history of cancer; availability of genetic services for identification and diagnosis of LS; and assessment of knowledge of LS surveillance. Members of the network and authors of recent papers on LS from ME/NA and neighbouring countries were invited to participate in the survey and complete the online questionnaire.

Results: A total of 55 individuals were invited and 19 respondents from twelve countries including Algeria, Azerbaijan, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, Tunisia, and Turkey completed the questionnaire. The results showed that family history of CRC is considered in less than half of the surveyed countries. Guidelines for the management of LS are available in three out of twelve countries. The identification and selection of families for genetic testing were based on clinical criteria (Amsterdam criteria II or Revised Bethesda criteria) in most countries, and only one country performed universal screening. In most of the surveyed countries genetic services were available in few hospitals or only in a research setting. However, surveillance of LS families was offered in the majority of countries and most frequently consisted of regular colonoscopy.

Conclusion: The identification and management of LS in ME/NA countries are suboptimal and as a result most LS families in the region remain undetected. Future efforts should focus on increasing awareness of LS amongst both the general population and doctors, and on the improvement of the infrastructure in these countries.
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October 2020

Increased prevalence of Barrett's esophagus in patients with MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP).

Fam Cancer 2020 04;19(2):183-187

Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Leiden University Medical Center, PO BOX 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Barrett's oesophagus (BE) has been associated with an increased risk of both colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer. A recent investigation reported a high frequency of BE in patients with adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)-associated polyposis (FAP). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of BE in a large cohort of patients with MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) and APC-associated adenomatous polyposis. Patients with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or MAP were selected and upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy reports, pathology reports of upper GI biopsies were reviewed to determine the prevalence of BE in these patients. Histologically confirmed BE was found in 7 (9.7%) of 72 patients with MAP. The mean age of diagnosis was 60.2 years (range 54.1-72.4 years). Two patients initially diagnosed with low grade dysplasia showed fast progression into high grade dysplasia and esophageal cancer, respectively. Only 4 (1.4%) of 365 patients with FAP were found to have pathologically confirmed BE. The prevalence of BE in patients with MAP is much higher than reported in the general population. We recommend that upper GI surveillance of patients with MAP should not only focus on the detection of gastric and duodenal adenomas but also on the presence of BE.
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April 2020

Optimizing the timing of colorectal surgery in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis in clinical practice.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2019 Jun 11;54(6):733-739. Epub 2019 Aug 11.

Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Leiden University Medical Centre , Leiden , The Netherlands.

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the development of hundreds of colorectal adenomas in the second decade of life, and prophylactic colectomy is usually performed around age of 20. A common question is the appropriate timing of surgery and which endoscopic findings indicate surgery. All FAP patients known at Leiden University Medical Centre from 1985 onwards were included. The patients were then subdivided into those diagnosed before or after 2000. Patient information included age at diagnosis, colonic phenotype, age at surgery, pathological findings and the outcome of follow-up colonoscopies in whom surgery was postponed. The 72 FAP patients identified consisted of 33 patients diagnosed before (group A) and 39 after (group B) 2000. The median age at diagnosis for patients with classical FAP was 18 in groups A and B. All patients diagnosed before 2000 underwent colorectal surgery versus 68% of those diagnosed >2000. The median age at surgery for classical FAP patients was 19 and 24 years in groups A and B, respectively. In patients with intact colon, the number of adenomas gradually increased over many years. Although most adenomas remained <5 mm, the proportion of 5-15 mm adenomas slowly increased. Only one patient developed a high-grade adenoma. None of the patients developed CRC. Surgery today in FAP is performed less often and at a more advanced age. Our experience also suggests that surgery can be safely postponed in selected patients. The most important endoscopic indication for surgery is substantial number of large adenomas of >5-10 mm.
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June 2019

A new hereditary colorectal cancer network in the Middle East and eastern mediterranean countries to improve care for high-risk families.

Fam Cancer 2018 04;17(2):209-212

Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Leiden University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a very high incidence in the western world. Data from registries in the Middle East showed that the incidence of CRC is relatively low in these countries. However, these data also showed that CRC incidence has increased substantially over the past three decades and that a high proportion of cases are diagnosed at an early age (<50 years). In view of these findings, more attention should be paid to prevention. Because of the often limited financial resources, focused screening of individuals with hereditary CRC, in particular those with Lynch syndrome, appears to be the most cost-effective strategy. During recent meetings of the Palestinian Society of Gastroenterology and the Mediterranean Task force for Cancer Control (MTCC) in Jericho, and the Patient's Friends Society of Jerusalem in Hebron the issue of hereditary CRC in the Middle East was discussed and the idea was conceived to establish a network on hereditary colorectal cancer (HCCN-ME) with the goal of improving care for high-risk groups in the Middle East and (Eastern) Mediterranean Countries.
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April 2018

Extracolonic cancer risk in Dutch patients with APC (adenomatous polyposis coli)-associated polyposis.

J Med Genet 2018 01 10;55(1):11-14. Epub 2017 May 10.

Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Screening of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) have led to a substantial reduction in mortality due to colorectal cancer (CRC). Recent guidelines suggest that surveillance of non-intestinal malignancies should also be considered in those patients. However, the value of these surveillance programmes is unknown. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the occurrence of extracolonic malignancies in a large series of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation carriers and (2) to evaluate the causes of death.

Methods: All APC mutation carriers were selected from the Dutch polyposis registry. Data on causes of death were collected. Pathology reports were retrieved from the Dutch Pathology Registry.

Results: A total of 85 extracolonic malignancies were diagnosed in 74 of 582 APC mutation carriers. Duodenal and skin cancers were the most prevalent cancers. Thyroid cancer was observed in only 1.5% of the cases. The main cause of death was cancer (59% of all deaths), with 42% due to CRC and 21% due to duodenal cancer. One patient died from thyroid cancer. The second and third most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease (13% of all deaths) and desmoid tumours (11% of all deaths), respectively.

Conclusion: Extending surveillance programmes to other cancers will not contribute significantly to the survival of patients with FAP.
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January 2018

Identification of familial colorectal cancer and hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes through the Dutch population-screening program: results ofa pilot study.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2016 10 16;51(10):1227-32. Epub 2016 Jun 16.

a Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology , Leiden University Medical Center , Leiden , the Netherlands ;

Objectives: In 2014, a population-screening program using immuno-faecal occult blood testing (I-FOBT) has started in the Netherlands. The aims of this study were to evaluate the proportion of individuals in the Dutch screening program with a positive I-FOBT that fulfill the criteria for familial colorectal cancer (FCC) and to evaluate the proportion of participants that needs genetic counseling or colonoscopic surveillance.

Material And Methods: This retrospective observational study was performed in two large hospitals. Individuals aged between 55 and 75 years with a positive I-FOBT that underwent colonoscopy were included. A detailed family history was obtained in all individuals.

Results: A total of 657 individuals with a positive I-FOBT test underwent colonoscopy. A total of 120 (18.3%) participants were found to have a positive family history for CRC, 20 (3.0%) fulfilled the FCC criteria, 4 (0.6%) the Bethesda guidelines and 1 (0.2%) participant the Amsterdam criteria. Multiple adenomas (>10) were found in 21 (3.2%) participants. No cases of serrated polyposis were identified. Based on these criteria and guidelines, a total of 35 (5.3%) required referral to the clinical geneticist and the relatives of 20 (3.0%) participants should be referred for surveillance colonoscopy.

Conclusion: Obtaining a detailed family history at the time of intake of participants with a positive I-FOBT in the Dutch surveillance program increased the identification of participants with familial CRC.
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October 2016