Publications by authors named "Zdenek Slavik"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

In-hospital interstage improves interstage survival after the Norwood stage 1 operation.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2020 06;57(6):1113-1121

Department of Paediatric Intensive Care, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, London, UK.

Objectives: The interstage mortality rate after a Norwood stage 1 operation remains 12-20% in current series. In-hospital interstage facilitates escalation of care, possibly improving outcome.

Methods: A retrospective study was designed for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and HLHS variants, offering an in-hospital stay after the Norwood operation until the completion of stage 2. Daily and weekly examinations were conducted systematically, including two-dimensional and speckle-tracking echocardiography. Primary end points included aggregate survival until the completion of stage 2 and interstage freedom from escalation of care. Moreover, we calculated the sensitivity and specificity of speckle-tracking echocardiographic myocardial deformation in predicting death/transplant after the Norwood procedure.

Results: Between 2015 and 2019, 33 neonates with HLHS (24) or HLHS variants (9) underwent Norwood stage 1 (31) or hybrid palliation followed by a comprehensive stage 2 operation (2). Stage 1 Norwood-Sano was preferred in 18 (54.5%) neonates; the classic Norwood with Blalock-Taussig shunt was performed in 13 (39.4%) neonates. The Norwood stage 1 30-day mortality rate was 6.2%. The in-hospital interstage strategy was implemented after Norwood stage 1 with a 3.4% interstage mortality rate. The aggregate Norwood stage 1 and interstage Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 90.6 ± 5.2%. Escalation of care was necessary for 5 (17.2%) patients at 2.5 ± 1.2 months during the interstage for compromising atrial arrhythmias (2), Sano-shunt stenosis (1) and pneumonia requiring a high-frequency oscillator (2); there were no deaths. A bidirectional Glenn (25) or a comprehensive-Norwood stage 2 (2) was completed in 27 patients at 4.7 ± 1.2 months with a 92.6% survival rate. The overall Kaplan-Meier survival rate is 80.9 ± 7.0% at 4.3 years (mean 25.3 ± 15.7 months). An 8.7% Δ longitudinal strain 30 days after Norwood stage 1 had 100% sensitivity and 81% specificity for death/transplant.

Conclusions: In-hospital interstage facilitates escalation of care, which seems efficacious in reducing interstage Norwood deaths. A significant reduction of longitudinal strain after Norwood stage 1 is a strong predictor of poor outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezaa074DOI Listing
June 2020

Accuracy of computed tomography in detection of great vessel stenosis or hypoplasia before superior bidirectional cavopulmonary connection: Comparison with cardiac catheterization and surgical findings.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2019 Jan 21;112(1):12-21. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

Department of paediatric cardiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney street, London SW3 6NP, UK.

Background: Cardiac catheterization is the gold-standard modality for investigation of cardiovascular morphology before bidirectional cavopulmonary connection, but requires general anaesthesia and is associated with procedural risk.

Aims: To assess the diagnostic accuracy and safety of computed tomography in diagnosing great vessel stenosis/hypoplasia compared with cardiac catheterization and surgical findings.

Methods: Twenty-seven patients (10 after Norwood stage I) underwent computed tomography before surgery between January 2010 and June 2016; 16 of these patients also underwent cardiac catheterization. Proximal and distal pulmonary artery, aortic isthmus and descending aorta measurements, radiation dose and complications were compared via Bland-Altman analyses and correlation coefficients.

Results: The accuracy of computed tomography in detecting stenosis/hypoplasia of either pulmonary artery was 96.1% compared with surgical findings. For absolute vessel measurements and Z-scores, there was high correlation between computed tomography and angiography at catheterization (r=0.98 for both) and a low mean bias (0.71mm and 0.48; respectively). The magnitude of intertechnique differences observed for individual patients was low (95% of the values ranged between -0.9 and 2.3mm and between -0.7 and 1.7, respectively). Four patients (25%) experienced minor complications from cardiac catheterization, whereas there were no complications from computed tomography. Patients tended to receive a higher radiation dose with cardiac catheterization than with computed tomography, even after exclusion of interventional catheterization procedures (median 2.5 mSv [interquartile range 1.3 to 3.4 mSv] versus median 1.3 mSv [interquartile range 0.9 to 2.6 mSv], respectively; P=0.13). All computed tomography scans were performed without sedation.

Conclusions: Computed tomography may replace cardiac catheterization in identification of great vessel stenosis/hypoplasia before bidirectional cavopulmonary connection when no intervention before surgery is required. Computed tomography carries lower morbidity, can be performed without sedation and may be associated with less radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2018.04.006DOI Listing
January 2019

Outcome after transcatheter occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus in infants less than 6 kg: A national study from United Kingdom and Ireland.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2017 Dec 11;90(7):1135-1144. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Bristol, England, United Kingdom.

Objectives: This study aimed to report our national experience with transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occlusion in infants weighing <6 kg.

Background: The technique of transcatheter PDA closure has evolved in the past two decades and is increasingly used in smaller patients but data on safety and efficacy are limited.

Methods: Patients weighing < 6 kg in whom transcatheter PDA occlusion was attempted in 13 tertiary paediatric cardiology units in the United Kingdom and Ireland were retrospectively analyzed to review the outcome and complications.

Results: A total of 408 patients underwent attempted transcatheter PDA closure between January 2004 and December 2014. The mean weight at catheterization was 4.9 ± 1.0 kg and mean age was 5.7 ± 3.0 months. Successful device implantation was achieved in 374 (92%) patients without major complication and of these, complete occlusion was achieved in 356 (95%) patients at last available follow-up. Device embolization occurred in 20 cases (5%). The incidence of device related obstruction to the left pulmonary artery or aorta and access related peripheral vascular injury were low. There were no deaths related to the procedure.

Conclusions: Transcatheter closure of PDA can be accomplished in selected infants weighing <6 kg despite the manufacturer's recommended weight limit of 6 kg for most ductal occluders. The embolization rate is higher than previously reported in larger patients. Retrievability of the occluder and duct morphology needs careful consideration before deciding whether surgical ligation or transcatheter therapy is the better treatment option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.27212DOI Listing
December 2017

Right Ventricular Pressure Overload and Pathophysiology of Growing Porcine Biomodel.

Pediatr Cardiol 2016 Dec 24;37(8):1498-1506. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

Department of Histology and Embryology and Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague, Karlovarska 48, 301 66, Pilsen, Czech Republic.

The primary objective was to create a clinically relevant model of right ventricular hypertension and to study right ventricular myocardial pathophysiology in growing organism. The secondary objective was to analyse the effect of oral enoximone (phosphodiesterase inhibitor) therapy on right ventricular haemodynamic parameters and myocardial changes in biomodel of right ventricular hypertension. The study included a total of 12 piglets of 42 days of age. Under general anaesthesia, pulmonary artery banding (PAB) was performed surgically to constrict the main pulmonary artery to about 70-80 % of its original dimension. The study presented two groups of animals labelled C (control animals with PAB; n = 8) and E (animals with PAB and oral administration of enoximone; n = 4). Direct pressure and echocardiographic measurements were taken during operation (time-1), and again at 40 days after surgery (time-2). The animals were killed, and tissue samples from the heart chambers were collected for quantitative morphological assessment. Statistical analysis was performed on all acquired data. At time-2, the median weight of animals doubled and the median systolic pressure gradient across the PAB increased (46.59 ± 15.87 mmHg vs. 20.29 ± 5.76 mmHg; p < 0.001). Changes in haemodynamic parameters were compatible with right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in all the animals. Apoptosis, tissue proliferation and fibrosis were identified in all the myocardial tissue samples. Right ventricular pressure overload leads to increased apoptosis of cardiac myocytes, proliferation and myocardial fibrosis. Our study did not show evidence of haemodynamic benefit or myocardial protective effect of oral enoximone treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-016-1463-yDOI Listing
December 2016

Oral Enoximone as an Alternative to Protracted Intravenous Medication in Severe Pediatric Myocardial Failure.

Pediatr Cardiol 2016 Oct 5;37(7):1297-301. Epub 2016 Jul 5.

Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, Sydney Street, London, SW3 6NP, UK.

Phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitors have been used successfully in pediatric patients with acute or chronic myocardial dysfunction over the last two decades. Their protracted continuous intravenous administration is associated with risk of infectious and thromboembolic complications. Weaning intravenous medication and starting oral angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and/or beta-blockers can be challenging. We reviewed retrospectively hospital records of 48 patients receiving oral enoximone treatment in a single tertiary pediatric cardiac center between November 2005 and April 2014. Failure to wean from intravenous milrinone infusion and/or intolerance of ACE inhibitors and/or beta-blockers was indications for oral enoximone treatment. Age of the patients ranged between 0.5 and 191 months (median 7.5 months) at the time of starting enoximone treatment. There were 14 patients (29 %) with left ventricular dysfunction due to myocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy and 34 patients (71 %) with myocardial dysfunction complicating congenital heart disease. Fifteen (44 %) of these 34 patients had left ventricular dysfunction, 13 (38 %) right ventricular dysfunction, and in 6 (18 %) both ventricles were failing. Duration of oral enoximone treatment was between 3 days and 34 months (median of 2.3 months). Myocardial functional recovery allowed for weaning of enoximone treatment in 15 patients (31 %) after 6 days-15 months (median 5 months). No adverse hemodynamic effects were noted. Blood stained gastric aspirates encountered in two patients resolved with concomitant milk administration. Based on our limited experience, oral enoximone is a well-tolerated and promising alternative to intravenous medication and/or other commonly used oral medications in selected pediatric patients with chronic heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-016-1433-4DOI Listing
October 2016

Arterial Switch Operation in Single Coronary Ostium With Intramural Course: Subclavian Artery Patch Angioplasty.

Ann Thorac Surg 2015 Sep;100(3):1084-6

Department of Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Surgery, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

This report describes a neonatal arterial switch operation in a transposition of the great arteries with single ostium and intramural course coronary pattern. The technique proposed is based on the creation of two coronary neoostia by incising the left coronary intramural course and splitting the common button followed by a patch enlargement of left coronary button using the left subclavian artery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.11.071DOI Listing
September 2015

β-blockers in postoperative myocardial diastolic dysfunction: not a panacea.

BMJ Case Rep 2014 Oct 3;2014. Epub 2014 Oct 3.

Department of PICU, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK.

Successful treatment with heart rate lowering medication has been used to treat adults with chronic myocardial dysfunction of various aetiologies for a number of years. There has been recent evidence for the successful use of β-receptor blocking medication in highly selected group of infants with diastolic myocardial dysfunction. This case series demonstrates that while the use of β-receptor blockers in infants early following initial treatment of congenital left heart obstructive lesions appears promising and safe adjunct to more conventional management, the medium-term and long-term care of these patients remains as challenging as before.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4187418PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2014-205124DOI Listing
October 2014

A clinical and economic evaluation of Control of Hyperglycaemia in Paediatric intensive care (CHiP): a randomised controlled trial.

Health Technol Assess 2014 Apr;18(26):1-210

Medical Statistics Department, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Early research in adults admitted to intensive care suggested that tight control of blood glucose during acute illness can be associated with reductions in mortality, length of hospital stay and complications such as infection and renal failure. Prior to our study, it was unclear whether or not children could also benefit from tight control of blood glucose during critical illness.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine if controlling blood glucose using insulin in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) reduces mortality and morbidity and is cost-effective, whether or not admission follows cardiac surgery.

Design: Randomised open two-arm parallel group superiority design with central randomisation with minimisation. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Following random allocation, care givers and outcome assessors were no longer blind to allocation.

Setting: The setting was 13 English PICUs.

Participants: Patients who met the following criteria were eligible for inclusion: ≥ 36 weeks corrected gestational age; ≤ 16 years; in the PICU following injury, following major surgery or with critical illness; anticipated treatment > 12 hours; arterial line; mechanical ventilation; and vasoactive drugs. Exclusion criteria were as follows: diabetes mellitus; inborn error of metabolism; treatment withdrawal considered; in the PICU > 5 consecutive days; and already in CHiP (Control of Hyperglycaemia in Paediatric intensive care).

Intervention: The intervention was tight glycaemic control (TGC): insulin by intravenous infusion titrated to maintain blood glucose between 4.0 and 7.0 mmol/l.

Conventional Management (cm): This consisted of insulin by intravenous infusion only if blood glucose exceeded 12.0 mmol/l on two samples at least 30 minutes apart; insulin was stopped when blood glucose fell below 10.0 mmol/l.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was the number of days alive and free from mechanical ventilation within 30 days of trial entry (VFD-30). The secondary outcomes comprised clinical and economic outcomes at 30 days and 12 months and lifetime cost-effectiveness, which included costs per quality-adjusted life-year.

Results: CHiP recruited from May 2008 to September 2011. In total, 19,924 children were screened and 1369 eligible patients were randomised (TGC, 694; CM, 675), 60% of whom were in the cardiac surgery stratum. The randomised groups were comparable at trial entry. More children in the TGC than in the CM arm received insulin (66% vs. 16%). The mean VFD-30 was 23 [mean difference 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.42 to 1.14]. The effect did not differ among prespecified subgroups. Hypoglycaemia occurred significantly more often in the TGC than in the CM arm (moderate, 12.5% vs. 3.1%; severe, 7.3% vs. 1.5%). Mean 30-day costs were similar between arms, but mean 12-month costs were lower in the TGC than in CM arm (incremental costs -£3620, 95% CI -£7743 to £502). For the non-cardiac surgery stratum, mean costs were lower in the TGC than in the CM arm (incremental cost -£9865, 95% CI -£18,558 to -£1172), but, in the cardiac surgery stratum, the costs were similar between the arms (incremental cost £133, 95% CI -£3568 to £3833). Lifetime incremental net benefits were positive overall (£3346, 95% CI -£11,203 to £17,894), but close to zero for the cardiac surgery stratum (-£919, 95% CI -£16,661 to £14,823). For the non-cardiac surgery stratum, the incremental net benefits were high (£11,322, 95% CI -£15,791 to £38,615). The probability that TGC is cost-effective is relatively high for the non-cardiac surgery stratum, but, for the cardiac surgery subgroup, the probability that TGC is cost-effective is around 0.5. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were robust to a range of alternative assumptions.

Conclusions: CHiP found no differences in the clinical or cost-effectiveness of TGC compared with CM overall, or for prespecified subgroups. A higher proportion of the TGC arm had hypoglycaemia. This study did not provide any evidence to suggest that PICUs should stop providing CM for children admitted to PICUs following cardiac surgery. For the subgroup not admitted for cardiac surgery, TGC reduced average costs at 12 months and is likely to be cost-effective. Further research is required to refine the TGC protocol to minimise the risk of hypoglycaemic episodes and assess the long-term health benefits of TGC.

Trial Registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN61735247.

Funding: This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 18, No. 26. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3310/hta18260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4781135PMC
April 2014

Early postoperative outcomes following surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defects: is down syndrome a risk factor?

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2014 Jan;15(1):35-41

All authors: Department of Pediatrics, Royal Brompton Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of Down syndrome on the early postoperative outcomes of children undergoing complete atrioventricular septal defect repair.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Single tertiary pediatric cardiac center.

Patients: All children admitted to PICU following biventricular surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect from January 2004 to December 2009.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: A total of 107 children, 67 with Down syndrome, were included. Children with Down syndrome were operated earlier: 4 months (interquartile range, 3.5-6.6) versus 5.7 months (3-8.4) for Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome groups, respectively (p < 0.01). There was no early postoperative mortality. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of dysplastic atrioventricular valve between the two groups. Two children (2.9%) from Down syndrome and three children (7.5%) from non-Down syndrome group required early reoperation (p = 0.3). Junctional ectopic tachycardia was the most common arrhythmia, and the prevalence of junctional ectopic tachycardia was similar between the two groups (9% and 10% in Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome, respectively, p = 1). One patient from each group required insertion of permanent pacemaker for complete heart block. Children with Down syndrome had significantly higher prevalence of noncardiac complications, that is, pneumothorax, pleural effusions, and infections (p < 0.01), than children without Down syndrome. There was a trend for longer duration of mechanical ventilation in children with Down syndrome (41 hr [20-61 hr] vs 27.5 hr [15-62 hr], p = 0.2). However, there was no difference in duration of PICU stay between the two groups (2 d [1.3-3 d] vs 2 d [1-3 d], p = 0.9, respectively).

Conclusions: In our study, we found no difference in the prevalence of atrioventricular valve dysplasia between children with and without Down syndrome undergoing complete atrioventricular septal defect repair. This finding contrasts with previously published data, and further confirmatory studies are required. Although clinical outcomes were similar, children with Down syndrome had a significantly higher prevalence of noncardiac complications in the early postoperative period than children without Down syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000000004DOI Listing
January 2014

Vascular histopathologic reaction to pulmonary artery banding in an in vivo growing porcine model.

Pediatr Cardiol 2013 Oct 17;34(7):1652-60. Epub 2013 Apr 17.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague, Karlovarska 48, Pilsen, 301 66, Czech Republic.

Pulmonary artery banding (PAB) is used as a surgical palliation to reduce excessive pulmonary blood flow caused by congenital heart defects. Due to the lack of microscopic studies dealing with the tissue remodeling caused by contemporary PAB materials, this study aimed to assess histologic changes associated with PAB surgery by analyzing local tissue reaction to the presence of Gore-Tex strips fixed around the pulmonary artery. Gore-Tex strips were used for PAB in a growing porcine model. After 5 weeks, histologic samples with PAB (n = 5) were compared with healthy pulmonary arterial segments distal to the PAB or from a sham-treated animal (n = 1). Stereology was used to quantify the density of the vasa vasorum and the area fraction of elastin, smooth muscle actin, macrophages, and nervi vasorum within the pulmonary arterial wall. The null hypothesis stated that samples did not differ histopathologically from adjacent vascular segments or sham-treated samples. The PAB samples had a greater area fraction of macrophages, a lower amount of nervi vasorum, and a tendency toward decreased smooth muscle content compared with samples that had no PAB strips. There was no destruction of elastic membranes, no medionecrosis, no pronounced inflammatory infiltration or foreign body reaction, and no vasa vasorum deficiency after the PAB. All the histopathologic changes were limited to the banded vascular segment and did not affect distal parts of the pulmonary artery. The study results show the tissue reaction of palliative PAB and suggest that Gore-Tex strips used contemporarily for PAB do not cause severe local histologic damage to the banded segment of the pulmonary arterial wall after 5 weeks in a porcine PAB model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-013-0699-zDOI Listing
October 2013

Novel postoperative use of beta-blocking medication for infants with left ventricular outflow obstruction and diastolic myocardial dysfunction.

Pediatr Cardiol 2012 Dec 10;33(8):1450-2. Epub 2012 Mar 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, London, SW3 6NP, UK.

Severe left ventricular outflow obstruction often is associated with diastolic left ventricular myocardial dysfunction and tachycardia despite successful initial treatment. The authors have used esmolol to lower heart rate in this setting for successful weaning of patients from ventilation in postoperative recovery. Their limited experience supports the beneficial effect of continuous esmolol administration on infants with persistent tachycardia and severe left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in postoperative cardiac intensive care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-012-0271-2DOI Listing
December 2012

Repeated bedside echocardiography in children with respiratory failure.

Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2011 Apr 26;9:14. Epub 2011 Apr 26.

Department of Paediatrics, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen and Faculty Hospital Pilsen, Czech Republic.

Background: The aim of this study was to verify the benefits and limitations of repeated bedside echocardiographic examinations in children during mechanical ventilation. For the purposes of this study, we selected the data of over a time period from 2006 to 2010.

Methods: A total of 235 children, average age 3.21 (SD 1.32) years were included into the study and divided into etiopathogenic groups. High-risk groups comprised: Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), return of spontaneous circulation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ROSC), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), cardiomyopathy (CMP) and cardiopulmonary disease (CPD). Transthoracic echocardiography was carried out during mechanical ventilation. The following data were collated for statistical evaluation: right and left ventricle myocardial performance indices (RV MPI; LV MPI), left ventricle shortening fraction (SF), cardiac output (CO), and the mitral valve ratio of peak velocity of early wave (E) to the peak velocity of active wave (A) as E/A ratio. The data was processed after a period of recovery, i.e. one hour after the introduction of invasive lines (time-1) and after 72 hours of comprehensive treatment (time-2). The overall development of parameters over time was compared within groups and between groups using the distribution-free Wilcoxons and two-way ANOVA tests.

Results: A total of 870 echocardiographic examinations were performed. At time-1 higher average values of RV MPI (0.34, SD 0.01 vs. 0.21, SD 0.01; p < 0.001) were found in all groups compared with reference values. Left ventricular load in the high-risk groups was expressed by a higher LV MPI (0.39, SD 0.13 vs. 0.29, SD 0.02; p < 0.01) and lower E/A ratio (0.95, SD 0.36 vs. 1.36, SD 0.64; p < 0.001), SF (0.37, SD 0.11 vs. 0.47, SD 0.02; p < 0.01) and CO (1.95, SD 0.37 vs. 2.94, SD 1.03; p < 0.01). At time-2 RV MPI were lower (0.25, SD 0.02 vs. 0.34, SD 0.01; p < 0.001), but remained higher compared with reference values (0.25, SD 0.02 vs. 0.21, SD 0.01; p < 0.05). Other parameters in high-risk groups were improved, but remained insignificantly different compared with reference values.

Conclusion: Echocardiography complements standard monitoring of valuable information regarding cardiac load in real time. Chest excursion during mechanical ventilation does not reduce the quality of the acquired data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-7120-9-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3111351PMC
April 2011

Control of hyperglycaemia in paediatric intensive care (CHiP): study protocol.

BMC Pediatr 2010 Feb 5;10. Epub 2010 Feb 5.

Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, London SW3 6NP, UK.

Background: There is increasing evidence that tight blood glucose (BG) control improves outcomes in critically ill adults. Children show similar hyperglycaemic responses to surgery or critical illness. However it is not known whether tight control will benefit children given maturational differences and different disease spectrum.

Methods/design: The study is an randomised open trial with two parallel groups to assess whether, for children undergoing intensive care in the UK aged
Discussion: The relevance of tight glycaemic control in this population needs to be assessed formally before being accepted into standard practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-10-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2830203PMC
February 2010

Real time three-dimensional echocardiography moves towards clinically useful neonatal cardiovascular imaging.

Int J Cardiol 2005 Dec;105(3):306-7

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2005.03.060DOI Listing
December 2005

Early detection of myocardial dysfunction in Chagas disease using novel echocardiographic indices.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2003 Sep-Oct;97(5):528-34

Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Royal Brompton Hospital, Chelsea, London, UK.

The first manifestation of cardiac involvement in Chagas disease could be sudden death or rapid deterioration in cardiac function. The aim of this study was to identify a non-invasive method for early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with Chagas disease. During a 6-month period in 2001, 133 people were studied using echocardiography and electrocardiography in Honduras; 88 were seropositive for Trypanosoma cruzi, of which 31 were asymptomatic, and 45 were seronegative controls. The echocardiographic assessment included geometrical and time interval derived indices. Patients with asymptomatic Chagas disease had increased left and right myocardial performance index (MPI) when compared with seronegative controls (P= 0.003 and P= 0.023, respectively) with 36% having a left MPI above the upper limit of the normal range. They also had a reduced diastolic posterior wall thickness (P= 0.005) and lower posterior wall thickness to left ventricular cavity (PWT:LVC) ratio (P= 0.002). Our results show that the MPI, a simple Doppler parameter, and the PWT:LVC ratio are useful in the early detection of myocardial involvement in asymptomatic patients with Chagas disease. These parameters could serve as useful screening tools and monitor the disease progression in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0035-9203(03)80016-0DOI Listing
November 2004

Somatostatin analog (octreotide) in management of neonatal postoperative chylothorax: is it safe?

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2004 Jul;5(4):356-7

Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Trust, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK.

Objective: Somatostatin and its analogs have recently been introduced in the treatment of chylous effusions in infants and children following surgery. The safety profile of this treatment in critically ill patients has not been fully evaluated.

Design: Retrospective case review.

Setting: Tertiary pediatric cardiac center.

Patients: A male infant born by cesarean section with a birth weight of 2.6 kg.

Interventions: None.

Conclusions: We report the association of postoperative chylothorax treated with somatostatin analog (octreotide) and necrotizing enterocolitis in an infant following aortic coarctation repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.pcc.0000123552.36127.22DOI Listing
July 2004

Treatment of Czech children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report of the Czech Working Group for Pediatric Hematology.

Med Pediatr Oncol 2002 Aug;39(2):125-7

2nd Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Motol, Praha, Czech Republic.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mpo.1371DOI Listing
August 2002

Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum: range of morphology in a population-based study.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2002 May;39(10):1670-9

Wessex Cardiothoracic Centre, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Objectives: We describe the morphologic variability in pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS) within a population-based study.

Background: An uncommon disease, PAIVS shows considerable morphologic heterogeneity. Clinical reports, based mostly on small samples of patients, may not reflect the true spectrum of pathology of this condition. We have studied the entire range of morphology in a prospective population-based study of patients over a five-year period (1991 to 1995). METHODS; As part of the United Kingdom and Ireland Collaborative Study of PAIVS, all 18 pediatric cardiac centers were visited by a single investigator. Morphologic features of each case were determined by direct review of the echocardiograms and angiocardiograms, from surgical and autopsy reports, and by review of pathology specimens where available.

Results: Among 183 live-born infants, atresia was valvar (membranous) in 74.7% and muscular in 25.3%. Muscular obliteration of the apical trabecular cavity, and in some cases its infundibulum, resulted in "bipartite" right ventricle (RV) in 33.6%, and a "unipartite" chamber in 7.7%. The remaining 58.7% had "tripartite" morphology. Coronary arterial abnormalities were identified in 45.8%, including arterial stenoses, interruptions and ectasia in 7.6%. Ebstein's malformation coexisted in 18 patients. Median tricuspid valvar size and RV inlet Z-scores were -5.2 and -5.1, respectively.

Conclusions: This study provides unique data on the diverse pathology of PAIVS in an unselected population. This will help determine if published reports reflect the true spectrum of pathology of the condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0735-1097(02)01832-6DOI Listing
May 2002