Publications by authors named "Zan Gao"

110 Publications

Effect of Wearable Technology-Based Physical Activity Interventions on Breast Cancer Survivors' Physiological, Cognitive, and Emotional Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

J Clin Med 2021 May 8;10(9). Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, 208 Cooke Hall, 1900 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

This systematic review synthesized all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled trials examining the effects of wearable health technology-based physical activity interventions on physiological, cognitive, and emotional outcomes in breast cancer survivors (BCS). We searched NCBI, Academic Search Premier, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed, and Medline from inception to March 2021. We included studies which: (1) were RCTs or controlled trials ≥8 weeks in duration; (2) were peer-reviewed and published in English; (3) sampled BCS in full remission and had not received treatment for at least six months; (4) utilized wearable health technology (e.g., Fitbit, Garmin xGC30); and (5) examined physiological, emotional, and/or cognitive outcomes. Sixty-six studies were identified and 14 were included in the review. Most of the observed effects were statistically significant and those which employed multi-component interventions generally yielded greater effects. Overall, the use of wearable health technology reduced sedentary behavior and increased moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. Further, increased moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was observed to be associated with increased perceived cognition and higher cognitive performance. Multiple studies also observed significant improvements in attitude, worry, and anxiety. Overall, findings suggested wearable health technology-based physical activity interventions to be effective for improving physical activity, attitude, and cognitive functions and for reducing sedentary behavior, anxiety, and worry in BCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10092015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125804PMC
May 2021

Mild hypothermia facilitates mitochondrial transfer from astrocytes to injured neurons during oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation.

Neurosci Lett 2021 06 7;756:135940. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050000, Hebei, China. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial dysfunction is now considered an important sign of neuronal death during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Studies have shown that the transfer of mitochondria from astrocytes to injured neurons contributes to endogenous neuroprotection after stroke. Basic and clinical studies have shown that mild hypothermia exerts a clear protective effect on neurons after cerebral ischemic injury, but the role of mild hypothermia in this endogenous neuroprotective mechanism remains unclear. Here, we established a neuronal cell oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced injury model and explored the effect of mild hypothermia on the transfer of mitochondria from astrocytes to injured neurons. Astrocytes in the hypothermia group (33 °C) released more functional mitochondria into the extracellular medium than those in the normal temperature group (37 °C). Compared with cells in the normal temperature group, OGD-injured neuronal cells in the mild hypothermia group exhibited an increased intracellular ATP content, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cellular viability and a decreased death rate after the addition of astrocyte-derived conditioned medium. Based on the results of this study, mild hypothermia promotes endogenous neuroprotective effects through a mechanism related to functional mitochondria released from astrocytes into the extracellular space and transferred into injured neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.135940DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of Pokémon GO on Physical Activity and Psychological and Social Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 25;10(9). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Augmented reality (AR) mobile game, Pokémon GO, leverages gamification and location tracking technology to encourage players to walk in different places to catch Pokémon characters in real-world settings. The systematic review sought to explore the impact Pokémon GO has on players' physical activity (PA), and psychological and social outcomes. Six research databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, PsycInfo, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus) were used. Study inclusion criteria were: (1) quantitative research published in English; (2) examined the relationships between or impact of Pokémon GO on PA, psychological, and/or social outcomes; and (3) included participants played or exposed to Pokémon GO. Thirty-six studies were included with a total sample of 38,724 participants. Players had significantly greater PA than non-players in terms of daily steps and number of days spent in moderate PA. Pokémon GO game also improved players' social interactions and their mood/affects. Selective attention and concentration improved in adolescents and memory improved in young adults after playing the game. Findings suggest playing Pokémon GO could promote meaningful improvements in walking behavior, as well as psychological and social well-being. More multidimensional research with randomized controlled trial design is needed to identify factors that influence adoption and sustainability of Pokémon GO playing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123321PMC
April 2021

Relationships between College Students' Sedentary Behavior, Sleep Quality, and Body Mass Index.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 9;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA.

Purpose: Sedentary behavior (SB), sleep efficiency (SE), sleep duration (SD), and body mass index (BMI) are crucial determinants of an individual's health. However, empirical evidence regarding associations between these factors in young adults living in China remains unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between accelerometer-measured SB, SE, SD, and BMI in Chinese college students.

Methods: Two-hundred and twenty college students (115 females, = 20.29 years, SD = 2.37) were recruited from a south-central Chinese university. Participants' SB (daily % time spent in SB), SE (number of minutes of sleep duration/number of minutes in bed), and SD were assessed via wrist-worn ActiGraph GT9X Link accelerometers for one week. Body weight was measured using a digital weight scale, height was measured using a stadiometer, and BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m).

Results: Participants' average time spent in SB was 76.52% (SD = 10.03), SE was 84.12% (SD = 4.79), and BMI was 20.67 kg/m (SD = 3.12), respectively. Regression analyses indicated that SB (β = -0.17, = 0.01) and BMI (β = -0.20, < 0.01) negatively predicted SE. In addition, BMI negatively predicted SD (β = -0.22, < 0.01).

Conclusion: Prolonged SB (e.g., screen viewing, smartphone use, and computer playing) and higher BMI may link to shorter sleep duration and lower sleep efficiency in Chinese young adults. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to further confirm these findings. Given that increased BMI status and SB may relate to adverse health outcomes, more population-based intervention strategies seeking to lower BMI and reduce SB (e.g., nutrition education and physical activity promotion) are needed in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069904PMC
April 2021

Video Moment Localization via Deep Cross-Modal Hashing.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 3;30:4667-4677. Epub 2021 May 3.

Due to the continuous booming of surveillance and Web videos, video moment localization, as an important branch of video content analysis, has attracted wide attention from both industry and academia in recent years. It is, however, a non-trivial task due to the following challenges: temporal context modeling, intelligent moment candidate generation, as well as the necessary efficiency and scalability in practice. To address these impediments, we present a deep end-to-end cross-modal hashing network. To be specific, we first design a video encoder relying on a bidirectional temporal convolutional network to simultaneously generate moment candidates and learn their representations. Considering that the video encoder characterizes temporal contextual structures at multiple scales of time windows, we can thus obtain enhanced moment representations. As a counterpart, we design an independent query encoder towards user intention understanding. Thereafter, a cross-model hashing module is developed to project these two heterogeneous representations into a shared isomorphic Hamming space for compact hash code learning. After that, we can effectively estimate the relevance score of each "moment-query" pair via the Hamming distance. Besides effectiveness, our model is far more efficient and scalable since the hash codes of videos can be learned offline. Experimental results on real-world datasets have justified the superiority of our model over several state-of-the-art competitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3073867DOI Listing
May 2021

Health wearable devices for weight and BMI reduction in individuals with overweight/obesity and chronic comorbidities: systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Br J Sports Med 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Objective: To analyse the comparative effectiveness of different health wearable-based physical activity (PA) promotion intervention strategies against each other and control for reducing body weight and body mass index (BMI) in individuals with overweight/obesity and chronic comorbidities.

Design: Systematic review and network meta-analysis (PROSPERO identifier: CRD42020158191).

Data Sources: We performed two independent searches from December 2019 to September 2020 in PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English between 2007 and 2020.

Eligibility Criteria For Selecting Studies: Inclusion criteria were based on the PICOS framework. We included randomised controlled trials of health wearable-based interventions using two or more PA intervention arms/strategies and compared their effects on participants' body weight (kg) and BMI (kg/m) with a control group. Data were analysed using a Bayesian network meta-analysis to directly and indirectly compare the effects of the six different intervention strategies (comparators). The six comparators were: (1) control group (ie, usual care, waitlist); (2) comparison group (ie, traditional, non-health wearable PA interventions); (3) commercial health wearable-only intervention (eg, Fitbit, Polar M400); (4) research grade health wearable-only intervention (ie, accelerometers or pedometers); (5) multicomponent commercial health wearable intervention (eg, Fitbit + nutrition counselling); and (6) multicomponent research grade health wearable intervention. The results were reported as standardised mean differences (SMDs) with associated 95% credible intervals (CrIs).

Results: From 641 screened records, 31 studies were included. For body weight reduction in individuals with overweight/obesity and chronic comorbidities, accelerometer/pedometer-only (SMD -4.44, 95% CrI -8.94 to 0.07) and commercial health wearable-only (SMD -2.76, 95% CrI -4.80 to -0.81) intervention strategies were the most effective compared with the three other treatments and control. For BMI reduction, multicomponent accelerometer/pedometer (SMD -3.43, 95% CrI -4.94 to -2.09) and commercial health wearable-only (SMD -1.99, 95% CrI -4.95 to 0.96) intervention strategies were the most effective compared with the other four conditions.

Conclusion: Health wearable devices are effective intervention tools/strategies for reducing body weight and BMI in individuals with overweight/obesity and chronic comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-103594DOI Listing
March 2021

Mild hypothermia protects rat cortical neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation injury via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

Neuroreport 2021 03;32(4):312-320

Department of Anesthesiology, Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

Ischemic stroke is the most frequent cause of long-term morbidity and mortality in the elderly worldwide. Mild hypothermia (32-35°C) has been found to have a neuroprotective effect against ischemic stroke. However, the protective mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we explore the neuroprotective effect of mild hypothermia in neuron-astrocyte cocultures by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) as well as the underlying mechanisms. Thionin staining was performed and cell viability, extracellular glutamate concentration and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway-related proteins were detected after OGD/R. The results indicated that mild hypothermia significantly alleviated damage to Nissl bodies and increased the viability of neurons, which alleviated OGD/R-triggered neuronal injury. Furthermore, mild hypothermia significantly enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt (pAkt) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and reduced extracellular glutamate concentration after OGD/R. When the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 was added, neuronal viability and the expression of pAkt and GLT-1 decreased, and extracellular glutamate concentration increased. The protective effect of mild hypothermia was counteracted by LY294002. There was no significant change in neuronal viability or the expression of pAkt and GLT-1 in the group treated with dihydrokainate, an inhibitor of GLT-1-function, compared with the mild hypothermia + OGD/R (HOGD) group, but extracellular glutamate concentration was increased. Consequently, mild hypothermia promoted glutamate clearance by regulating GLT-1 expression via the PI3K/Akt pathway, providing a neuroprotective effect against OGD/R injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000001593DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of Physical Activity on Children's Motor Skill Development: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Biomed Res Int 2020 30;2020:8160756. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis 55455, USA.

Objective: This systematic review synthesized current randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining casual evidence regarding the effects of traditional and exergaming-based physical activity (PA) interventions on motor skill development in typically developed children (i.e., those aged 6-12 years).

Methods: We adhered to the PRISMA-P statement and searched electronic databases (Medline, PsycInfo, Web of Science, PubMed, ERIC, Scopus, and SportDiscus) from inception through July 2020. We screened for peer reviewed RCTs published in English between 2000 and 2020 examining the effect of PA on motor skill development in healthy children.

Results: A total of 25 RCTs were included, 20 (80%) of which reported significant improvements in children's motor skill performance. Specifically, 18 studies examined traditional PA interventions and 7 studies examined exergaming-based PA interventions, 83% and 71% of which observed statistically significant improvements in children's motor skill development, respectively.

Conclusions: Findings support the causal evidence regarding the effects of PA on motor skill development in children. Notable limitations of this review included heterogeneity of measurement protocols and assessment tools used to test children's motor skills across studies, a wide range of PA intervention dose across studies, and the lack of power analyses and long-term follow-up assessments in individual studies to discern appropriate sample sizes and long-term effectiveness, respectively. To further strengthen the evidence in this emerging field, we advocate for future RCTs to employ a priori power analyses, long-term follow-up measurements, and more exergaming-based interventions to allow for comparisons with traditional PA interventions, to explore the dose response and moderating relationships between PA and motor skill development in childhood, and to utilize homogenous assessment instruments to allow for more rigorous, quantitative syntheses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8160756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787723PMC
December 2020

Small-Groups Versus Full-Class Exergaming on Urban Minority Adolescents' Physical Activity, Enjoyment, and Self-Efficacy.

J Phys Act Health 2021 Jan 12;18(2):192-198. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Background: The effects of school-based exergaming interventions on adolescents' physical activity (PA) and psychosocial outcomes have been mixed. Researchers speculate this may be attributed to design issues. Therefore, this study examined differences in urban minority adolescents' PA, enjoyment, and self-efficacy during small-groups and full-class exergaming.

Methods: Forty-seven urban minority adolescents (83% black; X¯age=11.8+1.3 y) completed two 15-minute exergaming sessions on the Xbox One Kinect Just Dance: (1) small groups (n = 3-4) and (2) full class (n = 23-24). Participants' time in sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA and steps were retrieved from ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers with enjoyment and self-efficacy assessed using validated surveys.

Results: Participants spent significantly more time in sedentary behavior (5.9 [5.2] min vs 3.5 [2.7] min, respectively: P < .001, d = 0.57) and less time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (2.1 [2.8] min vs 5.5 [2.2] min, respectively: P < .001, d = 0.85) during the full-class versus the small-groups session. Moreover, small-groups exergaming resulted in significantly higher steps than the full-class exergaming (504.2 [132.1] vs 387.8 [122.1], respectively: P = .01, d = 0.50) and significantly greater enjoyment (3.5 [1.1] vs 3.2 [1.0], respectively: P = .02, d = 0.37). There were no significant differences between sessions for time in light PA and self-efficacy.

Conclusions: Small-groups exergaming appears ideal for promoting enjoyable PA at higher intensities and lower sedentary time in underserved minority adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2020-0348DOI Listing
January 2021

Effects of interrupting prolonged sitting on postprandial glycemia and insulin responses: A network meta-analysis.

J Sport Health Sci 2020 Dec 25. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical activity (PA) interrupting prolonged sitting (PS) on postprandial glycemia and insulin responses among adults.

Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched through September 30, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effect of all forms of PA interrupting PS on postprandial glycemia and/or insulin responses among adults without chronic diseases were included in this study. The risk of bias of included studies was evaluated based on the Cochrane tool. A network meta-analysis was performed to estimate the summary standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) with random effects.

Results: Thirty crossover RCTs were included in our review. These RCTs included 9 types of interventions that interrupted PS. When compared to PS by itself, light-intensity PA intermittent interrupting (LPA-INT) PS and moderate-intensity PA intermittent interrupting (MPA-INT) PS significantly lowered postprandial glycemia (SMD = -0.46, 95%CI: -0.70 to -0.21; SMD = -0.69, 95%CI: -1.00 to -0.37, respectively) and significantly reduced postprandial insulin response (SMD = -0.46, 95%CI: -0.66 to -0.26; SMD = -0.47, 95%CI: -0.77 to -0.17, respectively). Results of the clustered ranking plot indicated that MPA-INT was the most effective intervention in lowering postprandial glycemia and insulin responses.

Conclusion: Replacing PS with MPA-INT or LPA-INT has a positive effect in reducing postprandial glycemia and insulin responses, with MPA-INT being the optimal intervention strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2020.12.006DOI Listing
December 2020

Pairwise Two-Stream ConvNets for Cross-Domain Action Recognition With Small Data.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2020 Dec 9;PP. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

In this work, we target cross-domain action recognition (CDAR) in the video domain and propose a novel end-to-end pairwise two-stream ConvNets (PTC) algorithm for real-life conditions, in which only a few labeled samples are available. To cope with the limited training sample problem, we employ pairwise network architecture that can leverage training samples from a source domain and, thus, requires only a few labeled samples per category from the target domain. In particular, a frame self-attention mechanism and an adaptive weight scheme are embedded into the PTC network to adaptively combine the RGB and flow features. This design can effectively learn domain-invariant features for both the source and target domains. In addition, we propose a sphere boundary sample-selecting scheme that selects the training samples at the boundary of a class (in the feature space) to train the PTC model. In this way, a well-enhanced generalization capability can be achieved. To validate the effectiveness of our PTC model, we construct two CDAR data sets (SDAI Action I and SDAI Action II) that include indoor and outdoor environments; all actions and samples in these data sets were carefully collected from public action data sets. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first data sets specifically designed for the CDAR task. Extensive experiments were conducted on these two data sets. The results show that PTC outperforms state-of-the-art video action recognition methods in terms of both accuracy and training efficiency. It is noteworthy that when only two labeled training samples per category are used in the SDAI Action I data set, PTC achieves 21.9% and 6.8% improvement in accuracy over two-stream and temporal segment networks models, respectively. As an added contribution, the SDAI Action I and SDAI Action II data sets will be released to facilitate future research on the CDAR task.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3041018DOI Listing
December 2020

A Pairwise Attentive Adversarial Spatiotemporal Network for Cross-Domain Few-Shot Action Recognition-R2.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 4;30:767-782. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

- Action recognition is a popular research topic in the computer vision and machine learning domains. Although many action recognition methods have been proposed, only a few researchers have focused on cross-domain few-shot action recognition, which must often be performed in real security surveillance. Since the problems of action recognition, domain adaptation, and few-shot learning need to be simultaneously solved, the cross-domain few-shot action recognition task is a challenging problem. To solve these issues, in this work, we develop a novel end-to-end pairwise attentive adversarial spatiotemporal network (PASTN) to perform the cross-domain few-shot action recognition task, in which spatiotemporal information acquisition, few-shot learning, and video domain adaptation are realised in a unified framework. Specifically, the Resnet-50 network is selected as the backbone of the PASTN, and a 3D convolution block is embedded in the top layer of the 2D CNN (ResNet-50) to capture the spatiotemporal representations. Moreover, a novel attentive adversarial network architecture is designed to align the spatiotemporal dynamics actions with higher domain discrepancies. In addition, the pairwise margin discrimination loss is designed for the pairwise network architecture to improve the discrimination of the learned domain-invariant spatiotemporal feature. The results of extensive experiments performed on three public benchmarks of the cross-domain action recognition datasets, including SDAI Action I, SDAI Action II and UCF50-OlympicSport, demonstrate that the proposed PASTN can significantly outperform the state-of-the-art cross-domain action recognition methods in terms of both the accuracy and computational time. Even when only two labelled training samples per category are considered in the office1 scenario of the SDAI Action I dataset, the accuracy of the PASTN is improved by 6.1%, 10.9%, 16.8%, and 14% compared to that of the TAN , TemporalPooling, I3D, and P3D methods, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2020.3038372DOI Listing
December 2020

Effect of Active Video Games on Healthy Children's Fundamental Motor Skills and Physical Fitness: A Systematic Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 9;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 9.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

: The present study aimed to synthesize the most updated literature regarding the casual evidence of the effects of active video games (AVGs) on fundamental motor skills (FMS; locomotor skills and object control skills) and physical fitness among healthy children. : Electronic databases were searched through October 2020. Peer-reviewed randomized control trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental designs examining the effectiveness of AVGs on FMS and physical fitness development among healthy children (3-12 years) were screened. : A total of nine RCTs and one quasi-experimental study were included. Of the five studies examining the effect of AVGs on FMS, two reported significant improvements, while three reported no significant improvements in motor skills development as compared to control. Of the five studies assessing the effects of AVGs on physical fitness, four reported significant improvements in physical fitness such as balance, agility, and speed, whereas one reported significant improvements in skill-related executive function, but not in physical competence. : Overall, the current available evidence supports AVGs as an effective means to improve physical fitness, such as balance, postural stability, and agility, among healthy children. However, the findings of AVGs on healthy children's object control and locomotor skills remain inconclusive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664910PMC
November 2020

Investigating the Associations among Drug Dependents' Family Function and Exercise Attitudes: Marital Status Differences.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 3;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 3.

School of Psychology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China.

This paper examines: (1) The demographic characteristics of different marital statuses of drug dependents; (2) differences in exercise attitudes and family function by marital status; and (3) if family function factors correlated with exercise attitudes and if exercise attitude factors correlated with family function. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) revealed significant differences in drug dependents' exercise attitudes between married and single groups ( < 0.05) and the married and "other" groups ( < 0.01). Furthermore, we observed significant differences in drug dependents' family function between married and single groups ( < 0.01) and married and other groups ( < 0.05). Regression analyses indicated that communication [F(1,1791) = 137.819; < 0.001] was a significant positive predictor for drug dependents' exercise attitude, accounting for 7.1% of the observed variance. Moreover, 50% of the variance was explained by willingness [F(1,1791) = 850.49, < 0.001] and control [F(1,1790) = 141.415, < 0.001], which were two significant predictors of drug dependents' family function. Findings of this study were: (1) Exercise attitude and family function of married drug dependents were better than single drug dependents and other marital status addicts; (2) communication was observed as a factor of family function that correlated with exercise attitude; and (3) willingness was related with family function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662303PMC
November 2020

Tailoring nanocomposite interfaces with graphene to achieve high strength and toughness.

Sci Adv 2020 Oct 14;6(42). Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, 122 Engineer's Way, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA.

The nanofiller reinforcing effect in nanocomposites is often far below the theoretically predicted values, largely because of the poor interfacial interaction between the nanofillers and matrix. Here, we report that graphene-wrapped BC nanowires ([email protected]) empowered exceptional dispersion of nanowires in matrix and superlative nanowire-matrix bonding. The 0.2 volume % [email protected] reinforced epoxy composite exhibited simultaneous enhancements in strength (144.2 MPa), elastic modulus (3.5 GPa), and ductility (15%). Tailoring the composite interfaces with graphene enabled effective utilization of the nanofillers, resulting in two times increase in load transfer efficiency. Molecular dynamics simulations unlocked the shear mixing graphene/nanowire self-assembly mechanism. This low-cost yet effective technique presents unprecedented opportunities for improving nanocomposite interfaces, enabling high load transfer efficiency, and opens up a new path for developing strong and tough nanocomposites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aba7016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556841PMC
October 2020

Effect of Children's Weight Status on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior during Physical Education, Recess, and After School.

J Clin Med 2020 Aug 15;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 15.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Children's body mass index may affect physical activity (PA) participation. Therefore, this study examined the effect of children's weight status on underserved elementary school children's PA and sedentary behavior (SB) throughout the segmented day. Participants were 138 children (X¯age = 8.14 years). Children's height and weight were measured with subsequent classification of children as healthy weight or overweight/obese. Durations of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), light PA (LPA), and SB during physical education (PE), morning recess, lunch recess, after school, and overall were assessed via accelerometry over three days. Independent t-tests evaluated differences in children's MVPA, LPA, and SB during each daily segment by weight status. Significantly higher MVPA was observed for children of healthy weight status versus children with overweight/obesity during morning recess, (136) = 2.15, = 0.03, after school, (136) = 2.68, < 0.01, and overall, (136) = 2.65, < 0.01. Interestingly, comparisons of children of healthy weight status and children with overweight/obesity's LPA and SB during the after-school segment revealed a trend wherein children with overweight/obesity participated in slightly greater LPA/less SB than children of healthy weight status. Higher MVPA was observed among children of healthy weight versus children with overweight/obesity during most daily segments. Concerted efforts should focus on increasing MVPA among children with overweight/obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463513PMC
August 2020

Bidirectional Influence of the COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdowns on Health Behaviors and Quality of Life among Chinese Adults.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 08 2;17(15). Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Exercise Translational Medicine Center, Shanghai Center for Systems Biomedicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created challenges that have caused profound changes in health behaviors. This study aimed to explore how COVID-19 is affecting the health-related quality of life (QoL) among Chinese adults.

Methods: The data of health-related behaviors and QoL were collected via online surveys from 2289 adults (mean age = 27.8 ± 12 years) who had been isolated at home for an average of 77 days.

Results: More than 50% of the respondents reported that their time engaged in daily physical activity (PA) decreased, while sedentary behavior (SB) time increased compared with that before the lockdown. Only 20% of the respondents reported engaging in moderate-to-vigorous PA, 23% of adults reported changed their diets to be healthier, and 30% reported consuming more vegetables, fruits, and milk products than before home-isolation. During home-isolation, 75.2% of the adults rated their sleep quality as very good, and 65% reported that they were satisfied with their QoL. Sleep quality mediated the relationship between PA and QoL.

Conclusion: The two-to-three-month home-isolation has had mixed effects on adult health behaviors in China. The participants were found to have focused more on their eating quality and patterns, which had a positive influence on their QoL. However, people should be encouraged to exercise at home with limited space to maintain a generally healthy lifestyle during a prolonged quarantine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432516PMC
August 2020

Application of network meta-analysis in the field of physical activity and health promotion.

J Sport Health Sci 2020 12 31;9(6):511-520. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

Continued advancement in the field of physical activity and health promotion relies heavily on the synthesis of rigorous scientific evidence. As such, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials have led to a better understanding of which intervention strategies are superior (i.e., produce the greatest effects) in physical activity-based health behavior change interventions. Indeed, standard meta-analytic approaches have allowed researchers in the field to synthesize relevant experimental evidence using pairwise procedures that produce reliable estimates of the homogeneity, magnitude, and potential biases in the observed effects. However, pairwise meta-analytic procedures are only capable to discerning differences in effects between a select intervention strategy and a select comparison or control condition. In order to maximize the impact of physical activity interventions on health-related outcomes, it is necessary to establish evidence concerning the comparative efficacy of all relevant physical activity intervention strategies. The development of network meta-analysis (NMA)-most commonly used in medical-based clinical trials-has allowed for the quantification of indirect comparisons, even in the absence of direct, head-to-head trials. Thus, it stands to reason that NMA can be applied in physical activity and health promotion research to identify the best intervention strategies. Given that this analysis technique is novel and largely unexplored in the field of physical activity and health promotion, care must be taken in its application to ensure reliable estimates and discernment of the effect sizes among interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to comment on the potential application and importance of NMA in the field of physical activity and health promotion, describe how to properly and effectively apply this technique, and suggest important considerations for its appropriate application in this field. In this paper, overviews of the foundations of NMA and commonly used approaches for conducting NMA are provided, followed by assumptions related to NMA, opportunities and challenges in NMA, and a step-by-step example of developing and conducting an NMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2020.07.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749244PMC
December 2020

Virtual Reality Exercise as a Coping Strategy for Health and Wellness Promotion in Older Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

The December 2019 COVID-19 outbreak in China has led to worldwide quarantine, as recommended by local governments and the World Health Organization. Particularly affected are older adults (i.e., those aged ≥ 65 years) who are at elevated risk for various adverse health outcomes, including declines in motor ability and physical activity (PA) participation, increased obesity, impaired cognition, and various psychological disorders. Thus, given the secular increases in the older adult population, novel and effective intervention strategies are necessary to improve physical activity behaviors and health in this population. Virtual reality (VR)-integrated exercise is a promising intervention strategy, which has been utilized in healthcare fields like stroke rehabilitation and psychotherapy. Therefore, the purpose of this editorial is to synthesize recent research examining the efficacy and effectiveness of VR exercise in the promotion of favorable health outcomes among the older adults. Results indicate the application of VR exercise to facilitate improved physical outcomes (e.g., enhanced motor ability, reduced obesity), cognition and psychological outcomes. VR exercise has also been observed to be an effective intervention strategy for fall prevention in this population. Future research should employ more rigorous research designs to allow for a more robust quantitative synthesis of the effect of VR exercise on the preceding outcomes to elucidate which type(s) of VR-based PA interventions are most effective in promoting improved health outcomes among older adults. Findings from this study will better inform the development of technology-savvy PA programs for wellness promotion in older adults who practice social distancing and exercise from home under the unprecedented global health crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355577PMC
June 2020

Comparison of College Students' Blood Pressure, Perceived Exertion, and Psychosocial Outcomes During Virtual Reality, Exergaming, and Traditional Exercise: An Exploratory Study.

Games Health J 2020 Aug 30;9(4):290-296. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Integrating novel technologies, such as virtual reality (VR), into traditional exercise apparatuses (e.g., stationary bikes) may assist in promoting physical activity (PA) participation among young adults. Therefore, this study's purpose was to examine young adults' systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) change (BP - BP), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), enjoyment, and self-efficacy during VR, exergaming, and traditional stationary cycling sessions. Forty-nine college students (34 females;  = 23.6 ± 3.4 years;  = 23.8 ± 3.1 kg/m) participated in three separate 20-minute stationary cycling sessions: (1) PlayStation 4 VR; (2) Xbox 360 exergaming; and (3) traditional stationary cycling. Participants' systolic and diastolic BP change was measured by using an Omron HEM-705CP digital BP cuff. Further, RPE was assessed by using the modified Borg RPE Scale and enjoyment and self-efficacy were evaluated by using validated questionnaires. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences for systolic BP change, RPE, enjoyment, and self-efficacy between the three cycling sessions ((2, 144) = 3.3-32.4,  < 0.05, [Formula: see text] = 0.04-0.3). Specifically, participants had significantly higher enjoyment and self-efficacy and lower RPE during VR cycling compared with the other two cycling sessions despite similar or higher change systolic BP during the VR cycling session. There was no statistically significant change in diastolic BP between the three cycling sessions ( > 0.05). Incorporating VR equipment with traditional stationary cycle ergometers may be favorable when seeking to promote enjoyable PA in college students. To further support VR exercise's efficacy, future studies with more rigorous research designs are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/g4h.2019.0196DOI Listing
August 2020

The Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Exercise on Individual's Physiological, Psychological and Rehabilitative Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 06 10;17(11). Epub 2020 Jun 10.

School of Kinesiology, the University of Minnesota, 1900 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

This review synthesized the literature examining the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based exercise on physiological, psychological, and rehabilitative outcomes in various populations. A systematic review. 246 articles were retrieved using key words, such as "VR", "exercise intervention", "physiological", "psychology", and "rehabilitation" through nine databases including Academic Search Premier and PubMed. 15 articles which met the following criteria were included in the review: (1) peer-reviewed; (2) published in English; (3) randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled trials or causal-comparative design; (4) interventions using VR devices; and (5) examined effects on physiological, psychological, and/or rehabilitative outcomes. Descriptive and thematic analyses were used. Of the 12 articles examining physiological outcomes, eight showed a positive effect on physical fitness, muscle strength, balance, and extremity function. Only four articles examined the effects on psychological outcomes, three showed positive effects such that VR exercise could ease fatigue, tension, and depression and induce calmness and enhance quality of life. Nine articles investigated the effects of VR-based exercise on rehabilitative outcomes with physiological and/or psychological outcomes, and six observed significant positive changes. In detail, patients who suffered from chronic stroke, hemodialysis, spinal-cord injury, cerebral palsy in early ages, and cognitive decline usually saw better improvements using VR-based exercise. The findings suggest that VR exercise has the potential to exert a positive impact on individual's physiological, psychological, and rehabilitative outcomes compared with traditional exercise. However, the quality, quantity, and sample size of existing studies are far from ideal. Therefore, more rigorous studies are needed to confirm the observed positive effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312871PMC
June 2020

Leveraging Fitness Tracker and Personalized Exercise Prescription to Promote Breast Cancer Survivors' Health Outcomes: A Feasibility Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 8;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 8.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Purpose: This feasibility study investigated whether a year-long combined fitness wristband-based and personalized exercise prescription intervention improves Chinese breast cancer survivors' (BCSs) health outcomes.

Methods: Ninety-five BCSs (X̅ = 44.81 ± 7.94; X̅ = 22.18 ± 3.48) were recruited from Southern region of China and were delivered the exercise intervention across 12 months, using a single group pretest-posttest design. Participants' lipid profile (e.g., total , high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides), blood glucose, breast cancer biomarkers (e.g., carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3), and functional fitness (e.g., strength in arms and legs, endurance, balance, agility, and flexibility) were assessed at baseline and 12-month post-intervention.

Results: Thirty-three BCSs successfully completed the intervention. A significant change in blood glucose (mean difference (MD): -0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.41--0.03, = -2.25, = 0.028) was observed, with participants demonstrating lower levels of blood glucose at the 12-month post-intervention versus the baseline assessment. Notable changes in functional fitness were also discerned, including agility and balance (MD: -0.47, 95% CI: -0.68--0.26, = -4.336, < 0.001), aerobic endurance (MD: 89.25, 95% CI: 73.82-104.68, = 11.336, < 0.001), lower-body flexibility (left) (MD: 4.58, 95% CI: -4.4-13.56, = 4.653, < 0.001), and lower-body flexibility (right) (MD: 4.84, 95% CI: -4.65-14.33, = 4.092, < 0.001).

Conclusion: The observations suggested that our behavioral change program might promote certain health outcomes in Chinese BCSs, yet we are unable to recommend such a program given existing limitations. Future randomized control trials with diverse samples are warranted to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356330PMC
June 2020

Graphene reinforced carbon fibers.

Sci Adv 2020 Apr 24;6(17):eaaz4191. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, 122 Engineer's Way, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA.

The superlative strength-to-weight ratio of carbon fibers (CFs) can substantially reduce vehicle weight and improve energy efficiency. However, most CFs are derived from costly polyacrylonitrile (PAN), which limits their widespread adoption in the automotive industry. Extensive efforts to produce CFs from low cost, alternative precursor materials have failed to yield a commercially viable product. Here, we revisit PAN to study its conversion chemistry and microstructure evolution, which might provide clues for the design of low-cost CFs. We demonstrate that a small amount of graphene can minimize porosity/defects and reinforce PAN-based CFs. Our experimental results show that 0.075 weight % graphene-reinforced PAN/graphene composite CFs exhibits 225% increase in strength and 184% enhancement in Young's modulus compared to PAN CFs. Atomistic ReaxFF and large-scale molecular dynamics simulations jointly elucidate the ability of graphene to modify the microstructure by promoting favorable edge chemistry and polymer chain alignment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz4191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182419PMC
April 2020

A Longitudinal Study of a Multicomponent Exercise Intervention with Remote Guidance among Breast Cancer Patients.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 14;17(10). Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Science and Technology, Shandong Institute of Commerce and Technology, Jinan 250103, China.

: Breast cancer patients in treatment suffer from long-term side effects that seriously influence their physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to examine effectiveness of a 12-week multicomponent exercise (ME) with remote guidance intervention on health-related outcomes after one year among breast cancer patients. : In phases I-III, 60 patients (51.2 ± 7.9 years) with breast cancer (BC) who completed chemotherapy/postoperative radiotherapy within the previous four months to two years were randomly assigned to 1) multicomponent exercise with remote guidance (ME) and 2) usual care (UC). Eligible participants were approached to assess cancer-related quality of life (QOL), muscle strength, cardiorespiratory endurance, and physical activity (PA) barriers after one year. : The results demonstrated that, after one year, the ME group reported higher vitality-related QOL (5.776, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.987, 10.565, effect size [ES] = 0.360), mental health-related QOL (9.938, 95% CI 4.146, 15.729, ES = 0.512), leg strength and endurance (2.880, CI 1.337, 4.423, ES = 0.557), and strength and endurance of upper extremities (2.745, 95% CI 1.076, 4.415, ES = 0.491) and lower physical activity (PA) hindrance (5.120, 95% CI 1.976, 8.264, ES = 0.486) than the UC group. : The ME group observed significant differences from the UC group in QOL, muscle strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, and PA participation. These findings suggested that the multicomponent exercise intervention with remote guidance produced long-term health benefits for breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277866PMC
May 2020

A Systematic Review of Active Video Games on Youth's Body Composition and Physical Activity.

Int J Sports Med 2020 Aug 6;41(9):561-573. Epub 2020 May 6.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, United States.

In the past decade, active video games (AVGs) have started to find their way into communities, schools, and homes as a possible solution to promote physical activity (PA) and prevent childhood obesity. However, the evidence regarding its effectiveness on body composition and objectively measured PA in youth remains inconclusive. Thus, a systematic review on this topic is needed. This review synthesizes effects of AVGs on body composition and PA in youth. The initial search yielded 260 articles from 10 databases and 18 randomized-controlled trials were included after evaluating against eligibility and removing duplicates. Overall, AVGs showed positive effects in improving body composition and PA in overweight/obese youth as compared to the control conditions with only 2 studies displaying neutral effects on these outcomes as compared to traditional PA or comparison programs. For healthy youth, more than half of the studies (n = 10) demonstrated neutral effects of AVGs on these outcomes whereas only 6 yielded positive effects compared to the control conditions. Further, one study indicated that the control condition observed greater improvement in body composition compared with an AVG intervention in healthy youth. In summary, AVGs are deemed a promising addition to promote PA and health among overweight/obese youth with the goal of fighting childhood obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1152-4959DOI Listing
August 2020

Multiple Discrimination and Pairwise CNN for view-based 3D object retrieval.

Neural Netw 2020 May 29;125:290-302. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

School of Information and Safety Engineering, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, PR China. Electronic address:

With the rapid development and wide application of computer, camera device, network and hardware technology, 3D object (or model) retrieval has attracted widespread attention and it has become a hot research topic in the computer vision domain. Deep learning features already available in 3D object retrieval have been proven to be better than the retrieval performance of hand-crafted features. However, most existing networks do not take into account the impact of multi-view image selection on network training, and the use of contrastive loss alone only forcing the same-class samples to be as close as possible. In this work, a novel solution named Multi-view Discrimination and Pairwise CNN (MDPCNN) for 3D object retrieval is proposed to tackle these issues. It can simultaneously input multiple batches and multiple views by adding the Slice layer and the Concat layer. Furthermore, a highly discriminative network is obtained by training samples that are not easy to be classified by clustering. Lastly, we deploy the contrastive-center loss and contrastive loss as the optimization objective that has better intra-class compactness and inter-class separability. Large-scale experiments show that the proposed MDPCNN can achieve a significant performance over the state-of-the-art algorithms in 3D object retrieval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2020.02.017DOI Listing
May 2020

Feasibility of smartphone application- and social media-based intervention on college students' health outcomes: A pilot randomized trial.

J Am Coll Health 2020 Mar 9:1-10. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

We evaluated the feasibility of a 10-week program combining a smartphone application and theoretically-based, social media-delivered health education intervention to improve college students' health behaviors and outcomes. Forty-four college students (32 female; X̅=21.6 years) in 2015-2016. Participants were randomized into one of two groups: (1) experimental: used MapMyFitness smartphone application to log and track physical activity (PA) and participated in a Social Cognitive Theory-based, Facebook-delivered health education intervention; (2) comparison: only included in a separate, but content-identical, Facebook intervention. Our primary outcomes pertained to intervention feasibility while our secondary outcomes reflected health behaviors and outcomes. Intervention interest was high, with retention 95.5%. Experimental participants used MapMyFitness 1.71x/week, with both groups implementing the Facebook-delivered health education tips 1-3x/week. We observed a modest sedentary behavior reduction in the experimental group (-29.2-minutes/day). Additionally, both groups demonstrated slight reductions in weight (experimental:-1.2 kg/comparison:-0.6 kg) and body fat percentage (both groups:-0.8%-decrease). Increased PA-related social support and decreased barriers were observed. A low-burden and well-integrated social media-based intervention is feasible and of interest to college students, possibly improving select health behaviors and outcomes. PA-oriented smartphone application offered limited additional benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1726925DOI Listing
March 2020

Biological pretreatment of corn straw for enhancing degradation efficiency and biogas production.

Bioengineered 2020 12;11(1):251-260

Key Laboratory of New Materials and Facilities for Rural Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.

In order to explore the effect of pretreatment on corn straw degradation and biogas production, corn straw was pretreated with mixed microbes and composting at 30°C for 14 days. The characteristics of material were measured and analyzed in the pretreatment process. Then, the pretreated and untreated corn straw was digested by anaerobic fermentation. Gas production and methane content of corn straw were analyzed. The results showed that the biological pretreatment process with mixed microbes could accelerate the degradation rate of straw and increase the degradation efficiency of lignin. The pH value of material was more stable, and the content of organic matter in the material was higher in the pretreatment process of corn straw with mixed microbes. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images showed that the structure of the lignocellulose was changed by mixed microbes, increasing the exposed area of cellulose and hemicellulose, which was beneficial to improve the utilization efficiency of straw. The degradation rates of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin were 44.4%, 34.9% and 39.2%, respectively, after the pretreatment process with mixed microbes. Pretreatment was more helpful to increase the methane content in the anaerobic fermentation process of corn straw pretreated with mixed microbes, and could also shorten the fermentation period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2020.1733733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161559PMC
December 2020

Associations between Daily Step Counts and Physical Fitness in Preschool Children.

J Clin Med 2020 Jan 7;9(1). Epub 2020 Jan 7.

School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China.

Purpose: To investigate the relationships between daily step counts and physical fitness in preschool children.

Methods: Preschoolers' step counts were assessed by ActiGraph accelerometers consecutively for seven days. Physical fitness was assessed by a 20 m shuttle run test (cardiorespiratory fitness), the handgrip and standing long jump tests (musculoskeletal fitness), and the 2 × 10 m shuttle run test (speed/agility). A composite score was created from the mean of the standardized values of all physical fitness tests.

Results: A total of 301 preschoolers (134 girls, mean age 57.40 ± 5.47 months; 167 boys, mean age 58.10 ± 5.34 months) were included in the final analysis. Compared with the lowest tertile, boys and girls in the highest tertile of step counts achieved high physical fitness with odds ratio (OR) being 5.39 (95% CI = 1.65-17.59) and 4.42 (95% CI = 1.30-14.99), respectively, after adjusting for confounders. Meanwhile, a relationship was observed for each 1000 steps/day increment being associated with 43% (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.10-1.85) and 62% (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.20-2.19) increment for high physical fitness in boys and girls, respectively. In addition, significant non-linear relationship was observed between daily steps and physical fitness in boys, which indicated that accumulated 8000 steps/day was associated with the highest ratio to achieve high physical fitness.

Conclusions: Positive relationships between step counts and physical fitness were observed in preschool children, and the relationships were strongest for those who accumulated 8000 steps/day in boys. To confirm the findings in this study, well-designed and large-scale longitudinal studies are needed in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019471PMC
January 2020

Acute Effects of Immersive Virtual Reality Exercise on Young Adults' Situational Motivation.

J Clin Med 2019 Nov 12;8(11). Epub 2019 Nov 12.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

The development of innovative technology, such as virtual reality (VR), has provided opportunities for promoting physical activity (PA) in a fun and engaging manner. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in young adults' situational motivation (SM) among immersive VR, non-immersive VR, and traditional stationary cycling sessions. In all, 49 healthy college students (35 females; M = 23.6 years, SD = 3.4; M = 24.0%, SD = 7.5) completed three separate 20 min cycling sessions: (1) immersive VR cycling; (2) non-immersive VR cycling; and (3) traditional cycling. Participants' SM was assessed via the situational motivation scale, which included four subconstructs: intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation, and amotivation. Repeated measures ANOVAs indicated significant differences for situational motivation between cycling sessions ( (2, 96) = 4.74-53.04, < 0.01, = 0.090-0.525). Specifically, participants elicited the highest level of intrinsic motivation in immersive VR cycling compared to the other two sessions. Moreover, participants in both immersive VR and traditional cycling showed greater identified regulation than the non-immersive VR session. Furthermore, participants showed greater external regulation compared to the immersive VR session. In addition, greater amotivation was observed in non-immersive VR compared to the immersive VR session. Findings suggested that immersive VR exercise has the potential to be an attractive exercise alternative, possibly promoting greater PA participation and adherence among young adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912495PMC
November 2019