Publications by authors named "Zakieh Keshavarzi"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Neuroprotective effects of auraptene following traumatic brain injury in male rats: The role of oxidative stress.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Oct 6;177:203-209. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Natural Products and Medicinal Plants Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran; Department of Physiology, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran.

Aim: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is widely acknowledged as a significant risk factor for death and disability. Our goal in this experiment was to see if Auraptene (AUR) could help rats recover from TBI-induced disability by measuring of oxidative stress parameters.

Material And Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of six groups: sham, TBI, Vehicle (DMSO), TBI+ AUR (4 mg/kg), TBI + AUR (8 mg/kg), TBI + AUR (25 mg/kg). The animals were anesthetized. After that, diffuse TBI was done by Marmarou model in male rats. Then, the brain tissues were harvested. Some of oxidative stress parameters, and TNFα levels were evaluated.

Results: TBI-induced brain damage was significantly inhibited by AUR (25 mg/kg), as evidenced by decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric Oxide (NO) levels, oxidative stress inhibition and reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in the brain.

Conclusion: This study showed that probably the AUR prevents complications of TBI through decreases in brain edema, modulating oxidative stress, and reductions in the levels of inflammatory cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.09.021DOI Listing
October 2021

Anti-edema effect of leaf extract following traumatic brain injury: Role of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2021 Jul-Aug;11(4):380-393

Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Objective: Based on anti-inflammatory effects of , the effect of aqueous extract of this plant on brain edema and changes in some pro-inflammatory cytokines was investigated after traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Materials And Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: Sham, TBI, vehicle (Veh), and low dose (LA) and high dose (HA) . The vehicle and aqueous extract of were injected intraperitoneally 30 min after induction of diffuse TBI by Marmarou's method. Brain edema (brain water content), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1β levels in serum and brain were measured 24 hr after TBI induction.

Results: Increased brain edema by TBI was reduced by both LA and HA (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). IL-6 increased in the brain of TBI group compared to sham, and which was inhibited by both doses compared to Veh (p<0.001). The differences in the IL-6 serum levels among Veh, LA and HA groups were not significant. Increases in serum and brain IL-1β levels were reduced only in the HA group (p<0.001). Although only in the brain, TNF-α level increased after trauma, but both LA and HA inhibited it in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively) . The amount of TGF-β in the brain was reduced by both doses of the extract (p<0.001).

Conclusion: These results indicated that has a neuroprotective effect induced by reducing brain edema. The probable mechanism particularly for HA is decreasing levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/AJP.2021.17426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264228PMC
September 2020

The ameliorating approach of nanorobotics in the novel drug delivery systems: a mechanistic review.

J Drug Target 2021 09 10;29(8):822-833. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Natural Products and Medicinal Plants Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran.

Nanoscale robotics have the ability that it can productively transform multiple energy sources into motion and strength which reflects an expeditiously appearing and captivating area for research of robotics. In today's plethora, biomedical nanorobotics played an intricate character with numerous units of robots working at the pathological site in a coordinated manner. The synergistic action of the several nanorobotics has been employed for the fulfilment of the task such as large-scale detoxification, delivery of the large pharmacological/therapeutic efficacious payloads, etc. that is nearly unfeasible or unalterable practically by using single nanorobot. The collective intelligence of the nanorobot is advancing progressively at the nanoscale to reinforce their precision treatment potentially. Conclusively, after obtaining certain consideration regarding the nanorobotics sciences, many professionals are compendiously involving in the emerging highly efficacious therapeutic technology that encourages the scientist or designing of the tissues specific for the site-specific nanorobotic diagnostic devices. As a result, the closed and professional type between the field of Nanotechnology and Medical Sciences will provide another new highly oriented level to the domain of nanorobotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1061186X.2021.1892122DOI Listing
September 2021

A review of the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of auraptene.

Biofactors 2019 Nov 19;45(6):867-879. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

There is a growing awareness in herbal medications as they are usually safe and devoid of significant adverse effects. Auraptene is a natural bioactive monoterpene coumarin ether and is consumed all over the world. There is growing evidence of the therapeutic benefits of auraptene. Auraptene, also known as auraptene and 7-geranyloxycoumarin, is a bioactive monoterpene coumarin from Rutaceae family, which is isolated from Citrus aurantium (Seville orange) and Aegle marmelos (bael fruit). Auraptene is a highly pleiotropic molecule, which can modulate intracellular signaling pathways that control inflammation, cell growth, and apoptosis. It has a potential therapeutic role in the prevention and treatment of various diseases due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as well as its excellent safety profile. In the present article, various pharmacological and therapeutic effects of auraptene were reviewed. Different online databases using keywords such as auraptene, therapeutic effects and pharmacological effects were searched until the end of September 2018, for this purpose. Auraptene has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a broad range of disorders including inflammatory disorders, dysentery, wounds, scars, keloids, and pain. In addition, different studies have demonstrated that auraptene possesses numerous pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and anti-cancer as well as neuroprotective effects. The present review provides a detailed survey of scientific researches regarding pharmacological properties and therapeutic effects of auraptene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.1550DOI Listing
November 2019

Medicinal plants in traumatic brain injury: Neuroprotective mechanisms revisited.

Biofactors 2019 Jul 17;45(4):517-535. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most prevalent health problem affecting all age groups, and leads to many secondary problems in other organs especially kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and heart function. In this review, the search terms were TBI, fluid percussion injury, cold injury, weight drop impact acceleration injury, lateral fluid percussion, cortical impact injury, and blast injury. Studies with Actaea racemosa, Artemisia annua, Aframomum melegueta, Carthamus tinctorius, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Crocus sativus, Cnidium monnieri, Curcuma longa, Gastrodia elata, Malva sylvestris, Da Chuanxiong Formula, Erigeron breviscapus, Panax ginseng, Salvia tomentosa, Satureja khuzistanica, Nigella sativa, Drynaria fortune, Dracaena cochinchinensis, Polygonum cuspidatum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Rheum tanguticum, Centella asiatica, and Curcuma zedoaria show a significant decrease in neuronal injury by different mechanisms such as increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, suppressing nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), interleukin 1 (IL-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein, and IL-6 expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of medicinal plants in central nervous system pathologies by reviewing the available literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.1516DOI Listing
July 2019

Vitamin C improves liver and renal functions in hypothyroid rats by reducing tissue oxidative injury.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2020 Jan 21;90(1-2):84-94. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

The effects of Vit C on liver and renal function and the tissues oxidative damage was investigated in hypothyroid rats. The pregnant rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6): (1) Control; (2) Propylthiouracil (PTU; 0.005%), (3-5) PTU plus 10, 100 or 500 mg/kg b.w. Vit C. The drugs were added to the drinking water of the dams and their pups during lactation period and then continued for the offspring through the first 8 weeks of their life. Finally, 7 male offspring from each group were randomly selected. Thyroxine, protein and albumin concentrations in the serum and thiol content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in renal and liver tissues of hypothyroid group was lower (all P<0.001) while, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P), creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations in the serum and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver and renal tissues were higher than the control (all P<0.001). All doses of Vit C increased thyroxine, protein and albumin and thiol content in in renal and liver tissues while, decreased AST, ALT and ALK-P concentration and MDA in liver and renal tissues compared to PTU group (P<0.05-P<0.001). Creatinine, BUN and SOD and CAT were improved by both 100 and 500 mg/kg of Vit C in the renal (P<0.05-P<0.001) and by 100 mg/kg in the liver (P<0.05-P<0.001). Vit C improved liver and renal function of hypothyroid rats which might be due to its protective effects against tissues oxidative damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000495DOI Listing
January 2020

Protective effect of Mumiju against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2018 Sep-Oct;8(5):457-464

School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Objective: In this study, we elucidated the ameliorative effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Mumiju against acetic acid-induced experimental colitis in male rats.

Materials And Methods: The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=7) including I: control group, II: vehicle group (injected with 2 ml acetic acid (4%) intra rectally), III and IV: treatment groups which received Mumiju (250 mg/kg) orally or intraperitoneally for 4 consecutive days after ulcer induction. Ulcer index, severity of inflammation, colonic levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 4 days.

Results: The ulcer index, severity of inflammation and colonic MDA levels were increased following intrarectal instillation of acetic acid. Also, acetic acid significantly decreased the SOD and GSH levels. Treatment with Mumiju for 4 days exhibited significantly lowered oxidative stress, while elevated of SOD and GSH levels. Regenerative-healing patterns also was seen by histopathological findings after treatment with Mumiju.

Conclusion: The present investigation demonstrates that Mumiju could be regarded as a herb with potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by modulation of oxidant- antioxidant system.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6190247PMC
October 2018

The Flavone Luteolin Improves Central Nervous System Disorders by Different Mechanisms: A Review.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Aug 6;65(4):491-506. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Nervous System Stem Cells Research Center, Semnan University of Medicaid Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Development and design of agents derived from natural sources with neuroprotective properties have received considerable attention. In the literature, it has been stated that these polyphenolic molecules have low adverse impacts and high efficacy when used in pathological conditions. Dietary flavonoids as a subgroup of polyphenols are bioactive products, extracted from several types of vegetables and fruits. Luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone, LUT) is a widespread flavone known to have antioxidant and cytoprotective properties related to nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-(Nrf2) pathway. Extensive in vitro and in vivo investigations have indicated that LUT exhibits beneficial neuroprotective properties via different mechanisms. However, its psychopharmacological mechanisms are presently investigated in fewer studies. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective impacts of LUT against central nervous system (CNS) disorders by reviewing available literature. Herein, we also reviewed the studies to understand the underlying mechanisms of LUT for curing CNS disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-018-1094-2DOI Listing
August 2018

Serum Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients with Senile Cataract and Healthy Controls.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2018 Jun;28(6):448-451

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran.

Objective: To investigate the role of oxidative stress in patients with senile cataract.

Study Design: Case-control study.

Place And Duration Of Study: North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran, from 2014 to 2015.

Methodology: Non-randomised sampling was conducted on 74 patients with senile cataract and 79 healthy people. The oxidative stress level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were measured in serum. The results were analysed using SPSS software and followed by t-test analysis. P<0.05 was considered to be significant.

Results: The median activity of GPx and SOD antioxidant enzymes in patients with cataract, was higher than healthy people (p=0.018 and p<0.0001, respectively). Peroxide-antioxidant (PAB) levels in patients with cataract was significantly higher than in healthy people (p<0.0001).

Conclusion: This study showed that despite the high level of oxidative stress in patients, the activity rate of GPx and SOD enzymes also increased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2018.06.448DOI Listing
June 2018

The prevention and treatment effects of egg yolk high density lipoprotein on the formation of atherosclerosis plaque in rabbits.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2015 Apr;18(4):343-9

Student Research Committee, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: Atherosclerosis is the main leading cause of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential preventive effect of egg yolk HDL on the atherosclerosis plaque formation.

Materials And Methods: Thirty rabbits were divided into five groups: A; normal diet, B; hyper-cholesterolemic diet, C; hypercholesterolemic + 400 mg/kg egg yolk HDL D; hypercholesterolemic +100 mg/kg egg yolk HDL and E; 200 mg/kg egg yolk HDL. At the end of the experiment, the lipid profiles were measured by spectrophotometric method. The histological sections of thoracic aorta also were taken and analyzed under light microscope.

Results: At the end of the 2(nd) and the 4(th) weeks, there was a significant increase of cholesterol level in groups B, C, and D compared to group A (P<0.05). Following HDL treatment, triglyceride (TG) levels increased significantly versus group A and also the TG level decreased significantly in group C, D, and E versus group B (P<0.01). Egg yolk HDL significantly increased HDL-C in groups C, D, and E (P<0.01) compared to groups A and B (P<0.05). The surface area of the atherosclerotic plaque was increased significantly in group B versus group A (P<0.001). Egg yolk HDL consumption reduced the plaque size significantly (P<0.001).

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that treatment with egg yolk HDL increased serum HDL-C and decreased atherosclerotic plaque size in rabbits. Thus, egg yolk HDL may be considered as an anti-atherosclerotic treatment for cardiovascular diseases.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4439448PMC
April 2015

Beneficial Effects of Teucrium polium and Metformin on Diabetes-Induced Memory Impairments and Brain Tissue Oxidative Damage in Rats.

Int J Alzheimers Dis 2015 24;2015:493729. Epub 2015 Feb 24.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnourd, Iran.

Objective. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Teucrium polium and metformin on diabetes-induced memory impairment and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated. Methods. The rats were divided into: (1) Control, (2) Diabetic, (3) Diabetic-Extract 100 (Dia-Ext 100), (4) Diabetic-Extract 200 (Dia-Ext 200), (5) Diabetic-Extract 400 (Dia-Ext 400), and (6) Diabetic-Metformin (Dia-Met). Groups 3-6 were treated by 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract or metformin, respectively, for 6 weeks (orally). Results. In passive avoidance test, the latency to enter the dark compartment in Diabetic group was lower than that of Control group (P < 0.01). In Dia-Ext 100, Dia-Ext 200, and Dia-Ext 400 and Metformin groups, the latencies were higher than those of Diabetic group (P < 0.01). Lipid peroxides levels (reported as malondialdehyde, MDA, concentration) in the brain of Diabetic group were higher than Control (P < 0.001). Treatment by all doses of the extract and metformin decreased the MDA concentration (P < 0.01). Conclusions. The results of present study showed that metformin and the hydroalcoholic extract of Teucrium polium prevent diabetes-induced memory deficits in rats. Protection against brain tissues oxidative damage might have a role in the beneficial effects of the extract and metformin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/493729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4354963PMC
March 2015

The effects of female sexual steroids on gastric function and barrier resistance of gastrointestinal tract following traumatic brain injury.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):75-80

Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Aim: The aim was to assess the alteration of gastric function and barrier function of gastrointestinal (GI) tract following diffuse brain injury in varying ovarian hormone status.

Materials And Methods: Diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) was induced by Marmarou method. Rats were randomly assigned into 10 groups: Intact, sham + ovariectomized female (OVX), TBI, TBI + OVX, vehicle, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), E2 + P, estrogen receptor alpha agonist and estrogen receptor beta agonist (DPN). Endotoxin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. All the parameters were measured 5 days after TBI.

Results: Intragastric pressure was significantly decreased in TBI as compared to the intact group (P < 0.001) and this was lower in TBI group versus TBI + OVX group (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with steroid hormones and their agonists did not have any effect on the gastric pressure compared to TBI + OVX or vehicle groups. Inflammation, congestion, ulcer and erosion were seen in the TBI rats. All treatment groups worsen the tissue condition so that the presence of thrombosis also was seen. The trauma induction did not have any effect on the serum and intestinal endotoxin levels. DPN had caused a significant reduction in serum levels of endotoxin compared with OVX + TBI group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Pretreatment with sexual steroids is not useful in the treatment of GI dysfunction induced by TBI. The treatment with all sexual female hormones worsens the gastric tissue condition. Furthermore, the applied weight was not enough for releasing of endotoxin. It seems that estrogen reduced the endotoxin levels by estrogen beta receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.149815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4333633PMC
February 2015

Ulcer healing activity of Mumijo aqueous extract against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):56-9

Department of Physiology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Objective: Gastric ulcer is an important clinical problem, chiefly due to extensive use of some drugs. The aim was to assess the activity of Mumijo extract (which is used in traditional medicine) against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats.

Materials And Methods: The aqueous extract of Mumijo was prepared. Animals were randomly (n = 10) divided into four groups: Control, sham-operated group (received 0.2 ml of acetic acid to induce gastric ulcer), Mumijo (100 mg/kg/daily) were given for 4 days postacetic acid administration, and ranitidine group (20 mg/kg). The assessed parameters were pH and pepsin levels (by Anson method) of gastric contents and gastric histopathology. Ranitidine was used as reference anti-ulcer drug.

Results: The extract (100 mg/kg/daily, p.o.) inhibited acid acetic-induced gastric ulceration by elevating its pH versus sham group (P < 0.01) and decreasing the pepsin levels compared to standard drug, ranitidine (P < 0.05). The histopathology data showed that the treatment with Mumijo extract had a significant protection against all mucosal damages.

Conclusion: Mumijo extract has potent antiulcer activity. Its anti-ulcer property probably acts via a reduction in gastric acid secretion and pepsin levels. The obtained results support the use of this herbal material in folk medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.148739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4333629PMC
February 2015

The Effects of Aqueous Extract of Alpinia Galangal on Gastric Cancer Cells (AGS) and L929 Cells in Vitro.

Iran J Cancer Prev 2014 ;7(3):142-6

Dept. of Immunology, Bu-Ali Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Although the incidence of gastric cancer is declining during the last half century, this cancer still is the second morbid cancer in the world after lung cancer. The incidence of gastric cancer is 26 per 100,000 in Iran. This study evaluated the effect of Alpinia galangal on AGS cells (human gastric adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line) and L929 cells (as a standard cell line originated from mouse fibroblast cells).

Methods: After culturing the cells in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium, the cells were incubated with different doses of Alpinia galangal (0 (control), 125, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 µg/ml) in 24, 48 and 72 hour periods and then, cells viability were assessed using MTT based cell proliferation assay.

Results: After 24 hours, the percentage of living AGS cells compared to the control group showed no significant decrease at the concentrations of 125 and 250µg/ml. But in the rest concentrations were significant (p<0.05). Only, the percentage of surviving L929 cells at concentration of 125µg/ml of the extract was not significant, but these percentages in the other concentrations were significant. After 48 and 72h incubation, in the last three extract concentrations, the percentage of living AGS and L929 cells significantly decreased compared to control cells (p<0.05).

Conclusion: We have demonstrated, using cell culture model, anti-proliferative effect of aqueous extract of Alpinia galangal on human gastric tumor (AGS) and L929 cell lines. This effect was prominent in high concentrations.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4171825PMC
September 2014

The effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on the gastric emptying and small intestine transit in the male rats following traumatic brain injury.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2014 Jun;17(6):406-10

Department of Physiology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Objectives: This study was carried out to investigate the effects of COX-2 selective inhibitor (Celecoxib) or non-selective COX inhibitor (Ibuprofen) on gastrointestinal motility.

Materials And Methods: THE RATS WERE RANDOMLY DIVIDED INTO FIVE GROUPS INCLUDING: intact, sham, traumatic brain injury (TBI) group (intact rats under TBI), Celecoxib group (10 mg/kg), Ibuprofen group (10 mg/kg). Rats of the treatment groups received gavages at 1 hr before the TBI induction. The TBI was moderate and diffused using the Marmarou method. The gastric emptying and small intestine transit were measured by phenol red method.

Results: The gastric emptying didn't change following TBI induction compared to intact group. The consumption of ibuprofen or celecoxib didn't have any effect on gastric emptying compared to sham group. TBI induction didn't have any effect on the intestinal transit. Also, there was no significant difference between ibuprofen or celecoxib consumption vs. sham group (P>0.05).

Conclusion: The COX-2 selective inhibitor (celecoxib) or non-selective COX inhibitor (ibuprofen) have no effects on gastric or small bowel transit. Further work is necessary to investigate the effects of non-selective COX inhibitors and their impact on gastrointestinal motility disorders.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4137944PMC
June 2014

The effects of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid- induced gastric ulcer in male rats.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2014 Mar;4(2):137-43

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, I. R. Iran.

Objective: Gut-brain axis (GBA) is very important in creation and modulation of gastrointestinal problems. Aloe vera gel has gastroprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid gastric ulcer induction.

Materials And Methods: Gastric ulcer was induced by injection of 20% acetic acid into the subserosal layer in male rats. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups: intact group, gastric ulcer group and Aloe vera group (treatment with Aloe vera following gastric ulcer induction). The acid levels and brain and intestinal water content of each sample were measured eight days after the gastric ulcer induction.

Results: Gastric acid levels were significantly decreased in Aloe vera group when compared with gastric ulcer group (p<0.05). However, there were no differences in acid output between gastric ulcer and Aloe vera groups with intact group. After Aloe vera administration, the amount of brain water content had no difference with intact and gastric ulcer groups (p<0.05). The duodenal water content in Aloe vera group was significantly reduced compared with intact group (p<0.05) but gastric ulcer group had no significant difference with intact and Aloe vera group.

Conclusions: The administration of Aloe vera has an inhibitory effect on the gastric acid output.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4103709PMC
March 2014

Effect of aqueous extract of Rheum ribes on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2013 Oct;5(4):309-13

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran ; Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Rheum ribes extract prevents cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Materials And Methods: THE ANIMALS WERE DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS: Group A considered as control group, group B were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg B.W. for 3 alternative days), and group C further to cisplatin received the aqueous extract of Rheum ribes (150 mg/rat).

Results: Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level increased in group B on days 14 and 42 compared to day 0 (P < 0.001); it was also increased in group B vs. group A on day 14 (P < 0.001). Rheum ribes extract decreased the serum BUN level on day 14 compared to group B (P < 0.001). Serum creatinine level in group B had a similar profile as serum BUN level but Rheum ribes had no effect on blood creatinine level. Serum cholesterol level was increased in group B on days 14 and 42 compared to day 0 (P < 0.001). Also, cholesterol level was significantly increased in group B when compared to group A on day 14 (P < 0.001). Rheum ribes decreased the blood cholesterol level on day 42 in comparison to group B (P < 0.001). Serum glucose level was increased in group B on days 14 and 42 vs. day 0 (P < 0.001). Also, glucose level was significantly increased in group B when compared to group A on day 42 (P < 0.001). Rheum ribes increased the serum glucose level on days 14 and 42 compared to day 0 (P < 0.05). Histology of kidneys exposed to cisplatin showed renal injury, but Rheum ribes had no effect on the kidney architecture.

Conclusion: Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was confirmed in our study. Although Rheum ribes had some effects on biochemical parameters; its effect on renal histology in injured kidney was insignificant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.120083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3831744PMC
October 2013

The effect of female sexual hormones on the intestinal and serum cytokine response after traumatic brain injury: different roles for estrogen receptor subtypes.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2013 Sep 21;91(9):700-7. Epub 2013 Feb 21.

Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman 76175-113, Iran.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of female sexual hormones on intestinal and serum cytokines following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adult female rats were ovariectomized and distributed among the following 9 groups: (i) sham trauma, (ii) TBI (Marmarou's method), (iii) vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide) treated, (iv) estrogen (E2) treated, (v) progesterone (P) treated, (vi) treated with E2+P, (vii) propylpyrazole triol (PPT) treated, (viii) diarylpropionitrile (DPN) treated, and (ix) control. PPT and DPN are estrogen receptor αand β agonists, respectively. Serum and intestinal levels of interleukin (IL)-1β were increased by TBI (P < 0.001). The level of intestinal IL-1β was increased in the group treated with E2 (P < 0.001). There was a reduction in serum IL-1β (P < 0.01) and an increase in intestinal IL-1β level (P < 0.001) in the PPT-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated group. TBI reduced serum IL-6 (P < 0.01) and increased intestinal IL-6 (P < 0.001). Serum IL-6 was increased in the group treated with E2 (P < 0.001), P (P < 0.001), E2+P (P < 0.01), and DPN (P < 0.001) after TBI; however, intestinal IL-6 was higher in the E2-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated group (P < 0.01). Intestinal tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was increased by TBI (P < 0.001). Progesterone decreased serum TNF-α (P < 0.01). Intestinal TNF-α in the E2 (P < 0.01), E2+P (P < 0.001), and PPT (P < 0.001) treatment groups was less than in the vehicle-treated group. In conclusion, estrogen influences the intestinal levels of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular TNF-α, mediated through estrogen receptor α.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2012-0359DOI Listing
September 2013

The effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on the brain inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury in rats.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2012 Sep;15(5):1102-5

North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnord, Iran.

Objectives: Cytokines such as IL-1β are involved in inflammatory responses. This study evaluated the role of two different kinds of drugs (ibuprofen and celecoxib) on brain IL-10 and IL-1β after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in male rats.

Materials And Methods: Rats were assigned into 6 groups: intact, sham, TBI, and treated rats with vehicle, celecoxib or iboprophen. Cytokine concentrations were quantified by ELISA kits.

Results: Groups showed no significant difference in brain IL-10 either after TBI induction or after treatment with ibuprofen or celecoxib. Serum IL-10 in vehicle or ibuprofen treated animals was lower than in sham groups (P< 0.01). Brain IL-1β decreased after treatment by ibuprofen or celecoxib (P< 0.001). There was no statistical difference in serum IL-1β in TBI and intact. Serum IL-1β significantly decreased in rats that received celecoxib compared to TBI group (P< 0.01).

Conclusion: Based on our study IL-1β can decrease through both cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and COX-2 pathway but serum IL-1β can decrease only by COX-2 pathway.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586930PMC
September 2012

Effect of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on cisplatin-induced toxicity in rat.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2012 Mar;6(2):99-104

Department of Physiology, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to test whether Nigella sativa (NS) seeds can reduce cisplatin-induced toxicity.

Materials And Methods: Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups to receive distilled water (control group), cisplatin (3 mg/kg per body weight for 3 days), and cisplatin and alcoholic extract of NS (100 mg/kg per body weight). Biochemical and histopathologic parameters were compared between the three groups on days 14 and 42 of the study.

Results: Blood urea nitrogen increased in the cisplatin and NS groups on days 14 and 42 compared to day 0 (P < .001). It was significantly in the cisplatin than in the control group on day 14 (P < .001). Serum creatinine had a similar profile in the cisplatin and NS groups as blood urea nitrogen. Serum triglyceride increased in the cisplatin and NS groups on day 14, but it decreased on day 42 (P < .05). Urine glucose concentration decreased in the cisplatin group on days 14 and 42 compared to day 0 (P < .001), and the same trend was seen in the NS group (P < .001). Histology of the kidneys exposed to cisplatin showed significant kidney injury, but the rats treated with NS showed a relatively well-preserved architecture.

Conclusions: Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was confirmed in our study. Nigella sativa seeds had nonsignificant effects on biochemical parameters, although the histopathologic properties of the kidneys relatively recovered after NS use.
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March 2012
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