Publications by authors named "Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria"

96 Publications

Safety evaluation of orally-administered methanol extract of Muntingia calabura Linn. leaves: A sub-chronic toxicity study in Sprague Dawley rats.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Sep;33(5):2009-2016

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia / Integrative Pharmacogenomic Institute, Level 7, FF3 Building, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia.

Muntingia calabura (M. calabura), locally known as "kerukup siam" or "buah ceri" belongs to the family Muntingiaceae and has been scientifically demonstrated to exert various pharmacological activities. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the antioxidant activities and to determine the subchronic toxicity of 90 days orally-administered methanol extract of M. calabura (MEMC) in male Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=6). Vehicle control received 8% tween 80 and treatment group received 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg of MEMC orally administered daily for 90 days. Blood collection was carried out to obtain the hematological and biochemical profile of the rats. The organs harvested were subjected to histopathological analysis. For the antioxidant test, the extract was subjected to antioxidant study using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)- and superoxide anion-radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and phytochemical screening. Results obtained show that no adverse effects were observed during the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical analysis also showed no significant changes in this toxicity study. Besides, antioxidant analyses revealed that MEMC has higher DPPH- and SOD-radical scavenges activity as well as higher TPC value. In conclusion, M. calabura is safe for consumption and possesses beneficial antioxidant effect.
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September 2020

Self-nanoemulsifying Delivery of Andrographolide: Ameliorating Islet Beta Cells and Inhibiting Adipocyte Differentiation.

Adv Pharm Bull 2021 Jan 7;11(1):171-180. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Insulin resistance is a characteristic of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus associated with obesity and caused by the failure of pancreatic beta cells to secrete sufficient amount of insulin. Andrographolide (AND) improves beta-cell reconstruction and inhibits fat-cell formation. This research aimed to improve the delivery of water-insoluble AND in self-nanoemulsifying (ASNE) formulation, tested in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. A conventional formulation of AND in suspension was used as a control. The experimental rats were orally administered with self-nanoemulsifying (SNE) and suspension of AND for 8 days. Measurements were performed to evaluate blood glucose levels in preprandial and postprandial conditions. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the process of islet beta cell reconstruction. In vitro study was performed using cell viability and adipocyte differentiation assay to determine the delivery of AND in the formulation. ASNE lowered blood glucose levels (day 4) faster than AND suspension (day 6). The histological testing showed that ASNE could regenerate pancreatic beta cells. Therefore, ASNE ameliorated pancreatic beta cells. The in vitro evaluation indicated the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by both AND and ASNE, which occurred in a time-dependent manner. ASNE formulation had better delivery than AND. ASNE could improve the antidiabetic activity by lowering blood glucose levels, enhancing pancreatic beta cells, and inhibiting lipid formation in adipocyte cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/apb.2021.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961231PMC
January 2021

Polyphenolics and triterpenes presence in chloroform extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves attenuated paracetamol-induced liver intoxication in rat.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Jan 14;21(1):35. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Introduction: Water-soluble, but not lipid-soluble, extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves has been proven to possess hepatoprotective activity. The present study aimed to validate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities, and phytoconstituents of lipid-soluble (chloroform) extract of D. linearis leaves.

Methods: The extract of D. linearis leaves (CEDL; 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was orally administered to rats for 7 consecutive days followed by the oral administration of 3 g/kg PCM to induce liver injury. Blood was collected for liver function analysis while the liver was obtained for histopathological examination and endogenous antioxidant activity determination. The extract was also subjected to antioxidant evaluation and phytochemicals determination via phytochemical screening, HPLC and UPLC-HRMS analyses.

Results: CEDL exerted significant (p < 0.05) hepatoprotective activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg and significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the PCM-induced decrease in rat's liver endogenous antioxidant (catalase and superoxide dismutase) level. CEDL possessed a high antioxidant capacity when measured using the ORAC assay, but a low total phenolic content value and radical scavenging activity as confirmed via several radical scavenging assays, which might be attributed particularly to the presence of triterpenes. Phytochemicals screening demonstrated the presence of triterpenes and flavonoids, while UPLC-HRMS analysis showed the presence of polyphenols belonging to the hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinammates and flavonoid groups.

Discussion And Conclusion: Lipid-soluble bioactive compounds of CEDL demonstrated hepatoprotective effect against PCM intoxication partly via the modulation of the endogenous antioxidant defense system, and exerted high antioxidant capacity. Further investigation is warranted to identify the potential hepatoprotective leads from CEDL for future drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-03200-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809736PMC
January 2021

Honey and its nutritional and anti-inflammatory value.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Jan 14;21(1):30. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Technology and Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400, Pagoh, Johor, Malaysia.

Inflammation is the main key role in developing chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, arthritis, and neurodegenerative diseases which possess a huge challenge for treatment. With massively compelling evidence of the role played by nutritional modulation in preventing inflammation-related diseases, there is a growing interest into the search for natural functional foods with therapeutic and preventive actions. Honey, a nutritional healthy product, is produced mainly by two types of bees: honeybee and stingless bee. Since both types of honey possess distinctive phenolic and flavonoid compounds, there is recently an intensive interest in their biological and clinical actions against inflammation-mediated chronic diseases. This review shed the light specifically on the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of honey polyphenols and highlight their roles in targeting inflammatory pathways in gastrointestinal tract disorders, edema, cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-03170-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807510PMC
January 2021

Analysis of expression of vitamin E-binding proteins in H2O2 induced SK-N-SH neuronal cells supplemented with α-tocopherol and tocotrienol-rich fraction.

PLoS One 2020 24;15(11):e0241112. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Nutrition Unit, Product Development and Advisory Services Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Selangor, Malaysia.

Natural α-tocopherol (α-TCP), but not tocotrienol, is preferentially retained in the human body. α-Tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) is responsible for binding α-TCP for cellular uptake and has high affinity and specificity for α-TCP but not α-tocotrienol. The purpose of this study was to examine the modification of α-TTP together with other related vitamin E-binding genes (i.e., TTPA, SEC14L2, and PI-TPNA) in regulating vitamin E uptake in neuronal cells at rest and under oxidative stress. Oxidative stress was induced with H2O2 for an hour which was followed by supplementation with different ratios of α-TCP and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) for four hours. The cellular levels of vitamin E were quantified to determine bioavailability at cellular levels. The expression levels of TTPA, SEC14L2, and PI-TPNA genes in 0% α-TCP were found to be positively correlated with the levels of vitamin E in resting neuronal cells. In addition, the regulation of all the above-mentioned genes affect the distribution of vitamin E in the neuronal cells. It was observed that, increased levels of α-TCP secretion occur under oxidative stress. Thus, our results showed that in conclusion vitamin E-binding proteins may be modified in the absence of α-TCP to produce tocotrienols (TCT), as a source of vitamin E. The current study suggests that the expression levels of vitamin E transport proteins may influence the cellular concentrations of vitamin E levels in the neuronal cells.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241112PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685504PMC
December 2020

Comparative Efficacy of Selected Phytobiotics with Halquinol and Tetracycline on Gut Morphology, Ileal Digestibility, Cecal Microbiota Composition and Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Nov 19;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

The current experiment was designed to estimate the comparative efficacy of selected phytobiotics leaf meal (POLM) and leaf meal (PBLM) with halquinol, and tetracycline in broiler chickens. The 150-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five dietary groups. The dietary supplementation groups were the basal diet (BD), which served as the negative control (NC), and BD + 0.2 g/kg tetracycline, which served as the positive control (PC); BD + 0.03 g/kg halquinol (HAL), BD + 8 g/kg POLM (Po8), and BD + 4 g/kg PBLM (Pb4) were the treatment groups. Growth performance, gut morphology, digestibility, and cecal microbiota composition were measured. On day 21, the body weight gain (BWG) was enhanced ( < 0.05) in the broiler chickens fed on phytobiotics (Po8 and Pb4) relative to the NC group, however, on day 42 and in terms of overall growth performance, BWG was enhanced ( < 0.05 in diets (Po8, Pb4, HAL and PC) in comparison with the NC group. Conversely, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was recorded reduced ( < 0.05) in Pb4, Po8, HAL, and PC group in comparison with the NC group. Supplementation of phytobiotics (Po8 and Pb4), HAL and PC, positively improved the gut morphology compared to the NC group. Furthermore, the maximum ( < 0.05) villus height (VH) in duodenum and jejunum was observed in broilers fed on diet Pb4. Supplementation of phytobiotics, HAL and PC, improved ( < 0.05) the digestibility of dry matter (DM) (except for HAL), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and ash compared to the NC group. Dietary supplementation of phytobiotics (Po8 and Pb4), HAL and PC, significantly reduced the , , and (except for HAL) counts compared to the NC group. However, supplementation of Pb4 resulted in significantly decreased total anaerobic bacteria and spp. counts compared to the NC group. In addition, supplementation of phytobiotics significantly increased the count compared to HAL, PC, and NC groups. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of phytobiotics improved the gut morphology, positively modulated and maintained the dynamics of cecal microbiota with enhanced nutrient digestibility, thus, increased the growth performance. Based on current results, phytobiotics could be used as an alternative to AGPs for sustainable broiler chicken production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10112150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699210PMC
November 2020

Analytical GC-FID Method for the Determination of Organic Solvents in Radiopharmaceutical.

Curr Radiopharm 2020 Oct 27. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Imaging, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor,. Malaysia.

Background: Organic solvents play an indispensable role in most of the radiopharmaceutical production stages. It is almost impossible to remove them entirely in the final formulation of the product.

Objective: In this presented work, an analytical method by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) has been developed to determine organic solvents in radiopharmaceutical samples. The effect of injection hold time, temperature variation in the injection port, and the column temperature on the analysis time and resolution (R ≥ 1.5) of ethanol and acetonitrile were studied extensively.

Methods: The experimental conditions were optimized with the aid of further statistical analysis; thence, the proposed method was validated following the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) Q2 (R1) guideline.

Results: The proposed analytical method surpassed the acceptance criteria for the linearity > 0.990 (correlation coefficient of R2), precision < 2%, LOD, and LOQ, accuracy > 90% for all solvents. The separation between ethanol and acetonitrile was acceptable with a resolution, R > 1.5. Further statistical analysis of Oneway ANOVA revealed that the increment of injection holds time and variation of temperature at the injection port did not significantly affect the analysis time. Nevertheless, the variation of injection port temperature substantially influences the resolution of ethanol and acetonitrile peaks (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The proposed analytical method has been successfully implemented to determine the organic solvent in the [18F]fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine ([18F]FET), [18F]fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO), and [18F]fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874471013999201027215704DOI Listing
October 2020

Synthesis of Benzimidazole-Based Analogs as Anti Alzheimer's Disease Compounds and Their Molecular Docking Studies.

Molecules 2020 Oct 20;25(20). Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.

We synthesized analogs of benzimidazole-based thiosemicarbazide (-) and benzimidazole-based Schiff bases (-), and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and evaluated in vitro for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BchE) inhibition activities. All the synthesized analogs showed varying degrees of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory potentials in comparison to the standard drug (IC = 0.016 and 4.5 µM. Amongst these analogs (-), compounds 1b, 1c, and 1g having IC values 1.30, 0.60, and 2.40 µM, respectively, showed good acetylcholinesterase inhibition when compared with the standard. These compounds also showed moderate butyrylcholinesterase inhibition having IC values of 2.40, 1.50, and 2.40 µM, respectively. The rest of the compounds of this series also showed moderate to weak inhibition. While amongst the second series of analogs (-), compounds 2c, 2e, and 2h having IC values of 1.50, 0.60, and 0.90 µM, respectively, showed moderate acetylcholinesterase inhibition when compared to donepezil. Structure Aactivity Relation of both synthesized series has been carried out. The binding interactions between the synthesized analogs and the enzymes were identified through molecular docking simulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594061PMC
October 2020

Phytochemistry, Traditional Use and Pharmacological Activity of : A Critical Reviews.

Nutrients 2020 Aug 26;12(9). Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh.

is a member of the Simaroubaceae family commonly grown in the regions of Asia, the Himalayas, and India and has been used as a traditional herbal medicine to treat various illnesses such as fever, gastric discomfort, and pediculosis. This study aims to critically review the presence of phytochemicals in and correlate their pharmacological activities with the significance of its use as traditional medicine. Data were collected by reviewing numerous scientific articles from several journal databases on the pharmacological activities of using certain keywords. As a result, approximately 94 phytochemicals extracted from were found to be associated with quassinoids, β-carbolines and canthinones. These molecules exhibited various pharmacological benefits such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, and anti-parasitic activities which help to treat different diseases. However, were also found to have several toxicity effects in high doses, although the evidence regarding these effects is limited in proving its safe use and efficacy as herbal medicine. Accordingly, while it can be concluded that may have many potential pharmacological benefits with more phytochemistry discoveries, further research is required to determine its real value in terms of quality, safety, and efficacy of use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12092584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7551903PMC
August 2020

-Propylammonium Lead Chloride Based Perovskite Photocatalysts for Depolymerization of Lignin Under UV Light.

Molecules 2020 Jul 31;25(15). Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Lignin depolymerization for the purpose of synthesizing aromatic molecules is a growing focus of research to find alternative energy sources. In current studies, the photocatalytic depolymerization of lignin has been investigated by two new iso-propylamine-based lead chloride perovskite nanomaterials ( and ), synthesized by the facile hydrothermal method. Characterization was done by Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence (PL), and Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and was used for the photocatalytic depolymerization of lignin under UV light. Lignin depolymerization was monitored by taking absorption spectra and catalytic paths studied by applying kinetic models. The %depolymerization was calculated for factors such as catalyst dose variation, initial concentration of lignin, and varying temperatures. Pseudo-second order was the best suited kinetic model, exhibiting a mechanism for lignin depolymerization that was chemically rate controlled. The activation energy (E) for the depolymerization reaction was found to be 15 kJ/mol, which is remarkably less than conventional depolymerization of the lignin, i.e., 59.75 kJ/mol, exhibiting significant catalytic efficiencies of synthesized perovskites. Products of lignin depolymerization obtained after photocatalytic activity at room temperature (20 °C) and at 90 °C were characterized by GC-MS analysis, indicating an increase in catalytic lignin depolymerization structural subunits into small monomeric functionalities at higher temperatures. Specifically, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (39%), benzene (17%), phenol (10%) and catechol (7%) were detected by GC-MS analysis of lignin depolymerization products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7435779PMC
July 2020

Selective Arylation of 2-Bromo-4-chlorophenyl-2-bromobutanoate via a Pd-Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reaction and Its Electronic and Non-Linear Optical (NLO) Properties via DFT Studies.

Molecules 2020 Jul 31;25(15). Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Faculty of Industrial Sciences & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, Gambang Kuantan 26300, Malaysia.

In the present study, 2-bromo-4-chlorophenyl-2-bromobutanoate () was synthesized via the reaction of 2-bromo-4-chlorophenol with 2-bromobutanoyl bromide in the presence of pyridine. A variety of 2-bromo-4-chlorophenyl-2-bromobutanoate derivatives (-) were synthesized with moderate to good yields via a Pd-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. To find out the reactivity and electronic properties of the compounds, Frontier molecular orbital analysis, non-linear optical properties, and molecular electrostatic potential studies were performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7435822PMC
July 2020

RAGE modulatory effects on cytokines network and histopathological conditions in malarial mice.

Exp Parasitol 2020 Sep 2;216:107946. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Dept. of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

This study was aimed at investigating the involvement of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) during malaria infection and the effects of modulating RAGE on the inflammatory cytokines release and histopathological conditions of affected organs in malarial animal model. Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) ANKA-infected ICR mice were treated with mRAGE/pAb and rmRAGE/Fc Chimera drugs from day 1 to day 4 post infection. Survival and parasitaemia levels were monitored daily. On day 5 post infection, mice were sacrificed, blood were drawn for cytokines analysis and major organs including kidney, spleen, liver, brain and lungs were extracted for histopathological analysis. RAGE levels were increased systemically during malaria infection. Positive correlation between RAGE plasma concentration and parasitaemia development was observed. Treatment with RAGE related drugs did not improve survival of malaria-infected mice. However, significant reduction on the parasitaemia levels were recorded. On the other hand, inhibition and neutralization of RAGE production during the infection significantly increased the plasma levels of interleukin (IL-4, IL-17A, IL-10 and IL-2) and reduced interferon (IFN)-γ secretion. Histopathological analysis revealed that all treated malarial mice showed a better outcome in histological assessment of affected organs (brain, liver, spleen, lungs and kidney). RAGE is involved in malaria pathogenesis and targeting RAGE could be beneficial in malaria infected host in which RAGE inhibition or neutralization increased the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-4) and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine (IFNγ) which may help alleviate tissue injury and improve histopathological conditions of affected organs during the infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107946DOI Listing
September 2020

Synthesis, in vitro urease inhibitory potential and molecular docking study of benzofuran-based-thiazoldinone analogues.

Sci Rep 2020 06 30;10(1):10673. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

In continuation of our work on enzyme inhibition, the benzofuran-based-thiazoldinone analogues (1-14) were synthesized, characterized by HREI-MS, H and CNMR and evaluated for urease inhibition. Compounds 1-14 exhibited a varying degree of urease inhibitory activity with IC values between 1.2 ± 0.01 to 23.50 ± 0.70 µM when compared with standard drug thiourea having IC value 21.40 ± 0.21 µM. Compound 1, 3, 5 and 8 showed significant inhibitory effects with IC values 1.2 ± 0.01, 2.20 ± 0.01, 1.40 ± 0.01 and 2.90 ± 0.01 µM respectively, better than the rest of the series. A structure activity relationship (SAR) of this series has been established based on electronic effects and position of different substituents present on phenyl ring. Molecular docking studies were performed to understand the binding interaction of the compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67414-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326984PMC
June 2020

Complementary alternative medicine use among postpartum mothers in a primary care setting: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Jun 26;20(1):197. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Biomedical Science Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 43400, Malaysia.

Background: Complementary alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used among postpartum mothers to maintain their well-being. This study aims to determine the prevalence and factors associated with CAM use among postpartum mothers in a primary-care clinic in Malaysia.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 725 postpartum mothers, aged 18 and above, attending a primary-care clinic. The systematic sampling method was used to recruit patients through a structured, self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 23. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of CAM use among postpartum mothers.

Results: The prevalence of CAM use among postpartum mothers was 85.5%. Manipulative body therapies, including massage, reflexology, hot stone compression and body wrapping were the most widely used methods of CAM (84.1%) among postpartum mothers, followed by biological-based therapies (33.1%). More than half of the respondents (52.1%) opted to use CAM, as they had observed good results from other CAM users. However, our study showed that 57.1% of mothers who consumed herbal medicine reported neonatal jaundice in their newborn. The median of the expenditure on CAM usage was 250 Malaysian Ringgits, or USD 61.3 per month. According to multiple logistic regression analyses, being Muslim (OR = 5.258, 95% CI: 2.952-9.368), being Malay (OR = 4.414, 95% CI: 1.18-16.56), having a higher educational level (OR = 2.561, 95% CI: 1.587-4.133) and having delivered via spontaneous vaginal delivery (OR: 5.660, 95% CI: 3.454-9.276) had a significantly positive association with CAM use among postpartum mothers.

Conclusions: The prevalence of CAM use was high (8 out of 10) among postpartum mothers. Postpartum mothers who are Malay, Muslim, have a higher educational level and who have had spontaneous vaginal delivery tended to use CAM more. Manipulative body therapies, including massage, reflexology, hot stone compression and body wrapping, were the most widely used forms of CAM, followed by biological-based therapies. More than half of the mothers who consumed herbal medicine reported neonatal jaundice in their newborn. Thus, education to increase awareness regarding the consumption of herbs is urgently required in this country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-02984-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318471PMC
June 2020

Genus : A Review of Its Distribution, Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Biological Activities and Propagation.

Molecules 2020 Jun 4;25(11). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Almost 50 species of plants were reviewed in this work and the main objective is to critically analyse their distribution, phytochemical content, biological activity, and propagation. Moreover, the information would be useful in promoting the relevant uses of the plant, especially in the medicinal fields based on in vitro and in vivo studies. To this end, scientific sources, including theses, PubMed, Google Scholar, International Islamic University Malaysia IIUM EBSCO, PubChem, and Elsevier, were accessed for publications regarding the genus in this review. Scientific literature regarding the plants revealed their wide distribution across Asia and the neighbouring countries, whereby they were utilised as traditional medicine to treat various diseases. In particular, various active compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, were reported in the plant. Furthermore, the species showed highly diverse biological activities, such as anti-cancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, and more. The genus propagation reported could produce a high quality and quantity of potent anticancer compound, namely camptothecin (CPT). Hence, it is believed that the relevant uses of natural compounds present in the plants can replace the existing crop of synthetic anticancer drugs associated with a multitude of unbearable side effects. Additionally, more future studies on the species should be undertaken to establish the links between its traditional uses, active compounds, and pharmacological activities reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321107PMC
June 2020

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of leaf extract against paracetamol-induced liver intoxication in rats.

Pharm Biol 2020 Dec;58(1):478-489

Integrative Pharmacogenomics Institute (iPROMISE), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia.

L. (Gleicheniaceae) leaves have been reported to exert hepatoprotective activity. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate partition of (EADL) are investigated. EADL was subjected to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory studies, and phytochemical analyses. study involved six groups ( = 6) of overnight fasted Sprague Dawley rats. The test solutions [10% DMSO (normal), 10% DMSO (negative), 200 mg/kg silymarin (positive) or EADL (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg)] were administered orally once daily for 7 consecutive days followed by oral vehicle (only for normal) or hepatotoxic induction using 3 g/kg paracetamol (PCM). EADL exerted ≈ 90% radical scavenging effects based on the DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays, high antioxidant capacity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (≈ 555,000 units), high total phenolic content (≈ 350 mg GAE/100 g extract) ( < 0.05), but low anti-inflammatory effect. EADL also attenuated PCM-induced liver intoxication as indicated by reduced level of serum liver enzymes; increased activity of endogenous enzymatic antioxidant (superoxide dismutase - 8.3 vs. 4.0 U/g tissue; catalase - 119 vs. 52 U/g tissue) and; reduced level of lipid peroxidation marker (2.7 vs. 5.0 µM). Preliminary screening of EADL revealed the presence of saponins, tannins and flavonoids with further HPLC analysis demonstrating the presence of rutin and quercetin. EADL exerted hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities; thus, these data support the potential use of as a new source for future hepatoprotective drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2020.1764058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336992PMC
December 2020

Erratum: Antinociceptive Activity of Asiaticoside in Mouse Models of Induced Nociception.

Planta Med 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1170-9487DOI Listing
May 2020

Antinociceptive Activity of Asiaticoside in Mouse Models of Induced Nociception.

Planta Med 2020 May 15;86(8):548-555. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

The antinociceptive property of extracts is known but the analgesic activity of its bioactive constituent asiaticoside has not been reported. We evaluated the antinociceptive activity of orally (p. o.) administered asiaticoside (1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/kg) in mice using the 0.6% acetic acid-induced writhing test, the 2.5% formalin-induced paw licking test, and the hot plate test. The capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests were employed to evaluate the involvement of the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems, respectively. Asiaticoside (3, 5, and 10 mg/kg, p. o.) reduced the rate of writhing (p < 0.0001) by 25.3, 47.8, and 53.9%, respectively, and increased the latency period (p < 0.05) on the hot plate at 60 min post-treatment until the end of the experiment. Moreover, asiaticoside (3, 5, and 10 mg/kg, p. o.) shortened the time spent in licking/biting the injected paw (p < 0.0001) in the early phase of the formalin test by 45.7, 51.4, and 52.7%, respectively, and in the late phase (p < 0.01) by 23.6, 40.5, and 50.6%, respectively. Antinociception induced by asiaticoside (10 mg/kg) was not antagonized by naloxone in both the 2.5% formalin-induced nociception and the hot plate test, indicating a nonparticipation of the opioidergic system. Asiaticoside (1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/kg, p. o.) reduced the duration of biting/licking the capsaicin-injected paw (p < 0.0001) by 40.5, 48.2, 59.5, and 63.5%, respectively. Moreover, asiaticoside (5 and 10 mg/kg) shortened the time spent in biting/licking the glutamate-injected paw (p < 0.01) by 29.9 and 48.6%, respectively. Therefore, asiaticoside (5 and 10 mg/kg, p. o.) induces antinociception possibly through the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1144-3663DOI Listing
May 2020

Methanol Extract of Leaves Attenuate Pain via the Modulation of Opioid/NO-Mediated Pathway.

Biomolecules 2020 02 12;10(2). Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

leaf has been reported to exert antinociceptive activity. The present study elucidates the possible mechanisms of antinociception modulated by the methanol extract of leaves (MEDL) using various mouse models. The extract (25, 150, and 300 mg/kg) was administered orally to mice for 30 min priot to subjection to the acetic acid-induced writhing-, hot plate- or formalin-test to establish the antinociceptive profile of MEDL. The most effective dose was then used in the elucidation of possible mechanisms of action stage. The extract was also subjected to the phytochemical analyses. The results confirmed that MEDL exerted significant ( < 0.05) antinociceptive activity in those pain models as well as the capsaicin-, glutamate-, bradykinin- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced paw licking model. Pretreatment with naloxone (a non-selective opioid antagonist) significantly ( < 0.05) reversed MEDL effect on thermal nociception. Only l-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO) donor) but not N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; a NO inhibitor) or 1-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; a specific soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) significantly ( < 0.05) modified MEDL effect on the writhing test. Several polyphenolics and volatile antinociceptive compounds were detected in MEDL. In conclusion, MEDL exerted the opioid/NO-mediated antinociceptive activity, thus, justify as a potential source for new analgesic agents development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10020280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7072186PMC
February 2020

Renal ultrastructural alterations induced by various preparations of mefenamic acid.

Ultrastruct Pathol 2020 Jan 22;44(1):130-140. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Jordan Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Amman, Jordan.

Mefenamic acid (MFA) treatment is associated with a number of cellular effects that potentiate the incidence of renal toxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential ultrastructural alterations induced by various preparations of MFA (free MFA, MFA-Tween 80 liposomes, and MFA-DDC liposomes) on the renal tissues. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a daily dose of MFA preparations for 28 days. Renal biopsies from all groups of rats under study were processed for transmission electron microscopic examination. The findings revealed that MFA preparations induced various ultrastructural alterations including mitochondrial injury, nuclear and lysosomal alterations, tubular cells steatosis, apoptotic activity, autophagy, and nucleophagy. These alterations were more clear in rats received free MFA, and MFA-Tween 80 liposomes than those received MFA-DDC liposomes. It is concluded that MFA-DDC liposomes are less potential to induce renal damage than free MFA and MFA-Tween 80 liposomes. Thus, MFA-DDC liposomes may offer an advantage of safe drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01913123.2020.1717705DOI Listing
January 2020

Aqueous Partition of Methanolic Extract of Leaves Protects against Liver Damage Induced by Paracetamol.

Nutrients 2019 Dec 4;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Integrative Pharmacogenomics Institute (I-PROMISE), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam 42300, Selangor, Malaysia.

This study aimed to determine the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of semi-purified aqueous partition obtained from the methanol extract of (AQDL) leaves against paracetamol (PCM)-induced liver intoxication in rats. The test solutions, AQDL (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg), were administered orally to rats ( = 6) once daily for seven consecutive days followed by the hepatotoxicity induction using 3 g/kg PCM (p.o.). Blood was collected for serum biochemical parameters analysis while the liver was collected for histopathological examination and endogenous antioxidant enzymes analysis. AQDL was also subjected to antioxidant determination and phytochemical analysis. Results obtained show that AQDL possessed high total phenolic content (TPC) value and remarkable radical scavenging activities. AQDL also significantly ( < 0.05) reduced the liver weight/body weight (LW/BW) ratio or serum level of ALT, AST, and total bilirubin while significantly ( < 0.05) increase the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) without affecting the malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver indicating its hepatoprotective effect. Phytoconstituents analyses showed only the presence of saponins and triterpenes, but lack of flavonoids. In conclusion, AQDL exerts hepatoprotective activity via its high antioxidant potential and ability to modulate the endogenous enzymatic antioxidant defense system possibly via the synergistic action of saponins and triterpenes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11122945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950669PMC
December 2019

Synthesis of new isoquinoline-base-oxadiazole derivatives as potent inhibitors of thymidine phosphorylase and molecular docking study.

Sci Rep 2019 11 5;9(1):16015. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Here in this study regarding the over expression of TP, which causes some physical, mental and socio problems like psoriasis, chronic inflammatory disease, tumor angiogenesis and rheumatoid arthritis etc. By this consideration, the inhibition of this enzyme is vital to secure life from serious threats. In connection with this, we have synthesized twenty derivatives of isoquinoline bearing oxadiazole (1-20), characterized through different spectroscopic techniques such as HREI-MS, H- NMR and C-NMR and evaluated for thymidine phosphorylase inhibition. All analogues showed outstanding inhibitory potential ranging in between 1.10 ± 0.05 to 54.60 ± 1.50 µM. 7-Deazaxanthine (IC = 38.68 ± 1.12 µM) was used as a positive control. Through limited structure activity relationships study, it has been observed that the difference in inhibitory activities of screened analogs are mainly affected by different substitutions on phenyl ring. The effective binding interactions of the most active analogs were confirmed through docking study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-52100-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6831664PMC
November 2019

Vitamins D and E Stimulate the Signalling Pathway in Insulin-Resistant SK-N-SH Neuronal Cells.

Nutrients 2019 Oct 19;11(10). Epub 2019 Oct 19.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

This study investigated the effects of vitamins D and E on an insulin-resistant model and hypothesized that this treatment would reverse the effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and improves insulin signalling. An insulin-resistant model was induced in SK-N-SH neuronal cells with a treatment of 250 nM insulin and re-challenged with 100 nM at two different incubation time (16 h and 24 h). The effects of vitamin D (10 and 20 ng/mL), vitamin E in the form of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) (200 ng/mL) and the combination of vitamins D and E on insulin signalling markers (, , , and , glucose uptake and AD markers ( and ) were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated an improvement of the insulin signalling pathway upon treatment with vitamin D alone, with significant increases in , , , expression levels, as well as phosphorylation and glucose uptake, while and expression levels was decreased significantly. On the contrary, vitamin E alone, increased -, reduced the ROS as well as and but had no effect on the insulin signalling expression levels. The combination of vitamins D and E only showed significant increase in , , reduced ROS as well as and Thus, the universal role of vitamin D, E alone and in combinations could be the potential nutritional agents in restoring the sensitivity of neuronal cells towards insulin and delaying the pathophysiological progression of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11102525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6836113PMC
October 2019

Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants and Their Active Components.

Biomolecules 2019 09 30;9(10). Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft 7861756447, Iran.

Diabetes mellitus is one of the major health problems in the world, the incidence and associated mortality are increasing. Inadequate regulation of the blood sugar imposes serious consequences for health. Conventional antidiabetic drugs are effective, however, also with unavoidable side effects. On the other hand, medicinal plants may act as an alternative source of antidiabetic agents. Examples of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential are described, with focuses on preclinical and clinical studies. The beneficial potential of each plant matrix is given by the combined and concerted action of their profile of biologically active compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom9100551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6843349PMC
September 2019

Antinociceptive Activity of Petroleum Ether Fraction of Leaves Methanolic Extract: Roles of Nonopioid Pain Modulatory Systems and Potassium Channels.

Biomed Res Int 2019 5;2019:6593125. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Integrative Pharmacogenomics Institute (iPROMISE), Level 7, FF3, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Methanolic extract of Lindau leaves (MECN) has been reported to exert antinociceptive activity. The present study aimed to elucidate the possible antinociceptive mechanisms of a lipid-soluble fraction of MECN, which was obtained after sequential extraction in petroleum ether. The petroleum ether fraction of (PECN), administered orally to mice, was (i) subjected to capsaicin-, glutamate-, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-, bradykinin-induced nociception model; (ii) prechallenged (intraperitoneal (i.p.)) with 0.15 mg/kg yohimbine, 1 mg/kg pindolol, 3 mg/kg caffeine, 0.2 mg/kg haloperidol, or 10 mg/kg atropine, which were the respective antagonist of -adrenergic, -adrenergic, adenosinergic, dopaminergic, or muscarinic receptors; and (iii) prechallenged (i.p.) with 10 mg/kg glibenclamide, 0.04 mg/kg apamin, 0.02 mg/kg charybdotoxin, or 4 mg/kg tetraethylammonium chloride, which were the respective inhibitor of ATP sensitive-, small conductance Ca-activated-, large conductance Ca-activated-, or nonselective voltage-activated-K channel. Results obtained demonstrated that PECN (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) inhibited all models of nociception described earlier. The antinociceptive activity of 500 mg/kg PECN was significantly (P<0.05) attenuated when prechallenged with all antagonists or K channel blockers. However, only pretreatment with apamin and charybdotoxin caused full inhibition of PECN-induced antinociception. The rest of the K channel blockers and all antagonists caused only partial inhibition of PECN antinociception, respectively. Analyses on PECN's phytoconstituents revealed the presence of antinociceptive-bearing bioactive compounds of volatile (i.e., derivatives of -tocopherol, -tocopherol, and lupeol) and nonvolatile (i.e., cinnamic acid) nature. In conclusion, PECN exerts a non-opioid-mediated antinociceptive activity involving mainly activation of adenosinergic and cholinergic receptors or small- and large-conductance Ca-activated-K channels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6593125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699298PMC
January 2020

Pharmacological properties of Centella asiatica hydrogel in accelerating wound healing in rabbits.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2019 Aug 14;19(1):213. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Laboratory of Halal Science Research, Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Various extracts of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) and its active constituent, asiaticoside, have been reported to possess wound healing property when assessed using various in vivo and in vitro models. In an attempt to develop a formulation with accelerated wound healing effect, the present study was performed to examine in vivo efficacy of asiaticoside-rich hydrogel formulation in rabbits.

Methods: Asiaticoside-rich fraction was prepared from C. asiatica aerial part and then incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene glycol (PVA/PEG) hydrogel. The hydrogel was subjected to wound healing investigation using the in vivo incision model.

Results: The results obtained demonstrated that: i) the hydrogel formulation did not cause any signs of irritation on the rabbits' skin and; ii) enhanced wound healing 15% faster than the commercial cream and > 40% faster than the untreated wounds. The skin healing process was seen in all wounds marked by formation of a thick epithelial layer, keratin, and moderate formation of granulation tissues, fibroblasts and collagen with no fibrinoid necrosis detected.

Conclusion: The asiaticoside-rich hydrogel developed using the freeze-thaw method was effective in accelerating wound healing in rabbits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2625-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693193PMC
August 2019

Methanol extract of Muntingia calabura leaves attenuates CCl-induced liver injury: possible synergistic action of flavonoids and volatile bioactive compounds on endogenous defence system.

Pharm Biol 2019 Dec;57(1):335-344

f Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences , Universiti Putra Malaysia , Serdang , Malaysia.

Context: Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae) exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, thus, it might be a good hepatoprotective agent.

Objective: This study investigates the effect of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MMCL) on hepatic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in CCl-induced hepatotoxic rat.

Materials And Methods: Sprague Dawley rats (n = 6) were treated (p.o.) with 10% DMSO (Groups 1 and 2), 50 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (Group 3) or, 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg MMCL (Groups 4-6) for 7 consecutive days followed by pretreatment (i.p.) with vehicle (Group 1) or 50% CCl in olive oil (v/v) (Groups 2-6) on day 7th. Plasma liver enzymes and hepatic antioxidant enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines concentrations were measured while liver histopathology was examined.

Results: MMCL, at 500 mg/kg, significantly (p < 0.05) ameliorated CCl-induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing the plasma level of alanine transaminase (429.1 versus 168.7 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (513.8 versus 438.1 U/L) as well as the tissue level of nitric oxide (62.7 versus 24.1 nmol/g tissue). At 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg, MMCL significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the tumour necrosis factor α (87.8 versus 32.7 pg/mg tissue), interleukin-1β (1474.4 versus 618.3 pg/mg tissue), and interleukin-6 (136.7 versus 30.8 pg/mg tissue) while increased the liver catalase (92.1 versus 114.4 U/g tissue) and superoxide dismutase (3.4 versus 5.5 U/g tissue). Additionally, qualitative phytochemicals analysis showed that MMCL contained gallic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and genistein.

Discussion And Conclusions: MMCL ability to attenuate CCl-induced hepatotoxicity could be helpful in the development of hepatoprotective agents with fewer side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2019.1606836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6508049PMC
December 2019

Synthesis of Chromen-4-One-Oxadiazole Substituted Analogs as Potent -Glucuronidase Inhibitors.

Molecules 2019 Apr 18;24(8). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Chromen-4-one substituted oxadiazole analogs - have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for -glucuronidase inhibition. All analogs exhibited a variable degree of -glucuronidase inhibitory activity with IC values ranging in between 0.8 ± 0.1-42.3 ± 0.8 μM when compared with the standard d-saccharic acid 1,4 lactone (IC = 48.1 ± 1.2 μM). Structure activity relationship has been established for all compounds. Molecular docking studies were performed to predict the binding interaction of the compounds with the active site of enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6514607PMC
April 2019

Species: A Comprehensive Review on Their Phytochemistry, Biological Activities and Applications.

Molecules 2019 Apr 7;24(7). Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA.

species are aromatic plants used as spices in the kitchen, but their secondary metabolites have also shown biological effects on human health. These plants are rich in essential oils, which can be found in their fruits, seeds, leaves, branches, roots and stems. Some species have simple chemical profiles, while others, such as , , and , contain very diverse suites of secondary metabolites. In traditional medicine, species have been used worldwide to treat several diseases such as urological problems, skin, liver and stomach ailments, for wound healing, and as antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents. In addition, species could be used as natural antioxidants and antimicrobial agents in food preservation. The phytochemicals and essential oils of species have shown strong antioxidant activity, in comparison with synthetic antioxidants, and demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogens. Moreover, species possess therapeutic and preventive potential against several chronic disorders. Among the functional properties of plants/extracts/active components the antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and neuropharmacological activities of the extracts and extract-derived bioactive constituents are thought to be key effects for the protection against chronic conditions, based on preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, besides clinical studies. Habitats and cultivation of species are also covered in this review. In this current work, available literature of chemical constituents of the essential oils plants, their use in traditional medicine, their applications as a food preservative, their antiparasitic activities and other important biological activities are reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6479398PMC
April 2019

TREM-1 modulation produces positive outcome on the histopathology and cytokines release profile of -infected mice.

J Parasit Dis 2019 Mar 15;43(1):139-153. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

1Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia.

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) is a potential molecular therapeutic target for various inflammatory diseases. Despite that, the role of TREM-1 during malaria pathogenesis remains obscure with present literature suggesting a link between TREM-1 with severe malaria development. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the role of TREM-1 and TREM-1 related drugs during severe malaria infection in -infected mice model. Our findings revealed that TREM-1 concentration was significantly increased throughout the infection periods and TREM-1 was positively correlated with malaria parasitemia development. This suggests a positive involvement of TREM-1 in severe malaria development. Meanwhile, blocking of TREM-1 activation using rmTREM-1/Fc and TREM-1 clearance by mTREM-1/Ab had significantly reduced malaria parasitemia and suppressed the production of pro- inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Furthermore, histopathological analysis of TREM-1 related drug treatments, in particular rmTREM-1/Fc showed significant improvements in the histological conditions of major organs (kidneys, spleen, lungs, liver and brain) of -infected mice. This study showed that modulation of TREM-1 released during malaria infection produces a positive outcome on malaria infection through inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion and alleviation of histopathological conditions of affected organs. Nevertheless, further investigation on its optimal dosage and dose dependant study should be carried out to maximise its full potential as immunomodulatory or as an adjuvant in line with current antimalarial agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-018-1070-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423269PMC
March 2019