Publications by authors named "Zain Sultan"

6 Publications

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Malignant triton tumor of the anterior mediastinum: a rare tumor in a rare location.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Jul 1;16(7):1770-1776. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Radiology, Upstate University Hospital, 750 E Adams St, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.

Malignant triton tumors are an extremely aggressive form of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor that display rhabdomyosarcomatous features. While these tumors are extremely rare, they have a much higher incidence in patients with neurofibromatosis-1. We present a case of a 64-year-old male with neurofibromatosis-1 who presented to the hospital with sudden worsening of shortness of breath and dysphagia to solids. Radiological examination revealed a large mass in the anterior mediastinum causing significant narrowing and displacement of the upper trachea and esophagus. Biopsy of the mass, done by interventional radiology, demonstrated features of an MTT. The mass was subsequently resected but without confirmation of tumor-free margins and the patient underwent adjuvant radiation therapy. Repeat radiological examination approximately four months later revealed growing malignancy and new metastases, which eventually contributed to the patient's death seven months after his presentation to the hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2021.04.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111246PMC
July 2021

Stem cells for the treatment of glioblastoma: a 20-year perspective.

CNS Oncol 2021 Jun 19;10(2):CNS73. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Glioblastoma, the deadliest form of primary brain tumor, remains a disease without cure. Treatment resistance is in large part attributed to limitations in the delivery and distribution of therapeutic agents. Over the last 20 years, numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of stem cells as antiglioma agents, leading to the development of trials to test these therapies in the clinic. In this review we present and analyze these studies, discuss mechanisms underlying their beneficial effect and highlight experimental progress, limitations and the emergence of promising new therapeutic avenues. We hope to increase awareness of the advantages brought by stem cells for the treatment of glioblastoma and inspire further studies that will lead to accelerated implementation of effective therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/cns-2020-0026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162173PMC
June 2021

Excited Catatonia - A Delayed Neuropsychiatric Complication of COVID-19 Infection.

Cureus 2021 Mar 15;13(3):e13891. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Burrell College of Osteopathic Medicine, Las Cruces, USA.

An increasing number of patients have been presenting with neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We present a case of a 69-year-old female with no prior psychiatric history who was brought to the emergency department due to bizarre behavior and paranoid thoughts for four to six weeks, worsening over the last two weeks. Psychiatric evaluation found that the patient had extreme restlessness and agitation, poor eye contact, paranoid delusions, visual hallucinations, and a flat affect with stereotypic repetition of speech and loose associations. The patient's family noted that two months prior she had symptoms of common cold associated with a severe cough and 20 pounds of weight loss. Suspicion for prior COVID-19 infection prompted an IgG antibody test, which was positive. Our patient displayed at least three of the signs needed to diagnose catatonia - agitation, rigidity, and echolalia - and had a therapeutic response to lorazepam, confirming suspicions of excited catatonia. Her seropositivity for IgG against COVID-19 suggested a COVID-induced brief psychotic disorder with catatonia, which makes this the first known case, to our knowledge, of a patient with delayed onset catatonia after COVID-19 infection. This suggests that clinicians should, after ruling out more plausible stressors, suspect possible coronavirus involvement in sudden onset psychotic disorders, especially in patients who do not fit the demographic of new-onset schizophrenia-spectrum diagnoses. Further research is needed on the pathophysiology behind COVID-19 altering neuronal function and neurotransmitter pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045148PMC
March 2021

COVID-19 as a rare cause of facial nerve neuritis in a pediatric patient.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Jun 1;16(6):1400-1404. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Radiology, Upstate University Hospital, 750 E Adams St, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.

COVID-19 has been noted to present with neurological symptoms in nearly 30% of patients. While children are more likely to be asymptomatic, neurological involvement has been observed. We present the case of a 23-month-old previously healthy female who was brought to the emergency room for a new-onset facial droop. The patient tested positive for COVID-19 but was otherwise asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with and without contrast revealed abnormal enhancement along the canalicular segment of the right cranial VII extending to the first genu suggestive of cranial nerve neuritis. Given that our case involves a pediatric patient with no significant comorbidities presenting with facial drop, COVID-19 should be considered on the differential when evaluating causes of new onset peripheral nerve palsies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2021.03.063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8015400PMC
June 2021

Dual-Task Processing With Identical Stimulus and Response Sets: Assessing the Importance of Task Representation in Dual-Task Interference.

Front Psychol 2018 25;9:1031. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States.

Limitations in our ability to produce two responses at the same time - that is, dual-task interference - are typically measured by comparing performance when two stimuli are presented and two responses are made in close temporal proximity to when a single stimulus is presented and a single response is made. While straightforward, this approach leaves open multiple possible sources for observed differences. For example, on dual-task trials, it is typically necessary to identify two stimuli nearly simultaneously, whereas on typical single-task trials, only one stimulus is presented at a time. These processes are different from selecting and producing two distinct responses and complicate the interpretation of dual- and single-task performance differences. Ideally, performance when two tasks are executed should be compared to conditions in which only a single task is executed, while holding constant all other stimuli, response, and control processing. We introduce an alternative dual-task procedure designed to approach this ideal. It holds stimulus processing constant while manipulating the number of "tasks." Participants produced unimanual or bimanual responses to pairs of stimuli. For one set of stimuli (two-task set), the mappings were organized so an image of a face and a building were mapped to particular responses (including no response) on the left or right hands. For the other set of stimuli (one-task set), the stimuli indicated the same set of responses, but there was not a one-to-one mapping between the individual stimuli and responses. Instead, each stimulus pair had to be considered together to determine the appropriate unimanual or bimanual response. While the stimulus pairs were highly similar and the responses identical across the two conditions, performance was strikingly different. For the two-task set condition, bimanual responses were made more slowly than unimanual responses, reflecting typical dual-task interference, whereas for the one-task set, unimanual responses were made more slowly than bimanual. These findings indicate that dual-task costs occur, at least in part, because of the interfering effects of task representation rather than simply the additional stimulus, response, or other processing typically required on dual-task trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6026667PMC
June 2018

Fitness, Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Symptoms of Depression, and Cognition in Inactive Overweight Children: Mediation Models.

Public Health Rep 2017 Nov/Dec;132(2_suppl):65S-73S

5 Georgia Prevention Institute, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Objectives: We used mediation models to examine the mechanisms underlying the relationships among physical fitness, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), symptoms of depression, and cognitive functioning.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the cohorts involved in the 2003-2006 project PLAY (a trial of the effects of aerobic exercise on health and cognition) and the 2008-2011 SMART study (a trial of the effects of exercise on cognition). A total of 397 inactive overweight children aged 7-11 received a fitness test, standardized cognitive test (Cognitive Assessment System, yielding Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, and Full Scale scores), and depression questionnaire. Parents completed a Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. We used bootstrapped mediation analyses to test whether SDB mediated the relationship between fitness and depression and whether SDB and depression mediated the relationship between fitness and cognition.

Results: Fitness was negatively associated with depression ( B = -0.041; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02) and SDB ( B = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.001). SDB was positively associated with depression ( B = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.32 to 1.67) after controlling for fitness. The relationship between fitness and depression was mediated by SDB (indirect effect = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.0004). The relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition was independently mediated by SDB (indirect effect = 0.058; 95% CI, 0.004 to 0.13) and depression (indirect effect = -0.071; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.17).

Conclusions: SDB mediates the relationship between fitness and depression, and SDB and depression separately mediate the relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033354917731308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5692181PMC
December 2017