Publications by authors named "Zaid Shakir"

5 Publications

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Cigarette Smoke and Nicotine-Containing Electronic-Cigarette Vapor Downregulate Lung WWOX Expression, Which Is Associated with Increased Severity of Murine Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 01;64(1):89-99

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois.

A history of chronic cigarette smoking is known to increase risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the corresponding risks associated with chronic e-cigarette use are largely unknown. The chromosomal fragile site gene, WWOX, is highly susceptible to genotoxic stress from environmental exposures and thus an interesting candidate gene for the study of exposure-related lung disease. Lungs harvested from current versus former/never-smokers exhibited a 47% decrease in WWOX mRNA levels. Exposure to nicotine-containing e-cigarette vapor resulted in an average 57% decrease in WWOX mRNA levels relative to vehicle-treated controls. In separate studies, endothelial (EC)-specific WWOX knockout (KO) versus WWOX flox control mice were examined under ARDS-producing conditions. EC WWOX KO mice exhibited significantly greater levels of vascular leak and histologic lung injury. ECs were isolated from digested lungs of untreated EC WWOX KO mice using sorting by flow cytometry for CD31 CD45cells. These were grown in culture, confirmed to be WWOX deficient by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and analyzed by electric cell impedance sensing as well as an FITC dextran transwell assay for their barrier properties during methicillin-resistant or LPS exposure. WWOX KO ECs demonstrated significantly greater declines in barrier function relative to cells from WWOX flox controls during either methicillin-resistant or LPS treatment as measured by both electric cell impedance sensing and the transwell assay. The increased risk for ARDS observed in chronic smokers may be mechanistically linked, at least in part, to lung WWOX downregulation, and this phenomenon may also manifest in the near future in chronic users of e-cigarettes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2020-0145OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780991PMC
January 2021

A Case of Strongyloidiasis: An Immigrant Healthcare Worker Presenting with Fatigue and Weight Loss.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2017 28;2017:6718284. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

Background: is an intestinal nematode parasite classified as a soil-transmitted helminth, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. can remain dormant for decades after the initial infection.

Case: We describe a patient who was diagnosed with infection three weeks after a left inguinal hernia repair and discuss approaches to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Conclusions: Physicians in the United States often miss opportunities to identify patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Symptoms may be vague and screening tests have limitations. We review current strategies for diagnosis and treatment of chronic intestinal strongyloidiasis in immigrant patients who have significant travel history to tropical regions and discuss the clinical features and management of the infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/6718284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5506470PMC
June 2017

Thrombus entrapped in patent foramen ovale: a rare form of thrombus in transit.

J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2015 1;5(4):28170. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, MedStar Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA.

In rare cases, thrombus in transit can be entrapped in a patent foramen ovale (PFO). A patient with this condition is at high risk of embolic stroke and death. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential to help prevent stroke and death in these cases. There is no universal management guideline for this rare condition. The decision between medical versus surgical treatment should be made individually for each patient. We present a case of thrombus in transit entrapped in a PFO that was treated medically by lifelong anticoagulation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4558283PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/jchimp.v5.28170DOI Listing
September 2015

Herpes zoster with motor involvement: discordance between the distribution of skin rash and localization of peripheral nervous system dysfunction.

J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 2011 Mar;12(3):153-7

Department of Neurology, St Louis University, St Louis, MO 63104, USA.

Herpes zoster viral infection (shingles) frequently appears in the thoracic dermatomes with no detectable weakness. We describe three patients who exhibited classic symptoms of herpes zoster infection of the upper limb with various neuropathic findings, including multiple mononeuropathies, radiculopathy, and brachial plexopathy. The distribution of weakness and electrodiagnostic findings was not limited to the involved dermatomes. Furthermore, the electrodiagnostic studies in one patient show evidence of acquired demyelination; hence, the infectious process may include the axon and/or the myelin sheath of the peripheral nerves. In the upper limb, we suggest that a mismatch between the distribution of the vesicular herpetic rash and weakness, as corroborated by the clinical examination and the electrodiagnostic studies, may occur.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CND.0b013e31820d4f31DOI Listing
March 2011

Is thrombolysis safe in the elderly?: analysis of a national database.

Stroke 2010 Oct 9;41(10):2259-64. Epub 2010 Sep 9.

Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Souers Stroke Institute, St Louis University, St Louis, MO 63104, USA.

Background And Purpose: Thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in the elderly population is seldom administered.

Methods: In this study, we evaluated the risks of thrombolysis, including the mortality and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) rates in this population. A cohort of patients was identified from the National Inpatient Sample database for the years 2000-2006. Age was categorized in 2 groups, including those between 18 and 80 years and those >80 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess covariates associated with hospital mortality and ICH. A total of 524 997 patients were admitted for acute ischemic stroke; 143 093 (27.2%) were >80 years. A total of 7950 patients were treated with thrombolysis, of which 1659 (20.9%) were >80 years. Elderly patients received less frequent thrombolysis compared with the younger population (1.05% versus 1.72%).

Results: In the whole cohort, the mortality rate was higher in the older population (12.80% versus 8.99%). For those treated with thrombolysis, the mortality rate and risk of ICH were higher among those >80 years (16.9% versus 11.5%; odds ratio: 1.56 [95% CI: 1.35 to 1.82] and 5.73% versus 4.40%; odds ratio: 1.31 [95% CI: 1.03 to 1.67], respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of ICH (odds ratio: 2.24 [95% CI: 1.89 to 2.65]) was associated with higher mortality rates but not the use of thrombolysis (odds ratio: 1.14 [95% CI: 0.98 to 1.33]).

Conclusions: Despite the higher mortality rate in the older population, the use of thrombolysis does not predict death; however, the use of thrombolysis was associated with high risk of ICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.588632DOI Listing
October 2010
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