Publications by authors named "Zahra Nouri"

17 Publications

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Cecal microbial transplantation attenuates hyperthyroid-induced thermogenesis in Mongolian gerbils.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Endothermic mammals have a high energy cost to maintain a stable and high body temperature (T , around 37°C). Thyroid hormones are a major regulator for energy metabolism and T . The gut microbiota is involved in modulating host energy metabolism. However, whether the interaction between the gut microbiota and thyroid hormones is involved in metabolic and thermal regulations is unclear. We hypothesized that thyroid hormones via an interaction with gut microbiota orchestrate host thermogenesis and T . l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroid Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) increased resting metabolic rate (RMR) and T , whereas Methimazole-induced hypothyroid animals decreased RMR. Both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid animals differed significantly in faecal bacterial community. Hyperthyroidism increased the relative abundance of pathogenic bacteria, such as Helicobacter and Rikenella, and decreased abundance of beneficial bacteria Butyricimonas and Parabacteroides, accompanied by reduced total bile acids and short-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, the hyperthyroid gerbils transplanted with the microbiota from control donors increased type 2 deiodinase (DIO2) expression in the liver and showed a greater rate of decline of both serum T3 and T4 levels and, consequently, a more rapid recovery of normal RMR and T . These findings indicate that thyroid hormones regulate thermogenesis depending on gut microbiota and colonization with normal microbiota by caecal microbial transplantation attenuates hyperthyroid-induced thermogenesis. This work reveals the functional consequences of the gut microbiota-thyroid axis in controlling host metabolic physiology and T in endotherms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13793DOI Listing
March 2021

Methylation Assessment of Two and Genes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Oct;49(10):1947-1953

Department of Medical Genetics, Applied Biophotonics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most important types of oral malignancies. gene family members as well as have critical roles in regulation of Wnt signaling as one of the main determining pathway in oral carcinogenesis. This study aimed to identify promoter methylation status of genes to provide possible biomarkers for early detection and treatment of OSCC patients.

Methods: A case control study was performed on 31 fresh tissues obtained from oral cavity of patients affected by OSCC and 31 fresh corresponding tissues from normal healthy controls in Tehran and, between the years of 2016-2018. Purified DNA from tissue samples was subjected to bisulfite treatment and then methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP-PCR) was carried out on treated DNA samples.

Results: promoter was methylated in none of OSCC samples while it was methylated in 16.1% of healthy controls. 16.1% of OSCC samples were detected to be semimethylated and 22.6% of healthy normal samples were methylated for promoter gene. Meaningful difference was found in promoter methylation among OSCC patients and healthy controls. Significant correlation was found between promoter methylation and tumor grade. The age of all enrolled samples was demonstrated to have strong effect on promoter methylation of studied genes.

Conclusion: Hypomethylation of and genes in higher grades of OSCC samples may indicate the pivotal role of their expression in tumor cells invasion and progression through modulation of Wnt signaling pathway. Further study required to determine simultaneous expression of those genes and Wnt signaling elements at mRNA and protein levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v49i10.4698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719650PMC
October 2020

Gut Microbiota and Host Thermoregulation in Response to Ambient Temperature Fluctuations.

mSystems 2020 Oct 20;5(5). Epub 2020 Oct 20.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Ambient temperature ( ) is an important factor in shaping phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity is generally beneficial for animals in adapting to their environments. Gut microbiota are crucial in regulating host physiological and behavioral processes. However, whether the gut microbiota play a role in regulating host phenotypic plasticity under the conditions of repeated fluctuations in environmental factors has rarely been examined. We used intermittent acclimations to test the hypothesis that the plasticity of gut microbiota confers on the host a metabolic adaptation to fluctuations. Mongolian gerbils () were acclimated to intermittent 5°C to 23°C, 37°C to 23°C or 23°C to 23°C conditions for 3 cycles (totally 3 months). Intermittent acclimations induced variations in resting metabolic rate (RMR), serum thyroid hormones, and core body temperature ( ). We further identified that the β-diversity of the microbial community varied with and showed diverse responses during the 3 cycles. Some specific bacteria were more sensitive to and were associated with host dynamic metabolic plasticity during acclimations. In addition, depletion of gut microbiota in antibiotic-treated gerbils impaired metabolic plasticity, particularly at low , whereas supplementation with propionate as an energy resource improved the inhibited thermogenic capacity and increased the survival rate in the cold. These findings demonstrate that both gut microbiota and their host were more adaptive after repeated acclimations, and dynamic gut microbiota and their metabolites may confer host plasticity in thermoregulation in response to fluctuations. It also implies that low is a crucial cue in driving symbiosis between mammals and their gut microbiota during evolution. Whether gut microbiota play a role in regulating host phenotypic plasticity in small mammals living in seasonal environments has rarely been examined. The present study, through an intermittent temperature acclimation model, indicates that both gut microbiota and their host were more adaptive after repeated acclimations. It also demonstrates that dynamic gut microbiota confer host plasticity in thermoregulation in response to intermittent temperature fluctuations. Furthermore, low temperature seems to be a crucial cue in driving the symbiosis between mammals and their gut microbiota during evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00514-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577294PMC
October 2020

Molecular Genetic Study in a Cohort of Iranian Families Suspected to Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young, Reveals a Recurrent Mutation and a High-Risk Variant in the Gene.

Adv Biomed Res 2020 27;9:25. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders in the body, accompanied with increasing blood sugar levels. Diabetes is classified into three groups: Type 1 DM (T1DM), Type 2 DM (T2DM), and monogenic diabetes. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a monogenic diabetes that is frequently mistaken for T1D or T2D. The aim of this study was to diagnose MODY and its subtype frequency in a diabetic population in Iran.

Materials And Methods: In this study among ten diabetic families that were highly suspected to MODY by nongenetic biomarkers and without any pathogenic mutation in and genes, two patients from two unrelated families were examined via whole-exome sequencing (WES) in order to detect the causative gene of diabetes. Co-segregation analysis of the identified variant was performed using Sanger sequencing.

Results: In this study, no pathogenic variant was found in and genes (MODY2 and MODY3), while these two types of MODY were introduced as the most frequent in other studies. By using WES, a pathogenic variant (p.I488T) was found in one of the patients in gene causing MODY8 that its frequency is very rare in other studied populations. A high-risk variant associated with diabetes was found in another patient.

Conclusion: WES was applied in this study to reveal the cause of MODY in 1 family. This pathogenic mutation was previously reported as a disease causing mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_18_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532821PMC
June 2020

Whole exome sequencing identifies novel compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in the MYO15A gene leading to autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Jul 4;47(7):5355-5364. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) is a highly heterogeneous disease, for which more than 70 genes have been identified. MYO15A mutations have been reported to cause congenital severe-to-profound HL. In this study, we applied the whole exome sequencing (WES) to find the cause of HL in an Iranian family. A proband from an Iranian non-consanguineous family with hearing impaired parents, was examined via WES, after excluding GJB2 mutations as the most common ARNSHL gene via Sanger sequencing. Co-segregation analysis of the candidate variant was done in the family members. Interpretation of variants was according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines. WES results showed novel compound heterozygous variants (p.Arg1507Ter and p.Val2815Valfs*10) in the MYO15A gene. These two variants, residing in highly conserved regions, were found to be co-segregating in the family and fulfill the criteria of being categorized as pathogenic, according to the ACMG guidelines. Here, we report successful application of WES to identify the molecular pathogenesis of ARNSHL in a patient with ARNSHL, as an example of an extremely heterogeneous disease. In agreement with previous studies, MYO15A is regarded to be important in causing HL in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05618-wDOI Listing
July 2020

The physiological and molecular mechanisms to maintain water and salt homeostasis in response to high salt intake in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

J Comp Physiol B 2020 09 17;190(5):641-654. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Desert rodents are faced with many challenges such as high dietary salt in their natural habitats and they have evolved abilities to conserve water and tolerate salt. However, the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in water and salt balances in desert rodents are unknown. We hypothesized that desert rodents regulated water and salt balances by altering the expression of AQP2 and α-ENaC in the kidney. Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), a desert species, were acclimated to drinking water with different salt contents: (0, control; 4% NaCl, moderate salt, MS; 8% NaCl, high salt, HS) for 4 weeks. The gerbils drinking salty water had lower body mass, food intake, water intake, metabolic water production and urine volume. The HS gerbils increased the expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the hypothalamus, and also enhanced the expression of AQP2 and cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway in the kidney. In addition, these gerbils reduced serum aldosterone levels and α-ENaC expression in the kidney. Creatinine clearance was lower in the HS group than that in the control group, but serum and urine creatinine levels did not change. These data indicate that desert rodents rely on AVP-dependent upregulation of AQP2 and aldosterone-dependent downregulation of α-ENaC in the kidney to promote water reabsorption and sodium excretion under high salt intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00360-020-01287-0DOI Listing
September 2020

A novel pathogenic variant in the LRTOMT gene causes autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss in an Iranian family.

BMC Med Genet 2020 06 9;21(1):127. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Hearing loss (HL) is the most common sensorineural disorder with high phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity, which negatively affects life quality. Autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) constitutes a major share of HL cases. In the present study, Whole exome sequencing (WES) was applied to investigate the underlying etiology of HL in an Iranian patient with ARNSHL.

Methods: A proband from an Iranian consanguineous family was examined via WES, following GJB2 sequencing. WES was utilized to find possible genetic etiology of the disease. Various Bioinformatics tools were used to assess the pathogenicity of the variants. Co-segregation analysis of the candidate variant was carried out. Interpretation of variants was performed according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines.

Results: WES results showed a novel frameshift (16 bp deletion) variant (p.Ala170Alafs*20) in the LRTOMT gene. This variant, which resides in exon 6, was found to be co-segregating in the family. It fulfils the criteria set by the ACMG guidelines of being pathogenic.

Conclusion: Here, we report successful application of WES to identify the molecular pathogenesis of ARNSHL, which is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, in a patient with ARNSHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-020-01061-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285524PMC
June 2020

Mathematical modeling reveals how the density of initial tumor and its distance to parent vessels alter the growth trend of vascular tumors.

Microcirculation 2020 01 6;27(1):e12584. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the response of a tumor and parent vessels to stimulating factors in the tumor microenvironment in different configurations. How a tumor grows and induces angiogenesis in different distances of a parent vessel is investigated. Moreover, interstitial fluid pressure and its effects on tumor cell phenotype are considered in the model.

Methods: A multiscale continuum-discrete model of a vascular tumor is utilized to simulate the growth of a cluster of tumor cells positioned in different distances of parent vessels. An agent-based probabilistic angiogenesis model is coupled to a discrete tumor model to simulate branching, anastomosis, blood flow, wall shear stress, and interstitial tumor pressure in which tumor cells are divided to necrotic, hypoxic, and proliferative.

Results: Starting the simulations from 9 initial tumor cells, the model proved that tumors grow to a certain size and also reach to a certain distance before being able to induce sprouting. For tumors placed 2 and 2.5 mm away from a parent vessel, initiation of angiogenesis is delayed significantly in comparison with closer distances. For the initial cluster positioned in a distance of 2.5 mm away, first sprout is seen after 47 days. Moreover, dendritic shape of the tumor is seen prior to angiogenesis which is a sign of cells being starved and wandered in the domain to reach the oxygen source. The trend of tumor growth obeys power law function which aligns with the experimental results.

Discussion: The mathematical model revealed the importance of geometry and position of an initial tumor cluster in determining the behavior and final architecture of a vascular tumor. As a tumor cell appears in farther distances from a parent vessel, duration of its growth and inducing angiogenesis becomes longer and the chance of suppressing the tumor in the initial days of growth is higher. Also, the importance of angiogenesis in making tumors devastating is again corroborated by mathematical models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/micc.12584DOI Listing
January 2020

Sirolimus as a new drug to treat RIF patients with elevated Th17/Treg ratio: A double-blind, phase II randomized clinical trial.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Sep 9;74:105730. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Stem Cell Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: RIF is clinically defined as the failure of good quality embryos to implant into the uterus following at least three cycles of In Vitro Fertilization/Embryo Transfer (IVF/ET). During human pregnancy, a genetically different fetus is allowed to survive within the uterus despite the maternal recognition of fetal alloantigens. Compared with normal pregnant women, early loss of embryo is associated with systemic lower levels of Treg cells in IVF. Moreover, several lines of evidence have indicated that differentiation of naive T cells into Th17 is deleterious for normal pregnancy and may cause implantation failure. Sirolimus as the most common mTOR (mammalian target of Rapamycin) inhibitor is able to effectively prevent allograft rejection. Here we aimed to evaluate Sirolimus effects on Th17/Treg axis and subsequently on pregnancy outcome.

Methods And Materials: 121 patients with a history of at least 3 implatation failures were selected and enrolled in this clinical trial. Blood was drawn between days 5 and 10 of the cycle prior to the index IVF/ET cycle to assess baseline value of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells ratios using flowcytometry. A Th17/Treg cell ratio equal or >0.74 was considered to be the elevated Th17/Treg cell ratio. In 76 patients with elevated Th17/Treg ratios, 43 individuals were treated with Sirolimus and 33 remained untreated.

Results: Our results demonstrated that Sirolimus treatment led to an increase in Treg cells number and function in treated group and reduced the frequency and function of Th17 cells. Moreover Th17/Treg cell ratio, significantly reduced from 1.18 ± 0.46% to 0.9 ± 0.45% following Sirolimus intervention (P = 0.024). In contrast, no significant difference in Th17 and Treg cell frequencies and Th17/Treg cell ratio was observed in untreated control subjects before and after ET. Finally our data showed a significantly higher clinical pregnancy rate (55.81%) in Sirolimus-treated patients compared with control group (24.24%) (P < 0.0005). We also found a significantly increased live birth rate (48.83%) in RIF women who received Sirolimus compared with control group (21.21%) (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: The findings of the current study revealed the fact that Sirolimus exhibit potent immunosuppressive effects by blocking intracellular immune responses downstream of co-stimulatory signals, also is able to improve reproductive outcome in RIF women with imbalanced Th17/Treg ratio by modulate of Th17 /Treg axis, thus representing a new approach for the potential treatment of patients with embryo implantation failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105730DOI Listing
September 2019

Thyroid hormones mediate metabolic rate and oxidative, anti-oxidative balance at different temperatures in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 Feb 23;216:101-109. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Oxidative damage is a potential physiological cost of thermoregulation during seasonal adjustments to air temperature (T) in small mammals. Here, we hypothesized that T affects serum thyroid hormone levels and these hormones can mediate the changes in metabolic rate and oxidative damage. Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were acclimated at different Ts (5 °C, 23 °C and 37 °C) for 3 weeks. Serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) levels increased at 5 °C but decreased at 37 °C compared to the control (23 °C). Protein carbonyls increased in liver at 37 °C compared with control, however, lipid damage (malonaldehyde, MDA) in both serum and liver was unrelated to T. After the effects of different Ts on thyroid hormone levels and oxidative damage markers were determined, we further investigate whether thyroid hormones mediated metabolic rate and oxidative damage. Another set of gerbils received 0.0036% L-thyroxin (hyperthyroid), 0.04% Methylimazol (hypothyroid) or water (control). Hypothyroid group showed a 34% reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR) also 42% and 26% increases in MDA and liver protein carbonyl respectively, whereas hyperthyroid group had higher RMR, liver mass and superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared to control. Serum T3 or T3/T4 levels were correlated positively with RMR, liver mass, and SOD, but negatively with MDA and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). We concluded that high T induced hypothyroidism, decreased RMR and increased oxidative damage, whereas low T induced hyperthyroidism, increased RMR and unchanged oxidative damage. These data supported our hypothesis that thyroid hormones can be a cue to mediate metabolic rate and different aspects of oxidative and antioxidant activities at different Ts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2018.11.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Inhibition of Insulin Degrading Enzyme and Insulin Degradation by UV-Killed Lactobacillus acidophilus.

Med Sci (Basel) 2018 May 11;6(2). Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416753955, Iran.

Probiotics have beneficial effects on management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The major hallmarks of T2D are insulin deficiency and insulin resistance which emphasize insulin therapy in onset of disease. Lactobacilli such as () have well known properties on prevention of T2D and insulin resistance but not on insulin degradation. Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) degrades insulin in the human body. We studied the effects of cell-free supernatant (CFS) and ultraviolet (UV)-killed (ATCC 314) on IDE activity and insulin degradation in vitro. Cell growth inhibition by CFS and UV-killed (ATCC 314) was studied and Western blotting and a fluoregenic assay was performed to determine IDE expression and its activity, respectively. Insulin degradation was evaluated by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). IDE expression and activity was reduced by CFS and UV-killed (ATCC 314). Although, decreased enzyme expression and activity was not significant for CFS in contrast to MRL (MRS with same pH as CFS). Also, reduction in IDE activity was not statistically considerable when compared to IDE expression. Insulin degradation was increased by CFS but decreased by UV-killed (ATCC 314).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medsci6020036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6024763PMC
May 2018

Differentially Modulate mTOR and Wnt/ β-Catenin Pathways in Different Cancer Cell Lines.

Iran J Cancer Prev 2016 Jun 15;9(3):e5369. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: are a group of beneficial bacteria whose anti cancer effects have been evaluated in different cancer cell lines as well as animal models and human subjects. Such anti cancer effects can be exerted via different mechanisms such as modulation of immune response as well as inhibition of pathogens colonization. In addition, have direct cytotoxic effects against cancer cells which may be exerted through modulation of expression cancer related pathways.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to find the mechanism of anti cancer effects of two strains, (LC) and (LR).

Materials And Methods: We analyzed expression of some mTOR and Wnt/ β-catenin pathways genes in three cancer cell lines (HeLa, MDA-MB-231 and HT-29) following treatment with LC and LR culture supernatants.

Results: Of note, the expression of as a marker of cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis, has been decreased following LR treatment in all cell lines. In addition, the expression of , an antagonist of Wnt pathway, has been increased in HT-29 following LR treatment and in HeLa cells following LR and LC treatments. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the downregulation of expression, a marker of poor prognosis, following LR treatment in HT-29 and following LR and LC treatments in MDA-MB-231 cell line.

Conclusions: Consequently, can modulate expression of mTOR and Wnt/ β-catenin pathways genes in cancer cell lines in a strain specific as well as cell type specific manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17795/ijcp-5369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5038836PMC
June 2016

Potential efficacy of Lactobacillus casei IBRC_M10711 on expression and activity of insulin degrading enzyme but not insulin degradation.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2017 Jan 29;53(1):12-19. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a condition with insufficient insulin production or in the setting of insulin resistance with many origins including intestinal microbiota-related molecular mechanism. Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is responsible for insulin breakdown in various tissues and is known as a potential drug target for T2D. Here, we assessed the effects of cell-free supernatant (CFS) and UV-killed Lactobacillus casei IBRC_M10711 on IDE expression, IDE activity, and insulin degradation in Caco-2 cell line. It was found that CFS and UV-killed L. casei IBRC_M10711 led to lower expression of IDE. UV-killed L. casei IBRC_M10711 significantly inhibited IDE activity but CFS did not. Insulin degradation was affected with none of them. In conclusion, L. casei IBRC_M10711 is effective on IDE expression and its activity, but not on insulin degradation. Future studies are recommended to explore the effect of this probiotic on other substrates of IDE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11626-016-0083-4DOI Listing
January 2017

Dual Anti-Metastatic and Anti-Proliferative Activity Assessment of Two Probiotics on HeLa and HT-29 Cell Lines.

Cell J 2016 Jul-Sep;18(2):127-34. Epub 2016 May 30.

Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Lactobacilli are a group of probiotics with beneficial effects on prevention of cancer. However, there is scant data in relation with the impacts of probiotics in late-stage cancer progration, especially metastasis. The present original work was aimed to evaluate the anti-metastatic and anti-proliferative activity of lactobacillus rhamnosus supernatant (LRS) and lactobacillus crispatus supernatant (LCS) on the human cervical and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (HeLa and HT-29, respectively).

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, the anti-proliferative activities of LRS and LCS were determined through MTT assay. MRC-5 was used as a normal cell line. Expression analysis of CASP3, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1 and TIMP2 genes was performed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), following the cell synchronization.

Results: Supernatants of these two lactobacilli had cytotoxic effect on HeLa, however LRS treatment was only effective on HT-29 cell line. In addition, LRS had no side-effect on normal cells. It was shown that CASP3 gene expression has been reduced after treatment with supernatants of two studied lactobacilli. According to our study, LRS and LCS are efficacious in the prevention of metastasis potency in HeLa cells with decreased expression of MMP2, MMP9 and increased expression of their inhibitors. In the case of HT-29 cells, only LRS showed this effect.

Conclusion: Herein, we have demonstrated two probiotics which have anti-metastatic effects on malignant cells and they can be administrated to postpone late-stage of cancer disease. LRS and LCS are effective on HeLa cell lines while only the effect of LRS is significant on HT-29, through cytotoxic and anti-metastatic mechanisms. Further assessments are required to evaluate our results on the other cancer cell lines, in advance to use these probiotics in other extensive trial studies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4992182PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/cellj.2016.4307DOI Listing
August 2016

Synbiotics in Children with Cow's Milk Allergy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Iran J Pediatr 2014 Feb 3;24(1):29-34. Epub 2014 Jan 3.

Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology.

Objective: Cow`s milk protein allergy usually occurs in infants within the first months of life. It can affect several organs, but gastrointestinal symptoms are the most clinical symptoms observed. The most effective treatment is restricting the cow `s milk protein in mother and infant`s diet. Lactobacillus GG supplementation in infant could be effective through modulation of the immune system and the gut microflora.

Methods: Thirty two breastfed infants with cow`s milk protein allergy were enrolled in a double-blinded randomized controlled trial in which they received Synbiotic (n=16) or placebo (n=16) once a day for one month, simultaneously with cow`s milk protein restriction in mother and infant`s diet. Clinical gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, colic, rectal bleeding and diarrhea), head circumference, body length and weight were recorded at the beginning, the end of the first and third month of study. Findings : Percentage of increment in head circumference and weight were statistically more in synbiotic group compared with placebo group at the end of the first and third month of study. There was no significant difference in resolution of clinical gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, colic, rectal bleeding or diarrhea) and percentage of increment in body length.

Conclusion: Synbiotic supplementation in infants may improve increment of head circumference and weight gain, but has no effect on resolution of clinical symptoms.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4359601PMC
February 2014

Esophageal carcinoma in African Americans: a five-decade experience.

Dig Dis Sci 2011 Dec 17;56(12):3577-82. Epub 2011 Aug 17.

Department of Medicine, Cancer Center, Howard University Cancer Center, Howard University Hospital, Rm#320, 2041 Georgia Ave., Washington, DC 20059, USA.

Background: Esophageal cancer accounts for a considerable proportion of carcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract in African Americans. Our aim was to describe the epidemiology of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among African Americans in the last five decades.

Methods: A total of 601 records of patients with documented esophageal cancer between 1959 and 2007 at Howard University Hospital were reviewed. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, clinical stage and histological findings were reviewed. The change in prevalence of the disease and the interaction between main risk factors with tumor stage of the patients were assessed over the years of this study.

Result: A total of 552 patients (91.8%) had ESCC while 49 patients (8.2%) had EA. The mean age at diagnosis was 60.1 and 60.6 years for ESCC and EA, respectively (P = 0.8). The peak incidence was in the 1980-1989 decade. Out of 136 ESCC patients with TNM staging information, 130 (95.6%) were diagnosed in stage 2 and above. The majority (73%) of the ESCC were in the mid- and upper third of the esophagus and associated with smoking and alcohol exposure. The majority (81%) of the EA were in the mid- and lower third. The most common presenting symptoms were dysphagia (77.7%), and weight loss (31.9%).

Conclusion: ESCC is the predominant esophageal cancer in African Americans and diagnosed in late stages, and its diagnosis in our institution has decreased since 1990. A combination of genetic factors, environmental influences (e.g., those related to diet), and the deleterious changes associated with smoking and alcohol consumption, and differences in tumor histology, are the obvious parameters that should be the focus of future studies, and early diagnosis at an earlier stage should be considered among blacks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-011-1853-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3345949PMC
December 2011

Measuring tree height and preparation volume table using an innovative method.

Pak J Biol Sci 2007 Oct;10(20):3734-7

Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 737, Badeleh, Sari, Iran.

Zarbin (Cupressus sempervirence var. horizontalis) with its unique characteristics is one of the worthiest species which can be found in the central area of Alborz in the North of Iran. Especially in the Roodbar-manjil area, Chaloos-Hassanabad valley as well as it extends from Zarringol area to Gorgan. Although the distribution areas of this species have been protected, these forests have been invaded by the villagers who use this useful wood. For this reason in the Roodbar area, trees with DBH>30 cm are extremely rare. To recognize and to be aware of the stand quantity, the current research tries to calculate the species volume table in Roodbar area, to be the basis for any calculation of the volume of stand in the region. For this purpose, trees have been sampled using the line sampling method. After estimating the form factor, Tarif table have been prepared. In this study, a new method for measuring tree height is presented, in which, instead of measuring slope distance from observer to tree (which is difficult in young conifers because of existence branches in lower height) distance between the eye level of observer to tree butt is measured. Which doing of it is easier, time of field work is decreased and accuracy of measurement and calculation is increased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2007.3734.3737DOI Listing
October 2007