Publications by authors named "Zahra Kashi"

49 Publications

Relationship between Serum Osteocalcin Level and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2020 Sep;30(5):681-686

Student Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Osteocalcin (OC) is the most common noncollagenous protein in bone matrix, which is synthesized only in bone tissue and by osteoblasts. The potential role of osteocalcin on glucose and fat metabolism has been previously reported. The aim of this study was to compare the serum OC level in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Methods: In the present case-control study, all pregnant women who were referred to a obstetrics and gynecology clinic in Sari, Iran, and met the inclusion criteria underwent an overall screening with a 75-g glucose tolerance test (GTT) at week 24 to 28 of gestation. The study was conducted between September 2018 and February 2019. Based on criteria, the pregnant women with confirmed GDM were matched with pregnant women without GDM in terms of baseline characteristics such as chronological age and BMI. The serum OC levels were also measured if vitamin D and calcium levels were normal. All data were analyzed using SPSS 21.

Results: The two groups with and without GDM had no significant difference in terms of age, BMI and OC level. There was no significant correlation between age and BMI with OC level in healthy pregnant women, respectively (P=0.49 and P=0.58). The correlation between BMI and age with OC level in GTT-positive pregnant women was 0.05 and -0.172, respectively, which was not significant (P=0.77 and P=0.36).

Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there is no significant difference of serum OC levels in pregnant women with GDM compared to healthy pregnancy. Given that the levels of serum insulin or insulin resistance have not been assessed, these indices are recommended to be evaluated in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v30i5.6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047259PMC
September 2020

Hashimoto's thyroiditis presenting as a single toxic adenoma (A case report).

Caspian J Intern Med 2020 ;11(4):450-453

Diabetes research center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be present with a localized palpable nodule though presentation as a hyperfunction "nodule" is extremely rare. The first case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and hot nodule was reported in 1971 by Warner.

Case Presentation: We reported a 26-year-old hypothyroid woman in Hashimoto's thyroiditis background with a hyperactive thyroid nodule in both 99mTc and Iscintigraphy. The nodule disappeared after eight months of sufficient thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

Conclusion: Toxic adenoma in hypothyroid patients can be resolved after levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.11.4.450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911775PMC
January 2020

Coronavirus Disease 2019 Viremia, Serologies, and Clinical Course in a Case Series of Transplant Recipients.

Transplant Proc 2020 Nov 3;52(9):2637-2641. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Division of Nephrology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia. Electronic address:

Here we report a single-center cohort of 6 patients (4 kidney only, and 2 simultaneous liver/kidney transplants) diagnosed with COVID-19 at a median of 1.9 years (range = 0.2-9.3 years) post transplant. Five (of 6) patients required inpatient admission, 2 patients (mortality = 33%) died. Among those with mortality, an increased concentration of inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) was noted with a lack of response to interleukin-6 blockade, remdesivir, and/or convalescent plasma. None of the kidney-only transplants (4/6; 67%) had elevation in plasma donor-derived cell-free DNA above the previously published cut-off of 1%, suggesting absence of significant allo-immune injury. Four (of 5) admitted patients had detectable SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2) in blood on samples obtained at/during hospitalization. Of the 4 discharged patients, 2 patients with undetectable virus on repeat nasopharyngeal swabs had seroconversion with positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG formation at 30 to 48 days post infection. One patient had prolonged shedding of virus on nasopharyngeal swab at 28 days post discharge despite lack of symptoms. In this preliminary report, we find that immunocompromised transplant patients had higher rates of RNAemia (67%) than reported in the general population (15%), seeming absence of allo-immune injury despite systemic inflammation, and formation of IgG overtime after recovery from infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2020.08.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7470894PMC
November 2020

Sexual dysfunction in men with type II diabetes.

Caspian J Intern Med 2020 May;11(3):295-303

Diabetes Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease inducing short-term and long-term complications including sexual dysfunction (SD) which can consequently reduce patients' quality of life. Given the limited literature on frequency of SD in men experiencing diabetes in northern Iran, the present study was conducted in the city of Sari in Mazandaran Province, with the aim of investigating SD in men with type II diabetes.

Methods: Using a descriptive cross-sectional research design, a total number of 350 male patients suffering from type II diabetes referring to endocrinology clinics in the city of Sari in. The patients were requested to fill out the demographic questionnaire, depression, anxiety and stress scale-21 items (DASS-21) and the 15-question International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS statistics software.

Results: The average period of time in which the patients were facing diabetes was 3.65±5.75 years. The IIEF mean score was equal to 16.98±43.79. Erectile dysfunction (ED) was also evident in 152 patients (62.2%). Moreover, increase in age had significantly decreased the IIEF scores (p<0.001). The chance of being affected with ED among diabetic patients above 50 was 11.21 times as much as those below 50 years of age (odds ratio (OR): 11.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.40-19.62).

Conclusion: Concerning the high prevalence rate of ED in men suffering from type II diabetes, doctors are required to directly ask them about sexual disorders in follow-up visits. Furthermore, using screening questionnaires can be helpful in identifying this problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.11.3.295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442469PMC
May 2020

Predictors of physical activity following gestational diabetes: Application of health action process approach.

Nurs Open 2020 07 21;7(4):1060-1066. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Biostatistics Paramedical School Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran Iran.

Aim: Regular physical activity can reduce the chance of developing type 2 diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes. The present study investigated the relationship between the constructs of the health action process approach and regular physical activity in women with a history of gestational diabetes.

Design: This was a cross-sectional study.

Methods: A total of 150 women who had given birth 6-24 months prior to the study and had experienced gestational diabetes in their recent pregnancy were selected using multistage cluster sampling. Data were collected from December 2018 to May 2019 using a researcher-made questionnaire including constructs of health action process approach.

Results: The common fit indices revealed that health action process approach had an acceptable fit to the observations (root mean square error of approximation = 0.054, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.95, comparative fit index = 0.955). The model's constructs predicted 48% of intention variance and 35% of physical activity variance. Action self-efficacy and coping planning were the most important predictors of intention and behaviour, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nop2.486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308703PMC
July 2020

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using international diabetes federation, National Cholesterol Education Panel- Adult Treatment Panel III and Iranian criteria: results of Tabari cohort study.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2020 Jun 17;19(1):205-211. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Health Sciences Research center, Addiction Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Metabolic syndrome is defined by co-incidence of multiple metabolic disorders such as central obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL, hyperglycemia and high blood pressure, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome using Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Iranian criteria in large-scaled population based cohort study and to determine the concordance between these criteria.

Methods: In the present study all information collected in Tabari cohort study(TCS) were utilized. These information were collected using a structural questionnaire and taking blood samples from all the participants. Blood pressure and anthropometric indices were measured for all participants by trained practitioners. Categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. In addition, the quantitative variables were compared between the two the groups using independent t-test. Kappa coefficient was estimated to show the agreement between the results of the three criteria.

Results: The prevalences of Metabolic syndrome were 41.10%(CI 95%:40.10-42.02), 44.60%(CI 95%:43.61-45.54), and 30.80% (CI 95%:29.89-31.69) based on ATPIII, international IDF and IDF Iranian criteria respectively. The Kappa agreement coefficients between Iranian IDF with ATPIII definition and international IDF were estimated as 61.80% and 71.20% in the total population respectively.

Conclusion: Kappa coefficient showed that the Iranian IDF had a good agreement with International IDF and an intermediate agreement with the ATP-III. Considering more emphasis of international and Iranian IDF on waist circumference (WC), a better agreement between these two criteria is plausible. Regarding the high prevalence of abdominal obesity among Iranian population, applying these criteria to identify high risk persons might be helpful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00492-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7270474PMC
June 2020

Decomposing socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health among Iranian adult population: results from the PERSIAN cohort study.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 05 13;20(1):229. Epub 2020 May 13.

Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Socioeconomic inequality in mental health in Iran is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health among Iranian adults.

Methods: The study used the baseline data of PERSIAN cohort study including 131,813 participants from 17 geographically distinct areas of Iran. The Erreygers Concentration index (E) was used to quantify the socioeconomic inequalities in poor mental health. Moreover, we decomposed the E to identify factors contributing to the observed socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health in Iran.

Results: The estimated E for poor mental health was - 0.012 (95% CI: - 0.0144, - 0.0089), indicating slightly higher concentration of mental health problem among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults in Iran. Socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health was mainly explained by gender (19.93%) and age (12.70%). Region, SES itself, and physical activity were other important factors that contributed to the concentration of poor mental health among adults with low socioeconomic status.

Conclusion: There exists nearly equitable distribution in poor mental health among Iranian adults, but with important variations by gender, SES, and geography. These results suggested that interventional programs in Iran should focus on should focus more on socioeconomically disadvantaged people as a whole, with particular attention to the needs of women and those living in more socially disadvantaged regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02596-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218818PMC
May 2020

Importance of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) as an antioxidant and antiatherogenic enzyme in the cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes: Genotypic and phenotypic evaluation.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2020 Mar 7;161:108067. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; Diabetes Research Center, Imam Teaching Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance is involved in the etiology of different diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), liver disorders, kidney diseases, cancers and diabetes mellitus. Antioxidant enzymes play a key role in striking an oxidant-antioxidant balance. Moreover, paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme that binds with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the circulation, and antioxidant and antiaterogenic properties of this lipoprotein are significantly associated with PON1. Research suggests PON1 contributes to the pathogenesis of certain human diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). The association between PON1 and T2D appear to be reciprocal so that the disease significantly decreases PON1 levels and in turn, the genetics of PON1 may have a role the risk of susceptibility to T2D. Several factors that reduce the activity and concentration of PON1 in patients with T2D include increased glycation and loss-of-function polymorphisms. The genotypic and phenotypic evaluations of PON1 are therefore crucial for assessing the risk of cardiovascular complications in these patients, and strategies for increasing or restoring PON1 levels are useful for reducing or preventing their cardiovascular complications as their main cause of mortality. The present review aimed at discussing and emphasizing the key role of PON1 in T2D as a silent and dangerous disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108067DOI Listing
March 2020

Papillary carcinoma in correlation to thyroidal duct cyst: A case series.

Caspian J Intern Med 2020 ;11(1):110-115

Department of Internal Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Persistent thyroglossal duct leads to a fibrous cyst formation named thyroglossal cyst which is the most common form of congenital cyst and usually located in the midline neck below the hyoid bone. Rarely the thyroglossal cyst is associated with thyroid cancer. Although the Sistrunk procedure is often considered adequate, currently there is no clear consensus on the optimal management of thyroglossal duct cyst especially duct cyst carcinoma. In addition, there is no consensus about concurrent thyroidectomy in patients with thyroglossal cyst duct carcinoma.

Case Presentation: In this article, we present four patients with thyroglossal duct cyst and papillary thyroid cancer. Papillary thyroid cancer was located into the thyroglossal duct cyst (thyroglossal duct carcinoma) in two patients and two patients had thyroglossal duct cyst with thyroid carcinoma in thyroid tissue. Cervical lymph nodes were involved in one of the three patients. Sistrunk procedure and total thyroidectomy were performed for all. The thyroid lobes were not involved in patients with thyroid duct cyst carcinoma. Tumor or thyroglossal duct cyst recurrence did not occur in any of the patients in follow-up.

Conclusion: The correlation between thyroglossal cyst and papillary thyroid carcinoma is high. In subjects with thyroglossal duct cyst, in addition to cyst assessment, thyroid gland and neck lymph nodes should be evaluated for malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.11.1.110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6992716PMC
January 2020

Enrolment Phase Results of the Tabari Cohort Study: Comparing Family History, Lipids and Anthropometric Profiles Among Diabetic Patients.

Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2019 Oct;10(5):289-294

Community Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Orthopedic Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objectives: Different factors are responsible for the silent epidemic of diabetes mellitus in developing and developed countries. This study aimed to determine the role of demographic factors, lipid profile, family history (the estimation of genetic association) and anthropometric factors on diabetes onset.

Methods: Data from the enrolment phase of the Tabari Cohort study was applied for this study and included 10,255 participants aged between 35-70 years. Anthropometric variables were measured by trained staff using standard tools. Blood specimens were collected for lipid profile and blood glucose measurements. Data analyses were performed using SPSS version 24, with univariate and multivariate logistic regression.

Results: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was estimated to be 17.2% in the cohort population, 15.6% in men, and 18.3% in women. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for age groups 40-49, 50-59 and over 60 were 2.58 (2.20-3.69), 5.80 (4.51-7.48) and 8.72 (6.67-11.39), respectively. In addition, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for 2 (or more), and 1 affected family member were 4.12 (3.55-4.90) and 2.34 (2.07-2.65), respectively. Triglyceride concentrations more than 500, and abnormal high-density lipoprotein levels increased the odds of diabetes mellitus by 3.29- and 1.18-fold, respectively.

Conclusion: The current study showed that old age and a family history were strong predictors for diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.5.05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6816360PMC
October 2019

Comparison of Salivary Cortisol Level in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Pre-Diabetics with Healthy People.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Jul 25;7(14):2321-2327. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Sari, Iran.

Background: Cortisol is one of the important enzymes of saliva. Control of this hormone is an effective way to adjust the glucose level in diabetic patients.

Aim: The aim of this research is to compare the salivary cortisol level in type 2 diabetic patients and pre-diabetics with healthy people.

Methods: In this case-control study (2018), the unstimulated salivary samples were collected from 44 patients with type 2 diabetes, 44 pre-diabetic people (case group), and 44 healthy subjects (control group), matched for age and gender. The samples were transferred to the laboratory, and salivary cortisol level was measured using ELISA. Data were analysed using SPSS 22 and Chi 2 tests.

Results: The mean salivary cortisol level in type 2 diabetic patients was 3.14 ± 1.17, in pre-diabetic cases was 1.83 ± 0.68, and in healthy controls was 0.86 ± 0.43 (P < 0.001). The mean DMFT in type 2 diabetic patients was 19.6 ± 6.5, in the pre-diabetic group was 13.43 ± 4.5, and in healthy controls was 9.38 ± 3.72 (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: With regards to the results, salivary cortisol level in type 2 diabetic patients is more than pre-diabetic people, and in pre-diabetic people is more than healthy people. Also, there was a significant relation between salivary cortisol level and DMFT index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6765085PMC
July 2019

Tabari Cohort Profile and Preliminary Results in Urban Areas and Mountainous Regions of Mazandaran, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2019 06 1;22(6):279-285. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Department of Basic Science and Nutrition, Health Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: The Tabari cohort study (TCS), part of the Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN), is a large longitudinal prospective cohort designed to better understand the risk factors associated with major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) across two urban and mountainous regions in north of Iran.

Methods: The enrollment phase of TCS started in June 2015 and ended in November 2017. During this phase, individuals aged 35-70 years from urban and mountainous regions of Sari township (Mazandaran province) were invited to the cohort center by health volunteers (urban regions) and Behvarz (mountainous areas) using census information. Data was collected based on the PERSIAN cohort study protocols. Hypertension was defind as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or history of diagnosis with hypertension or taking antihypertensive medications among participants free from cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes was defined as fasting blood sugar ≥126 mg/dL or a history of diagnosis or taking glucoselowering medications among all participants.

Results: A total of 10,255 participants were enrolled in TCS, 59.5% of whom were female. Among the total population, 7,012 participants were urban residents (68.4%). The prevalence of daily smoking in the total population was 9.1%. Body mass index in 75.9% of participants was ≥25 kg/m2. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and thyroid disorders were 22.2%, 17.2%, and 10.5%, respectively.

Conclusion: The Tabari cohort is different from other cohorts in terms of levels of risk factors associated with NCDs. This study has certain important strengths including its population-based design and large sample size that provides a valid platform for conducting future investigations and trials. A biobank that has been designed to store blood, nail, hair and urine samples for future research is another strength of this study. Researchers who are interested in using the information can refer to the following web page: http://persiancohort.com.
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June 2019

Coronary Heart Disease and ABO Blood Group in Diabetic Women: A Case-Control Study.

Sci Rep 2019 05 15;9(1):7441. Epub 2019 May 15.

Diabetes Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Numerous investigations conducted in general population have reported that certain ABO blood group may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, this association has not been yet well established and even is less clear in diabetic patients. Considering that women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at greater risk to develop CHD and have higher cardiovascular mortality, this study aimed to evaluate the association between CHD and ABO blood group in women with T2DM. A case control study of eight hundred eighty-one (881) diabetic women was enrolled in this study. Among them, two hundred thirty eight (238) patients were identified to have CHD (CHD+) and two hundred eighty two (282) of them were identified without CHD but matched with the first group for other CHD risk factors (CHD-). ABO blood type (A, B, AB, O, and Rhesus factor) for both groups were determined. To compare the magnitude of the correlation between various blood groups with CHD development, odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated. Our results demonstrates that the percentage of AB blood group was significantly higher in the diabetic women with concurrent CHD than in those without CHD [30 (12.7%) vs. 13 (4.6%), Odd ratio: 2.9 (95%CI: 1.5-5.7), P = 0.001]. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate that the AB blood group has a higher odd ratio for the development of CHD and can be considered as a risk factor for the development of CHD in females with T2DM. More comprehensive studies are required to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43890-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520392PMC
May 2019

Next-generation HLA typing of 382 International Histocompatibility Working Group reference B-lymphoblastoid cell lines: Report from the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop.

Hum Immunol 2019 Jul 4;80(7):449-460. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Extended molecular characterization of HLA genes in the IHWG reference B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCLs) was one of the major goals for the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop (IHIW). Although reference B-LCLs have been examined extensively in previous workshops complete high-resolution typing was not completed for all the classical class I and class II HLA genes. To address this, we conducted a single-blind study where select panels of B-LCL genomic DNA samples were distributed to multiple laboratories for HLA genotyping by next-generation sequencing methods. Identical cell panels comprised of 24 and 346 samples were distributed and typed by at least four laboratories in order to derive accurate consensus HLA genotypes. Overall concordance rates calculated at both 2- and 4-field allele-level resolutions ranged from 90.4% to 100%. Concordance for the class I genes ranged from 91.7 to 100%, whereas concordance for class II genes was variable; the lowest observed at HLA-DRB3 (84.2%). At the maximum allele-resolution 78 B-LCLs were defined as homozygous for all 11 loci. We identified 11 novel exon polymorphisms in the entire cell panel. A comparison of the B-LCLs NGS HLA genotypes with the HLA genotypes catalogued in the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database Cell Repository, revealed an overall allele match at 68.4%. Typing discrepancies between the two datasets were mostly due to the lower-resolution historical typing methods resulting in incomplete HLA genotypes for some samples listed in the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database Cell Repository. Our approach of multiple-laboratory NGS HLA typing of the B-LCLs has provided accurate genotyping data. The data generated by the tremendous collaborative efforts of the 17th IHIW participants is useful for updating the current cell and sequence databases and will be a valuable resource for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2019.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6599558PMC
July 2019

Pretransplant HLA typing revealed loss of heterozygosity in the major histocompatibility complex in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia.

Hum Immunol 2019 Apr 19;80(4):257-262. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplantation Program, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Introduction: Chromosomal abnormalities are frequent events in hematological malignancies. The degree of HLA compatibility between donor and recipient in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is critical.

Purpose Of The Study: In this report, we describe an acute myeloid leukemia case with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) encompassing the entire HLA.

Materials And Methods: HLA molecular typing was performed on peripheral blood (PB) and buccal swabs (BS). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was performed using a whole genome platform.

Results: Typing results on PB sample collected during blast crisis demonstrated homozygosity at the -A, -B, -C, -DR, and -DQ loci. A BS sample demonstrated heterozygosity at all loci. A subsequent PB sample drawn after count recovery confirmed heterozygosity. The CMA performed on PB samples collected during and after blast crisis revealed a large terminal region of copy-neutral LOH involving chromosome region 6p25.3p21.31, spanning approximately 35.9 Mb. The results of the CMA assay on sample collected after count recovery did not demonstrate LOH.

Conclusions: LOH at the HLA gene locus may significantly influence the donor search resulting in mistakenly choosing homozygous donors. We recommend confirming the HLA typing of recipients with hematological malignancies when homozygosity is detected at any locus by using BS samples, or alternatively from PB when remission is achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2019.02.009DOI Listing
April 2019

Quality control project of NGS HLA genotyping for the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop.

Hum Immunol 2019 Apr 6;80(4):228-236. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Kashi Clinical Laboratories, Inc., Portland, OR, USA.

The 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop (IHIW) organizers conducted a Pilot Study (PS) in which 13 laboratories (15 groups) participated to assess the performance of the various sequencing library preparation protocols, NGS platforms and software in use prior to the workshop. The organizers sent 50 cell lines to each of the 15 groups, scored the 15 independently generated sets of NGS HLA genotyping data, and generated "consensus" HLA genotypes for each of the 50 cell lines. Proficiency Testing (PT) was subsequently organized using four sets of 24 cell lines, selected from 48 of 50 PS cell lines, to validate the quality of NGS HLA typing data from the 34 participating IHIW laboratories. Completion of the PT program with a minimum score of 95% concordance at the HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 loci satisfied the requirements to submit NGS HLA typing data for the 17th IHIW projects. Together, these PS and PT efforts constituted the 17th IHIW Quality Control project. Overall PT concordance rates for HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DRB3, HLA-DRB4 and HLA-DRB5 were 98.1%, 97.0% and 98.1%, 99.0%, 98.6%, 98.8%, 97.6%, 96.0%, 99.1%, 90.0% and 91.7%, respectively. Across all loci, the majority of the discordance was due to allele dropout. The high cost of NGS HLA genotyping per experiment likely prevented the retyping of initially failed HLA loci. Despite the high HLA genotype concordance rates of the software, there remains room for improvement in the assembly of more accurate consensus DNA sequences by NGS HLA genotyping software.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2019.01.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446570PMC
April 2019

Recent Advancements in the Assessment of Renal Transplant Dysfunction with an Emphasis on Microarray Molecular Diagnostics.

Clin Lab Med 2018 12 5;38(4):623-635. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Division of Nephrology and Transplant Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Alberta Transplant Applied Genomics Center, 250 Heritage Medical Research Centre, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2S2, Canada; Transcriptome Sciences Inc, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Conventional assessment of renal transplant rejection and injury through use of histology, C4d staining, and HLA antibody testing, has been the standard approach to transplant management. By many measures, these methods of conventional assessment may be considered flawed, particularly with the subjective nature of histologic diagnoses. The Alberta Transplant Applied Genomics Center has developed the Molecular Microscope diagnostic system, which uses microarrays to measure gene expression. These data are analyzed using classifiers (weighted equations) that compare the tested biopsy to a proprietary reference set of biopsies to provide objective measures of the status of the renal transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cll.2018.07.005DOI Listing
December 2018

Effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia (walnut) leaves on blood glucose and major cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Jul 4;18(1):206. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Diabetes Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: We aimed to evaluate the effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaves on blood glucose level and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group (2 arms) clinical trial, 50 diabetic patients were divided into two groups: treatment group (receive the capsules containing 100 mg J. regia leaf extract) and control group (receive the capsules containing placebo, microcrystallin cellulose). Baseline participant data were matched between the two arms of the study. We administered the prepared capsules to the patients twice daily for 8 weeks. Blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, body weight, body mass index, blood pressure, lipid profile, serum insulin, and insulin resistance were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. P < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: After excluding eleven patients, 20 received J. regia leaf extract and 20 patients received placebo. The J. regia leaf extract did not significantly change the blood glucose and insulin resistance condition. However, in this group, body weight, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure significantly decreased compared with the baseline measurements (P = 0.028, P = 0.030, and P = 0.005, respectively). The lipid profile did not change significantly compared with the baseline measurements. In the control group, postprandial glucose and HbA1c levels significantly decreased after the intervention (P = 0.030 and P = 0.028, respectively). The other variables were not significantly different in this group. At the end of the study, the variables were not significantly different between the two groups.

Conclusion: In this double-blind study, 200 mg/d of J. regia leaf extract had no significant effect on blood glucose level and HOMA-IR score in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the J. regia leaf extract was effective in reducing body weight and blood pressure. An accidental finding of our study was that microcrystalline cellulose, a widely used placebo in clinical trials, led to a reduction in blood glucose level.

Trial Registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT: 138901203180 N2 , 2010/6/6); retrospectively registered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2268-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6031195PMC
July 2018

Effectiveness of Vitamin D Supplement Therapy in Chronic Stable Schizophrenic Male Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Iran J Pharm Res 2016 ;15(4):941-950

Department of Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Addiction Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

In this study, the aim was to determine whether adding vitamin D to the standard therapeutic regimen of schizophrenic male patients with inadequate vitamin D status could improve some aspects of the symptom burden or not. This study was an open parallel label randomized clinical trial. Eighty patients with chronic stable schizophrenia with residual symptoms and Vitamin D deficiency were recruited randomly and then received either 600000 IU Vitamin D injection once along with their antipsychotic regimen or with their antipsychotic regimen only. Serum vitamin D was measured twice: first at the baseline and again on the fourth month. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was assessed at the baseline and on the fourth month. During the study, the vitamin D serum changes in vitamin group and control group were 22.1 ± 19.9(95%CI = 15.9-28.8) and 0.2 ± 1.7(95%CI = 0.2-0.8) (ng/mL) (p<0.001) respectively. The changes of PANSS positive subscale score (P) were -0.1±0.7 (95%CI =-0.3-0.1) and 0.00 ± 0.8 (95%CI = -0.2-0.2) in vitamin D and control group respectively (p=0.5). The changes of PANSS negative subscale score (N) were -0.1 ± 0.7 (95%CI = -0.3-0.05) and -0.1 ± 0.5 (95%CI = -0.2-0.04) in vitamin D and control group respectively (p = 0.7) and there was a negative but not significant correlation between serum vitamin D level changes and PANSS negative subscale score (r = -0.04, p = 0.7). We did not find a relationship between serum vitamin D level changes and the improvement of negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients and more randomized clinical trials are required to confirm our findings.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316275PMC
January 2016

Evaluation the Relationship Between Thyroid Nodule Size with Malignancy and Accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB).

Acta Inform Med 2016 Oct 1;24(5):347-350. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

Valiasr Hospital of Kazeroon, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: Some studies have shown largest thyroid nodule size, especially ≥4cm that can predict malignancy and reduce fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) accuracy. Therefore, this study is designed to evaluate relationship between thyroid nodule sizes with malignancy and its effect on FNBA accuracy.

Materials And Methods: a retrospective analytical study design aims to investigate all patients with thyroid nodules who referred to surgery department of Imam-Khomeini Hospital of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in Sari from 20 March 2008 to 22 March 2014. We collected patient's demographic data, nodules size, FNAB reports and final pathology (after surgery) reports from their medical records. All data were analyses performed by SPSS18.

Results: 167 patients (153 women) with mean age of 41.56±13.24 years old were enrolled for this study. In final pathology; 38 patients (22.8%) had malignant nodules. The mean age of patients with or without malignant nodules were 34.93±11.86 and 42.37±12.26 years old, respectively (P=0.002). The mean size of benign and malignant nodules were 2.91±1.29 cm and 3.38±1.86 cm, respectively (P=0.15). 25.2% of <4 cm nodules and 17.9% of ≥4 cm nodules were diagnosed as a malignant (P=0.29). FNAB was done on 95 patients that reported benign in 60 patients (63.2%), malignant in 18 patients (18.9%) and suspicious in 17 patients (17.9%). Positive and negative results of FNAB in all nodules were 3.5% and 6.3%, in <4cm nodules were 5.8% and 6.2% and in ≥4cm nodules were zero and 6.7%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, Positive predict value (PPV), negative predict value (NPV) and overall accuracy (OA) of FNAB in all nodules were 76.19%, 96.49%, 88.88%, 91.66% and 91.02%, and in <4cm nodules were 78.57%, 94.11%, 84.61%, 91.42% and 89.58%, and in ≥4cm nodules were 71.4%, 100%, 100%, 92% and 93.33%, respectively.

Conclusion: the results of this study revealed that the size of the thyroid nodules is not reliable at predicting malignancy and should not be applied in medical decision making. FNAB showed good specificity but the sensitivity was low in our study. In ≥4cm nodules; FNAB sensitivity was decreased and accompanied by higher false-negative results. Furthermore, FNABs with suspicious results were associated with high probability of malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/aim.2016.24.347-350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5203751PMC
October 2016

Validation of a next generation sequencing panel for detection of hotspot cancer mutations in a clinical laboratory.

Pathol Res Pract 2017 Feb 16;213(2):98-105. Epub 2016 Dec 16.

Kashi Clinical Laboratories, USA.

Recent advances in sequencing technologies have enabled us to scrutinize the versatile underlying mechanisms of cancer more precisely. However, adopting these new sophisticated technologies is challenging for clinical labs as it involves complex workflows, and requires validation for diagnostic purposes. The aim of this work is towards the analytical validation of a next generation sequencing (NGS) panel for cancer hotspot mutation analysis. Characterized formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples including biopsy specimens and cell-lines were examined by NGS methods utilizing the Ion Torrent™ Oncomine™ Focus DNA Assay and the PGM™ platform. Important parameters for somatic mutations including the threshold for differentiation of a positive and a negative result, coverage, sensitivity, specificity, and limit of detection (LoD) were analyzed. Variant calls with coverage of <100x were found to be inaccurate. The limit of detection for identifying hotspot mutations was determined to be 4.3%. The sensitivity and specificity of the method were 96.1% and 97.8% respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between different gene targets in terms of performance of hotspot frequency measurement for the subset tested. In every validation study, the number of samples, the manner of sample selection, and the number and type of variants play a role in the outcome. Therefore, these parameters should be assessed according to the clinical needs of each laboratory undertaking the validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2016.11.016DOI Listing
February 2017

Effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double-blind controlled clinical trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Oct;95(40):e4818

Diabetes Research Center Faculty of Medicine Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Cabergoline is a long-acting agonist of dopamine, which has a high affinity to dopamine receptors (type 2). Treatment using a dopaminergic agonist reduces hypothalamic stimulation that increases during liver gluconeogenesis, lipids synthesis, and insulin resistance. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods: This study was a double-blind, controlled clinical trial in patients with type 2 DM. The patients received treatments of a placebo (control group; n = 20) or cabergoline 0.5 mg (cabergoline group; n = 20) using the sequential method, once per week for 3 months, while using previously prescribed glucose-lowering drugs. All tests, such as levels of fasting blood glucose, 2-hour post-prandial glucose, complete lipid profile, prolactin, alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance were measured at baseline and at 3-month follow-up.

Results: The fasting blood sugar levels were significantly different between placebo and cabergoline groups after 3 months of treatment (P = 0.004). The prolactin levels were significantly different from beginning of the treatment to 6 months later (P = 0.001). In the cabergoline group, there was a significant decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels after 3 months (P = 0.003). Overall, 65%and 45% patients in the cabergoline and control groups, respectively, responded to treatment (HbA1C<7%).

Conclusion: Cabergoline may be useful as a long-acting antidiabetic agent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000004818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5059036PMC
October 2016

Impact of ATM and SLC22A1 Polymorphisms on Therapeutic Response to Metformin in Iranian Diabetic Patients.

Int J Mol Cell Med 2016 ;5(1):1-7

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Metabolic syndrome and its pathological sequel, type 2 diabetes are considered as important global health problems. Metformin is the most common drug prescribed for patients with this disorder. Consequently, understanding the genetic pathways involved in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this drug can have a considerable effect on the personalized treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the association between rs11212617 polymorphism of ATM gene and rs628031 of SLC22A1 gene with response to treatment in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients. We genotyped rs11212617 and rs628031 polymorphism by PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and assessed the role of this polymorphisms on response to treatment in 140 patients who have been recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and were under monotherapy with metformin for 6 months. Response to metformin was defined by HbA1c and fasting blood sugar (FBS) values. Based on such evaluations, patients were divided into two groups: responders (n= 63) and non-responders (n= 77). No significant association was found between these polymorphisms and response to treatment (OR= 0.86, [95% CI 0.52-1.41], P= 0.32) for rs11212617 and (OR= 0.45, [95% CI 0.64-1.76], P= 0.45) for rs 628031. The reported gene variants in ATM and SLC22A1 are not significantly associated with metformin treatment response in type 2 diabetic patients in an Iranian population.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4916778PMC
July 2016

HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies of 920 cord blood units from Central Chile.

Hum Immunol 2016 Aug 24;77(8):622-623. Epub 2016 May 24.

Vidacel Cord Blood Bank, Santiago, Chile.

We present human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype and allele/antigenic group frequencies derived from a data set of 920 umbilical cord blood units collected in Central Chile. HLA-A and -B genotypes were typed using sequence specific oligonucleotide probe methods while HLA-DRB1 genotypes were obtained from sequencing-based typing. The most frequent haplotype is A*29~B*44~DRB1*07:01 with an estimated frequency of 2.1%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2016.05.020DOI Listing
August 2016

The Role of Metformin Response in Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Recent-Onset Type 2 Diabetes: HbA1c Level as a Criterion for Designating Patients as Responders or Nonresponders to Metformin.

PLoS One 2016 15;11(3):e0151543. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health, Reproductive Epidemiology Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

Background: In this study, we investigated whether response to metformin, the most frequently drug for diabetes treatment, influences the therapeutic effects of antilipidemic medication in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: A total of 150 patients with T2DM were classified into two groups following 3 months of metformin therapy (1000 mg twice daily): responders (patients showing ≥1% reduction in HbA1c from baseline) and nonresponders (patients showing <1% reduction in HbA1c from baseline). The patients received atorvastatin 20 mg, gemfibrozil 300 mg, or atorvastatin 20 mg and gemfibrozil 300 mg daily.

Principal Findings: HbA1c and fasting glucose levels were significantly different between baseline and 3 months among responders receiving atorvastatin; however, these differences were not statistically significant in nonresponders. Atherogenic ratios of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C; p = 0.002), total cholesterol to HDL-C (TC/HDL-C; p<0.001) and AIP (the atherogenic index of plasma; p = 0.004) decreased significantly in responders receiving atorvastatin than in nonresponders. Moreover, responders receiving atorvastatin showed a significant increase in HDL-C levels but nonresponders receiving atorvastatin did not (p = 0.007). The multivariate model identified a significant association between metformin response (as the independent variable) and TG, TC, HDL-C and LDL-C (dependent variables; Wilk's λ = 0.927, p = 0.036).

Conclusions: Metformin response affects therapeutic outcomes of atorvastatin on atherogenic lipid markers in patients newly diagnosed with T2DM. Metformin has a greater impact on BMI in responders of metformin compared to nonresponders. Adoption of better therapeutic strategies for reducing atherogenic lipid markers may be necessary for metformin nonresponders.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151543PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4792461PMC
July 2016

Dose administration time from before breakfast to before dinner affect thyroid hormone levels?

Caspian J Intern Med 2015 ;6(3):134-40

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. ; Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Levothyroxine is commonly used in the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism. Levothyroxine is often administered in the morning, on an empty stomach, to increase its absorption. However, many patients have trouble for taking levothyroxine in the morning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing administration time of levothyroxine from before breakfast to before dinner on serum levels of TSH and T4.

Methods: Fifty hypothyroidism patients aged 18-75 years old were included in the study and randomly divided into two groups. Each group received two tablets per day blindly (one levothyroxine tablet and one placebo tablet) before breakfast and before dinner. After two months, the administration time for the tablets was changed for each group, and the new schedule was continued for a further two-month period. The serum TSH and T4 levels were measured before and after treatment in each group.

Results: Changing the levothyroxine administration time, resulted in 1.47±0.51 µIU/mL increase in TSH level (P=0.001) and 0.35±1.05µg/dL decrease in T4 level (P=0.3).

Conclusion: Changing the levothyroxine administration time from before breakfast to before dinner minimally reduced the therapeutic efficacy of levothyroxine.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4650787PMC
December 2015

Levothyroxine Dosage Requirement During Pregnancy in Well-Controlled Hypothyroid Women: A Longitudinal Study.

Glob J Health Sci 2015 Sep 1;8(4):227-33. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Diabetes Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Untreated maternal hypothyroidism can have adverse effects on both the mother and fetus, but it can potentially be prevented by adequate levothyroxine replacement. This study was conducted to determine what percentage of hypothyroid pregnant women who were taking levothyroxine needed to adjust their medication dosage, and when and how much it should be increased.

Methods: In this longitudinal study, 81 well-controlled hypothyroid women (TSH≤ 2.5 mIU/L) were monitored throughout pregnancy. Thyroid function tests were performed before conception, after the first missed menstrual period, in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and one month after delivery. Levothyroxine dosage was adjusted according to TSH levels measured.

Results: Of the 81 pregnancies studied, the pregnancy outcomes were 74 full-term births, six abortions and one pre-term birth. The levothyroxine dosage needed to be increased in 84% (CI95%= 74-90) of the pregnancies (OR=5.2, CI95%= 2.9-9.4). Most levothyroxine dose adjustments were made in the first trimester of gestation. The levothyroxine requirement increased 50% (CI95%= 41-59) in the first trimester, 55% (CI95%= 45-64) in the second trimester and 62% (CI95%= 52-72) in the third trimester. Levothyroxine dosage was decreased for 6 cases (7.4%), and no adjustment was made for 7 women (8.6%).

Conclusions: Increases in levothyroxine dosage administered in pregnancy appear to be indispensible in the majority of patients with well-controlled hypothyroidism, especially in the first trimester. However, this change was not universal and levothyroxine dosage decreased in a few cases and remained unchanged in others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v8n4p227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4873573PMC
September 2015

Influence of thyroidectomy on postoperative serum calcium level regarding serum vitamin D status. A prospective study.

Caspian J Intern Med 2015 ;6(2):72-6

Social Determinant of Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: Hypocalcemia is a well-recognized complication after total thyroidectomy. Hypovitaminosis D may have additional effect in the development of hypocalcemia. This study aimed to determine the effect of total thyroidectomy on postoperative serum calcium in patients with and without hypovitaminosis D.

Methods: This prospective study was performed on patients who underwent total thyroidectomy from 2011 to 2014 in Imam Khomeini General Hospital of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Serum calcium and vitamin D values were recorded before and after surgery. The patients were classified according to serum vitamin D concentrations as less 10 ng/ml (vitamin D deficiency) or higher (control group). The mean values of postoperative calcium level for each class of serum vitamin D were determined and compared. Hypocalcemia was defined as a postoperative calcium level <8 mg/dl.

Results: 125 patients due to thyroid disease underwent total thyroidectomy. The incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic hypocalcemia after surgery was 12% (n=15) and 3.2% (n=4) respectively. 82 (65.6%) patients had vitamin D deficiency and 43 (34.4%) patients had sufficient vitamin D level. There was not any significant difference in calcium level (8.67±0.58 mg/dl vs. 8.70±0.59 mg/dl) between two vitamin D studied groups after thyroid surgery (p>0.05).

Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that vitamin D deficiency had no significant effect on post-thyroidectomy serum calcium level.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4478454PMC
July 2015

Sexual dysfunction in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Iran J Med Sci 2015 May;40(3):206-13

Department Community Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is one of the important problems in diabetic patients. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual problems in Iranian women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among type 2 diabetic women who visited two outpatient endocrine clinics, namely Imam Hospital and Tuba clinic (Sari, Iran) in 2012. Patients were asked to complete two validated questionnaires: Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as well as a demographic questionnaire. Analysis was performed using descriptive and analytical tests. P<0.05 was considered to be significant.

Results: One hundred and fifty women with type 2 diabetes were investigated. Most of the cases aged 40-44 years old. The mean of the total score of the FSFI questionnaire was 22. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 78.7% (CI: 71.4-84.4); among these, 58% (CI: 50.0-65.6) reported problems in lubrication, 50% (CI: 42.1-57.9) complained of decreased sexual desire, 50% (CI: 42.1-57.9) had problems with arousal, 47.3% (CI: 39.5-55.3) had dyspareunia, 32.7% (CI: 25.7-40.5) complained of orgasmic dysfunction and 42.7% (CI: 35.0-50.7) reported problems in sexual satisfaction. With regard to the results of the HADS questionnaire, 58.7% (CI: 50.7-66.2) of the patients had depression and 96.7% (CI: 92.4-98.6) had anxiety.

Conclusion: This study showed the high prevalence of sexual dysfunction in diabetic women, especially among those complaining of depression. Health care professionals dealing with diabetic patients should be aware of possible presence of sexual dysfunction in female patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4430881PMC
May 2015